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CONSTRUCTION POWER &

STARTUP POWER
BHARTIYA RAIL BIJLEE COMPANY LIMITED
(BRBCL)
NABINAGAR, AURANGABAD (BIHAR)

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

CONTENTS

Certificate
Acknowledgement
Declaration
NABINAGAR THERMAL POWER PLANT (NTPP)

PART 1 : CONSTRUCTION POWER

1) Introduction
2) Construction power Single line diagram(SLD)
3) Construction power Sub-station
a) Metering Transformer
b) Isolator
c) PT(Potential/voltage transformer)
d) VCB(Vacuum Circuit Breaker)
e) CT(Current transformer)
f) Power transformer
i. Core
ii.

Winding

vi.

Breather

iii.
iv.
v.

Tap changer
Conservator
OTI & WTI

vii.
Cooling Tubes(Radiator)
viii.
Buchholz relay
ix. Explosion Vent
g) Capacitor Bank(50KVAR each)
4) Control room
a) Main incomer
b) Outgoing feeder
c) BPT(Bus potential transformer)
d) Outdoor capacitor bank
e) Bus coupler
f) VCB
g) DC Source and its charger
5) Ringmain(11 KV)
a) Single-pole
PAGE 1

b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

2-pole
3-pole
4-pole
Over/under ground cable
GOAB

g) Guard wire
6) Distribution transformer
a) Specifications
b) Performance
c) Distribution Board
d) Capacitor bank

PART 2: STARTUP POWER


7) SLD (Single Line Diagram)
8) Introduction

9) SWITCHYARD
a) SURGE ARRESTER
b) CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER (CVT)
c) POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION (PLCC) WAVE TRAP
d) CURRENT TRANSFORMER (CT)
e) EARTHING SWITCH
f) SINGLE BREAK ISOLATOR
g) BUS-BAR
h) CIRCUIT BREAKER (CB)
i) INTER-CONNECTING TRANSFORMER (ICT)
j) MISCELLANEOUS SERVICE TRANSFORMER (MST)
10) STATION TRANSFORMER (ST)
11) SWITCH GEAR
A) SA/SB
B) UA/UB
12) DIESEL GENERATOR (DG)

PAGE 2

Nabinagar Thermal Power


Project

The Nabinagar Thermal Power Project (NTPP) of Bhartiya Rail Bijlee


Company Limited (BRBCL) is a joint venture of NTPC Limited and Indian
Railways to install a 1,000 MW thermal power plant
at Nabinagar in Aurangabad district, Bihar, India. The equity portions of
NTPC and Indian Railways will be 74 per cent and 26 per cent respectively.
In 1989, the then Chief Minister of Bihar and veteran leader Satyendra
Narain Singh conceived, the proposal to set up a NTPC's super thermal
power project at Nabinagar in Bihar's Aurangabad district to then Prime
Minister of India and Congress leader Rajiv Gandhi; but the project went
into limbo as the following state governments failed to follow it. In 2007,
Manmohan Singh's government finally put a stamp of approval on it. The
joint venture agreement was signed on 6 November 2007 and the company
was incorporated on 22 November 2007.
NEED FOR THE PLANT

The Railways need the plant because of the demands of a globalizing


economy and mega projects of the Railways such as the planned Dedicated
Freight Corridors across the country. The electricity from this plant will be
utilized by Indian Railways for running electric
trains in Bihar, Jharkhand, West
Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh in the
eastern and western regions of the country. The Union Cabinet of India has,
in view of the high tariff charged by State Electricity Boards (SEB),
approved the Railways' proposal for using direct power supply from Central
generating agencies from the 15 per cent unallocated central share of power.
Railways are saving about Rs 50 crore per annum due to implementation of
these schemes for using direct power supply from NTPC/Central generating
agencies.

PAGE 3

LOCATION

The project site is situated on a State highway which is 25 km south of NH2 from Barun, 9 km from Nabinagar Road Railway Station and 100 km
from Gaya Airport.
INPUTS

Water requirement for the project is 60 cusec which is allocated from the
upper stream of the Sone River (Indrapuri Barrage). Coal requirement for
the project is 5 MTPA. The coal linkage of 5 MTPA has been accorded from
Pachra & Pachra south block, North Karanpura Coalfield of Central
Coalfields Limited (CCL) which is approx. 215km from the project site.
BENEFICIARIES

The beneficiaries for the power generated from NTPP are : Indian Railways
- 90 % and Bihar State - 10 %. PPA has been signed with both of the
beneficiaries.
INSTALLED CAPACITY
Unit

Capacity (In MW)

Date of Commissioning
2016 March

status

250

Commissioned [5]

250

Under Erection

250

Under Erection

250

Under Erection

PAGE 4

PART 1 : Construction power


1. Introduction

Since, the plant is under construction so, it needs power from outside source
(Badem grid) to run electrical construction tools and equipment which are
utilized in building different sites (erection). Electrical equipment such as
welding machines, cutting machines, electric blowers etc. requires electric
power. This electric power is feed to the equipment through different
Distribution transformers (11/0.415KV). These distribution transformers
are fed from the Ringmain (11KV).This ringmain is energised from a
control room having two incomers, both from Sub-station (33/11KV)
located beside the control room . This system is composed of different
apparatus and arrangements for proper distribution and Keeping safety all
above.
Ring main here doesnt form a complete ring. The two incomers are
connected through a bus coupler placed at control room. If any of the
supply from any of the incomer is interrupted then the bus coupler is
switched on and the supply from one of the incomer (Charged) is connected
to the bus through the bus coupler and if both the incomers are charged then
the bus coupler is kept in off position. This way the 11kv ring main is
always kept charged.

2: Construction power sub-station


The main function of
this sub-station is to
transform voltage from
33kv to 11 kv. This substation is controlled from
a control room situated
beside this sub-station.
This sub-station includes
2 transformers (1 spare)
to change voltage level
from 33kv to 11kv. The

PAGE 5

word substation comes from the day before the distribution system becomes
grid. On the basis of types this sub-station can be put in distribution type
sub-stations category. The function of this sub-station system is designed in
such a way that whenever a fault occurs, it isolates the faulted system from
sensitive or vulnerable devices. De-energizing faulted equipment protects it
from further damage, and isolating a fault helps keep the rest of the electric
grid operating with stability. For isolation of the 4MVA power transformer
different techniques and circuit breakers (CB) are used such as VCB, over
current trip relay, Isolator switchesetc. This sub-station also have 2
capacitor banks to maintain the power factor of the supply which is
disturbed by loads (Inductive loads mainly).

