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How to build a garden pond

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Planning
Construction
Planting
Fish

Contents

A better quality of life for man and animal:


Your own garden pond............................................................................................................ 3

Preparation and pond construction .................................................................................... 4


2.1 The best season ................................................................................................................ 4
2.2 Size of the pond .............................................................................................................. 4
2.3 Location .............................................................................................................................. 5
2.4 Prefabricated pond or liner pond? .............................................................................. 6
2.5 Determination of the liner size .................................................................................... 7
2.6 Construction and design of the pond ........................................................................ 8
2.7 Securing the edges: Examples ...................................................................................... 10
2.8 Excavation of the pond pit ............................................................................................ 12
2.9 Laying the pond liner ...................................................................................................... 14
2.10 The bottom gravel .......................................................................................................... 15
2.11 How to set up a Koi pond .............................................................................................. 16

Water the source of life........................................................................................................ 17


3.1 How to fill the pond with water .................................................................................. 17
3.2 How to condition the pond water .............................................................................. 18
3.3 Clean water conditions with sera pond filter systems ........................................ 20
The sera pond filter W 1500 .......................................................................................... 20
The sera Bio Pond Filters ................................................................................................ 21
The sera 3 chamber biofilter ........................................................................................ 22
The sera Pressure Filters T and sera Pressure Filters T + UV System ................. 23
The sera UVC Pond Clarifiers ....................................................................................... 23
The sera UV Systems ..................................................................................................... 24
The sera fountain and pond filter pumps ............................................................... 24
The sera fountain nozzles ........................................................................................... 25

Planting ...................................................................................................................................... 26
4.1 Submerged plants............................................................................................................ 27
4.2 Plants for swamp zones,
shallow water and bank zones .................................................................................... 28
4.3 Floating leaf plants.......................................................................................................... 30
4.4 Plants for the Koi pond .................................................................................................. 31
4.5 How to plant correctly.................................................................................................... 32
4.6 Stable water conditions with sera GH-KH plus ........................................................ 33

The fish for your garden pond .............................................................................................. 34

Buyers checklist........................................................................................................................ 35

A better quality of life for man and animal: 1


Your own garden pond

The ecosystem of a pond in your garden


provides a living-environment that is conducive to animals and plants, which has
nowadays become rare in nature. The
species of animals and the splendid colors
of lush flowering plants make the pond a
leisure center for your home. The pond
becomes a beautiful attraction in your garden as well as an invaluable ecosystem for
plants and animals.

Tips for pond builders

For best results when building a pond,


design the infrastructure according to a
natural water ecosystem. This guide shows
you how. With the proper knowledge in
pond construction you can avoid mistakes
as you build or even correct those found in
existing ponds.
Our sera guide How to maintain and cultivate a garden pond offers additional
guidance for the pond owner.
Pond care is not difficult when you pay
attention to our tips, but nature needs a
bit of help from you. If a problem in the
cycle of nature occurs, information on
possible sources and measures are found
in the sera guide How to maintain and
cultivate a garden pond.
We wish you success and, above all, a lot
of pleasure!

2 Preparation and pond construction


2.1 The best season

2.2 Size of the pond

The best time for building a pond is in


spring. The plants will have gathered sufficient strength to take roots and thrive.
The warm water in late spring and in summer accelerates the expansion-phase of
taking roots.
However, you can still build a pond until
autumn, as long as there are warm days
for placing the liner in the pond (see chapter 2.9).
In this case, you should wait until the following spring (April), when the water temperature is above 15C (59F), to plant.

For a pond to function biologically and


regulate naturally, the pond area should be
at least 10 m2 (108 ft.2). It is equal to an area
of 3.2 m x 3.2 m (10.5 ft. x 10.5 ft.). The
deepest part of the pond should be at
least 1 meter (3.3 ft.) with an area of 2 m2
(21.5 ft.2). There are two reasons for this:
1 In hot summer, the fish and other living
beings are drawn into cooler water
zones, which contain more oxygen.
2 The best hibernation temperature for
pond animals is +4C (39F). Water is at its
highest density at +4C (39F). The water
sinks at this temperature. During winter,
with temperatures as low as minus 20C
(minus 4F), the deeper water zone of
your pond would be exactly +4C (39F).
That is, the pond depth must be
1 meter (3.3 ft.) or deeper. The pond may
freeze entirely if it is not deep enough.

Hibernation zone of the pond animals

0 cm (0 in.)
ice layer
20 cm (8 in.)
+ 1C / 34F
40 cm (16 in.)
+ 2C / 36F
60 cm (24 in.)
+ 3C / 37F

80 cm (31 in.)

+4C / 39F
mold

100 cm (40 in.)

Preparation and pond construction 2


Caution!
Not all heaters are alike! For winter heating, unless you use a pond heater specifically designed to keep the water at a constant 20C (68F) even in winter, you are
putting your fish at risk. When using other
types of heaters in the pond, you create
warm water zones around the heater. During the winter or spring, if your fish swim
into these areas from their hibernation
zones it can result in the fish dying.

