Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

Proceedings of the 2016 Joint Rail Conference

JRC 2016
April 12-15, 2016, Columbia, South Carolina, USA

DRAFT

JRC 2016-5762

EFFECT OF CONCRETE RELEASE STRENGTH ON THE DEVELOPMENT LENGTH AND


FLEXURAL CAPACITY OF MEMBERS MADE WITH DIFFERENT PRESTRESSING
STRANDS
Amir Farid Momeni
CE Department, Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS, USA

B. Terry Beck, PhD


MNE Department, Kansas State
University
Manhattan, KS, USA

Robert J. Peterman, PhD, PE


CE Department, Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS, USA

Chih-Hang John Wu, PhD


IMSE Department, Kansas State
University
Manhattan, KS, USA

ABSTRACT
Load tests were conducted on pretensioned members made
with five different strands (three 7-wire strands and two 3-wire
strands) to determine the effect of concrete release strength on
the development length and flexural capacity of members.
Strands named generically SA, SC, SD, SE and SF and they were
all indented except SA (no surface indentation). All strands had
diameter of 3/8 (9.52 mm) except SC which had diameter of
5/16 (7.94 mm). Among all types of strands used in
manufacturing of test prisms, SC and SF were 3-wire strands,
while SA, SD and SE were 7-wire strands. A consistent concrete
mixture was used for the manufacture of all test specimens, and
the different release strengths were obtained by allowing the
specimens to cure for different amounts of time prior to detensioning. For SA, SD, SE and SF strands, each prismatic
specimen (prism) had a 5.5 (139.7 mm) x 5.5 (139.7 mm)
square cross section with four strands arranged symmetrically.
However, prisms made with SC strand had 4.5 (114.3 mm) x
4.5 (114.3 mm) square cross section with four strands arranged
symmetrically. The prisms were identical except for the strand
type and the compressive strength at the time of de-tensioning.
All four strands were pulled and de-tensioned gradually when
the concrete compressive strength reached 3500 (24.13 MPa),
4500 (31.03 MPa) and 6000 (41.37 MPa) psi. Precise detensioning strengths were ensured by testing 4-in.-diameter
(101.6 mm) x 8-in.-long (203.2 mm) compression strength
cylinders that were temperature match-cured.
The prisms were loaded in 3-point-bending to determine the
ultimate bond characteristics of each reinforcement type for the
different concrete release strengths. A loading rate of 900 lb/min
(4003 N/min) for 5.5 (139.7 mm) x 5.5 (139.7 mm) prisms was

Naga Narendra B. Bodapati


CE Department, Kansas State
University
Manhattan, KS, USA

applied at mid-span and the maximum sustained moment was


calculated for each. Same procedure with loading rate of 500
lb/min (2224 N/min) was applied to 4.5 (114.3 mm) x 4.5
(114.3 mm) prisms. Three 69-in.-long (175.26 cm) prisms, each
having different concrete release strength, were tested with each
of the 5 strand types. Two out of three testing prisms were tested
at only one end and one was tested at its both ends. Thus, for
each strand type and concrete release strength evaluated, a total
of 4 tests were conducted for a total of 60 tests (5 strand types x
3 release strengths x 4 tested embedment lengths). Test results
indicate that the concrete compressive strength at de-tensioning
can have a direct impact on the ultimate flexural capacity of the
members, and this has significant design implications for
pretensioned concrete railroad ties. Results are discussed and
recommendations made.
INTRODUCTION
Since prestressed concrete crossties have shown many
advantages over wood crossties, the utilization of prestressed
concrete railroad ties is growing in the United States as the
railroad industry is becoming more cost-effective. These
advantages of using concrete crossties include, long life
expectancy, environmental friendliness and lower fuel
consumption of trains [1, 2, 3, 4]. The first significant application
of concrete ties in the railroad industry in North America was in
1966 (Hanna, 1979). Previous records show that pretensioned
concrete crossties have led to a more cost-effective design and
more desirable structural behavior which improves the stability
and overall performance of the railroad track [5]. The primary
task of railroad ties is stabilization of rails and prevention from
rails lateral movements [6].

