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133

vibrometers for structural monitoring

T. Miyashita

Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata, Japan

H. Ishii

Yokogawa Bridge Corp., Funabashi, Chiba, Japan

K. Kubota

Keisoku Research Consultant CO., Hiroshima, Hiroshima, Japan

Y. Fujino

University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

ABSTRACT: This paper introduces three studies of advanced vibration measurement system for

bridges using laser Doppler vibrometers (LDV), which makes possible to conduct high accurate,

non-contact and long distance measurement. 1) At a railway steel box girder bridge, damage

was observed on the web of a girder at the bottom end of a welded vertical stiffener. The objective of this study is to clarify the cause of the damage using conventional sensors and LDVs. 2)

In order to measure three-dimensional behavior of an object high accurately as well as spatial

densely, vibration measurement system using three scanning type LDVs was developed. 3)

When a LDV is far away from measured points, it is especially difficult to confirm the location

of the laser point on a structural surface. Therefore, a non-contact measurement system combining LDV with Total Station for long distance measurements, which also has the ability of high

accurate positioning, was developed.

1 INTRODUCTION

In Japan, continuous investments in infrastructures have formed a huge stock. However, since

the infrastructures were constructed rapidly and emphatically in high economic growth period,

the number of the degraded ones comes to increase rapidly. Therefore, the development of

quantitative and efficient maintenance techniques is strongly required.

Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) is an optical instrument employing laser technology to

measure velocity. The characteristics of LDV are the followings: first, in comparison with conventional transducers such as accelerometers, non-contact and long distance measurement is

possible without adding mass or stiffness to an object. Second, resolution of velocity is very

high, and frequency bandwidth is very wide. Third, by attaching a scanning unit of mirror in

front of the laser sensor head, measurement on multiple points is made possible.

This paper introduces three studies of advanced vibration measurement system using LDVs in

order to monitor bridges.

2 UNDERSTANDING OF HIGH-SPEED TRAIN INDUCED LOCAL VIBRATION OF A

RAILWAY STEEL BRIDGE (Miyashita et al. 2007)

2.1 Bridge for measurement

The investigated bridge is a pair of steel mono-box girders with 4 spans as shown in Figures 1. The

stiffeners were not welded to the lower flange in the sections where positive moment affects the

girder. In bridges which have similar detail, damage was observed on the web of the girder at the

bottom end of a welded vertical stiffener. The parts of the bridge of similar detail were retrofitted

such as in Figure 1(b) using a T-shape member installed between the web and the lower flange using high tension bolts.

134

EVACES07

4@40 000

M

Web

2600

Lower Flange

2000

E D E C E D E C E D E C E D

@1600

600

600

2000

2000

Center of span

Crack

not welded

Section C

(Section of Diaphragms)

Section D

(Transverse

Rib

Lower Chord

Member)

Section E

(Transverse

Rib

Vertical

Stiffener)

Damage

Figure 1. Focused bridge for measurement

Retrofitting

1000

AX2L

2000

1000

600

800 800

Vertical Stiffener

AX3C

S01R

1000 1000

2000

:: X:

Strain

Gauge

gage

(Displacement

Sensor)

:: Accelerometer

Accelerometers and strain gauges were installed in the bridge for measurement of train induced

vibration. Since it is suspected that the cause of high local stresses was local vibration of the

web or lower flange of the girder, accelerometers were installed on both the web and the lower

flange of the girder. The strain gauges were installed on the main girder web 20mm away from

the toe of welding. Furthermore, the strain gauges were installed on the lower flange on the

main girder as shown in Figure 2.

2.3 Measurement results

Figures 3 show examples of measurement. Figure 3(a) shows that there is one large waveform

caused by trains passing on the bridge and there are 17 cycles corresponding to each vehicle

passing the cross section. It is shown that the dominant frequency is 3.0 Hz. This phenomenon

is known as speed effect by cyclic loading (Matsuura 1976) which depends on the interval

that bogies or train vehicles pass at constant speed. Figure 3(b) shows the presence of high frequency local vibration, and the frequencies of these vibrations are 20Hz-30Hz.

2.4 The relation between vibration and train speed

Figure 4 shows the relation between the dominant frequency of acceleration of the girder and

train speed of 39 trains. This figure shows that the dominant frequency of vibration of the girder

depends on the train speed and it agrees with speed effect by cyclic loading. Figure 5 shows

the relation between the dominant frequency of acceleration of the lower flange and train speed.

This figure shows that the dominant frequency depends on train speed, similar to the vibration

of the girder and that the frequency is an integer multiple of the frequency of the girder.

