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Chapter 4

Wafer Manufacturing
and Epitaxy Growing
Hong Xiao, Ph. D.
hxiao89@hotmail.com
Hong Xiao, Ph. D.

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Objectives

Give two reasons why silicon dominate


List at least two wafer orientations
List the basic steps from sand to wafer
Describe the CZ and FZ methods
Explain the purpose of epitaxial silicon
Describe the epi-silicon deposition process.

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Crystal Structures
Amorphous
No repeated structure at all

Polycrystalline
Some repeated structures

Single crystal
One repeated structure

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Amorphous Structure

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Polycrystalline Structure
Grain
Boundary
Grain

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Single Crystal Structure

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Why Silicon?
Abundant, cheap
Silicon dioxide is very stable, strong
dielectric, and it is easy to grow in thermal
process.
Large band gap, wide operation temperature
range.

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Name

Silicon

Symbal

Si

Atomic number

14

Atomic weight

28.0855

Discoverer

Jns Jacob Berzelius

Discovered at

Sweden

Discovery date

1824

Origin of name

From the Latin word "silicis" meaning "flint"

Bond length in single crystal Si

2.352

Density of solid

2.33 g/cm3

Molar volume

12.06 cm3

Velocity of sound

2200 m/sec

Electrical resistivity

100,000 cm

Reflectivity

28%

Melting point

1414 C

Boiling point

2900 C

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Unit Cell of Single Crystal Silicon


Si
Si
Si
Si
Si

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Crystal Orientations: <100>


z

<100> plane
y

x
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Crystal Orientations: <111>


z

<111> plane

<100> plane

x
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Crystal Orientations: <110>


z

<110> plane
y

x
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<100> Orientation Plane


Basic lattice cell

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Atom

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<111> Orientation Plane


Basic lattice cell

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Silicon atom

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<100> Wafer Etch Pits

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<111> Wafer Etch Pits

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Illustration of the Defects


Impurity on substitutional site

Silicon Atom

Impurity in
Interstitial Site

Silicon
Interstitial

Vacancy or Schottky Defect


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Frenkel Defect

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Dislocation Defects

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From Sand to Wafer

Quartz sand: silicon dioxide


Sand to metallic grade silicon (MGS)
React MGS powder with HCl to form TCS
Purify TCS by vaporization and condensation
React TCS to H2 to form polysilicon (EGS)
Melt EGS and pull single crystal ingot
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From Sand to Wafer (cont.)

Cut end, polish side, and make notch or flat


Saw ingot into wafers
Edge rounding, lap, wet etch, and CMP
Laser scribe

Epitaxy deposition
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From Sand to Silicon


Heat (2000 C)

SiO2
Sand

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C
Carbon

Si
MGS

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CO2
Carbon Dioxide

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Silicon Purification I
Hydrochloride
Si + HCl
TCS

Reactor,
300 C
Silicon
Powder

Condenser
Filters

Purifier
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Pure TCS with


99.9999999%
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Polysilicon Deposition, EGS


Heat (1100 C)
SiHCl3
TCS

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H2
Hydrogen

Si

EGS

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3HCl
Hydrochloride

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Silicon Purification II
H2

Process
Chamber

EGS

H2 and TCS
Liquid
TCS

TCS+H2EGS+HCl

Carrier gas
bubbles
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Electronic Grade Silicon

Source: http://www.fullman.com/semiconductors/_polysilicon.html
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Crystal Pulling: CZ method


Single Crystal Silicon Seed
Quartz Crucible

Single Crystal
silicon Ingot

Molten Silicon
1415 C

Heating Coils

Graphite Crucible
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CZ Crystal Pullers

Mitsubish Materials Silicon


Source: http://www.fullman.com/semiconductors/_crystalgrowing.html
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CZ Crystal Pulling

Source: http://www.fullman.com/semiconductors/_crystalgrowing.html
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Floating Zone Method


Poly Si
Rod

Heating Coils
Movement

Molten Silicon
Heating
Coils
Single Crystal
Silicon

Seed Crystal
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Comparison of the Two Methods


CZ method is more popular
Cheaper
Larger wafer size (300 mm in production)
Reusable materials

Floating Zone
Pure silicon crystal (no crucible)
More expensive, smaller wafer size (150 mm)
Mainly for power devices.
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Ingot Polishing, Flat, or Notch

Flat, 150 mm and smaller


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Notch, 200 mm and larger

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Wafer Sawing
Coolant

Orientation
Notch

Crystal Ingot
Saw Blade

Ingot
Movement

Diamond Coating
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Parameters of Silicon Wafer

Wafer Size (mm)


50.8 (2 in)
76.2 (3in)
100
125
150
200
300

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Thickness (m)
279
381
525
625
675
725
775

Area (cm 2)
20.26
45.61
78.65
112.72
176.72
314.16
706.21

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Weight (grams)
1.32
4.05
9.67
17.87
27.82
52,98
127.62

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Wafer Edge Rounding


Wafer

Wafer movement

Wafer Before Edge Rounding

Wafer After Edge Rounding


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Wafer Lapping

Rough polished
conventional, abrasive, slurry-lapping
To remove majority of surface damage
To create a flat surface

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Wet Etch
Remove defects from wafer surface
4:1:3 mixture of HNO3 (79 wt% in H2O),
HF (49 wt% in H2O), and pure CH3COOH.
Chemical reaction:
3 Si + 4 HNO3 + 6 HF 3 H2SiF6 + 4 NO + 8 H2O