Remember, optimum water temperature


for hibernation is +4C (39F). Aquarium
heaters must never be used in a pond, for
safety reasons. Most aquarium heaters are
developed and manufactured for indoor
use and have not been equipped with electrical cords that are weather and UV light
resistant or ground protected. You will
find more information about this in the
chapter 2.11 How to set up a Koi pond.

2.3 Location

We recommend a location with some sunny hours for the pond. If possible, do not
build the pond too near to trees with a
heavy fall of leaves or needles. Leaves and
needles that fall into the pond will rot and
heavily pollute the water. The depletion of
oxygen caused by this endangers the fish
and other animals in your garden pond.
Needles, especially, are very difficult to
remove from the water.

If the pond is to be located near large


trees, it is virtually impossible not to damage their roots. Cut the roots carefully and
not too drastically. Smaller branching roots
will form at the root ends where it has
been cut. Actually, this improves the
growth and the vitality of the tree.

The ideal location

2 Preparation and pond construction


2.4 Prefabricated pond
or liner pond?

Prefabricated plastic ponds and, above all,


pond liners, have proved to be the best
and most successful.
Construction materials for prefabricated
ponds are mainly polyethylene (PE) and
reinforced fiberglass plastic. The advantages of prefabricated ponds are their high
durability and their ease in setting-up.
However, prefabricated ponds have their
limitations. Even the larger models, made
from a single molding, provide less than
10 m2 (108 ft.2) surface area with a volume
of less than 10 m3 (353 ft.3). Their depth is
usually up to 80 cm (32 in.), which is not
suitable for fish to hibernate.

Pond liners are the most advantageous for


the flexibility to build virtually any desired
shape and size, also they are very easy to
handle. Greater water depths do not cause
any problems.
A well-proven material for pond liners is
the durable PVC plastic. Common linerthickness is between 0.5 and 1.5 mm.
Thicker liners are strongly recommended
especially for larger ponds as they have
more reserves for stretching.
Laminated PVC textured liners are unsuitable. Weather influences can cause the layers to loosen. This will severely damage the
pond and cause water leaks.

There are larger prefabricated ponds


assembled from several parts with screws
and glue, according to the modular assembly principle. Especially with larger prefabricated ponds, they are quite bulky and
often have a problem with transportation.
Almost all prefabricated ponds have steep
walls and require exit helps so that fallen
animals can escape from the water. As well,
their shapes and sizes cannot always adapt
to individual desires.

Polyethylene (PE) liner is an alternative.


This material cannot be glued with common pond liner glue. It requires a special
gluing technique.
Rubberized (EPDM) pond liner is UV and
frost-resistant. It is very elastic, durable,
and is becoming a popular choice. This liner also needs a special gluing technique if
several pieces are to be combined. Rubberized (EPDM) liner may be much more
expensive than PVC or PE liner.

Preparation and pond construction 2


Tarpaulin contains toxic heavy metals
(cadmium) and should not be used for
ponds under any circumstance!
When buying a pond liner, sera suggests
paying more attention to the quality than
to the price. The pond liner should be
resistant to UV light and frost (down to
minus 30C / minus 22F), otherwise it rapidly becomes brittle. It should also be
harmless to fish and plants.

size in the drawing. If the pond pit is


already excavated, the liner requirement is
easily measured with a cord. Just lay one
cord along and another across the excavated pond. Then measure the lengths of
the laid cords. Add 140 cm (55 in.) to each
of the measurements (along and across).
The additional length is necessary for two
reasons:
1 The laid liner cannot be absolutely
smooth; the creases require additional
material.
2 If the liner sufficiently exceeds the
edges, you prevent the pond from being
hollowed out. Furthermore you avoid
the liner being pulled into the pond. An
appropriate capillarity barrier prevents
the pond water from being sucked out
of the pond by the surrounding soil and
the grass roots.

pebbles

Preparation steps for a liner pond, are


shown on pages 12 and 13.

liner

fine sand

water

2.5 Determination of the liner size


Schematic drawing of a capillarity barrier
Before buying a pond liner, you should
draw a sectional drawing (along and
across) of the planned pond. You draw in
all troughs, plant terraces etc., with an
additional 70 cm (28 in.) all around for the
edge projection. We recommend a drawing scale of 1:50 metric (0.4:20 US standard).
This means that 1 cm (0.4 in.) in the drawing represents 50 cm (20 in.) in the real
pond. Now you can measure the required

Before starting to make any calculations,


we recommend that you read this guide
thoroughly. Otherwise, you might miss
important information in designing your
pond.