Elements of Construction power sub-station:


a: Metering transformer

The task of the metering transformer


is to transform the 33kv high voltage
and current proportionally and inphase into small current and voltages
values measuring purposes. The
power consumed in construction
purposes is supplied through this substation and is measured by an energy
meter placed in the metering room
which at corner of the transformer.
The reading from this metering transformer is send to the energy meter
through wires cased in an aluminium pipe for protection. The input of this
transformer is 3- 33kv ac supply from Badeem grid and the external output
is to Isolator switch and internal output is to Metering room. Metering
transformer are high accuracy class electrical devices used to isolate or
transform voltage or current levels. The most common usage of instrument
transformers is to operate instruments or metering from high voltage or high
current circuits, safely isolating secondary control circuitry from the high
PAGE 6

voltages or currents. The primary winding of the transformer is connected to


the high voltage or high current circuit, and the meter or relay is connected
to the secondary circuit.
Instrument transformers may also be used as an isolation transformer so that
secondary quantities may be used in phase shifting without affecting other
primary connected devices.

b: Isolator Switch

The circuit breaker always trip the circuit but open contact of breaker cannot
be visible physically from outside of the breaker and that is why it is
recommended
Not to touch any electrical circuit or equipment just by switching off the
circuit breaker. So for better safety there is an arrangement at this substation
so that one can see open condition of the section of the circuit breaker
before touching it. Isolator is basically a mechanical switch which isolates a
part of circuit from system as when required. Electrical isolator separates a
part of the system from rest for safe maintenance works. Isolator is a
manually operated mechanical switch which separates a part of electrical
power system normally at off load condition. In construction power sub-

PAGE 7

station Double Break isolator are used. These have three stacks of post
insulator carries a tubular or flat male contact which can be rotated
horizontally with rotation of central post insulator. This rod type contact is called
moving contact. The female types of contacts are fixed on the top of the other post
insulators which fitted at both sides of the central post insulator. Rotation of the central
post is done by a driving lever mechanism at the base of the post insulator and it
connected to operating handle of the isolator through a mechanical tie rod which is hand
operated.

c: Potential transformer

Potential transformer or
voltage transformer gets used
in electrical power system for
stepping down the system
voltage to a safe value which
can be fed to low ratings
meters and relays.
Commercially available relays
and meters used for protection
and metering, are designed for
low voltage. This is a simplest
form of potential
transformer. A voltage transformer theory or potential transformer
theory is just like a theory of general purpose step down transformer.
Primary of this transformer is connected across the phase and ground.
Just like the transformer used for stepping down purpose, potential
transformer i.e. PT has lower turns winding at its secondary.

The secondary voltage of the PT is generally 110 V. In an ideal potential


transformer or voltage transformer, when rated burden gets connected
across the secondary; the ratio of primary and secondary voltages of
transformer is equal to the turns ratio and furthermore, the two terminal
voltages are in precise phase opposite to each other. But in actual
transformer, there must be an error in the voltage ratio as well as in the
PAGE 8

phase angle between primary and secondary voltages. The errors in potential
transformer or voltage transformer can be best explained by phasor diagram,
and this is the main part of potential transformer

d: Vacuum Circuit Breaker(VCB)

A vacuum circuit
breaker is such kind of
circuit breaker where the
arc quenching takes
place in vacuum. The
technology is suitable for
mainly medium voltage
application. For higher
voltage vacuum
technology has been
developed but not
commercially viable.
Vacuum offers the
highest insulating strength. So it has far superior arc quenching properties
than any medium. For example, when contacts of a breaker are opened in
vacuum, the interruption occurs at first current zero with dielectric strength
between the contacts building up at a rate thousands of times higher than that
obtained with other circuit breakers. When the contacts of the breaker are
opened in vacuum (10^-7 to 10^-5 torr), an arc is produced between the
contacts by the ionisation of metal vapours of contacts. However, the arc is
quickly extinguished because the metallic vapours, electrons and ions
produced during arc rapidly condense on the surfaces of the circuit breaker
contacts, resulting in quick recovery of dielectric strength.

The operation of opening and closing of current carrying contacts and


associated arc interruption take place in a vacuum chamber in the breaker
PAGE 9

which is called vacuum interrupter. The vacuum interrupter consists of a


steel arc chamber in the centre symmetrically arranged ceramic insulators.
The vacuum pressure inside a vacuum interrupter is normally maintained at
10 - 6 bar. The material used for current carrying contacts plays an important
role in the performance of the vacuum circuit breaker. CuCr is the most
ideal material to make VCB contacts. Vacuum interrupter technology was
first introduced in the year of 1960. But still it is a developing technology.
As time goes on, the size of the vacuum interrupter is being reducing from
its early 1960s size due to different technical developments in this field of
engineering. The contact geometry is also improving with time, from butt
contact of early days it gradually changes to spiral shape, cup shape and
axial magnetic field contact. The vacuum circuit breaker is today
recognized as most reliable current interruption technology for medium
voltage switchgear. It requires minimum maintenance compared to other
circuit breaker technologies.

Service life of vacuum circuit breaker is much longer than other types of
circuit breakers. There is no chance of fire hazard as oil circuit breaker. It is
much environment friendly than SF6 Circuit breaker. Beside of that
contraction of VCB is much user friendly. Replacement of vacuum
interrupter (VI) is much convenient.

e: Current Transformer(CT)
A CT is an instrument transformer in which the secondary current is
substantially proportional to primary current and differs in phase from it by
ideally zero degree. A CT is similar to a electrical power transformer to
some extent, but there are some difference in construction and operation
principle. For metering and indication purpose, accuracy of ratio, between
primary and secondary currents are essential within normal working range.
Normally accuracy of current transformer required up to 125% of rated
current; as because allowable system current must be below 125% of rated
current.
PAGE 10

Rather it is desirable
the CT core to be
saturated after this
limit since the
unnecessary
electrical stresses due
to system over
current can be
prevented from the
metering instrument
connected to the
secondary of the CT
as secondary current
does not go above a desired limit even primary current of the CT rises to a
very high value than its ratings. So accuracy within working range is main
criteria of a CT used for metering purpose. The degree of accuracy of a
metering CT is expressed by CT accuracy class or simply current
transformer class or CT class.

But in the case of protection, the CT may not have the accuracy level as
good as metering CT although it is desired not to be saturated during high
fault current passes through primary. So core of protection CT is so designed
that it would not be saturated for long range of currents. If saturation of the
core comes at lower level of primary current the proper reflection of primary
current will not come to secondary, hence relays connected to the secondary
may not function properly and protection system losses its
reliability.Suppose, you have one CT with current ratio 400/1 A and its
protection core is situated at 500 A. If the primary current of the CT
becomes 1000 A the secondary current will still be 1.25 A as because the
secondary current will not increase after 1.25 A because of saturation. If
actuating current of the relay connected the secondary circuit of the CT is
1.5 A, it will not be operated at all even fault level of the power circuit is
1000 A. The degree of accuracy of a protection CT may not be as fine as
metering CT but it is also expressed by CT accuracy class or simply
current transformer class or CT class as in the case of metering current
transformer but in little bit different manner.
PAGE 11

f: Power transformer

The power transformer used for construction power is a 4MVA step down
transformer having rated voltage level 33/11 KV. It is ONAN cooling type
transformer. Like other power transformer it is used for
the transmission purpose at heavy load, high voltage 33 KV & 100%
efficiency. It also having a big in size as compare to distribution
transformer, it used in generating station and Transmission substation .high
insulation level.
Power transformers are used for transmission as a step up devices so that
the I2r loss can be minimized for a given power flow. These transformers
are designed to utilize the core to maximum and will operate very much

PAGE 12

near to the knee point of B-H curve (slightly above the knee point
value).This brings down the mass of the core enormously.

Naturally these transformers have the matched iron losses and copper
losses at peak load (i.e. the maximum efficiency point where both the
losses match).

Components of power transformer:


(i): Core

In an electrical power transformer, there are primary, secondary and may be


tertiary windings. The performance of a transformer mainly depends upon
the flux linkages between these windings. For efficient flux linking between
these windings, one low reluctance magnetic path common to all windings
should be provided in the transformer. This low reluctance magnetic path in
transformer is known as core of transformer.

