Cathodic Protection Co. Limited Project Ref: 12/P16227
CATHODIC PROTECTION
TETCO GADARIF STRATEGIC DEPOT PROJECT
EXTERNAL TANK BASE SYSTEM AND INTERNAL TANK SYSTEMS
DETAILED DESIGN CALCULATIONS 

Document Number: 16227CP03DD 

0 
28/03/2012 
Issued for client approval 
DM 
SF 
DM 

Rev. 
Date 
Description 
Prepared 
Checked 
Approved 

No. 
ORIGINATOR 
CLIENT 
Venture Way, Grantham, Lincs, NG31 7XS, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 1476 590666 Fax: +44 (0) 1476 570605 Email: cpc@cathodic.co.uk Website: www.cathodic.co.uk
Registered Office: Minalloy House, Regent Street, Sheffield S1 3NJ, UK Vat No. 116 8408 71 Registered in England No. 478098
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 
INTRODUCTION 
3 

1.1 
GENERAL 
3 

1.2 
REFERENCE DOCUMENTS 
3 

1.2.1 
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS 
3 

2 
CORROSION CONTROL METHODS – EXTERNAL CP 
4 

2.1 
GENERAL 
4 

2.2 
COATING SYSTEMS 
4 

2.3 
CATHODIC PROTECTION 
4 

2.3.1 DESIGN LIFE 
4 

2.3.2 COATING BREAKDOWN AND DESIGN CURRENT DENSITIES 
4 

2.3.3 CURRENT DRAIN 
5 

2.3.4 CURRENT DEMAND 
5 

2.3.5 CP PROTECTION POTENTIAL RANGES 
5 

3 
DESIGN 
CONSIDERATIONS – EXTERNAL CP 
6 
3.1 
DESIGN 
PARAMETERS 
6 
3.2 
CATHODIC PROTECTION PHILOSOPHY 
6 

4 
DESIGN CALCULATIONS – EXTERNAL CP 
8 

4.1 
CURRENT REQUIREMENTS 
8 

4.2 
MMO ANODE RIBBON CALCULATIONS 
9 

4.3 
RIBBON ANODE BED RESISTANCE 
11 

4.4 
Ti CONDUCTOR BAR CALCULATIONS 
13 

4.5 
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT RESISTANCE 
14 

4.5.1 
GROUNDBED VOLT DROP CALCULATION 
15 

4.5.2 
MMO RIBBON VOLT DROP 
15 

4.5.3 
CONDUCTOR BAR VOLT DROP 
16 

4.5.1 
CABLE VOLT DROP 
17 
4.6 
CALCULATION SUMMARY 
18 
5 
SUMMARY OF INSTALLATION – EXTERNAL CP 
19 
6 
CORROSION CONTROL METHODS – INTERNAL CP 
20 
6.1 
GENERAL 
20 
6.2 
COATING SYSTEMS 
20 
6.3 
CATHODIC PROTECTION 
20 
6.3.1 DESIGN LIFE 
20 
6.3.2 COATING BREAKDOWN AND DESIGN CURRENT DENSITIES 
20 
6.3.3 CURRENT DRAIN 
21 
6.3.4 CURRENT DEMAND 
21 
6.3.5 CP PROTECTION POTENTIAL RANGES 
21 
7 
DESIGN 
CONSIDERATIONS – INTERNAL CP 
22 
7.1 
DESIGN 
PARAMETERS 
22 
7.2 
CATHODIC PROTECTION PHILOSOPHY 
22 