135

0

-10

-20

10

15

Time [s]

20

1

3.00Hz

3.00 Hz

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Frequency [Hz]

60

40

20

0

-20

-40

-60

0

10

15

Time [s]

20

Acceleration [m/s2]

10

Stress [MPa]

Stress [MPa]

20

Acceleration [m/s2]

6

5 3.00Hz

32.80Hz

4

3

2

1

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Frequency [Hz]

(b) Acceleration response of lower flange

Figure 3. The results of measurement by conventional sensors

Frequency [Hz]

3.2

Measurement

fb=V/90

3

2.8

2.6

2.4

230

240

250

260

270

280

Figure 4. Relation between train speed and dominant frequencies of girder

1st Peak

2nd Peak

3rd Peak

300

280

260

240

220

10

11

12

13

200

25

30

35

Frequency [Hz]

40

Acceleration [m/s ]

Figure 5. Relation between train speed and dominant frequencies of lower flange

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0

Lower flange

Web

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

Stress [MPa]

Figure 6. Correlation between stress and acceleration

Figure 6 shows the relation between local vibration and local stresses. This figure shows that

there is a strong correlation between local stresses and the lower flange vibration Thus, it was

confirmed that the cause of high local stresses is local vibration of the lower flange. The vibration-mode inducing local stresses can be seen in Figure 7 based on the investigation of the phase

between measurements.

2.6 The relation between local vibration and local stresses

Figure 8 shows the relation between the Fourier spectral amplitude and the frequency of the

lower flange vibration. This figure shows that there are 2 peaks of different frequencies. A peak

136

EVACES07

occurs at 28.65Hz and another one is at 32.80Hz. These 2 peaks identify the natural frequencies

of local vibration. Figure 9 shows the relation between the Fourier spectral amplitude of the

lower flange vibration and the train speed in each mode. It is shown that each mode has each

peak at a certain speed and that the frequency at each peak is an integer multiple of the frequency of the girder. Thus, it was confirmed that the vibration is larger when the natural frequency of local vibration is an integer multiple of the frequency of the girder induced by cyclic

loading.

2.7 Measurement using LDVs

The measurement system consists of three scanning type LDVs at three sections and one single

point type LDV as shown in Figure 10. The single point type LDV always measures a reference

point and is used to calculate the phase between measurement points for the identification of

mode shapes. Using LDV, measurements of ambient vibration was conducted. During ambient

vibration measurement, measurements were conducted before and after retrofitting the bottom

part of the vertical stiffeners as shown in Figure 1(b). The objective of the measurement is to

identify natural frequencies and mode shapes at the sections before and after retrofitting.

10.0MPa

--9.3MPa

9. 3N/ mm 10.

0N/ m

m

5.4MPa

5.

4N/ m

m

0.0.12mm

12m

m

0.23mm

0.

23m

m

--6.2MPa

6. 2N/ m

m

0.40mm

0. 40m

m

0.11mm

0. 11m

m

0.08mm

0.

08m

m

0.66mm

0.

66m

m

32.80Hz

28.65Hz

Acceleration [m/s ]

6

4

1st Peak

2nd Peak

3rd Peak

2

0

25

30

35

40

Frequency [Hz]

28.65Hz

32.80Hz

Acceleration [m/s ]

8

6

4

32.80/(268.4/90)=11

28.65/(258.0/90)=10

32.80/(246.2/90)=12

2

0

220

230

240

250

260

270

280

137

Osaka

L13-14

L11-12

L9-10

Tokyo

SLDV1

SLDV2

RLDV

SLDV3

Vertical

Lateral

Longitudinal

(d) After retrofitting (33.35 Hz)

Figure 11. Identified modes shape from ambient vibration data using LDV

Figures 11 show identified mode shapes based on the ambient vibration measurement using

peak-picking method. Figures 11(a), (c) and (b), (d) show the mode shapes before and after attaching the stiffener for retrofitting respectively. Notice that although natural frequencies of

both modes of Figures 11(a), (b) are the same 29.35 Hz, the mode shapes are greatly different.

In Figures 11(c), (d), the natural frequency after retrofitting increases a little.

138

EVACES07

USING LDVS (Miyashita 2005)

3.1 Introduction

The objective of this study is to develop vibration measurement system using three LDVs,

which makes possible to measure three-dimensional behavior of an object high accurately as

well as spatial densely. Since developed system can clarify the three-dimensional local deformation of structures caused by train/traffic-induced vibration, it can contribute to the preventive

maintenance and the improvement of functionality in existing infrastructures.

3.2 Problem in one-dimensional vibration measurement using a LDV

When only one LDV is utilized and the laser beam is perpendicular to the measurement surface,

the velocity component perpendicular to the surface can be measured with very high accuracy.

However, if the laser beam is not perpendicular to the surface, the accuracy of the velocity decreases depending on the laser beam angle.

In order to investigate this problem, a simple experiment was conducted. Figures 12 show the

experimental set up. First, a steel plate with an attached accelerometer was hit by a hammer.