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Chemical Mechanical Polishing


Pressure
Slurry
Wafer

Wafer Holder

Polishing Pad
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200 mm Wafer Thickness and


Surface Roughness Changes
76 m

After Wafer Sawing

914 m
76 m
914 m

After Edge Rounding

After Etch

12.5 m
814 m
<2.5 m
750 m

After CMP

Virtually Defect Free


725 m

After Lapping

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Epitaxy Grow
Definition
Purposes
Epitaxy Reactors
Epitaxy Process

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Epitaxy: Definition
Greek origin
epi: upon
taxy: orderly, arranged
Epitaxial layer is a single crystal layer on a
single crystal substrate.
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Epitaxy: Purpose
Barrier layer for bipolar transistor
Reduce collector resistance while keep high
breakdown voltage.
Only available with epitaxy layer.

Improve device performance for CMOS and


DRAM because much lower oxygen,
carbon concentration than the wafer crystal.
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Epitaxy Application, Bipolar


Transistor
Emitter

p+

n+

Base

Collector

AlCuSi
SiO2

n+

n-Epi

p+

Electron flow
n+ Buried Layer
P-substrate

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Epitaxy Application: CMOS


Metal 1, AlCu
W
STI

BPSG

n+

n+
P-Well

USG

p+

p+
N-Well

P-type Epitaxy Silicon


P-Wafer

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Silicon Source Gases


Silane

SiH4

Dichlorosilane

DCS

SiH2Cl2

Trichlorosilane

TCS

SiHCl3

Tetrachlorosilane

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SiCl4

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Dopant Source Gases


Diborane

B2H6

Phosphine

PH3

Arsine

AsH3

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DCS Epitaxy Grow, Arsenic Doping


Heat (1100 C)

SiH2Cl2

DCS

Si

Epi

2HCl
Hydrochloride

Heat (1100 C)

AsH3
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As

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3/2 H2
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Schematic of DCS Epi Grow and


Arsenic Doping Process
SiH2Cl2

AsH3
H2

HCl
Si

AsH3
As

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Epitaxial Silicon Growth Rate Trends


Temperature (C)

Growth Rate, micron/min

1300 1200 1100 1000


1.0

900

800

700

0.5
0.2

SiH4

Mass transport
limited

0.1

SiHCl3

0.05
0.02

Surface reaction limited


SiH2Cl2

0.01
0.7

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0.8

0.9

1000/T(K)

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1.0

1.1
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Barrel Reactor
Radiation
Heating
Coils

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Wafers

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Vertical Reactor

Wafers
Heating
Coils

Reactants

Reactants and
byproducts
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Horizontal Reactor
Heating Coils
Wafers
Reactants
Reactants and
byproducts

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Epitaxy Process, Batch System

Hydrogen purge, temperature ramp up


HCl clean
Epitaxial layer grow
Hydrogen purge, temperature cool down
Nitrogen purge
Open Chamber, wafer unloading, reloading

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Single Wafer Reactor


Sealed chamber, hydrogen ambient
Capable for multiple chambers on a mainframe
Large wafer size (to 300 mm)
Better uniformity control

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Single Wafer Reactor


Heat
Radiation

Heating Lamps
Wafer

Reactants
Reactants &
byproducts

Susceptor

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Quartz
Lift
Fingers
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Quartz
Window
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Epitaxy Process, Single Wafer


System

Hydrogen purge, clean, temperature ramp up


Epitaxial layer grow
Hydrogen purge, heating power off
Wafer unloading, reloading

In-situ HCl clean,


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Why Hydrogen Purge

Most systems use nitrogen as purge gas


Nitrogen is a very stable abundant
At > 1000 C, N2 can react with silicon
SiN on wafer surface affects epi deposition
H2 is used for epitaxy chamber purge
Clean wafer surface by hydrides formation
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Properties of Hydrogen
Name
Symbol
Atomic number
Atomic weight
Discoverer
Discovered at
Discovery date
Origin of name
Molar volume
Velocity of sound
Refractive index
Melting point
Boiling point
Thermal conductivity
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Hydrogen
H
1
1.00794
Henry Cavendish
England
1766
From the Greek words "hydro" and "genes" meaning
"water" and "generator"
11.42 cm3
1270 m/sec
1.000132
-258.99 C
-252.72 C
0.1805 W m-1 K-1
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Defects in Epitaxy Layer


Stacking Fault from
Surface Nucleation
Dislocation

Stacking Fault form


Substrate Stacking Fault

Impurity Particle
Hillock
Epi Layer
Substrate

After S.M. Zses VLSI Technology


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Future Trends

Larger wafer size


Single wafer epitaxial grow
Low temperature epitaxy
Ultra high vacuum (UHV, to 10-9 Torr)
Selective epitaxy

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Summary
Silicon is abundant, cheap and has strong,
stable and easy grown oxide.
<100> and <111>
CZ and floating zone, CZ is more popular
Sawing, edging, lapping, etching and CMP

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Summary
Epitaxy: single crystal on single crystal
Needed for bipolar and high performance
CMOS, DRAM.
Silane, DCS, TCS as silicon precursors
B2H6 as P-type dopant
PH3 and AsH3 as N-type dopants
Batch and single wafer systems
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