8 
DESIGN CALCULATIONS – INTERNAL CP 
23 

8.1 
CALCULATION SUMMARY 
23 

8.2 
CURRENT REQUIREMENTS 
24 

8.3 
NUMBER OF ANODES BY CURRENT OUTPUT 
25 

8.4 
NUMBER OF ANODES BY WEIGHT 
26 

9 
SUMMARY OF INSTALLATION – INTERNAL CP 
27 
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
2 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL
This document is the design philosophy and detailed calculations that shall be adopted to
provide the permanent cathodic protection system installed to protect the new tanks at the
Gadarif Strategic Depot project.
The requirements in this document apply to permanent corrosion protection by impressed
current cathodic protection to the external surfaces of the tank base and by sacrificial anode
current cathodic protection to the internal surfaces of the tank.
1.2 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
This section lists the codes, standards and project documents / drawings, which are
applicable to the detailed design.
1.2.1 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
All CP equipment shall be designed, manufactured, tested and supplied in accordance with
applicable codes of practice, British Standards, NACE and other applicable standards listed
below:
Document Number 
Title 
BS 7361:Part1 
Cathodic Protection, Code of Practice for Land and Marine Applications 
NACERP0193:1993 
External Cathodic Protection of OnGrade Metallic Storage Tank Bottom 
EDS508 Revision A 
Cathodic Protection Specifications 
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
3 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
2 
CORROSION CONTROL METHODS – EXTERNAL CP 
2.1 
GENERAL 
The corrosion protection system selected shall be based on a high integrity coating system in 

combination with a cathodic protection system. 

2.2 
COATING SYSTEMS 
The tank base plates shall be coated in line with the project specification. 

2.3 
CATHODIC PROTECTION 
The permanent CP system for the tank will be an impressed current cathodic protection
(ICCP) system. The design criteria for the cathodic protection system are outlined in the
sections below:
2.3.1 DESIGN LIFE
The design life shall be 25 years for permanent CP system.
2.3.2 COATING BREAKDOWN AND DESIGN CURRENT DENSITIES
The current density below is taken from CPCL experience and international specifications:
Structure Surface 
Minimum Current Density (mA/m ^{2} ) 
Tank Bottom 
20 
For the protection of structure with elevated operating temperatures the minimum design current densities given above shall be increased by 25% per 10 °C rise in temperature above 30 °C. All tanks will be at an operating temperature at 48 ^{o} C therefore, a design current density of 31.25 mA/m ^{2} is considered suitable.
For the purposes of the design the coating breakdown has been assumed to be a maximum
of 50 %:
Structure Surface 
Coating Breakdown (%) 
Tank Bottom 
50 
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
4 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
2.3.3 CURRENT DRAIN
The tank does not need to be electrically isolated from any foreign structures using isolation joints / flanges and polarisation cells as this is a close anode system. Where possible the tank should be electrically isolated from earthing / grounding systems and any rebar used in construction.
2.3.4 CURRENT DEMAND
The current demand for each tank is calculated based on the surface area and the applicable final current density for steel as given in section 2.3.2.
2.3.5 CP PROTECTION POTENTIAL RANGES
The effectiveness of the cathodic protection system should be determined by potential shift. The following “instant off” or IR free potentials should apply in the case of all tank bases.
The protection criteria for items in contact with soil are in line with international specifications and in summary:
• Steel in Soil 0.850 to 1.200 Volts with respect to a Cu/CuSO _{4} reference electrode.
• 100 mV polarisation shift.
• All above potentials are IR free or “OFF” potentials.
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
5 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
3 
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS – EXTERNAL CP 

3.1 
DESIGN PARAMETERS 

Structure to be protected 
: 
Two Gas Oil Tanks 

Two Gasoline Tanks 

One Fire Water Tank 

Diameter 
: 
25 m 

17.5 
m 

17.5 
m 

Coating 
: 
50 % Coating Breakdown 

Design Life 
: 
25 Years – Permanent CP 

Design Current Density 
: 
31.25 mA/m² 

CP Protection Criteria, E _{C}_{U} 
: 
0.85 V (IR Free) 