Then, a LDV measured the velocity of the plate from the direction making an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the normal axis.

Figure 13 shows the comparison. The solid blue line is the velocity computed from the acceleration and the thin red dot line is the velocity from the LDV. Comparing these two velocities,

their amplitudes are different, because the laser beam angle is not perpendicular to the surface.

In order to obtain the vibration component perpendicular to the surface, compensation on laser

beam angle is necessary based on Vm = V cos . Where Vm is the velocity perpendicular to the

surface, V is the velocity measured by the LDV and is the laser beam angle of the LDV.

The green thick dot line in Figure 13 is the velocity compensated by the equation. Comparing

the solid and thick dotted lines, their amplitudes agree well. Therefore, when only one LDV is

used, it is necessary to install the LDV perpendicular to the surface to conduct accurate measurements. However, on field measurement using LDV, it is difficult to satisfy such a condition.

3.3 Three-dimensional measurement principle using LDVs

The principle of three-dimensional measurement involves a geometrical transformation of coordinates as shown in Figure 14. Three-dimensional vibration components of the body are determined from measurements of the three LDVs by pre-multiplying by a transformation matrix

consisting of the direction cosines of the laser beam angles.

Vx cos 1

Vy = cos 2

V cos

3

z

cos 1

cos 2

cos 3

cos 1

cos 2

cos 3

V1

V2

V3

(1)

where Vx ,Vy ,Vz are vibration components of the body in each axes, V1 ,V2 ,V3 are vibration

components measured by each LDV and i , i , i ( i = 1, 2,3) are the laser beam angles of each

LDV.

Accelerometer

300 [mm]

Measurement

points

Steel plate

385 [mm]

45

LDV

LDV

(b) Top view

Figure 12. Configurations of a LDV in one-dimensional vibration measurement

Accelerometer

LDV: 45 degrees

LDV: angle compensation

120

Velocity [mm/sec]

139

60

0

-60

-120

8

8.1

8.2

8.3

Time [s]

8.4

Z

Vz

Vy

V1

V2

Vx

V3

LDV1

LDV3

X

LDV2

As fundamental study, three multiple points type LDVs having a scanning system (SLDV) are

set at parallel to a measurement surface. The surface was vertically irradiated with each LDV

when input voltages are 0 V. Therefore, laser beam angles for the measurement points are directly obtained from mirror angles.

The developed system was applied to three-dimensional vibration measurement for a steel

railway bridge. A tri-axial accelerometer was attached on the surface of the main girder for the

purpose of validation. Figure 15 shows the setting of the SLDVs and the measurement axes of

the accelerometer. Each SLDV was set parallel to the main girder and ground. Figures 16 show

the comparison in each axis concerning time histories. These are free vibration components after

a train passes thorough the railway bridge. Since both measurements agree well in each axis, the

system can be applied to on-site measurement.

3.5 Three-dimensional vibration measurement system using SLDVs

The three-dimensional vibration scanning measurement system shown in Figure 17, which is

not necessary to take care of setting of the SLDVs, is investigated for the application to on-site

measurement.

When the SLDVs are arbitrary set, it is impossible to directly obtain laser beam angles from

angles of mirrors necessary. Therefore, it is necessary to identify positions and rotations of the

SLDVs in absolute world coordinates, and then obtain the laser beam angles from the vectors

connecting measurement points with SLDVs.

Laboratory experiment was conducted in order to verify the validation of three-dimensional

vibration measurement employing this system. Three SLDVs were placed arbitrary as shown in

Figure 17 in this experiment. The arbitrary means that it is not necessary for the SLDVs to be

set parallel to the measurement surface and ground. The tri-axial accelerometer was made to be

vibrated by blowing of electric fans as shown in Figure 17. In order to compare the measure-

140

EVACES07

ment by the accelerometer with the measurement by the SLDVs, the acceleration measured by

the accelerometer was integrated numerically, and the comparison was conducted with the velocity.

Figures 18 show the comparison of measurements. Since both results agree well in each

measurement axis, the validation of the measurement was verified. Therefore, we can conclude

that it is necessary to identify the positions and rotations of each SLDV, and obtain the direction

cosines along the direction irradiated with laser in order to conduct accurate three-dimensional

vibration measurement using SLDVs.