PAGE 13

The main problem with transformer core


is its hysteresis loss and eddy current loss
in transformer. Hysteresis loss in
transformer mainly depends upon its core
materials. It is found that, a small quantity
of silicon alloyed with low carbon content
steel produces material for transformer
core, which has low hysteresis loss and
high permeability. Because of increasing
demand of power, it is required to further reduce the core losses and for that,
another technique is employed on steel, which is known as cold rolling. This
technique arranges the orientation of grain in ferromagnetic steel in the
direction of rolling. The core steel which has under gone through both the
silicon alloying and cold rolling treatments is commonly known as CRGOS
or Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Silicon Steel. This material is now
universally used for manufacturing transformer core.
Although this material has low specific iron loss but still; it has some
disadvantages, like, it is susceptible to increase loss due to flux flow in
direction other than grain orientation and it also susceptible to impaired
performance due to impact of bending and blanking the cutting CRGOS
sheet. Both the surfaces of the sheet are provided with an insulating of oxide
coating.

(ii): Windings

The windings consist of the current-carrying conductors wound around


the sections of the core, and these must be properly insulated, supported
and cooled to withstand operational and test conditions.
The terms winding and coil are used interchangeably in this
discussion. Copper and aluminium are the primary materials used as
conductors in transformer winding
PAGE 14

While aluminium is lighter and


generally less expensive than copper, a
larger cross section of
aluminium conductor must be used to carry
a current with similar performance as
copper. Copper has higher mechanical
strength and is used almost exclusively in
all but the smaller size ranges, where
aluminium conductors may be perfectly
acceptable.
In cases where extreme forces are
encountered, materials such as silverbearing copper can be used for even
greater strength. The conductors used in
power transformers are typically stranded with a rectangular cross section,
although some transformers at the lowest ratings may use sheet or foil
conductors. Multiple strands can be wound in parallel and joined together
at the ends of the winding, in which case it is necessary to transpose the
strands at various points throughout the winding to prevent circulating
currents around the loop(s) created by joining the strands at the ends.
Individual strands may be subjected to differences in the flux field due to
their respective positions within the winding, which create differences in
voltages between the strands and drive circulating currents through the
conductor loops.

PAGE 15

(iii): Tap changer


A tap changer is a connection point selection
mechanism along a power transformer winding
that allows a variable number of turns to be
selected in discrete steps. A transformer with a
variable turns ratio is produced, enabling
stepped voltage regulation of the output. The tap
selection may be made via an automatic or
manual tap changer mechanism. If only one tap
changer is required, manually operated tap points are usually made on the
high voltage (primary) or lower current winding of the transformer to
minimize the current handling requirements of the contacts. However, a
transformer may include a tap changer on each winding if there are
advantages to do so. For example, in power distribution networks, a large
step-down transformer may have an off-load tap changer on the primary
winding and an on-load automatic tap changer on the secondary winding or
windings. The high voltage tap is set to match long term system profile on
the high voltage network (typically supply voltage averages) and is rarely
changed. The low voltage tap may be requested to change positions multiple
times each day, without interrupting the power delivery, to follow loading
conditions on the low-voltage (secondary winding) network.

To minimize the number of winding taps and thus reduce the physical size of
a tap changing transformer, a 'reversing' tap changer winding may be used,
which is a portion of the main winding able to be connected in its opposite
direction (buck) and thus oppose the voltage.
There are mainly two types of tap changer:

1-No-Load Tap Changer (NLTC), off-circuit tap changer (OCTC) , orDeEnergized Tap Changer (DETC)
2- On circuit tap changer or On Load Tap Changer (OLTC)

PAGE 16

(iv): Conservator

This is a cylindrical tank mounted on supporting structure on the roof the


transformer main tank. The main function of conservator tank of
transformer is to provide adequate space for expansion of oil inside the
transformer.

When transformer is loaded and when ambient temperature rises, the volume
of oil inside transformer increases. A conservator tank of transformer
provides adequate space to this expanded transformer oil. It also acts as a
reservoir for transformer insulating oil. When volume of transformer
insulating oil increases due to load and ambient temperature, the vacant
space above the oil level inside the conservator is partially occupied by the
expanded oil. Consequently, corresponding quantity of air of that space is
pushed away through breather. On other hand, when load of transformer
decreases, the transformer is switched off and when the ambient temperature
decreases, the oil inside the transformer contracts. This causes outside air to
enter in the conservator tank of transformer through silica gel breather.
The Conservator is a cylindrical component of the transformer. The
conservator is located at the top of the transformer. The Conservator is
designed to act as a reservoir for the transformer oil. The level of the oil in
the transformer can rise and fall due to temperature. The increase of
temperature can be caused either by a rise in ambient temperature or due to
increased load on the transformer.
PAGE 17

An increase in temperature causes the oil in the transformer to expand. The


conservator provides space for this expansion of the oil. The oil level
indicator in the conservator needs to be monitored to ensure that the level of
oil does not fall below the alarm limit.
As the level of oil rises and falls inside the conservator, air enters and leaves
the chamber. The air may carry moisture which may cause the oil to
deteriorate. Breathers filled with silica gels are provided to separate moisture
from the aspirated air.
The silica gel turns blue when it becomes saturated with moisture after
which it needs to be replaced.

(v): OTI & WTI

Oil Temperature Indicator :

The Oil Temperature Indicator


(OTI) measures the Top oil
Temperature. It is used for
control and protection for all
transformers.

Winding Temperature Indicator : The Winding is the component with


highest temperature within the transformer and, above all, the one subject to
the fastest temperature increase as the load increases. Thus to have total
control of the temperature parameter within transformer, the temperature of
the winding as well as top oil, must be measured. An indirect system is used
to measure winding temperature, since it is dangerous to place a sensor close
to winding due to the high voltage. The indirect measurement is done by
means of a Built-in Thermal Image.
PAGE 18

Winding Temperature Indicator is equipped with a specially designed Heater


which is placed around the operating bellows through which passes a current
proportional to the current passing through the transformer winding subject to
a given load. Winding Temperature is measured by connecting the CT
Secondary of the Transformer through a shunt resistor inside the Winding
Temperature Indicator to the Heater Coil around the operating Bellows. It is
possible to adjust gradient by means of Shunt Resistor.

In this way the value of the winding temperature indicated by the instrument
will be equal to the one planned by the transformer manufacturer for a given
transformer load.

(vi): Breather

Whenever electrical power transformer


is loaded, the temperature of the
transformer insulating oil increases,
consequently the volume of the oil is
increased. As the volume of the oil is
increased, the air above the oil level in
conservator will come out. Again at low
oil temperature; the volume of the oil is
decreased, which causes the volume of
the oil to be decreased which again
causes air to enter into conservator
tank. The natural air always consists of
more or less moisture in it and this
moisture can be mixed up with oil if it
is allowed to enter into the transformer. The air moisture should be resisted
during entering of the air into the transformer, because moisture is very
harmful for transformer insulation. A silica gel breather is the most
commonly used way of filtering air from moisture. Silica gel breather for
transformer is connected with conservator tank by means of breathing pipe.
Silica gel crystal has tremendous capacity of absorbing moisture. When air
passes through these crystals in the breather; the moisture of the air is
absorbed by them. Therefore, the air reaches to the conservator is quite dry,
the dust particles in the air get trapped by the oil in the oil seal cup. The oil
PAGE 19

in the oil sealing cup acts as barrier between silica gel crystal and air when
there is no flow of air through silica gel breather. The colour of silica gel
crystal is dark blue but, when it absorbs moisture; it becomes pink.

(vii): Cooling tubes

When an electrical transformer is


loaded, the current starts flowing
through its windings. Due to this
flowing of electric current, heat is
produced in the windings, this heat
ultimately rises the temperature of
transformer oil. We know that the
rating of any electrical equipment
depends upon its allowable
temperature rise limit. Hence, if the
temperature rise of the transformer
insulating oil is controlled, the
capacity or rating of transformer can
be extended up to significant range.
The radiator of transformer
accelerates the cooling rate of
transformer. Thus, it plays a vital role in increasing loading capacity of an
electrical transformer. This is basic function of radiator of an electrical
power transformer.