Soil Resistivity 
: 
100 Ohm.m 

3.2 
CATHODIC PROTECTION PHILOSOPHY 
The cathodic protection system for all external surfaces will be based on an impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system and the design life for the permanent impressed current system shall be 25 years.
All cable will be XLPE/PVC where running underground. Structure to cable connections will be by bolted connections. All junction boxes will be GRP and have a minimum of IP67 protection and be ATEX certified for use in hazardous areas.
The permanent cathodic protection system for the tank base will be based by a “close” anode grid arrangement with a ribbon type anode. Temporary protection is not required as the permanent system can be energised upon completion of the tank.
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
6 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
The tank will be electrically continuous from the remainder of any piping and earthing but as this
is “close” anode system and there will be a containment layer – hence will not be affected by any
current drains.
DC 
Power supply shall be transformer rectifiers to CPCL specifications. The current required is 
less 
than 5 A for the 17.5 m tanks and 10 A for the 25 m tanks and it is recommended that a 5 A 
or 10 A CP station is installed for each tank.
Due to the high surface soil resistivity anticipated it is recommended that a grid type anode is installed at a minimum depth of 300 mm and maximum depth of 550 mm below the tank base in
a mesh arrangement with MMO coated ribbon running in one direction and Titanium conductor
bar in the other. The maximum current output of the anode is based upon a soil resistivity of up
to 100 Ohm.m which would be as anticipated in this method of installation and backfilling.
Impressed current anodes shall consist of a Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) / Titanium ribbon anode
with Titanium conductor bar to carry the current and connected via cable and a junction box to
the transformer rectifier. The MMO ribbon is to be spot welded to the conductor bar at each
intersection. Various power feed connectors are then connected to each of the conductor bars
and to a cable which exits the tank to the junction box.
The negative cable will be connected to tank via a junction box from the transformer rectifier unit
at two points 180 ^{o} from each other.
Permanent reference electrodes and slotted monitoring tube shall be installed under the tank to allow effective monitoring.
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
7 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
4 
DESIGN CALCULATIONS – EXTERNAL CP 
A grid of MMO / Ti ribbon and Ti conductor bar is the selected design for the installation of an anode below the bottom of the aboveground storage tank. The design of such a grid will be done by taking a simplified approach, which is based on the diameter of the tank, depth from the location of the anode bed, the ribbon anode width, and the cathodic protection current requirement for the given environment. The equations derived enabled the determination of the length of anodes and the anode bed resistance. 

4.1 
CURRENT REQUIREMENTS 
The current required for the external tank bases to be protected is shown below.
The external surface area of the structure is calculated using the following formula:
SA = Π.r
2
Where for Gas Oil in first column then Gasoline and Firewater in second column:
_{Π} 
= 
Pi 
3.142 
3.142 

r 
= 
Radius 
12.5 
8.75 
m 
_{S}_{A} 
= 
Surface Area (m²) 
490.87 
240.53 
m² 
The total current required can then be calculated using the following:
_{I}_{t}_{o}_{t} _{=} (SA.J.Fc)
Where,
SA 
= 
Surface Area 
490.87 
240.53 
m² 
J 
= 
Current Density 
31.25 
31.25 
mA/m² 
F _{c} 
= 
Coating Breakdown Factor 
50 
50 
% 
_{I} _{t}_{o}_{t} 
= 
Total Current 
7.67 
3.76 
A 
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
8 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
4.2 MMO ANODE RIBBON CALCULATIONS
The minimal total ribbon length, L, is determined by the current rating for the size and type of anode material selected:
L
min
=
I tot
I
a
Where,
I _{t}_{o}_{t} 
= 
Total Current 
7.67 
3.76 
A 
I _{a} 
= 
Anode Current Output (A/linear m) ^{1} 
0.019 
0.019 
A 
_{L} _{m}_{i}_{n} 
= 
Minimum Ribbon Length 
410.0 
201.0 
m 
The space between anodes should be adjusted to achieve uniform current distribution under the tanks. The MMO ribbon spacing is calculated by:
S
mmo ^{=}
I
a
J
1
Where, 