Copyright 20xx by ASME

The transfer of prestress force from prestress tendons to


concrete at a predictable length and achievement of nominal
moment capacity over an authentic development length are very
important requirements to the performance of pretensioned
prestressed concrete [7]. The development length of prestressing
strand is the minimum length required to avoid strand slippage
when the member is loaded to its ultimate flexural capacity. This
length is the distance from the maximum stress point to the end
of the member, as shown in Figure. 1. The development length
is the summation of transfer length (Lt) and flexural bond length
(Lb). Transfer length is the length needed to transfer prestress
force fully from strand to the concrete member. The flexural
bond length (Lb) is the length required for bond stresses to
equilibrate the difference between the design stress and the
effective prestress, fse [8].

Figure 1. Development length of fully bonded strand

An equation for development length of strand is proposed


by American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code and the
American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO) design specifications:

+
=
3
In this equation, the first term is transfer length, while the
second term is the flexural bond length. In this equation, is
diameter of prestressing strand. Figure 2. is schematic
illustration of strand transfer and development length equations
from ACI 318-95, Section R12.9. Strand slippage occurs in two
steps: 1) general bond slip, which corresponds to the first
measurable slip at the stress-free end of the strand and 2)
mechanical resistance of helical shape wires, which allows a rise
in strand stress with further strand slip.

Figure 2. Schematic illustration of strand transfer and


development length from ACI equation

There are concerns with the development length equation


proposed by ACI and AASHTO as several bond failures of
pretenstioned members have been observed since approval of the
equation. Martin and Scott claimed that the equation is not
conservative and described the bond failure of a pretensioned
member in a load test at its 85 percent of nominal moment
capacity. Also, Zia and Mostafa described a failure in bond in a
pretensioned concrete beam which violates the standards given
by ACI and AASHTO equation. After observance of all these test
results, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) required
the development length calculated by ACI equation to be
increased by 60 percent and many tests were then started to
determine the actual transfer and development length of strand
in pretensioned concrete [7].
A study was conducted at Kansas State University to
understand the effect of concrete release strengths on the
development length and flexural capacity of pretensioned
concrete crossties utilizing five different strands (three 7-wire
strands and two 3-wire strands) in production of concrete ties.
All test specimens had four strands arranged symmetrically in
the specimens cross section and each strand was pulled and detensioned gradually when compressive strength of the concrete
reached 3500 (24.13 MPa), 4500 (31.03 MPa) and 6000 (41.37
MPa) psi. Precise de-tensioning strengths were obtained by
testing 4-in.-diameter (101.6 mm) x 8-in.-long (203.2 mm)
compression strength cylinders that were temperature matchcured.
EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
5 types of strand (three 7-wire strands and two 3-wire
strands) with different indentation were utilized in fabrication of
pretensioned prestressed test specimens. All specimens were
manufactured with the same concrete mix and for each type of
strand, the only difference between prisms were concrete release
strengths (compressive strength of concrete at the time of
detensioning). Three prisms, each having different concrete
release strength, were tested with each of the 5 strand types. Two
out of three prisms were tested at one end with different assessed
embedment lengths at each prism end. Third prisms were tested
at both ends with different embedment lengths assessed at each
end. For each type of strand, prisms casted and strands were
pulled and gradually detensioned when compressive strength of
the concrete reached 3500 (24.13 MPa), 4500 (31.03 MPa) and
6000 (41.37 MPa) psi for prisms with different release strengths.
Thus, for each type of strand and concrete release strength
evaluated, 4 tests were conducted for a total of 60 tests (5 strand
types x 3 concrete release strengths x 4 tested embedment
lengths).
Transfer lengths measured before load tests for all 45
pretensioned concrete members. Transfer lengths were
calculated using surface strains computed based on Whittemore
gauge readings. For strands with 3/8 (9.52 mm) diameter, all
prisms had 5.5 x 5.5 (139.7 mm x 139.7 mm) square cross
section, 69 in. (175.26 cm) length and four strands embedded
symmetrically in prism. However, prisms made with strands of
5/16 (7.94 mm) diameter had 4.5 x 4.5 (114.3 mm x 114.3

Copyright 20xx by ASME

mm) square cross section. Figure 3. and Figure 4. show


schematic of the prisms cross section and arrangement of the
strands.