Under loaded condition, warm oil increases in volume and comes to the
upper portion of the main tank. Then this oil enters in the radiator through
top valve and cools down by dissipating heat through the thin radiator wall.
This cold oil comes back to the main tank through the bottom radiator valve.
This cycle is repeated continuously till the load is connected to the
transformer. Dissipation of heat in the transformer radiator; can be
accelerated further by force air provided by means of fans. These fans are
fitted either on the radiator bank itself or fitted nearby the bank but all the
fans must be faced towards the radiator. Sometime, the cooling rate of
PAGE 20

convectional circulation of oil is not sufficient. That time an oil pump may
be used for speeding up oil circulation.

(viii): Buchholz relay

Buchholz relay in
transformer is an oil
container housed the
connecting pipe from
main tank to conservator
tank. It has mainly two
elements. The upper
element consists of a float.
The float is attached to a
hinge in such a way that it
can move up and down depending upon the oil level in the Buchholz relay
Container. One mercury switch is fixed on the float. The alignment of
mercury switch hence depends upon the position of the float. The lower
element consists of a baffle plate and mercury switch. This plate is fitted on
a hinge just in front of the inlet (main tank side) of Buchholz relay in
transformer in such a way that when oil enters in the relay from that inlet in
high pressure the alignment of the baffle plate along with the mercury switch
attached to it, will change. The Buchholz relay operation may be actuated
without any fault in the transformer. For instance, when oil is added to a
transformer, air may get in together with oil, accumulated under the relay
cover and thus cause a false Buchholz relay operation. That is why
mechanical lock is provided in that relay so that one can lock the movement
of mercury switches when oil is topping up in the transformer. This
mechanical locking also helps to prevent unnecessary movement of
breakable glass bulb of mercury switches during transportation of the
Buchholz relays.

PAGE 21

The lower float may also falsely operate if the oil velocity in the connection
pipe through, not due to internal fault, is sufficient to trip over the float. This
can occurs in the event of external short circuit when over currents flowing
through the winding cause overheated the copper and the oil and cause the
oil to expand.

(ix): Explosion Vent


The purpose of the explosion
vent in a transformer is to prevent
damage of the transformer tank
be releasing any excessive
pressure generated inside the
transformer. This is nothing but a
bent pipe with thin aluminium
diaphragms at both ends. A wire
mesh is provided at lower end of
the explosion vent to prevent the
pieces of rutted diaphragm from
entering the tank. A wire mesh is
also provided at upper end of
vent pipe to protect mechanical
damages of upper diaphragm.
Near the lower end, a small oil
level indicator is provided to
lower diaphragm ruptures;
transformer oil rises in the vent pipe and is visible through the indicator
indicating the failure of the lower diaphragm. If even after brushing the
lower diaphragm, there is enough pressure and is not reduced, the upper
diaphragm then bursts out to give way to release the inside pressure of
transformer tank by thronging out oil and gases. In this way, explosion vent
of transformer prevents mechanical damage to the transformer tank.

PAGE 22

Sometimes, upper portion of conservator tank is connected with explosion


vent with an equalizer pipe with or without a valve.

(x): Bushings
In electric power, a bushing is an insulated device that allows an electrical
conductor to pass safely through
a (usually) earthed conducting
barrier such as the wall of a
transformer or circuit breaker.
All materials carrying an electric
charge generate an electric field.
When an energized conductor is
near any material at earth
potential, it can cause very high
field strengths to be formed,
especially where the field lines are forced to curve sharply around the
earthed material. The bushing controls the shape and strength of the field
and reduces the electrical stresses in the insulating material. A basic
porcelain bushing is a hollow porcelain shape that fits through a hole in a
wall or metal case, allowing a conductor to pass through its centre, and
connect at both ends to other equipment. Bushings of this type are often
made of wet-process fired porcelain, which is then glazed. A semiconducting glaze may be used to assist in equalizing the electrical potential
gradient along the length of the bushing.

The design of any electrical bushing must ensure that the electrical strength
of the insulated material is able to withstand the penetrating 'electrical
energy' passing through the conductor, via any highly stressed areas. It must
also be capable of enduring, occasional and exceptional high voltage
moments as well as the normal continual service withstand voltage, as it is
the voltage that directs and controls the development of leakage paths and
not current.
PAGE 23

Insulated bushings can be installed either indoor, or outdoor, and the


selection of insulation will be determined by the location of the installation
and the electrical service duty on the bushing.
For a bushing to work successfully over many years, the insulation must
remain effective both in composition and design shape and will be key
factors in its survival. Bushings can therefore vary considerably in both
material and design style.

g: Capacitor Bank

The 2 capacitor bank used


at sub-station to maintain
the power factor is fixed
type capacitor bank of
11kv 50KVAR each.
(Static) Capacitor bank is a
set of electrical devices for
providing fastacting reactive
power on highvoltage electricity
transmission networks. SVCs are part of the Flexible AC transmission
system device family, regulating voltage, power factor, and harmonics and
stabilizing the system. Unlike a synchronous condenser which is a rotating
electrical machine, a static VAR compensator has no significant moving
parts (other than internal switchgear). Prior to the invention of the SVC,
power factor compensation was the preserve of large rotating machines such
as synchronous condensers or switched capacitor banks.

The SVC is an automated impedance matching device, designed to bring the


system closer to unity power factor. SVCs are used in two main situations:

Connected to the power system, to regulate the transmission voltage


("Transmission SVC")

PAGE 24

Connected near large industrial loads, to improve power quality


("Industrial SVC")

In transmission applications, the SVC is used to regulate the grid voltage. If


the power system's reactive load is capacitive (leading), the SVC will
use thyristor controlled reactorsto consume VARs from the system, lowering
the system voltage. Under inductive (lagging) conditions, the capacitor
banks are automatically switched in, thus providing a higher system voltage.
By connecting the thyristor-controlled reactor, which is continuously
variable, along with a capacitor bank step, the net result is continuously
variable leading or lagging power.
In industrial applications, SVCs are typically placed near high and rapidly
varying loads, such as arc furnaces, where they can smooth flicker voltage

3: Control Room

PAGE 25

The purpose of the construction power sub-station is to control the incoming


and outgoing current, voltage and power factor from the transformer. This is
done by using various relays and circuit breaker. In case of high current and
voltage from rated value the relays and circuit breakers trips and protect the
transformer from getting damaged especially transformer winding from
burning i.e. winding isolation melting.

Components of Control Room:


a: Main Incomer

There are 2 incomer sections (panel-01 & panel-09) at construction power


substation. Both are from the power transformers installed at sub-station one
from left and another from right side of the control panel arrangement. As
show in picture above that 800A is the insulation current value of the
transformer, its actually the value of insulation bushings of the 4MVA
power transformer, beyond that level the incomer will trip the VCB installed
below the incomer panel. Different relays are installed in these panels to
protect the rest of the system from over and under current. The led installed
above are for indication like R Y B led for bus and white for system ok.

PAGE 26

Below there is a manual tripping handle (black) which is used to manually


trip the incoming supply.
b: Outgoing feeder

Unlike incomers, these outgoing feeders works continuously weather one or


both the incomer is on. The main function of these outgoing feeders is to
feed 11 KV ring main system. These are designed in such a way that any
kind of fault in ring main like neutral floating or earth fault happens then
relays installed in it trips the outgoing circuit. Parallel to these capacitor
banks are connected and to maintain the power factor of the load current and
voltage.