2 Preparation and pond construction


2.6 Construction and design
of the pond

When designing the pond, use your imagination. If you pay attention to the tips in
our guide, you can have many hours of
pleasure with your water garden.

swamp zone
(see page 28 +)

Basic design of a pond

floating leaf plants


(see page 30)

floating

fine sand
capillarity barrier
(see page 7)

pond liner

stones as decoration
and light protection
(see page 10)

min. 1 m
with thick

Preparation and pond construction 2

growing plants
edge fixation
(see page 10)

submerged plants
(see page 27)
plants
sera pond filter
(see page 20 +)

max. 15 cm (6 in.) deep


(3.3 ft.) deep
gravel cover

min. 30 cm (12 in.) wide,


40 50 cm (16 20 in.) deep

2 Preparation and pond construction


2.7 Securing the edges: Examples

lawn

stone slab

liner

Important:
Before securing the edges, fill water into
the pond as described in the chapters 3.1
How to fill the pond with water and 3.2
How to condition the pond water. Stones
(fist-sized or larger) that are easily piled,
even at steep slopes, are very suitable for
the layout of the edges.

pebbles as
capillarity
barrier
fine sand

Pond edge with lawn surrounding

coarse
gravel

stone slabs and


foundation

liner

liner

decoration
approx. 10 cm (4 in.) meager
concrete (1 part cement,
16 parts gravel)

fine sand

limitation
slab
fine sand

Steep bank with footpath

Pond edge with footpath

stacked stones as
decoration and
light protection

stone garden
pavement
(descent away
from the pond!)

liner
liner

drainage from coarse gravel,


approx. 10 cm (4 in.) wide,
fine sand
so that no soil can be washed
into the pond

Pond edge with pavement


and stone garden

10

limitation slab

fine sand

Pond edge with slope angle


steeper than 45

Preparation and pond construction 2

Examples for the design


of bank zones

Recommended only for the professional:


a concrete bowl instead of a finished pond or pond liner

11

2 Preparation and pond construction


2.8 Excavation of the pond pit

12

First, excavate the pond pit where it


should be situated and build the various
plant terraces according to your ideas.
Consider the requirements (swamp, shallow water, deep water, etc.) of the desired
pond plants.
The look of the bank is determined especially by the highest plant terrace. The
slopes, also between the plant terraces,
should be as smooth as possible. Mostly a
descent of 1:2, this means 50 cm (20 in.)
height difference per meter (3.3 ft.), is
best.
If the pond is to be placed in a lawn we recommend cutting-out the lawn into lengths
of sod and stacking these aside. The excavated matrix soil is perfectly suitable for
building a hill bed.

The hose spirit-level is an important instrument to control the level. You can easily
prepare one by yourself: Simply buy several meters of transparent filter hose and fill
it with water (bubble-free) to a large
extent. Place this hose into the pit. It is not
important whether the hose is laid flat, in
curves, or partly rolled-up on the ground.
The hose spirit-level works according to
the principle of communicating vessels,
this means that water level at each hose
end is always the same.

Make sure the pond edge is on one level.


Otherwise, the bank on the higher side will
remain water- free after the pond is filled.

Quite simple:
the hose spirit-level

Preparation and pond construction 2

Excavating the pit

Smoothing the pond pit

Also suitable for smaller ponds, a


spirit-level may be laid upon a long
straight board, across the pond.

Tip: The water overflow

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During the excavation you should have


already considered a place where the pond
can overflow in the direction you wish. For
example, attach a plastic pipe so that it
directs the overflowing water onto a grit
bed or into the drainage of the house. The
pipe should be fixed to the liner. Attach a
suction screen to the pipe to prevent fish
and other animal from entering and causing a clog in the pipe.
Edging the pipe with stones is also suitable
to keep young fish away from the pipe.

After excavating the pit, you must thoroughly remove all sharp objects (stones,
nails, glass fragments etc.), and then pad
the pit with fine sand. On steep slopes you
will need an underlay for liner protection.
This must be done very carefully, because
any sharp stone can destroy the work of
days within a few hours.

Water overflow

prevention lattice
stone
edging

overflow pipe

grit bed

liner

descent into the


direction of the grit bed

13

2 Preparation and pond construction


2.9 Laying the pond liner

The warmer the weather, the smoother


the liner becomes. It fits and conforms to
the shape of the pond pit with fewer
creases. So, if possible, lay the pond liner
on a warm day. This is easily done with a
few helpers. Grasp the liner at the edges
and carry it over the pond. Let the liner
down from above.
Smooth out the creases as much as possible. Do not wear sharp-edged shoes while
you are doing this. For all kinds of work
that make it necessary to step on the liner,
it is best to wear shoes with rounded rubber soles.

Tips:
1 Increase the liner durability by covering
it with gravel completely, and attaching
slope mats. These coarsely structured
mats serve as light protection, and provide good support for the growing
plants.
2 Avoid stretching the liner. In time, the
stretching will inevitably cause damage
and will require considerable repairs.

14

By using liner almost no line is drawn to


the pond in respect of size or form

Preparation and pond construction 2

2.10 The bottom gravel

Now you can put the bottom gravel into


the pond. In the deep water zone you only
need a layer of approximately 1 cm (0.4 in.)
of gravel; as the years progress enough
material will fall into the pond to fill this
area. The other plant terraces should be
covered with a layer of gravel between
5 and 8 cm (2 3.2 in.).