Figure 3. Cross section of prisms made with 7-wire strand of 3/8"


dimeter (1 inch=25.4 mm)

Research Variable
To understand the effect of concrete release strengths on the
development length and flexural capacity of pretensioned
members, all other parameters kept constant in prisms for each
of strand type and the only variable in test prisms was concrete
release strength. Different concrete release strengths were
attained simply by allowing the prisms to cure in the prestressing
bed for different amounts of time before detensioning of strands.
The development lengths, determined by subsequent load testing
of the prisms, were then compared for each type of strand on the
basis of concrete release strength.
TESTING PROCEDURE AND RESULTS
3-point bending load tests were conducted at different
assessed embedment lengths on prisms to obtain estimations of
the development length based on the release strength. Three
identical prisms were tested for each type of strand and concrete
release strength. First prisms were tested at 28-in. (71.12 cm)
from prism end, while second prisms were tested at 20-in. (50.8
cm) from prism end. Having load tests at 16.5-in. (41.9 cm) from
the third prism end and 13-in. (33.02 cm) from other end of
prism, the third prisms were tested at both ends. Pretensioned
beams were setup on two roller supports with center to center
distance of rollers equal to 54-in. (137.16 cm), 38-in. (96.52 cm),
31-in. (78.74 cm) and 24-in. (60.96 cm) for tests with
embedment lengths of 28-in. (71.12 cm), 20-in. (50.8 cm), 16.5in. (41.9 cm) and 13-in. (33.02 cm). Figure 5. shows schematic
of test setup for 28-in. (71.12 cm) embedment length.

Figure 4. Cross section of prisms made with 5/16" diameter strand


(1 inch=25.4 mm)

Concrete Mix
For this study, a consistent concrete mixture with Type III
cement, water-cement ratio of 0.32 and 6-in. slump was used for
all test specimens. Mix design used is similar to mix being
currently used by prestress crosstie producers, a mix which gains
high early compressive strength. To attain consistency in mixture
proportioning, oven-dried materials were used.
Prestress Strand
Five different types of strand were used in manufacturing of
the test prisms. Strands were named generically SA, SC, SD, SE
and SF and they were all indented except SA (no surface
indentation). All strands had diameter of 3/8 (9.52 mm) except
SC which had diameter of 5/16 (7.94 mm). Among these five
types of strands used in fabrication of test prisms, SC and SF
were 3-wire strands, while SA, SD and SE were 7-wire strands.

Figure 5. Test setup for loading test with 28 in. embedment length
(1 inch=25.4 mm)

Since development length is the summation of transfer


length and flexural bond length, previous knowledge of transfer
length was taken into account in estimation of development
lengths. Values of transfer length were determined for each end
of each prism prior to loading. The transfer length of each beam
end was calculated from the change in in concrete surface strain
using well documented methods [9-21]. Average of surface
strains on both sides at each end of the beam were used in
determination of transfer length. Values of transfer lengths are
presented in Tables 1 through 3.
During each test, for beams with 5.5 x 5.5 (139.7 mm x
139.7 mm) section, a concentrate load with the rate of 900 lb/min
(4003 N/min) was applied at mid-span until prism failure
happened, and values of load, mid-span deflection and all strands
end-slip were constantly monitored and recorded. Loading rate

Copyright 20xx by ASME

for smaller prisms of 4.5 x 4.5 (114.3 mm x 114.3 mm) section


was 500 lb/min (2224 N/min). The load corresponding to the first
observed crack and failure type were documented for each test.
Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) were
used to measure mid-span deflection and strands end slip. Figure
6. shows end slip and mid-span deflection LVDTs used in tests.

(a)

Two deflection LVDTs were set on the sides of the beam to


measure the mid-span deflection. At any time during the test,
mid-span deflection is simply the average of two deflection
readings by LVDTs set on the sides of the prism. The entire
prism-supports-LVDTs setup sits on a structural steel table.
Figure 8. shows a picture of the setup used for running load tests.

(b)

Figure 6. LVDTs used for strand end slip measurement and midspan deflection measurement a) end slip LVDT b) mid-span
deflection LVDT

Testing Procedure
Using MultiPurpose TestWare Software (MTS), servo
hydraulic controls for the load application on the prism and the
actuator applies the load on a 2-in (50.8 mm) width metal plate
grouted on the top of the prism to avoid any displacements and
rotations. The actuator used to conduct loading tests is able to
apply a concentrate load up to 50000 lbs (222.41 KN).