PAGE 27

c: Bus potential transformer (BPT)

Unlike PT which measure incoming line voltage and protect line under
voltage protection 88% of voltage, Bus PT measures outgoing bus voltage
and protect bus under voltage with voltage protection 44% with time delay
3-5 sec, Like PT the BPT is used to step down voltage at measurement levels
for instrument transformer for measurement and relay feeding.
d: Outdoor Capacitor Bank
The outdoor capacitor bank is used to maintain the power factor of the load
side voltage and current. Due to inductive loads like welding machine,
blowers etc. when used at a time then the power factor of the system
decreases to around 7-8.5 to which causes losses and improper functioning
of the devices.

PAGE 28

This can be minimised by using capacitive load


(capacitor bank) in parallel to the supply to reduce the
KVAR increased due to inductive loads. In an
inductance the current lags the voltage by 90 and in a
capacitor the current leads the voltage by 90. These
relationships are very important for drawing phasor
diagrams. Benefits of using capacitor banks:

It reduces line current of the system.


It improves voltage level of the load.
It reduces system losses.
It improves power factor of the source current

e: Bus Coupler

Bus coupler is used to couple one bus to the


other without any interruption in power supply
and without creating hazardous arcs. Bus
coupler is a breaker used to couple two
busbars in order to perform maintenance on
other circuit breakers associated with that
busbar. It is achieved with the help of a circuit
breaker and isolators. bus coupler is a breaker
used to couple two busbar in order
to perform maintenance on other circuit
breaker associated
with that busbars. if bus
is continuous any fault in bus results to
shutdown of all
feeders if bus coupler is there faulty section will only get
affected others remain healthy. This will improve the
reliability of substation. Bus Coupler is basically an Arrangement of
Coupling the two Buses or
more. Bus Coupler Is Made of the Same Material to whom the
Bus Bars Are Made It is some time used for transferring
the load during maintenance By closing any of the isolators one can put the
PAGE 29

feeder to associated bus. Both of the buses are energized and total feeders
are divided into two groups, one group is fed from one bus and other from
other bus. But any feeder at any time can be transferred from one bus to
other. There is one bus coupler breaker which should be kept close during
bus transfer operation. For transfer operation, one should first close the bus
coupler circuit breaker then close the isolator associated with the bus to
where the feeder would be transferred and then open the isolator associated
with the bus from where feeder is transferred. Lastly after this transfer
operation he or she should open the bus coupler breaker.
f: VCB (Vacuum Circuit Breaker)

The main aim of any circuit


breaker is to quench arc during
current zero crossing, by
establishing high dielectric
strength in between the contacts
so that reestablishment of arc
after current zero becomes
impossible. The dielectric
strength of vacuum is eight
times greater than that of air and
four times greater than that of
SF6 gas. This high dielectric
strength makes it possible to
quench a vacuum arc within
very small contact gap. For
short contact gap, low contact mass and no compression of medium the drive
energy required in vacuum circuit breaker is minimum. When two face to
face contact areas are just being separated to each other, they do not be
separated instantly, contact area on the contact face is being reduced and
ultimately comes to a point and then they are finally de-touched. Although
this happens in a fraction of micro second but it is the fact. At this instant of
de-touching of contacts in a vacuum, the current through the contacts
concentrated on that last contact point on the contact surface and makes a
PAGE 30

hot spot. As it is vacuum, the metal on the contact surface is easily vaporized
due to that hot spot and create a conducting media for arc path. Then the arc
will be initiated and continued until the next current zero.

g: DC Source and DC source charger

dc supply is used for closing and tripping coil of sub-station


breakers because whenever fault occur the ac supply will also fail so
protection system will not work and damage to
equipment can occur. DC supply in battery bank will always be available in
case of ac failure and protection system will work and trip the breakers. .It is
very common practice to use battery with charger for protection , operation
& indication in HT switch gears due
to most reliable system to work as after charging only battery comes directly
in line during failure of AC supply. Or power supply.

PAGE 31

UPS can be used


theoretically, but we are
adding one more
week link in critical
protection supply due to
addition of
inverter. , as inverter is:AC supply. > Battery
Charger > Battery >
Inverter
Whereas battery charger is
only:AC supply. > Battery Charger > Battery
AC coils of tripping & closing are UN common & bigger in
size. The Batteries are of 48 volt each and are 28 in number and are parallel
connected, charged through an inverter
4: Ring Main

In electricity supply, a ring final circuit or ring circuit (often incorrectly


called a ring main or informally a ring) is an electrical wiring technique
developed and primarily used in the United Kingdom. This design enables
the use of smaller-diameter wire than would be used in a radial circuit of
equivalent total current. Flexible cords connected between appliance and
plugs intended for use with sockets on a ring circuit are individually
protected by a fuse in the plug.

Ideally, the ring circuit acts like two radial circuits proceeding in opposite
directions around the ring, the dividing point between them dependent on the
distribution of load in the ring. If the load is evenly split across the two
directions, the current in each direction is half of the total, allowing the use
of wire with half the current-carrying capacity. In practice, the load does not
PAGE 32

always split evenly, so thicker wire is used. The ring main at BRBCL for
construction power is of 11KV which is charged at two terminals coming
from the sub-station. This ring main doesnt form a complete ring.

Components of Ring Main:


a: Single Pole

The single pole used where only


transmission of cables is required.
Through single poles 3- supply can
be transmitted to long distances
(without isolation).
b: Double Pole
Double or 2 pole system is required
while transmission of 3- supply, Is
when isolation of circuit or system is
required. As you can see wires
crossing over pole from left to right to
isolate both system (left & right). Its
also used near transformers for the
very same reason (Isolation of
transformer system).

PAGE 33

c: Triple Pole

Triple pole or 3 pole arrangement is


required where we have to take 3-
line from the Ring Main to another
direction or to some transformer
mainly. As in figure 1 shown the 3-
line from the ring main is being taken
to the transformer T-04 (11/0.415KV)
near boiler-2. In figure 2 the line from
3 pole arrangement is open at
receiving end which is switchyard
section. Actually a 0.415 volt cable
from T-04 is supplying power to the
switchyard for respective electrical loads like AC and lighting systems.
d: Four Pole

Four pole arrangements are required


mainly where there is need of 3 or more
than 3 direction supplies. This
arrangement also provides isolation to the
system on all the 3 or 4 sides. A stay wire
is tied to top ends to balance the tension
of pole due to unbalanced wire load.
Somewhere while tracing it was observed
that, whenever there was need of
undergrounding a cable, four pole system
was used.

PAGE 34

e: Underground Cable

To protect the open overhead wiring and construction vehicles of great


height and weight from damaging each other, underground cables are used.
Underground transmission due to cables is costlier than overhead transmission
as the ground needs to be excavated. This can be difficult when passing
though geographic obstructions such as hills, marshes and rivers. Special
trenches need to be constructed when passing through loose soil. Besides,
heat dissipation in underground cables is an issue. Hence, the conductors have
to be thicker. The insulation required for the cables is expensive. Hence, it is
difficult to use underground cables for voltages at HV levels (> 33
kV). Underground cables may have to be rerouted to accommodate other
underground structures such as pipelines, sewage lines, etc. It is necessary
that the routes of underground lines are clearly marked with sign boards to
prevent accidents when excavations are carried out for other reasons at a later
date.
f: GOAB(Gang Operated Air Break) Switch

Air Break Switches designed to isolate a circuit. They are usually employed
in outdoor installations. Special Arcing Horns are provided to quench the
arc which occurs when the current is interrupted. Their operation can also
PAGE 35

be mechanised it Break
Switches can be mounted
both horizontally and
vertically. Air Break
Switches are usually found in
groups of three, one for each
phase. These groups are
opened together. Hence, they
are also known as gang-operated switches. A breaker is a switching device
that operates automatically and is specifically intended to interrupt short
circuit currents (in addition to ordinary load currents). Circuit breakers can
be designed using air, oil, vacuum, or SF6 gas as the dielectric. Circuit
breakers are only found in substations.
g: Guard wire

Guard wire is used to protect the overhead live cables from falling on
machines or human due to some fault or melting of wire. This is generally
used over crossings or streets where there is possibility of presence of
humans or machines all the time under the cables.