Lateral

Axis1 Axis2

Longitudinal

SLDV2

Axis3

SLDV1

RLDV

Vertical

SLDV3

ACC1

LDVy

1

0

-1

-2

10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5

Time [s]

ACC2

LDVx

2

0

-2

-4

10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5

Time [s]

(b) Horizontal Out of-Plane

Figure 16. Verification of three-dimensional vibration measurement

Calibration Board

Acceleration [m/s2]

Acceleration [m/s2]

Acceleration [m/s2]

4

ACC3

LDVz

2

0

-2

-4

10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5

Time [s]

Tri-axial accelerometer

SLDV1

SLDV2

SLDV3

0.044

ACC1

LDVy

0.02

0

-0.02

-0.04

Time [s]

Velocity [m/s]

Velocity [m/s]

0.04

ACC2

LDVx

0.022

00

-0.022

-0.044

0

10

15

Time [s]

20

Velocity [m/s]

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

-0.01

-0.02

-0.03

ACC3

LDVz

2 3

4

Time [s]

(b) Horizontal Out of-Plane

(c) Vertical In-plane

Figure 18. Verification of three-dimensional vibration measurement

141

COMBING LASER DOPPLER VIBROMETER AND TOTAL STATION (Kubota et al. 2007)

4.1 Introduction

In this Research, a non-contact measurement system which combines a LDV and a total station

(TS) was developed. This system is capable of measuring a lot of cable members for long-span

cable supported bridge applications, since it is especially suited for remote non-contact vibration

measurements.

4.2 Measurement at Tatara Bridge

The measurement was conducted by measuring the ambient vibration of the cables using conventional accelerometers and LDV simultaneously. Typical cable vibration frequency plots obtained from the LDV and the accelerometer data are shown in Figure 19.

At first, there was some concern that it will be difficult to determine the natural frequency of

the cables due to the influence of sag and the contamination of the recorded data with many

low-frequency vibrations. However, we were able to get good results, verifying the effectiveness of the LDV in identifying the natural frequency of cable elements.

4.3 Combined LDV with TS system

1500

1000

500

0

0

5

frequency [Hz]

10

When the measurement points are located far from the LDV, it is difficult to confirm the irradiation of the LDVs laser point during on-site measurements. To improve this situation, the measurement system with the LDV attached to a TS, having a highly accurate, remote measurement

position identification ability, was developed. The TS posses 1 mm accuracy for 100m distance,

making it possible to determine the exact position of any point (Fig. 20).

The measurement consists of the following steps: 1) The reflection tapes are attached at the

measurement points, 2) The orientation of the system is adjusted so that the reflection level of

the LDV reaches maximum level, 3) The measurement time is set, 4) Each measurement point is

identified with the TS and positional information is stored, 5) When the TS automatically aims

at a measurement point using the stored position information, the data acquisition program detects a signal and automatically records vibration from the LDV, 6) Once the vibration measurement using LDV finishes, the TS automatically moves to the next measurement point. Once

the coordinates of the points are identified, this system can repeat the measurements automatically.

At Kohei bridge in Hiroshima city, automatically repeated vibration measurement of hanger

ropes was conducted. The measurement of a hanger rope from a distance of about 80m using

LDV is shown in Figure 21(a). Moreover, the result of this hanger rope using an accelerometer

is shown in Figure 21(b). It is can be seen that the frequency peaks obtained from both sensors

are in good agreement. Also, we are confirming that there is no change in the first and second

natural frequencies for repeated measurements.

40

30

20

10

0

0

(a) Configuration

(b) Accelerometer

(c) LDV

Figure 19. Comparison of frequency plots from a Tatara Bridge Cable

5

frequency [Hz]

10

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EVACES07

LDV Sampling rate 1000Hz

LDV Measurement time 30 seconds

Longest

Distance

About 80m

TS laser

LDV laser

100

LDV

50

0

0

10

20

Frequency [Hz]

30

10000

Accelerometer

5000

0

0

10

20

Frequency [Hz]

30

Figure 21. Measurement using LDV and TS system

5 CONCLUSIONS

This paper introduces three studies of advanced vibration measurement using LDVs for the purpose of structural monitoring: 1) Understanding of high-speed train induced local vibration of a

railway steel bridge. 2) Development of three-dimensional vibration measurement system using

LDVs. 3) Development of remote non-contact measurement system by combing LDV with total

station.

REFERENCES

Miyashita et al. 2007a Understanding of high-speed-train-induced local vibration of a railway steel bridge

using laser measurement and its effect by train speed, Journal of structural mechanics and earthquake

engineering JSCE, Vol.63, No.2, pp.277-296. (in Japanese)

Matsuura 1976: A study of dynamic behavior of bridge girder for high speed railway, Proceedings of the

Japan Society of Civil Engineers, No.256, pp.35-47. (in Japanese)

Miyashita 2005: Advanced Measurement System using Laser Doppler Vibrometers for Monitoring Civil

Infrastructures, PhD dissertation, University of Tokyo. (in Japanese)

Kubota et al. 2007: Development of a remote non-contact measurement system combining laser Doppler

vibrometer and total station for monitoring of structures, The 3rd international conference on structural

health monitoring of intelligent infrastructure. (in press)

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