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1. Why do we see different colors?

2. How does the sound travel on various parts of ear?
3. What are perception and perpetual constancy?
4. What is the different between sensation and perception?

Per capita economic

Metro Manila has 'worst traffic on Earth,' longest

commute Waze
Metro Manila (CNN Philippines) Metro Manila, on an urban level, was named
as having the "worst traffic on Earth," based on a global evaluation conducted by
Waze, a GPS-based navigation app.
Scores ranging from 10 (satisfying) to 1 (miserable) were assigned after examining
50 million Waze users in 32 countries and 167 major city areas.
The answers were then evaluated for the Global Driver Satisfaction Index posted on
Waze's website Tuesday (September 29).
The Waze Global Driver Satisfaction Index were based on six key factors:
1. Traffic level by frequency and severity of traffic jams
2. Road quality and infrastructure
3. Driver safety based on accidents, road hazards, and weather
4. Driver services like access to gas stations and easy parking
5. Socio-economic (World Bank) including access to cars and impact of gas
6. Wazeyness, the level of helpfulness and happiness within the Waze
Worst traffic on Earth
According to the survey, Manila, on a city level, ranked number one with the "worst
traffic on Earth" with Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Jakarta not far behind.
Manila scored a measly 0.4 in the traffic index and the Philippines ranked as
the ninth worst place to drive.
The survey said Netherlands, Slovakia, Sweden, Czech Republic, and U.S. reported
an easy and breezy driving experience.
It said that globally, traffic or the lack of it is a key indicator of driver
The Philippine government has proposed various ways to ease EDSA, a major
thoroughfare in Metro Manila, such as the implementation of the Highway Patrol
Group of the Philippine National Police to untangle traffic, the opening of alternate
routes dubbed as Mabuhay Lanes, and the construction of modular steel bridges in
five areas.

Longest commute time

Manila again topped the survey for the longest minutes spent commuting from
home to office with an average time of 45.5 minutes. The survey recorded Jakarta
with 42.1 minutes of travel time.
In an exclusive story published earlier, CNN Philippines reporters traveled EDSA one
morning and took 41 minutes via the Metro Rail Transit from North Avenue in
Quezon City to Taft in Pasay City, and two hours and 15 minutes via a bus ride.
Related: How to keep calm while stuck in traffic
In half of the cities Waze analyzed, the average speed of cars on the roads were less
than 63.15 kilometers per hour.
Other key factors
The Philippines ranked the lowest in the socio-economic index with a score of 0,
which accounts for gas prices and access to cars or ratio of cars to the population.
The country was the 13th country with the worst road quality, such as poor highspeed roads density and road issues density, with a score of 5.8.
Filipino Wazers were the among the worst in the "Wazeyness" index, which records
the gratitude and happiness by the Waze users.
But it isnt all bad in the Philippines.

The country scored the best country in the drivers' services among the surveyed
countries. This means there are ample amounts of gas stations, car services, and
parking lots.
The Philippines is the fourth best in safety, according to the survey. Taken into
account are the number of accidents, hazards, and weather.

The thing with the traffic mess in Metro Manila is that it is easy to pontificate about
the ideal long-term solutions consistent enforcement of traffic rules,
construction of more roads, modernisation of public transport infrastructure,
etc. Indeed, all of those are the obvious solutions; solutions that should have been
implemented a long time ago before the problem got to the monstrous scale we
suffer today. But given that this is the present and the situation remains the same
(i.e. none of the obvious solutions have been implemented), then those obvious
solutions still remain obvious but beyond immediate reach.
This means that even if well-funded projects are set in motion to get all of these
obvious solutions implemented, Metro Manilans will still have to suffer for years
while waiting for these long-term projects to deliver results. And given the reality far
from this ideal that substandardly-funded snail-paced projects are on-going it
is likely that by the time these are completed, the problem will have already
advanced far beyond the scope of the solutions these projects had originally sought
to put in place.

Does this mean that Metro Manilans are doomed to generation after generation of a
wretched life in Carmageddon?