I _{a} 
= 
Anode Current Output (A/linear m) 
12 
12 
mA 

J _{1} 
= 
Applied Current Density 
10 
10 
mA/m² 

_{S} _{1} 
= 
MMO Ribbon Spacing 
1.20 
1.20 
m 
MMO spacing restricted to 1.2 m for correct spacing.
^{1} The ribbon anode output is considered to be a maximum of 3 A / m ^{2} then for standard ribbon this is equivalent to 0.035 A (35 mA) / linear m for a lifetime of 25 years and therefore any value lower is acceptable.
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
9 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
The lengths of the MMO ribbon anodes are calculated below using the following formula:
Initial Spacing = 0.5 x (MMO ribbon spacing m)
Subsequent Spacing = initial spacing + (MMO ribbon spacing m)
Where,
L 1
=
4.
S
1
.(
d − S
1
)
S _{1} 
= 
0.5 x MMO Ribbon Spacing 
0.6 
0.6 
m 
D 
= 
Diameter of Tank 
25 
17.5 
m 
_{L} _{1} 
= 
MMO Ribbon Length 
7.65 
6.39 
m 
The length of cord in each row is calculated from the above equation.
Row 
Spacing 
Length 
Number 
(m) 
(m) 
1 0.60 
7.62 

2 1.79 
12.88 

3 2.98 
16.19 

4 4.17 
18.63 

5 5.36 
20.52 

6 6.55 
21.98 

7 7.74 
23.11 

8 8.93 
23.96 

9 10.12 
24.54 

10 11.31 
24.89 

11 12.50 
25.00 

12 13.69 
24.89 

13 14.88 
24.54 

14 16.07 
23.96 

15 17.26 
23.11 

16 18.45 
21.98 

17 19.64 
20.52 

18 20.83 
18.63 

19 22.02 
16.19 

20 23.21 
12.88 

21 24.40 
7.62 

Total 
413.65 
Spacing 
Length 
(m) 
(m) 
0.58 
6.28 
1.75 
10.50 
2.92 
13.04 
4.08 
14.80 
5.25 
16.04 
6.42 
16.87 
7.58 
17.34 
8.75 
17.50 
9.92 
17.34 
11.08 
16.87 
12.25 
16.04 
13.42 
14.80 
14.58 
13.04 
15.75 
10.50 
16.92 
6.28 
207.26 
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
10 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
4.3 RIBBON ANODE BED RESISTANCE
The total resistance between the tank bottom and the bed of grid ribbon anodes without taking into account the mutual interference between the anodes is:
R =
ρ
2
L
π
(ln
2
4 L
hw
− 2)
Where 

ρ 
= 
Soil Resistivity 
100 
100 
Ohm.m 

L 
= 
Length of Anode 
7.62 
6.28 
m 

h 
= 
Distance between Anode and Tank 
0.5 
0.5 
m 

w 
= 
Ribbon Anode Equivalent Diameter 
0.005 
0.005 
m 

_{R} 
= 
Resistance 
20.78 
24.23 
Ohm 
The resistance of each cord is calculated from the above equation and the total resistance calculated by summing the resistance of each cord. Thus the total anode resistance is calculated:
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
11 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
Row 
Spacing 
Resistance 
Spacing 
Resistance 
Number 
(m) 
(ohm) 
(m) 
(ohm) 
1 
0.60 
20.78 
0.58 
24.23 
2 1.79 
13.59 
1.75 
16.05 

3 2.98 
11.26 
2.92 
13.45 

4 4.17 
10.03 
4.08 
12.13 

5 5.36 
9.26 
5.25 
11.35 

6 6.55 
8.74 
6.42 
10.89 

7 7.74 
8.38 
7.58 
10.64 

8 8.93 
8.13 
8.75 
10.56 

9 10.12 
7.97 
9.92 
10.64 

10 11.31 
7.88 
11.08 
10.89 

11 12.50 
7.85 
12.25 
11.35 

12 13.69 
7.88 
13.42 
12.13 

13 14.88 
7.97 
14.58 
13.45 

14 16.07 
8.13 
15.75 
16.05 

15 17.26 
8.38 
16.92 
24.23 

16 18.45 
8.74 

17 19.64 
9.26 

18 20.83 
10.03 

19 22.02 
11.26 

20 23.21 
13.59 

21 24.40 
20.78 

Total (Ohm) 
0.458 
0.860 
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
12 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
4.4 Ti CONDUCTOR BAR CALCULATIONS
The total length of titanium conductor bar is based upon an assumption that conductor bar separation should not exceed 4.0 m. The lengths of the individual Ti Conductor bar chords are calculated as below using the following formula:
Initial Spacing = 0.5 x (Conductor bar spacing m) Subsequent Spacing = initial spacing + (Conductor bar spacing m)
Where,
L
2
=
4.
S
2
.(
d − S
2
)
S _{2} 
= 
0.5 x Conductor Bar Spacing 
1.75 
1.75 
m 

d 
= 
Diameter of Tank 
25 
17.5 
m 

_{L} _{2} 
= 
Initial Conductor Bar Length 
12.88 
10.5 
m 

The length of cord in each row is calculated from the above equation. 