Figure 8. A picture of setup used for conducting the load test

MTS was used to apply the load on the prism and applied
load increased until the first crack occurred. Once the first crack
was initiated, the operator paused the test and the load was held
constant at the load that cracking happened for 10 minutes.
Precise determination of the cracking load was assisted by
illuminating the side of the prism surface with 2 flood lights
(refer to Figure. 8). Once 10 minutes of hold finished, load was
increased uniformly until the prism failed. For each test, the test
length was between 25 to 50 minutes depending on the span.
Results
Since development length is consisted of transfer length and
the flexural bond length, previous knowledge of transfer lengths
contribute in estimation of the development lengths. Values of
measured transfer lengths for each strand type and three different
concrete release strengths (3500, 4500 and 6000 psi) are
summarized in table 1 through 3.

Figure 7. Actuator used for running load tests

Copyright 20xx by ASME

Table 1. Transfer lengths measured before the load tests at prism


ends for prisms with 3500 psi concrete release strength.
(Embedment Length=E.L)
(1 psi=6.8948 x 10-3 MPa)

Table 3. Transfer lengths measured before the load tests at tested


prism ends for prisms with 6000 psi concrete release strength.
(Embedment Length=E.L)
(1 psi=6.8948 x 10-3 MPa)

3500 psi Concrete Release Strength

6000 psi Concrete Release Strength

Wire
Type

T.L for
E.L=28",
in. [mm]

T.L for
E.L=20",
in. [mm]

T.L for
E.L=16.5",
in. [mm]

T.L for
E.L=13",
in. [mm]

Average
T.L, in.
[mm]

Wire
Type

T.L for
E.L=28",
in. [mm]

T.L for
E.L=20",
in. [mm]

T.L for
E.L=16.5",
in. [mm]

T.L for
E.L=13",
in. [mm]

Average
T.L, in.
[mm]

SA

19.2
[488]

21.8
[554]

22.3
[566]

21.2
[538]

20.5
[521]

SA

12.6
[320]

10.7
[272]

10.7
[272]

11
[279]

11.2
[284]

14.7
[373]

15.9
[404]

16.8
[427]

15.4
[391]

SC

SC

14.7
[373]

9.9
[251]

10.6
[269]

11.6
[295]

9.2
[234]

10.2
[259]

SD

13.7
[348]

14.7
[373]

17.3
[439]

15.5
[394]

15.3
[389]

SE

13
[330]

13.3
[338]

12.7
[323]

13.3
[338]

13.2
[335]

SF

10.3
[262]

10.5
[267]

12.4
[315]

9.6
[244]

10.7
[272]

SD

22.2
[564]

22.9
[582]

27.2
[691]

24.5
[622]

24.3
[617]

SE

20.5
[521]

21.6
[549]

21.3
[541]

20.8
[528]

21.3
[541]

SF

14.7
[373]

15.6
[396]

15.9
[404]

16.8
[427]

15.4
[391]

Table 2. Transfer lengths measured before the load tests at prism


ends for prisms with 4500 psi concrete release strength.
(Embedment Length=E.L)
(1 psi=6.8948 x 10-3 MPa)

For each load test, values of applied load, mid-span


deflections and strands end-slips were continuously monitored
and recorded. The maximum sustained moment by each prism
was then determined from the maximum applied load by
equilibrium of forces. Figures 9 through 13 plot the maximum
sustained moments for each strand type versus assessed
embedment lengths for different release strengths.

Wire
Type

T.L for
E.L=28",
in. [mm]

T.L for
E.L=20",
in. [mm]

T.L for
E.L=16.5",
in. [mm]

T.L for
E.L=13",
in. [mm]

Average
T.L, in.
[mm]

SA

15.3
[389]

15.7
[399]

17.8
[452]

15.1
[384]

16.2
[411]

SC

13.9
[353]

15.3
[389]

13.1
[333]

13.8
[351]

SD

16.3
[414]

14.0
[356]

17.5
[445]

16
[406]

15.8
[401]

SE

17.6
[447]

18.5
[470]

18.2
[462]

21.8
[554]

19
[483]

SF

12.8
[325]

12.1
[307]

11.9
[302]

13.2
[335]

12.5
[308]

15
Max Moment (Kip-ft)

13.4
[340]

SA 7-Wire Strand

17

4500 psi Concrete Release Strength

13
11
9
Release Strength=6000 psi
Release Strength=4500 psi
Release Strength=3500 psi

9.5

13

16.5
20
23.5
Embedment Length (in.)