Perhaps. Long-term solutions are simply anathema to a society where leadership

changes every six years and where people lack an ability to think independently on
the basis of a sound ethical grounding (i.e. be guided primarily by what is right
rather than what a leader or showbiz idol says).
It is also difficult to sustain any confidence in the ability of Filipinos to apply the
right approach to solving their problems. Indeed, it has long been pointed out that
the Philippines is a result of lots of action underpinned by very little thinking. So a
lack of action does not seem to be the issue. The issue lies in the quality of the
thinking applied.
We see a lot of initiatives put in place to solve Metro Manilas abominable traffic. But
it is difficult to see the sense in any of them. And the results are, therefore, not
surprising. All of them number coding, U-turn slots, bus lanes, truck bans, etc.
quite simply do not work. Even building new roads, widening existing ones, and
constructing fly-overs and elevated highways fail to relieve traffic congestion or
change its spiralling trajectory to gridlock oblivion.
Whenever a new bright idea comes up or a new traffic czar is appointed, you just
know in your gut that the result will ultimately be a big fat fail.
So is the traffic situation in the Philippines hopeless?
It seems so. Everyone from the President himself down to the lowliest traffic
enforcer is at their wits ends. It is easy to imagine the aspired-for target state.
Any idiot can imagine traffic Nirvana because they see it every night on
primetime TV on American shows. But charting a course to getting to it is a virtually
intractable challenge in the Philippine setting. This is because the landscape a
traffic solutioneer needs to navigate is fraught with pitfalls, roadblocks, and showstoppers. Indeed, the biggest one of them is, as mentioned earlier, the quality of
Filipino thinking. Its spawn is the hopelessly inept bureaucracy, the system of
government in place, the sorts of politicians the electorate breeds, and the layer
upon layer of accumulated idiocy piled upon the countrys sad situation over several
decades of Filipinos pwede-na-yan (thatll do) and bahala na (come what may) way
of life.
In short, there is no solution to Metro Manilas traffic mess because the very
natures of the essential solutions are not compatible with Filipino culture in its
current form. Filipinos are a self-centred, narcissistic, inconsiderate, discourteous,
and thievin lot. A system where traffic flows smoothly is one where individuals trust
said system and one another to sustain that system. But such systems are built
upon behavioural pillars that Filipinos simply lack. For that matter, the inherent
nature of the way Filipinos think makes them wholly incapable of grasping the
design principles of such a system! You cannot build a system based on trust and
mutual respect if you are a people who lack both virtues.
This reality about Filipinos and its implications on any hope of solving their traffic
mess lends its validity to the simple but wise words of Albert Einstein:
You cannot solve a problem using the same thinking that created it.

Filipinos, in short, need to change the way they think first before they can aspire to
transforming their decrepit metropolises into world-class centres of commerce and
culture that hum along rather than lurch awkwardly through a typical day.
Apply primitive thinking and you get primitive solutions. A problem created by
primitive thinking can only be undone with modern thinking. And that is ultimately
the solution not just to the Philippines traffic woes but to theFilipino
Condition overall.

Cabbie rapes passenger

By Ed Amoroso (The Philippine Star) | Updated April 13, 2016 - 12:00am

MANILA, Philippines A 25-year-old woman was raped by a taxi driver and his
companion, who abandoned her at a subdivision in Angono, Rizal at past midnight
The woman, a finance officer working in Bonifacio Global City, was found naked and
hogtied in Nieves Hills, Barangay San Isidro, according to Inspector Glen Cuevas,
Angono deputy police chief.
The woman told police she boarded the taxi at the intersection of 5th and 26th
Avenues in Taguig and asked the driver to bring her to her apartment in Makati City.
When they reached EDSA-Guadalupe, the drivers accomplice got out of the taxis
compartment, Cuevas said.
The woman said she was repeatedly raped by the two men, who tooks turns driving
the taxi through Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig, Marikina, Antipolo and Angono.
The driver and his companion took the victims bag, which contained her
identification and ATM cards and P2,500 cash; her iPhone 6s and a watch, Cuevas
He added that they are looking into reports that a similar incident happened in
Makati City last month.

Colorum van driver, pal nabbed for rape, robbery

By Romina Cabrera (The Philippine Star) | Updated June 16, 2016 - 12:00am

Wilfredo Lorenzo was arrested by police on Monday while at the wheel of the subject
Toyota Grandia with license plate ALA 6980 along E. Cruz street in Barangay
Kaligayahan, Quezon City at around 5:45 p.m. Michael Varcas
MANILA, Philippines A 36-year-old man was arrested on Monday for raping and
robbing two female passengers inside a colorum passenger van while cruising
through Caloocan City and Quezon City with an accomplice over the weekend.
Wilfredo Lorenzo was arrested by police on Monday while at the wheel of the subject
Toyota Grandia with license plate ALA 6980 along E. Cruz street in Barangay
Kaligayahan, Quezon City at around 5:45 p.m.

Lorenzo was caught with a sachet of shabu by operatives of the Special

Investigation Task Group of the Quezon City police after an entrapment operation
with the help of his operator.
Superintendent Rodelio Marcelo, head of the Quezon City police Criminal
Investigation and Detection Unit (CIDU), said Lorenzo and his accomplice, identified
as Buddy, had hogtied, robbed and raped the two victims, aged 22 and 27, inside
the moving vehicle on Saturday night.
The two suspects drove around Caloocan City and took turns raping the victims for
about four hours.
Before the incident, the victims reportedly boarded the van that had an SM Fairview
sign, in front of the Centris Mall along EDSA at around 10 p.m. with another
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The two suspects declared a heist when the victims were the only passengers left in
the van after their male officemate alighted near Batasan Hills.
The suspects took P16,000 cash and five cell phones from the victims, who were
repeatedly raped and then abandoned at a parking lot in Barangay Sauyo, Quezon
City at around 2 a.m. on Sunday.
A driver of a passing taxicab saw the victims and brought them to the Quezon City
police station in Novaliches.