Row Number 
Spacing (m) 
Length (m) 
Spacing (m) 
Length (m) 

1 1.79 
12.88 
1.75 
10.5 

2 5.36 
20.52 
5.25 
16.04 

3 8.93 
23.96 
8.75 
17.5 

4 12.50 
25 
12.25 
16.04 

5 16.07 
23.96 
15.75 
10.5 

6 19.64 
20.52 

7 23.21 
12.88 

Total (m) 
86.6 
70.6 
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
13 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
4.5 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT RESISTANCE
This section proves through calculation that there is sufficient driving voltage in the CP circuit to enable the system to operate at its design current after the groundbed voltage, cable volt drops and other losses have been taken into consideration.
The total system volt drop is the sum of the following components:
• 
Groundbed volt drop 

• 
MMO Ribbon volt drop 

• 
Conductor bar volt drop 

• 
Cable volt drop 

• 
Back EMF and other losses 

For 
the 
CP to 
be effective this 
total must 
be 
equal to 
or 
less 
than the 
voltage of 
the 
Transformer Rectifier.
This can be expressed in the following formula:
Where,
V vd
(
1)
+V vd
(
2)
+V vd +V vd
(
3)
(
4)
+Vlosses ≤VTR
V _{(}_{v}_{d}_{1}_{)} 
= 
Groundbed Volt Drop 
4.6 
4.3 
V 

V _{(}_{v}_{d}_{2}_{)} 
= 
MMO Ribbon Volt Drop 
0.005 
0.005 
V 

V _{(}_{v}_{d}_{3}_{)} 
= 
Conductor Bar Volt Drop 
0.192 
0.092 
V 

V _{(}_{v}_{d}_{4}_{)} 
= 
Cable Volt Drop 
5.45 
2.73 
V 

V _{l}_{o}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{s} 
= 
Back EMF and Structure Losses 
4.0 
4.0 
V 

V _{T}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} 
= 
Total Voltage 
14.23 
11.13 
V 

_{V} _{T}_{R} 
_{=} 
Transformer Rectifier Voltage 
24 
24 
V 

See below for calculations of each component 

Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 

Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 

CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
14 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
4.5.1 GROUNDBED VOLT DROP CALCULATION The groundbed volt drop is a combination of the following components:
• Groundbed to earth resistance
• Groundbed current
This can be expressed in the following formula:
Where,
V (vd1) = RGB.Itot
R _{G}_{B} 
= 
Groundbed Resistance to Earth 
0.458 
0.860 
Ohm 
I _{t}_{o}_{t} 
= 
Total Current 
10 
5 
A 
V _{(}_{v}_{d}_{1}_{)} 
= 
Groundbed Volt Drop 
4.6 
4.3 
V 
V (vd 2) = I.R.L 