27

30.5

Figure 9. Max moment resisted vs embedment length for prisms


made with SA strand (1 inch=25.4 mm and 1 Kip=4448 N)

Copyright 20xx by ASME

SF 3-Wire Strand

17

17

15

15

Max Moment (Kip-ft)

Max Moment (Kip-ft)

SD 7-Wire Strand

13
11
9

9.5

13

16.5
20
23.5
Embedment Length (in.)

27

9
7

Release Strength=4500 psi


Release Strength=3500 psi

30.5

Figure 10. Max moment resisted vs embedment length for prisms


made with SD strand (1 inch=25.4 mm and 1 Kip=4448 N)

11

Release Strength=6000 psi

Release Strength=6000 psi


Release Strength=4500 psi
Release Strength=3500 psi

13

9.5

27

30.5

SC 3-Wire Strand (4.5X4.5 CrossSection)

10

17

9.5

15

9
Max Moment (Kip-ft)

Max Moment (Kip-ft)

16.5
20
23.5
Embedment Length (in.)

Figure 12. Max moment resisted vs embedment length for prisms


made with SF strand (1 inch=25.4 mm and 1 Kip=4448 N)

SE 7-Wire Strand

8.5

13

7.5

11
9

9.5

13

6.5

Release Strength=6000 psi

Release Strength=4500 psi

Release Strength=4500 psi

Release Strength=3500 psi

5.5

Relesae Strength=3500 psi

Release Strength=6000 psi

7
5

13

16.5
20
23.5
Embedment Length (in.)

27

30.5

Figure 11. Max moment resisted vs embedment length for prisms


made with SE strand (1 inch=25.4 mm and 1 Kip=4448 N)

9.5

13

16.5
20
23.5
27
Embedment Length (in.)

30.5

Figure 13. Max moment resisted vs embedment length for prisms


made with SA strand (1 inch=25.4 mm and 1 Kip=4448 N)

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Results presented in Figures 9-13 are categorized according
to strand type in order to compare the moment capacities for
different concrete release strengths. Loading tests were run with
four different loading spans to estimate development lengths.
Any considerable reduction in maximum sustained moment
resisted by prism with a reduction in embedment length means

Copyright 20xx by ASME

the strand force is not fully developed and the section was not at
its maximum capacity.
Following findings can be concluded from the above
figures:
1) For all 7-wire strands, in almost all cases, prisms made
with 6000 psi concrete release strength had higher
flexural moment capacity at that embedment length
compared to the prisms with 3500 and 4500 psi release
strengths.
2) For all 7-wire strands except SE, there is a general trend
where the maximum sustained moment increases as the
release strength increases.
3) For SF a 3-wire strand with diameter of 3/8, maximum
sustained moment resisted by prisms with 4500 psi
release strength was slightly higher than prisms with
6000 psi and prisms with 3500 psi had the lowest
moment capacity at any assessed embedment length.
4) For SC a 3-wire strand with diameter of 5/16, there is
a general trend where the maximum sustained moment
increases as the release strength increases.

REFERENCES
[1] Bodapati, N., Zhao, W., Peterman, R. J., Wu, C.-H. Beck,
B. T., Haynes, M. and Holste, J., "Influence Of Indented Wire
Geometry And Concrete Parameters On The Transfer Length In
Prestressed Concrete Crossties " Proceedings of the 2013 Joint
Rail Conference, JRC2013-2463 April 15-18, 2013, Knoxville,
Tennessee, USA.
[2] Bodapati, N., Peterman, R. J., Beck, B. T., & Wu, C.-H.
(2014). Effect of Concrete Properties on Transfer Lengths in
Concrete Rail-Road Ties, Proceedings of the 2014 Joint Rail
Conference, JRC2014-3859 April 2-4, 2014, Colorado Springs,
Colorado, USA.
[3] Weixin Zhao, Kyle Larsan Robert J. Peterman,B. Terry
Beck, and C.-H.John Wu, "Development of a laser-speckle
imaging device to determine the transfer length in pretensioned
concrete members" PCI Journal Winter 2012, pp. 135-143.
[4] Naga Bodapati, R.J. Peterman, W. Zhao, T. Beck, C.-H.
Wu, J. Holste, M. Arnold, R. Benteman, R. Schweiger,
"Transfer-Length Measurements On Concrete Railroad Ties
Fabricated With 15 Different Prestressing Reinforcements" 2013
PCI Convention and National Bridge Conference, September 21
24 at the Gaylord Texan Resort in Grapevine, Texas.