Tightly pile with larger pebbles to cover


the steeper slopes. The upper plant terrace is not filled for the time being.
For bottom gravel, gravel and pebbles are
suitable but never use garden soil or top
soil.

15

2 Preparation and pond construction


2.11 How to set up a Koi pond

The instructions in the main section also


apply to Koi ponds, with some additions to
be considered.
Koi can grow to more than 1 meter (3.3 ft.)
long! Due to their size, Koi need more
space than other pond fish.
A basic rule is:
A Koi of about 50 cm (20 in.) long requires
1 m3 / 35.3 ft.3 (1,000 liters / 265 gal.) of
water. Except for a few models, most
prefabricated ponds are not suitable. Generally, the larger the pond, the better. A
larger pond requires less work for water
care than a small one!
Koi ponds are usually laid out with steep
slopes. In shallow swamp zones, the fish
may get trapped in the plant thicket and
often are not able to free themselves. Ideally, the wall in Koi ponds has a vertical
slope of about 25 cm (10 in.) high. By this,
it hinders the ornamental fish from injuries

by land animals such as raccoons or cats.


Sometimes these land animals can splash
the fish out of the pond.
The average Koi pond should be about
0.5 1 m (20 40 in.) deep. Deep water zones
for fish hibernation should be at least 1.5 m
(5 ft.), or better 2 m (6.6 ft.).
Many passionate Koi lovers are now using
special heaters for their ponds. The water
temperature is maintained at 20C (68F)
year-round. In such cases, the fish stay
active throughout the year and must be
fed. Hibernation then of course is inapplicable to the fish. There is no harm for the
ornamental fish, Koi are not compelled to
hibernate.
A possible alternative, is to install an airpermeable roof, like a greenhouse, which
covers the pond in winter. Here, the rise in
water temperature will be insufficient to
keep the fish active during the winter.

Especially recommended
for Koi ponds:
vertical slopes as prevention
against raccoons or cats

approx. 25 cm (10 in.)

16

Water the source of life 3


3.1 How to fill the pond with water

Do not fill your pond with water all at


once. Fill only in several stages. Strong
water pressure induces force to the pond
liner and the ground. If the pond is filled
with water in several stages, the liner will
have enough time to adjust and adapt
under moderate pressure. This is because
of the lesser impact of the force. After filling the pond two-thirds of the way, the
water should be conditioned. Please read
the chapter 3.2, How to condition the
pond water before the pond is completely filled.
Two important tips for filling the pond:
1 Control by recording the display of your
water meter before and after the filling.
If possible, avoid any greater water
requirements for the household. In the
space provided, write the water consumption for filling the pond two-thirds:

Pond filled by 2/3:


Final filling:

Addition of both
= complete filling:
The water content of your garden pond is
important for all further maintenance
because the dosage of the various conditioners and water care products depends
on the amount of water.
2 Do not use a strong water jet to fill the
pond. You will destroy much of your
decoration and whirl up the gravel. It is
easiest to direct the water jet into a flat
plastic tub or a bucket. To remove the
container from the pond later, it is best
to have it attached to a cord. Do not use
containers previously used with cleaning
agents or other chemicals.

At last!

17

3 Water the source of life


3.2 How to condition the pond water

18

Due to the increase of environmental pollution, the quality of our tap water is constantly decreasing and is treated with
strong chlorine or disinfectant to destroy
germs that are harmful to humans.
The pH value is usually in the mild alkaline
region (7.5 to 8.5). Other trouble sources
are the high nitrate and phosphate values
that are responsible for the growth of
floating and smear algae. Of course, there
are also many other environmental influ-

ences that affect the


pond water. The sera
guide How to maintain
and cultivate a garden
pond offers tips on
the correct care of
pond water. sera has
developed several effective water
care products so that you can condition
the water according to the requirements
of the fish and plants:

sera KOI PROTECT ensures pond water conditioning according to natural requirements. sera KOI PROTECT contains skin protecting colloids, a vitamin B complex and a
water cleansing additive. Thus, the pond is
provided with healthy water conditions
according to the demands of the fish. It is
indispensable, from the initial filling of the
pond, to every water change and after
heavy rainfalls. Furthermore, it protects
your precious fish against heavy metals,
chlorine and harmful environmental influences.

sera crystal binds water turbidity in the


pond water making it easy to filter-out.
Thus, sera crystal cleanses the pond water.
Bound particles must be removed regularly until the water is filtered. Make sure to
agitate the water well to enhance oxygen
supply. The carbonate hardness must be at
least 5dKH.