PAGE 36

5: Distribution Transformer
Distribution transformers are used
for lower voltage distribution
networks as a means to end user
connectivity. (11kV, 6.6 kV, 3.3 kV,
440V, 230V). The distribution
transformer used at BRBCL for
construction power distribution is of
500KVA having voltage level of
11/0.415 KV. There are 16 total
distribution transformer installed in
BRBCL for construction power
distribution to step down 11kv to
0.415 kv.

The distribution transformer is used for the distribution of electrical


energy at low voltage level of 11KV in BRBCL for construction purpose
and of 440v-220v in domestic purpose. It work at low efficiency at 5070%, small size, easy in installation, having low magnetic losses & it is not
always fully loaded. The all-day-efficiency comes into picture while
designing it. It depends on the typical load cycle for which it has to supply.
Definitely Core design will be done to take care of peak load and as well as
all-day-efficiency. It is a bargain between these two points.
a: Specifications
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)

Rating
Cooling
Type
Voltage Ratio
Frequency

: 500 KVA
: ONAN
: Two (2) winding
: HV- 11KV
LV -0.415 KV
: 50 Hz

PAGE 37

vii) Phases
: 3 phase
viii) % Impedance HV/LV : 4.5%
ix) Tap control
: Offcircuit
x)
Service
: Outdoor
xi) Duty
:
Continuous
xii) Vector group
: Dyn1

c: Distribution Board
A distribution board( also known
as panel board, breaker panel, or
electric panel) is a component of an
electricity supply system that
divides an electric power feed into
subsidiary circuits while providing
a protective fuse or circuit breaker
for each circuit in a common
enclosure. Normally, a main
switch, and in recent boards, one or
more residual-current devices
(RCD) or residual current breakers
with over current protection
(RCBO), are also incorporated. In
BRBCL these above shown
distribution boards are used in
construction power distribution
transformer substation for distributing the stepped down voltage (0.415 KV)
to near area for electrical equipments used for construction.
PAGE 38

d: Capacitor Bank

PAGE 39

PART 2 : STARTUP POWER


Introduction

There are many machines in the plant which needs to be running and many
heavy machines and equipment which needs to be tested before and after
their erection, which need hell lot of power and cant be provided from
BSEB. For keeping the main bus charged for further testing and running of
Auxiliary systems of the power plant we need heavy power which is
provided by Pusauli grid. After the production of plant get started, the 90%
of the power generated will be given to the same Pusauli grid from where it
will be utilized by Indian railways for their various projects and supply in
states like west Bengal, Jharkhand, Orrisa, Gujrat..etc. Presently the main
bus of the plant is charged and synchronised by the 400 KV line from
Pusauli grid.

This 400 KV high voltage is stepped down to 6.6KV for charging the bus.
The step down job is done using different transformers and meters for proper
and reliable supply. The area where this is done is known as Switchyard.

Switchyard

A Switchyard is also known as Switching Substation, and these are


commonly located directly adjacent to or nearby a power station. In this case
generators from the power station supply their power into the yard onto the
generator bus on one side of the yard, and the transmission lines take their
power from a feeder bus on the other side of the yard.

PAGE 40

An important function performed by switchyard is switching, which is the


connecting and disconnecting of transmission lines or other components to
and from the system. Switching events may be planned or unplanned. A
transmission line or other component may need to be de-energized for
maintenance or for new construction, for example, adding or removing a
transmission line or a transformer. To maintain reliability of supply, no
company ever brings down its whole system for maintenance. All work to be
performed, from routine testing to adding entirely new substations, must be
done while keeping the whole system running.

Elements of BRBCL Switchyard:


A: Surge Arrester

Surge arresters are used to protect


high-voltage equipment in
substations, such as transformers,
circuit breakers, and bushings, against
the effects of overvoltages caused by
incoming surges. Such overvoltages
can be caused by a direct or nearby
lightning strike, an electromagnetic
pulse, electrostatic discharge, or
switching operations in the power
supply system as well as in devices.
Some overvoltages are very high in
energy. The current from the surge is
diverted through the arrester, in most
cases to earth. Effective overvoltage
protection requires different surge
arrester types to be used according to
the particular application. Surge
arresters are an indispensable aid to
insulation coordination in electrical power supply systems. Valuable
equipment such as transformers, circuit breakers, generators, motors,
PAGE 41

capacitors, traction vehicles, and bushings, as well as complete switchgear,


is optimally protected against lightning and switching overvoltages. Surge
arresters have been designed to meet the requirements of a wide range of
common installation environments, from arctic cold to the heat of the desert
and the dampness of tropical climates. They are available for any application
from 3 kV up to 1,200 kV including special applications such as highvoltage direct current (HVDC) and FACTS systems as well as all kinds of
compensation systems for electric power networks. Surge arresters feature
a superior sealing system that reliably prevents moisture ingress to
ensure the highest possible degree of overvoltage protection and decades
of trouble-free service. Moreover, the choice of materials used in the
making of Surge arresters contributes to the protection of the
environment.

B: Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT)


Capacitor Voltage Transformers
convert transmission class voltages to
standardized low and easily measurable
values, which are used for metering,
protection and control of the high
voltage system. As such, the need for
accurate and reliable voltage
transformation is essential.
Additionally, Capacitor Voltage
Transformers serve as coupling
capacitors for coupling high frequency
power line carrier signals to the
transmission line. CVT's consist of two
primary assemblies; the high voltage
capacitor sections and the base box,
housing the electro-magnetic
components.

PAGE 42

Series connected capacitor elements, housed in porcelain shells, each


hermetically sealed, are referred to as capacitor sections. The dielectric of
the capacitor elements is made up of
high quality polypropylene film/paper
and impregnated with highly processed
synthetic fluid. Each capacitor section is
equipped with a stainless steel bellow
which will allow the synthetic fluid to
expand and contract with changes in
ambient operating temperature while
maintaining the hermetic sealing. It is
over these capacitor sections that most
of the high voltage will be dropped.

A tap voltage (approximately 5-12 kV depending on type) is taken from the


lowest capacitor section and fed to an electromagnetic circuit in the cast
aluminium base box. The base box contains the intermediate transformer
which will provide the final output voltages via multiple tapped secondary
windings, series compensating reactor and Ferro resonance control circuitry.

PAGE 43

The base box is filled with dried mineral oil, protecting the components from
environmental deterioration.

Ferro-resonance is simply and effectively controlled by utilization of low


flux density designed magnetic circuitry and a saturable reactor controlled
damping circuit is connected across the secondary winding. The ferroresonance suppression circuit does not adversely affect transient response.