CONCLUSION
1) High release strengths generally increase flexural
capacity of pretensioned prisms for all strands except
SF which prisms with 4500 psi release strength showed
higher capacity than 6000 psi release strength.
2) Prisms made with smooth strands contrary to prisms
made with smooth wires (no surface indentation), have
better bonding among strands compared to smooth
wires among wires with different indentation types.
3) Based on transfer lengths measurements in this study,
as the compressive strength of the concrete increases at
the time of detensioning, transfer lengths decreases.

[5] Momeni, A. F., Peterman, R. J., Beck, B. T., Wu, C.-H.


& Bodapati, N., (2015). Effect of Concrete Release Strength on
the Development Length and Flexural Capacity of Members
Made with Different Prestressing Wires Commonly Used in
Pretensioned Concrete Railroad Ties, Proceedings of the 2015
Joint Rail Conference, JRC2015-5736, March 23-26, 2015, San
Jose, California, USA.

RECOMMENDATIONS
1) The pretensioned concrete prisms and load-testing
procedure documented in this paper can be successfully
used with a variety of embedment lengths and/or
concrete mixtures to determine the development length
for a particular concrete mix and release strength.

[6] Momeni, A. F., Peterman, R. J., Beck, B. T., Wu, C.-H.


& Bodapati, N., (2015). Effect of Prestressing Wire Indentation
Type on the Development Length and Flexural Capacity of
Pretensioned Concrete Crossties, Proceedings of the 2015 Joint
Rail Conference, JRC2015-5736, March 23-26, 2015, San Jose,
California, USA.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors would like to thank the Federal Railroad
Administration (FRA) for providing the majority of funding that
made this research possible. Additionally, LB Foster/CXT
Concrete Ties has donated extensive resources, including all of
the reinforcements, to make the project a success. The
researchers would also like to thank Drs. Hailing Yu and David
Jeong at the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems
Center for their valuable suggestions and parallel analysis work.
Finally, the authors wish to thank the Precast/Prestressed
Concrete Institute (PCI) for establishing an industry advisory
panel to the project, the Kansas State Universitys University
Transportation Center (K-State UTC) for graduate student
tuition support.

[7] Logan, D. R. (March-April 1997). Acceptance Criteria


for Bond Quality of Strand for Pretensioned Prestressed
Concrete Applications. PCI, 52-90.
[8] Buckner, C. (March-April 1995). A Review of Strand
Development Length for Pretensioned Concrete. PCI, 84-105.
[9] B. Terry Beck, Weixin Zhao, Robert J. Peterman, ChihHang John Wu, Joseph Holste, Naga Narendra B. Bodapati,
Grace Lee, Effect Of Surface-Strain Sampling Interval On The
Reliability Of Pretensioned Concrete Railroad Tie Transfer
Length Measurements, 2014 PCI Convention and National
Bridge Conference, September 21 - 24 at the Gaylord National
Resort in Washington, D.C.