Water the source of life 3


sera pondmorena supports the combat
of algae. Its light filtration capabilities shield the spectrum required
by the algae. sera pondmorena also
helps prevent against many fish
diseases and enhances plant
growth.
After the pond has been filled by
approx. 2/3, we recommend adding a single dose of sera KOI
PROTECT and a double dose of
sera pondmorena. Please calculate the required dose according to the water consumption
you wrote down on page 17.
Now put sand onto the upper plant terrace
and completely fill the pond with water.
The water consumption taken now and the
total consumption, is the total content of
your pond. Record this valuable information on page 17.
Again condition the additional water as
described above.
As a support for long-term measures, we
recommend the addition of sera biopeat
granulate. In doing so, sera pondmorena
increases the light filtrating effect.

A 2-kilogram bag of sera biopeat granulate is sufficient for 5,000 liters (1,320 gal.)
of water. If necessary, the dosage can be
increased without harmful effects. The
humic acids in sera biopeat granulate
are released slowly and constantly, for a
long-lasting effect. We recommend
replacing sera biopeat granulate with an
appropriate amount every two months.
Now let your pond settle in for a couple of
days as the liner will still need to adjust
itself at certain spots.
Also, the water pressure settles the gravel
inside the pond and it makes planting
much easier.
Now fix the liner at the edges. Just look at
the sketches in chapter 2.7. There is no
problem in planting marsh plants above
the liner at the pond edge.
Afterwards, install one or several sera
pond filters according to the pond size. We
will provide more information about this in
the next chapter.

19

3 Water the source of life


3.3 Clean water conditions
with sera pond filter systems

Biologically clean water is important for


the living conditions of the animals and
plants in and around the garden pond.

The ecosystem of your pond water is well


looked after by the sera pond filters. They
clean the pond water according to the
principles of nature.

The sera pond filter W 1500

The large filter tub consists of a variety of


filter media that is included with the set
(filter sponge, sera biofibres and sera
biopur). It provides plenty of settling space
for the bacteria that break-down waste
products. Because of this the pond water
is mechanically and biologically cleaned.

One sera pond filter W 1500 is sufficient for


garden ponds up to 10,000 liters (2,650 gal.)
or more, if the water is very clean. For
larger ponds, we recommend installing
several sera pond filters.

Cross sectional drawing


of the filter tub

sera
biofibres

sera
filter sponge

sera
biopur

The sera pond filter W 1500 is provided


with a T-piece that allows you to adjust the
water outlet as desired. You may choose
from the beautiful fountain spray, which
reaches 1.60 meters (63 in.) high! or select

20

the combination fountain an below-surface water outlet. Due to its high power,
the sera pond filter W 1500 is ideal for
attaching to a waterfall or a spout.

Water the source of life 3


Fountain and water outlet
when using the sera water height regulator

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The motors of the sera pond filters are


maintenance free and very economical. The
sera pond filters do an unobtrusively good

job throughout the year. Of course, they


meet the strict VDE regulations and are
tested by the TV and the ULC.

The sera Bio Pond Filters

The sera Bio Pond Filter is available in


three different sizes holding 25, 35 and
50 liters (6.6, 9.2 and 13.2 gal.). They are
suitable for ponds up to 5,000, 8,000, or
10,000 liters (1,320, 2,110 or 2,650 gal.),
respectively.
It is installed in a suitable place near the
pond and run with a separate pump. Its
large filter volume is filled with plastic filter material to allow the beneficial bacteria to settle.

21

3 Water the source of life


filter mat
honeycomb
structured
plastic
material

sera
siporax
pond

water
outlet

water
inlet

sludge
removal
valve

The sera 3 chamber biofilter

The sera 3 chamber biofilter is recommended for very large ponds and Koi
ponds. It has a 220 l (55 gal.) capacity. This
pond filter is also installed beside the
pond.
Before starting the filter, activate the filter
media biologically with sera KOI BIOCLEAR,
according to the instructions for use.
We recommend sera siporax pond for
optimal biological filter performance.

Tip:

When cleaning the filter, you


also remove useful bacteria.
After each cleaning, reactivate the filter medium biologically with sera KOI BIOCLEAR to continue the breakdown of waste products in
the pond.

We re
comm
end se
pond
ra sipo
for th
e sera
rax
W 150
pond
0, the
filt
sera B
ters, s
io Pon er
era Pr
dF
essure
and se
Filters ilra Pre
T
ssure
UV Sys
Filt
tem fo
r optim ers T +
ical fil
ter pe
al biolo
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gance.

22

Water the source of life 3


The sera Pressure Filters T and sera Pressure Filters T + UV System

These biomechanical double-chambered


pressure filters have especially high filter
volumes of 11, 25, 40 or 50 liters (2.9, 6.6,
10.5, 13.2 gal.). They are suitable for ponds
up to 12,000 liters (3,170 gal.). They can easily be buried in the ground and be hidden. Nevertheless, filter maintenance and
cleaning are very easy.