C: Power Line Carrier


Communication (PLCC)
Wave Trap:

PLCC, Power Line Carrier


Communication, is an approach to
utilize the existing power lines for the
transmission of information. In todays
world every house and building has
properly installed electricity lines. By using the existing AC power lines as a
medium to transfer the information, it
PAGE 44

becomes easy to connect the houses with a high speed network access point
without installing new wirings. This technology has been in wide use since
1950 and was mainly used by the grid stations to transmit information at
high speed. Now a days this technology is finding wide use in
building/home automation as it avoids the need of extra wiring. The data
collected from different sensors is transmitted on these power lines thereby
also reducing the maintenance cost of the additional wiring. In some
countries this technology is also used to provide Internet connection. The
first significant step in the field was when two patents were issued to
American Telephone and Telegraph Company in the name of 'Carrier
Transmission over Power Circuits' in 1920. After four years later in 1924
two other patents were filed for the systems transmitting and receiving
communication signals over three phase power lines. PLCC technology can
be deployed into different types of applications in order to provide economic
networking solutions. Hence merging with other technologies it proves
useful in different areas. These are are utilized in Transmission &
Distribution Network, PLCC was first adopted in the electrical transmission
and distribution system to transmit information at a fast rate. Automatic
Meter reading applications use the PLCC technology to send the data from
home meters to Host Central Station.

Wave trap is a parallel resonant circuit tuned to the carrier frequency


connected in series with the line conductor at each end of the protected
transmission line section. Wave trap offers high impedance path for high
frequency signals and low impedance path for power frequency current. This
keeps carrier signal confined to the protected line section and does not allow
the carrier signals to flow into the neighbouring section.

PAGE 45

D: Current Transformer (CT)

Current transformers are used for protection, instrumentation, metering


and control. It is only the first function that has any bearing on the
location of the current transformer. Ideally the current transformers should
be on the power source side of the circuit breaker that is tripped by the
protection so that the circuit breaker is included in the protective zone. In
many circuits the power flow can be in either direction and it then becomes
necessary to decide which location of fault is most important or likely and
to locate the current transformers on the side of the circuit breaker remote
from those faults. In the case of generator (and some transformer) circuits it
is necessary to decide whether the protection is to protect against for faults
in the generator or to protect the generator against system faults.

PAGE 46

Current transformers can often be located in the generator phase


connections at the neutral end and will then protect the generator from the
system faults and to a large degree give protection for faults in
the generator.
When current transformers can be accommodated within the circuit
breaker, they can in most cases be accommodated on both sides of the
circuit breaker and the allocation of the current transformers should
give the desired overlapping of protective zones.
An oil filled tank is mounted over the CT for insulation and oil level
indicator is fitted on the front side of the oil tank.

E: Earthing Switch

Earthing switch connect the live parts/ line conductors and earth. This switch
is normally open. Earthing switch is used to earth the live parts during
maintenance and during testing. During maintenance although circuit is open
still there are some voltages on line, due to which capacitance between line
and earth is charged. Before proceeding to maintenance work the voltage s
discharged to earth, by closing the earth switch. Earthing switches are
mounted on the base of mainly line side isolator. Earthing switches are
normally vertically break switches. Earthing arms (contact arm of earthing
switch) are normally aligned horizontally at off condition. During switching
on operation, these earthing arms rotate and move to vertical position and
make contact with earth female contacts fitted at the top of the post insulator
stack of isolator at its outgoing side. The erarthing arms are so interlocked
with main isolator moving contacts that it can be closed only when the main
contacts of isolator are in open position. Similarly the main isolator contacts
can be closed only when the earthing arms are in open position.

PAGE 47

F: Single Break Isolator

The contact arm is divided into two parts one carries male contact and other
female contact. The contact arm moves due to rotation of the post insulator
upon which the contact arms are fitted. Rotation of both post insulators
stacks in opposite to each other causes to close the isolator by closing the
contact arm. Counter rotation of both post insulators stacks open the contact
arm and isolator becomes in off condition. This motorized form of this type
of isolators is generally used but emergency hand driven mechanism is also
provided. Earthing switches are mounted on the base of mainly line side
isolator. Earthing switches are normally vertically break switches. Earthing
arms (contact arm of earthing switch) are normally aligned horizontally at
off condition. during switching on operation, these earthing arms rotate and
move to vertical position and make contact with earth female contacts fitted
at the top of the post insulator stack of isolator at its outgoing side. The
erarthing arms are so interlocked with main isolator moving contacts that it
can be closed only when the main contacts of isolator are in open position.
Similarly the main isolator contacts can be closed only when the earthing
arms are in open position. As no arc quenching technique is provided in
isolator it must be operated when there is no chance current flowing through
the circuit. No live circuit should be closed or open by isolator operation. A
complete live closed circuit must not be opened by isolator operation and
also a live circuit must not be closed and completed by isolator operation to
PAGE 48

avoid huge arcing in between isolator contacts. That is why isolators must be
open after circuit breaker is open and these must be closed before circuit
breaker is closed. Isolator can be operated by hand locally as well as by
motorized mechanism from remote position. Motorized operation
arrangement costs more compared to hand operation; hence decision must be
taken before choosing an isolator for system whether hand operated or motor
operated economically optimum for the system. For voltages up to 145 KV
system hand operated isolators are used whereas for higher voltage systems
like 245 KV or 420 KV and above motorized isolators are used.

G: Busbar

In electrical power distribution, a bus bar is a thick stick strip of copper or


aluminium that conducts electricity within a switchyard, distribution board,
substation or other electrical apparatus. Busbars are used to carry very large
currents, or to distribute current to multiple devices within switchgear or
equipment.

Bus bar is an aluminium tube (hollow) of approximately 4 cm diameter


having wall of 0.4 cm, where all incomer and outgoing feeders are
PAGE 49

connected in a schematic way to enable smooth operation and maintenance


of equipment without any interruption to the system. At RSTPS one half
breaker schemes is provided for 250 MW generator feeder and 400 KV
outgoing lines.

H: Circuit Breaker

Electrical circuit breaker is a switching device which can be operated both


manually and automatically for controlling and protection of any electrical
power system. As the modern power system deals with huge currents, the
special attention should be given during designing of circuit breaker to safe
interruption of arc produced during the opening/closing operation of circuit
breaker.
According to their arc quenching (rapid cooling) media the circuit breaker
can be divided as:

1) Air circuit breaker


2) Oil circuit breaker
3) Vacuum circuit breaker
PAGE 50

4) SF6 circuit breaker


In switchyard of BRBCL SF6 type Air Break Spring charged stored circuit
breakers are used.

Sulphur-hexafluoride (SF6) circuit breakers


Gas properties

Sulphur-hexafluoride (SF6) is an excellent gaseous dielectric for high


voltage power applications. SF6 is a colourless non-toxic gas, with good
thermal conductivity and density approximately five times that of air (6.14
kg/m3.). It does not react with materials commonly used in high voltage
circuit breakers. It has been used extensively in high voltage circuit breakers
and other switchgear employed by the power industry. Applications for SF6
include gas insulated transmission lines and gas insulated power distribution
substations. The combined electrical, physical, chemical and thermal
properties offer many advantages when used in power switchgear. Some of
the outstanding properties of SF6 which make its use in power applications
desirable are:
high dielectric strength
unique arc-quenching ability
excellent thermal stability
good thermal conductivity
The SF6 gas is identified as a greenhouse gas, safety regulation are
being introduced in many countries in order to prevent its release into
atmosphere.

Breaker properties

PAGE 51

The principle of operation is similar to the air blast breakers, except that
SF6 is not discharged in the atmosphere. A closed-circuit, sealed
construction is used.
There are mainly three types of SF6 CB depending upon the voltage
level of application:

1) Single interrupter SF6 CB applied for up to 245 kV (220 kV)


system
2) Two interrupter SF6 CB applied for up to 420 kV (400 kV)
system
3) Four interrupter SF6 CB applied for up to 800 kV (715 kV)
system
During the opening operation the gas contained inside a part of the
breaker is compressed by a moving cylinder that supports the
contacts or by a piston. This forces the SF6 through the interrupting
nozzle. When the contacts separate, an arc is established. If the
current is not very high, it is extinguished at the first zero crossing
by the pushing the SF6 through the arc by the piston. If the short
circuit current is high, the arc extinction may not occur at the first
PAGE 52

zero crossing, but the gas pressure will increase sufficiently to blow
the arc out. By connecting several interrupting heads in series, SF6
breakers can be constructed for voltages of up to 765 kV.