Copyright 20xx by ASME

[10] Weixin Zhao, B. Terry Beck, Robert J. Peterman, John


C.-H. Wu, Grace Lee, and Naga N.B. Bodapati, " Determining
Transfer Length in Pre-Tensioned Concrete Railroad Ties: Is A
new Evaluation Method Needed?" Proceedings of the 2013
ASME Rail Transportation Division Fall Technical Conference,
RTDF2013-4727 October 15-17, 2013, Altoona, Pennsulvania,
USA.
[11] Weixin Zhao, B. Terry Beck, Robert J. Peterman, John
C.-H. Wu, Naga N.B. Bodapati, and Grace Lee, "Reliable
Transfer Length Assessment For Real-Time Monitoring Of
Railroad Cross-Tie Production," Proceedings of the 2014 Joint
Rail Conference, JRC2014-3830 April 2-4, 2014, Colorado
Spring, Colorado, USA.
[12] Naga Narendra B. Bodapati, Robert J. Peterman,
Weixin Zhao, B. Terry Beck, PhD, Chih-Hang John Wu, Joseph
R. Holste, Matthew L. Arnold, Ryan Benteman, Robert
Schweiger, Long-Term Transfer-Length Measurements On
Pretensioned Concrete Rail Road Ties, 2014 PCI Convention
and National Bridge Conference, September 21 - 24 at the
Gaylord National Resort in Washington, D.C.
[13] Wu C.-H., Zhao W., Beck T. and Peterman R. "Optical
Sensor Developments for Measuring the Surface Strains in
Prestressed Concrete Members" Journal of Strains, 47, Supp. 1,
pp. 376-386, (2011), DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-1305.2009.00621.x.

Inspection Method to Determine the Transfer Length in Pretensioned Concrete Railroad Ties, ASCE, Journal of
Engineering Mechanics, Journal of Engineering Mechanics,
Volume: 139, Issue: 3, March 2013, pp. 256- 263.
[19] Weixin Zhao, B. Terry Beck, Robert J. Peterman,
Robert Murphy, John C.-H. Wu, and Grace Lee, A Direct
Comparison Of The Traditional Method And A New Approach
In Determining 220 Transfer Lengths In Prestressed Concrete
Railroad Ties, Proceedings of the 2013 Joint Rail Conference,
JRC2013-2469 April 15-18, 2013, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.
doi: 10.1115/JRC2013-2469.
[20] Beck, B. Terry, Peterman, Robert J., Wu, Chih-Hang
(John), and Bodapati, Naga Narendra B., In-Plant Testing of a
New Multi-Camera Transfer Length Measurement System for
Monitoring Quality Control of Railroad Crosstie Production,
Proceedings of the 2015 Joint Rail conference, March 23-26,
2015, San Hose, CA, USA.
[21] B. Terry Beck, Robert J. Peterman, John C.-H. Wu,
Steve Mattson, Experimental Investigation of the Influence of
Surface Contaminants on the Transfer Length of Smooth and
Indented Prestressing Reinforcements Used in the Manufacture
of Concrete Railroad Ties, Paper Number: JRC2015-5751,
Proceedings of the 2015 Joint Rail Conference, San jose, CA,
March 23-26, 2015.

[14] Mark Haynes, John C.-H. Wu, B. Terry Beck, and


Robert J. Peterman Non-Contact Measurement of Wire Indent
Profiles on Prestressing Reinforcement Steel" Proceedings of the
2012 AREMA Conference, Sept. 16-19, 2012, Chicago Illinois,
USA.
[15] Weixin Zhao, Terry Beck, Robert Peterman, John Wu,
Rob Murphy and John Bloomfield, Grace Lee. An Automated
Transfer Length Measurement System for use on Concrete
Railroad Ties, The 2012 PCI Convention and National Bridge
Conference, September 29 - October 3, 2012.
[16] Weixin Zhao ; B. Terry Beck ; Robert J. Peterman and
Chih-Hang J. Wu, "A Portable Modular Optical Sensor Capable
of Measuring Complex Multi-Axis Strain Fields", Proceedings
of the SPIE 8466, Instrumentation, Metrology, and Standards for
Nanomanufacturing, Optics, and Semiconductors VI, 84660Q
(October 11, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.929931.
[17] Weixin Zhao, B. Terry Beck, Robert J. Peterman, and
John C.-H. Wu, Development Of A 5-Camera Transfer Length
Measurement System For Real-Time Monitoring Of Railroad
Crosstie Production, Proceedings of the 2013 Joint Rail
Conference, JRC2013-2468 April 15-18, 2013, Knoxville,
Tennessee, USA. doi: 10.1115/JRC2013-2468.
[18] Weixin Zhao, Robert L Murphy, Robert J Peterman, B.
Terry Beck, Chih-Hang John Wu, Pelle Duong, A Non-Contact

Copyright 20xx by ASME

ANNEX A
PUT ANNEX TITLE HERE

Put text of Annex here

Copyright 20xx by ASME