Woman raped in taxi in Quezon City

By Romina Cabrera (The Philippine Star) | Updated April 20, 2016 - 12:00am

MANILA, Philippines Days after a man was arrested for robbing and raping female
taxi passengers, a 27-year-old woman was raped by a taxi driver and his companion
in Quezon City Sunday night.
The woman told police she was walking outside a mall on North EDSA when one of
the men forced her at knifepoint to board the taxi.
She said the men started taking turns repeatedly raping her as they went through
Bulacan Street in Barangay Bungad at around 7:30 p.m.
The men did not stop raping her until they dumped her at the corner of Quezon and
West Avenues at around 7 a.m, said the woman, who added that she immediately
went to the police to report the attack.

Police have conducted an ocular inspection of the area to check if the vehicle the
rapists used could be seen on closed-circuit camera footage.
Following the incident, Quezon City Police District (QCPD) director Chief
Superintendent Edgardo Tinio advised the public, particularly women, to always be
vigilant and pay attention to their surroundings.
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Tinio said the QCPD will conduct an information drive to give commuters tips on how
to prevent such incidents.
Cops get medals for suspects capture
Meanwhile, Makati police chief Senior Superintendent Ernesto Barlam and nine of
his men received medals yesterday for the arrest of two men who reportedly stole
taxis and used them to lure female passengers he robbed and raped.
National Capital Region Police Office (NCRPO) chief Director Joel Pagdilao conferred
the Philippine National Police Medalya ng Kagalingan (Medal of Merit) on the Makati
policemen in ceremonies at Camp Bagong Diwa.
Barlam and his men served warrants of arrest on Nitro Ison, 24, alias Ricky Ramos
and Zenki Ison for robbery issued by the Manila Regional Trial Court Branch 21 and
the Makati RTC Branch 147.
At least four taxi passengers identified Ison as the man who raped and robbed
them, Pagdilao said.
Police investigators also tagged Ison in the murder of Teng Santaromana Gamboa,
widow of the late Tropical Depression frontman Dominic Papadom Gamboa.
Gamboa was found dead a day after she went missing in Makati City on Feb. 10. She
had been shot in the head.
The suspect would steal taxis and then hunt down potential victims such as call
center agents in parts of Makati, Mandaluyong and Quezon City, Pagdilao said.
Ison was also linked to robberies in Makati, Taguig, Mandaluyong, Pasay and Quezon
Police said the suspect is facing charges of rape, car theft, robbery and homicide
and is in the custody of the Makati police. With Non Alquitran

4. What is the different between sensation and perception?

Sensation is defined as the process in which a sensory receptor is stimulated,
producing nerve impulses that travel to the brain, which in turn interprets such
impulses as a visual image, a sound, taste, odor, touch, or pain. The physical
stimulus present in the environment emits energy that is absorbed by a sensory
organ (known as transduction), causing sensation.

Perception refers to the occurrence when the brain performs organization of
information it obtains from the neural impulses, and then begins the process of
translation and interpretation. It is a vital process that helps us rationalize or make
sense of the information related to the physical stimulus. Perception occurs when
the brain processes information to give meaning to it, by means of emotions,
memories, etc.

Sensation and perception are elements that balance and complement one another.
They work together for us to be able to identify and create meaning from stimulirelated information. Without sensation, perception will not be possible, except for
people who believe in extrasensory perception or ESP. And without perception, our
sensations would remain to be "unknown" to us since there is no mental processing
of what we sense.

Sensation and perception are two completely different elements in terms of how
they process information. In sensation, the physical stimulus, together with its
physical properties, is registered by sensory organs. Then, the organs decode this
information, and transform them into neural impulses or signals. These signals are
transmitted to the sensory cortices of the brain. The line of difference between
sensation and perception is now drawn; perception follows sensation. In the brain,
the nerve impulses go through a series of organization, translation and
interpretation. Once perception is finished, a person is able to "make sense" out of
the sensations. For instance, seeing the light (sensation) is different from
determining its color (perception). Another example is that feeling the coldness of
the environment is different from perceiving that winter is coming. Also, hearing a
sound is different from perceiving the music being played.
Most psychologists believe that sensation is an important part of bottom-up
processing. This means that sensation occurs when the sensory organs transmit
information towards the brain. On the other hand, perception is a part of top-down

processing. In this case, perception happens when the brain interprets the sensory
information and sends corresponding signals to sensory organs for response to the
physical stimuli.
3. What are perception and perpetual constancy?
Perceptual constancy is the tendency to see familiar objects as having standard
shape, size, color, or location, regardless of changes in the angle of perspective,
distance, or lighting.
Perception can be defined as our recognition and interpretation of sensory

2. How does the sound travel on various parts of ear?

Sound waves enter your outer ear and travel through a narrow passageway called
the ear canal, which leads to your eardrum. Your eardrum vibrates from the
incoming sound waves and sends these vibrations to three tiny bones in your
middle ear. These bones are called the malleus, incus, and stapes.
1. Why do we see different colors?
The human eye and brain together translate light into color. Light receptors within
the eye transmit messages to the brain, which produces the familiar sensations of