The sera Pressure Filters consist of heavyduty ABS-plastic and are also ideal for
operating a waterfall and the required
water pressures. They are equipped with
connectors for all common hose diameters.
The new sera Pressure Filters T have been
designed for the biomechanical filtration
of all ponds. The sera Pressure Filters T +
UV System provide long-term clean water
by a high efficient UV System. You can
increase capabilities with a full electronic
CEFT control unit.
Norms: TV GS IPX6 CE

The sera UVC Pond Clarifiers

Installation of a UVC Pond Clarifier is recommended for preventing and combating


water cloudiness and parasites. The sera
UVC Pond Clarifier operates without any
chemicals and is easy to service.
The appropriate order of pump, filter and
UV-C Clarifier depends on the application
range:
The filter is installed behind the UV-C Clarifier in the water circuit for removing floating algae. By doing so, the bound algae are
immediately collected by the filter and are
easy to remove by cleaning the filter.

avoids parasites passing the clarifier in the


shadow of particles. For this purpose the
filter should be located before the sera
UVC Pond Clarifier in the water circuit. The
location of the pump is less important, just
make sure the pump cannot be clogged by
particles if it is installed before the filter.
Depending on construction and light performance the UV-C Clarifiers are suitable
for different flow rates. The range of UV-C
Clarifiers with different wattages makes it
easy for you to choose the correct performance for every pond.

If the sera UVC Pond Clarifier is installed


for disinfection or support of a disease
treatment it is important to remove
cloudiness before passing the clarifier. This

23

3 Water the source of life


Type
sera Pond UVC 8 (8 W)
sera Pond UVC 16 (16 W)

Pond size

Pump performance

48m /

5 10 yd

8 16 m /

10 21 yd

max. 1,100 l/h

(290 gal./h)

max. 2,000 l/h

(528 gal./h)

max. 3,300 l/h

(870 gal./h)

sera Pond UVC 25 (25 W)

12.5 25 m / 16 32.5 yd

sera Pond UVC 30 (30 W)

15 30 m / 19.6 39 yd

max. 4,000 l/h (1,056 gal./h)

max. 7,300 l/h (1,928 gal./h)

sera Pond UVC 55 (55 W)

27.5 55 m /

Using a lower setting than the maximum


pump performance is not a problem, as
the longer time the water is exposed to

36 72 yd

the UV light, the efficiency of the clarifier


is increased.

The sera UV Systems

The new sera UV Systems guarantee


long-term clean pond water. They are
absolutely weatherproof (no transformer included) and can be buried in
the ground, and out of sight, to maintain
the natural beauty of your pond.

Both models tolerate pressure up to 0.4 bar (e.g., 4 m /


13 ft. waterfall height). This
allows you to use the outletwater for additional filters,
spouts, fountains, or brooks.
Norms: TV GS IPX6 CE

The sera fountain and pond filter pumps

The robust, quiet and long life sera pumps


are suitable for operating the sera Bio
Pond Filter and the sera 3 chamber biofilter. You can choose from the following
types, depending on the pond size and the
required flow rate:
sera SB 2500 for larger ponds, brooks
and waterfalls

sera SP 1500 for smaller biotopes and garden ponds up to 10,000 l (2,650 gal.)

24

sera SF 6000 / SF 9000 for large ponds


and fish with high requirements

Water the source of life 3


Type

sera SP 1500

sera SB 2500

sera SF 6000

sera SF 9000

20 W
230 V/ 50 Hz

35 W
230 V/ 50 Hz

90 W
230 V/ 50 Hz

125 W
230 V/50 Hz

1/2

Power
consumption,
Supply
voltage
Threaded
connection
Vertical rise:
meters/feet
Maximum flow
rate:
liters/hour
gal./hour

H m/ft.

l/h gal./h

H m/ft.

l/h gal./h

H m/ft.

l/h gal./h

H m/ft.

l/h gal./h

0/0

1,350/356

0/0

2,820/745

0/0

5,880/1,553

0/0

8,820/2,330

0.4/1.3

1,125/297

0.5/1.6

2,300/607

0.5/1.6

4,900/1,294

0.5/1.6

7,800/2,060

0.8/2.6

875/231

1.0/3.2

1,800/475

1.0/3.2

3,900/1,030

1.0/3.2

6,600/1,743

1.2/4

600/158

1.5/4.9

1,350/356

1.5/4.9

2,800/739

1.5/4.9

5,600/1,479

1.6/5

250/66

2.0/6.5

900/237

2.0/6.5

1,850/488

2.0/6.5

4,400/1,162

2.5/8

550/145

2.5/8

1,200/317

2.5/8

3,400/898

2.9/9

0/0

3.0/9.8

2,100/554

4.0/13

0/0

1.85/6

0/0

3.2/10.5

0/0

The sera fountain nozzles

You can choose from several


fountain nozzles for the sera
fountain and pond filter pumps.
You can make your choice from
different atmospheric water
displays. The following types
are available:

sera foaming bubble jet

sera calyx jet

sera volcano jet

sera bell water jet

sera star jet

25

4 Planting
Plants play a very important role in a well
functioning pond. Besides decorative
aspects they provide oxygen, hideouts and
spawning places for the fish. Furthermore,
they serve as nutrient competitors to the
annoying algae. The large number of plant
species allows a great variety of possible
designs. We differentiate between submerged plants, floating leaf plants, floating
plants (their roots are not fixed in the
ground), plants for the swamp zone and
plants for the marsh zone.