I: Inter Connecting Transformer (ICT)

Interconnecting transformers are used to connect two EHV line at different


voltages i.e. 220KV to 400KV. The interconnecting transformer is auto
transformer which can step up & step down the voltages for
synchronization of two grid voltages. The function of the inter-connecting
transformer is - as the name suggests - inter-connecting two systems at
different voltages. Normally, they will be either 400kV/132kV or
220kV/110kV, of say about 100MVA or 200 MVA rating. They are bidirectional. During the plant start-up, they import power from the grid
either at 400kV or 220kV and step down to 132kV or 110kV to supply the
station auxiliaries. Once the plant is started and synchronized to the grid, the
same transformer can now be used to export power to the grid. They are
PAGE 53

normally auto-transformers and they will have a delta connected tertiary


winding of about 33kV voltage rating, for providing a circulating path for
the zero-sequence currents. The spec would read: 400/132/33kV, 100MVA
or 200MVA.
In BRBCL switchyard 200 MVA
3-Winding (primary, secondary
& Tertiary) Auto transformer
(ICT) having voltage level rating
400/132/33 KV is installed. An
auto transformer has many
benefits upon 2 winding
transformer like it requires less
core material, has less winding
loss (Cu or I2R loss), can be used
for stepping up and stepping
down easily unlike in 2 windings
there is limitation of its core.

Its main disadvantage is that


unlike 2 winding transformer it
doesnt have galvanic insulation
i.e. in 2 winding transformer both
the windings are insulated from
each other but in an auto
transformer both the winding have a direct common electrical connection
which is very unsafe in short circuit case. Thats why an auto-transformer is
only used in such area where there is less locomotion of humans or living
things.

J: Miscellaneous Service Transformer (MST)


PAGE 54

Specifications
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)

Rated output
: 16 MVA
Cooling
: ONAN
Type
: two (2) winding
Voltage Ratio
: 132/11.5 KV
Frequency
: 50 Hz
Phase
: Three (3)
Service
: Outdoor
Duty
: Continuous
Impedance at 75C
On 16 MVA base
At principal Tap
HV-LV
: 10% (+10% tolerance)
j) Winding Max Voltage
(KV)
: 132 KV(HV) 12(LV)
k) Lighting Impulse
Volt
PAGE 55

3: Station Transformer

Specifications
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)

Rated output
: 16 MVA
Cooling
:ONAN/ONAF
Type
: three (3) winding
Voltage Ratio
: 132/6.9/6.9 KV
Frequency
: 50 Hz
Phase
: Three (3)
Service
: Outdoor
Duty
: Continuous
Impedance at 75C
PAGE 56

On 16 MVA base
At principal Tap
HV-LV

: 12% (+10% tolerance)

j) Winding Max Voltage


(KV)
: 145 KV (HV) 7.2(LV)
k) Lighting Impulse
Voltage (KV)
: 650(HV) 60(LV)

PAGE 57

3: Switchgear

In an electric power system, switchgear is the combination of electrical


disconnects switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and
isolate electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize
equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. This
type of equipment is directly linked to the reliability of the electricity supply.
The earliest central power stations used simple open knife switches,
mounted on insulating panels of marble or asbestos. Power levels and
voltages rapidly escalated, making opening manually operated switches too
dangerous for anything other than isolation of a de-energized circuit. Oilfilled equipment allowed arc energy to be contained and safely controlled.
By the early 20th century, a switchgear line-up would be a metal-enclosed
structure with electrically operated switching elements, using oil circuit
breakers. Today, oil-filled equipment has largely been replaced by air-blast,
vacuum, or SF6 equipment, allowing large currents and power levels to be
safely controlled by automatic equipment.

PAGE 58

High-voltage switchgear was invented at the end of the 19th century for
operating motors and other electric machines. The technology has been
improved over time and can now be used with voltages up to 1,100 kV.

Typically, switchgears in substations are located on both the high- and lowvoltage sides of large power transformers. The switchgear on the lowvoltage side of the transformers may be located in a building, with mediumvoltage circuit breakers for distribution circuits, along with metering,
control, and protection equipment. For industrial applications,
a transformer and switchgear line-up may be combined in one housing,
called a unitized substation (USS).

A: SA/SB

SA/ SB are energised from station transformer (ST) so for reference named
SA and SB. For two units there is one SA/SB. This has a current rating of
2750 amps. From this, those auxiliaries are charged that are common for
both the units i.e. utilized in both the units like MLDB, Air washer, screw
chiller, welding DBetc. currently st#1 is charged so a line from SA/SB
3200 amps is used charge under construction SC/SD of unit 3 and 4. From
SA there is 5 terminals connected, 1 is input from ST, 2nd one is output to
SC, 3rd and 4th one is charging UA and UB and 5th and last one is charging
PAGE 59

ESPT (Electro-static precipitator


transformer). Similar type of
connection is for all the SB SC and
SD. These SA/SB also known as
high tension voltages Busbar of 6.6
KV (actually are medium tension
but with respect to low tension its
known so) are used to charge low
tension i.e. 0.433 KV. This done
using station service transformers
(SST). SST is of rating 2000 KVA
dry type transformer.

Station service switchgear


(SSS)#1 which is low tension i.e.
0.433KV switchgear is charged
using SA and SC. Similarly SB
and SD are used to charge SSS#2.

2 welding DB dry type transformers


is used for circuit insulation and is
tied to unit 1&2, is charged from
this 6.6KV.

PAGE 60

B: UA/UB

UA/UB is charged from SA and SB respectively. These bus have a current


rating of 2000A.Currently while start-up these are charged only from SA
and SB but when plant will start its production then these will be charged
from both SA and SB as well as also from Unit transformer. UA have 7
terminals. 1st from SA, 2nd from UT#1, 3rd and 4th to MDBFP# 1&3 of 4600
KW each. There are three such auxiliaries 2 charged are from UA and one
from UB, 5th and 6th to the two VFD transformers for stepping down and
feeding 2067 KW 2300v rating ID Fans. And the last terminal is connected
to ESPT#1a of 1.6 MVA which steps down voltage level of 6.6 to 0.0433.
ESPT#1c is charged from SA and ESPT#1b is charged from UB one of the
end terminals of UA is connected to UST#1A. Similar type of connection is
of UB and rest of the unit Bus of unit 2, 3 & 4.

5: Diesel Generator (DG)

A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electric


generator (often an alternator) to generate electrical energy. This is a specific
case of engine-generator. A diesel compression-ignition engine often is
designed to run on fuel oil, but some types are adapted for other liquid fuels
or natural gas.
PAGE 61

Diesel generating sets are used in places without connection to a power grid,
or as emergency power-supply if the grid fails, as well as for more complex
applications such as peak-lopping, grid support and export to the power grid.
Sizing of diesel generators is critical to avoid low-load or a shortage of
power and is complicated by modern electronics, specifically non-linear
loads. In size ranges around 50 MW and above, an open cycle gas turbine is
more efficient at full load than an array of diesel engines, and far more
compact, with comparable capital costs; but for regular part-loading, even at
these power levels, diesel arrays are sometimes preferred to open cycle gas
turbines, due to their superior efficiencies.
Basically these are generators are used to keep charged certain auxiliaries of
plant which need to be running even when blackout happens in plant such
as ID fan, turbine valve, UPS charger for VCBs etc.

PAGE 62