26

Some species and their category are


shown on the following pages.
Specialized retailers keep many more
species in stock and provide you with qualified assistance for the right choice.
Please do not remove any plants from
nature! This is forbidden by law in many
cases, even if the growth place does not
appear to be private property!

Planting 4
4.1 Submerged plants

These plants are important for the biological equilibrium in the pond. They provide the water with oxygen and break
down pollutants.
Rapid growing plants, especially hornwort
and waterweed are direct nutrient competitors to algae and are therefore, highly
recommended.

waterweed
Elodea sp.
takes roots quickly and enriches the
water with oxygen. Suitable for the first
planting.
water depth: up to 100 cm (40 in.)
growth height: exceeding 100 cm
(40 in.)
water crowfoot / buttercup
(Ranunculus circinatus)
water depth: up to 30 cm (12 in.)
growth height: approx. 100 cm (40 in.)

hornwort
(Ceratophyllum demersum)
floats mostly in nutrient-rich,
calm water
water depth: up to 150 cm (59 in.)
growth height: approx. 50 cm (20 in.)

bladderwort
(Utricularia vulgaris)
water depth: up to 50 cm (20 in.)
growth height: up to 50 cm (20 in.)

27

4 Planting
4.2 Plants for swamp zones,
shallow water and bank zones

The bank zones are the optical border of


your pond and provide valuable living
space for many animals. If you properly
compile the plants in these zones, you will
enjoy a blooming splendor from spring to
autumn. Arrange the plants so that the
tallest species are at the back (seen from
the main view). In that way your garden
pond will be gorgeously attractive.

flowering rush
(Butomus umbellatus)
flowering time: June August
water depth: up to 30 cm (12 in.)
growth height: 80 to 100 cm
(32 in. 40 in.)

geum / avens
(Geum rivale)
flowering time: May June
growth height: 30 cm (12 in.)

bog bean
(Menyanthes trifoliata)
to be planted at sunny spots!
flowering time: May June
height: up to 30 cm (12 in.)

28

Planting 4

marsh marigold (Caltha palustris)


mostly floating in nutrient-rich,
calm waters
flowering time: April June
growth height: approx. 30 to 40 cm
(12 16 in.)

iris Iris sp.


in nature this plant is protected!
flowering time: May July
height: approx. 60 to 80 cm
(24 32 in.)

bog arum (Calla palustris)


rhizomes without roots can also be let
floating free in the water.
flowering time: May July
growth height: up to 30 cm (12 in.)

swamp loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)


form bushes!
flowering time: July September
water depth: up to 20 cm (8 in.)
growth height: up to 150 cm (59 in.)
Caution: In some countries swamp loosestrife (a.k.a. purple loosestrife) is considered a noxious weed and may not be
kept.

water plantain Alisma sp.


flowering time: June August
height: approx. 60 to 80 cm (24 32 in.)

29

4 Planting
4.3 Floating leaf plants

The best known and most popular floating


leaf plants are water lilies. Make sure they
do not cover the light area needed by the
submerged plants. We recommend restricting the floating leaf plants to a certain area of the pond. If the plants outgrow the restricted area, reduce the leaves
moderately.
Water lilies are among the most beautiful
pond plants. Choose water lilies whose
size fits with your pond size, because there
are many varieties suited only to large
ponds.
Remove rotting spots from the roots before planting. Your specialized retailer will
give you more tips for planting, hibernation and care.

30

Planting 4
4.4 Plants for the Koi pond

Delicate and fragile plants are often eaten


by large Koi within a short time; therefore,
only robust species should be chosen.
Large water lilies have proven best.
As a swamp zone is problematic in the Koi
pond (see chapter 2.11 How to set up a Koi
pond), many pond owners have chosen
another solution:

Beside the main pond is placed a canal,


which is not accessible to the Koi. This
canal is planted with swamp plants into
which the pond water is directed by a
pump. This plant filter replaces the
breakdown of nitrate by the submerged
plants and the swamp zone; however, it
does not replace the biological activity of
the pond filter.

31

4 Planting
4.5 How to plant correctly

The best time for planting is from spring to


summer (April to August). During this period, the plants rapidly take root because of
the higher water temperature. Your retailer can also offer you the largest choice
during this time.
Submerged and floating leaf plants are
best grown in plant baskets, which can be
easily moved (e.g., by means of a long
stick), even after they have been placed in
one location for a long time.
These baskets should be first lined with
fabric; then filled with coarse sand or gravel. Afterwards, plants such as hornwort or
waterweed are placed inside.
To support healthy and rapid plant growth,
insert up to 4 tablets of sera florenette T
(according to the plant and basket size)
close to the roots. Then put the planted
baskets into the garden pond at your
desired location.
sera florenette T contains only minerals
and trace elements. It combines with the
existing nutrients, nitrate and phosphate,
which are always present in the pond, to
optimally nourish the plants.
Thus, sera florenette T ensures splendid
plant growth, and helps relieve the water
by preventing an overload of nutrient supply for the algae.
Swamp plants are planted directly into the
gravel of the plant terrace.

32

Planting 4
Support the growth of your plants with
sera florenette T. When the planting is
complete, allow three weeks for your pond
to rest. By then the plants have settled-in
and you may carefully start introducing
fish to the pond.
sera pond florena and sera florenette T are
an ideal fertilizer combination for all
aquatic plants. Fertilizer tablets sera florenette T strengthen the roots of plants.
sera pond florena ensures lush green,
splendid leaves.

4.6 Stable water conditions


with sera GH-KH plus

To stabilize the water conditions, a total


hardness (GH) of 6 16dH and a carbonate
hardness (KH) of 5 10dH is very important. With KH values below 5dKH, drastic
changes of the pH value can occur. With
the heavy growth of algae during summer,
and acid rainfalls (in some rural areas, rainwater can have a pH value of 3.5!) the level
of carbonate hardness can drop rapidly.
We recommend checking the water hardness regularly with the sera gH-Test and
the sera kH-Test. If necessary, increase it
with sera GH-KH plus to at least 6dGH and
5dKH.

You will find more information about


water maintenance in the sera guide How
to maintain and cultivate a garden pond.

33

5 The fish for your garden pond

34

Only fish can provide a pond with the right


atmosphere, life and constant motion.
Goldfish or the splendid Koi, are examples
of beautiful fish for the garden pond. In
specialty retailers or garden centers, you
will find a great selection of fish, as well as
the correct advice for the best possible
stocking of your garden pond.

Use sera KOI BIOCLEAR according to directions. Check the nitrite level of the water
with the sera nitrite-Test after a day or
two. As soon as the nitrite level is below
0.1 mg/l (ppm), you may introduce the fish.
Bear in mind that your fish usually will
grow considerably and may multiply quickly!

We recommend that you start with just a


few fish (2 4 fish); and then increase the
number a few at a time over the next several weeks until your pond is stocked the
way you wish. By doing this, you give your
pond time to cultivate enough nitrifying
bacteria to break down the waste products from the fish. This waiting period can
be shortened considerably with sera KOI
BIOCLEAR:

If you build your pond in autumn, wait


until spring before introducing fish so
your pond and fish will not be burdened
during the first winter season.
You will find detailed information on how
to care for and feed Koi and other pond
fish in our guide How to maintain and cultivate a garden pond.

Buyers checklist 6
a. Tools and utensils
spade
shovel
pointed hoe
cord for measuring
leveling aid:
transparent hose as
spirit-level or
long, straight board and
spirit-level
plastic bucket
brush and roller for gluing the liner
pieces (liner ponds only)
b. Pond construction material
Basic material:
finished pond or
pond liner and glue
liner protection fabric
slope mats
c. Bottom gravel and boundary
if desired, stones for the banks
fine sand for the pit
(below the liner)
bottom material: gravel or
pebbles (ideal
with big fish such
as Koi)
d. Plant substrate
gravel or coarse sand
e. Care and water conditioning
sera KOI PROTECT, sera KOI BIOCLEAR,
sera crystal
sera biopeat granulate, sera pondmorena, sera algenstop*
sera pH-Test, sera gH-Test,
sera kH-Test, sera nitrite-Test
sera KOI AQUA-TEST BOX
sera pH-plus, sera pH-minus,
sera GH-KH plus

f. Fish food
Food for goldfish
sera goldy, sera goldy Royal,
sera goldy Color
sera food for Koi
sera KOI ROYAL STAPLE DIET,
sera KOI COLOR, sera KOI SPIRULINA,
sera KOI JUNIOR
Food for different species
sera bioflakes, sera biogranulat,
sera mix royal, sera Sturgeon Granules
g. Vitamins
sera KOI MULTIVITAMIN
sera activant
h. Equipment
Filters and Pond Clarifiers
sera pond filter W 1500
sera Bio Pond Filters
sera 3 chamber biofilter
sera Pressure Filters T
sera Pressure Filters T + UV System
sera UVC Pond Clarifiers
sera UV Systems
Pumps
sera fountain pump SP 1500
sera fountain pump SB 2500
sera pond filter pump SF 6000 / SF 9000
i. Plants
submerged plants
floating leaf plants
floating plants
swamp plants
plants for the bank zone
j. Plant fertilizer
sera florenette T
sera pond florena
k. Other / Accessories
sera fish net
sera fountain nozzles
for the pond pump
l. Fish
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________

*Use biocides safely. Always read the label and product information before use.

35