I 
= 
MMO Ribbon Load / m 
0.021 
0.02 
A 
R 
= 
Resistance of MMO Ribbon ^{2} 
0.138 
0.138 
Ohm/m 
L 
= 
Length of MMO Ribbon 
1.79 
1.75 
m 
_{V} _{(}_{v}_{d}_{2}_{)} 
= 
MMO Ribbon Volt Drop 
0.005 
0.005 
V 
MMO RIBBON VOLT DROP The MMO ribbon volt drop is calculated using the following formula:
Where,
4.5.2
Where the load is the current required for half the distance between two conductor bars.
I
=
I
tot
/
L
1
/(0.5.
S
2
)
Where,
I _{t}_{o}_{t} 
= 
Total Current 
10 
5 
A 
L _{1} 
= 
Total Length of MMO Ribbon 
413.65 
207.26 
m 
S _{2} 
= 
Spacing of Conductor Bar 
3.5 
3.5 
m 
_{I} 
= 
MMO Ribbon Load / m 
0.014 
0.014 
A 
^{2} Data from MMO anode manufacture
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
15 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
4.5.3 CONDUCTOR BAR VOLT DROP
The Conductor Bar volt drop is calculated using the following formula:
V (vd 3) = I.R.L
Where,
I 
= 
Load 
0.223 
0.152 
A 
R 
= 
Resistance of Conductor Bar ^{3} 
0.069 
0.069 
Ohm/m 
L 
= 
Length of Conductor Bar 
12.50 
9.75 
m 
_{V} _{(}_{v}_{d}_{2}_{)} 
= 
MMO Ribbon Volt Drop 
0.192 
0.092 
V 
Where the load is the current required for half the length of the longest conductor bar (worst case).
I
=
I
tot
/
L
2
/(0.5.
L
3
)
Where,
I _{t}_{o}_{t} 
= 
Total Current 
10 
5 
A 

L 
_{2} 
= 
Total Length of conductor Bar 
139.7 
70.6 
m 
L 
_{3} 
= 
Length of Longest conductor Bar 
25 
17.5 
m 
_{I} 
= 
Conductor Bar Load / m 
0.006 
0.008 
A 
^{3} Data from conductor bar manufacture
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
16 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
4.5.1 CABLE VOLT DROP Cable volt drops are calculated using the following formula:
V
(
vd
4)
=
V
1
+
V
2
+
V
3
+
V
4
Where,
V _{1} 
= 
Main Positive Cable Volt Drop 
1.05 
V 
V _{2} 
= 
Main Negative Cable Volt Drop 
1.05 
V 
V _{3} 
= 
Powerfeed Cable Volt Drop 
2.3 
V 
V _{4} 
= 
Negative Cable Volt Drop 
1.05 
V 
V _{(}_{v}_{d}_{4}_{)} 
= 
Cable Volt Drop 
5.45 
V 
Individual cable volt drops are calculated using the following formula:
Where,
V
vd
=
(
R
cab
/1000 .L
)
cab
.I
cab
R _{C}_{a}_{b} 
= 
Resistance of Cable ^{4} 
0.524 
0.524 
Ohm/km 
L _{c}_{a}_{b} 
= 
Length of Cable 
200 
200 
m 
I _{c}_{a}_{b} 
= 
Current in Cable 
10 
5 
A 
V _{v}_{d} 
= 
Cable Volt Drop 
1.1 
0.524 
V 
The volt drop of each cable is calculated from the above equation.
R Cab 
L cab 
I cab 
V _{v}_{d} 

V _{1} 
0.524 
100 
10 
1.05 
V _{2} 
0.524 
100 
10 
1.05 
V _{3} 
1.15 
100 
10 
2.3 
V _{4} 
0.524 
100 
10 
1.05 
^{4} From cable manufacturers
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
17 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
4.6 CALCULATION SUMMARY
Parameter 
25 m 
17.5 m 
Unit 

SA 
= 
Surface Area (m²) 
490.87 
240.53 
m² 

I tot 
= 
Total Current 
10 
5 
A 

L min 
= 
Minimum Ribbon Length 
414 
208 
m 

L 1 
= 
Actual Ribbon Length 
414 
208 
m 

S 1 
= 
MMO Ribbon Spacing 
1.2 
1.2 
m 

L 2 
= 
Conductor Bar Length 
139.7 
70.6 
m 

S 2 
= 
Conductor Bar Spacing 
3.6 
3.5 
m 

V Total 
= 
Total Voltage Drop 
15 
12 
V 

V TR 
= 
Transformer Rectifier Voltage 
24 
24 
V 

Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 

Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 

CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
18 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
5 SUMMARY OF INSTALLATION – EXTERNAL CP
In summary the CP system and groundbed will be sized as follows:
Item 
25 m 
17.5 m 

Permanent CP Station 
2 
3 

Transformer Rectifier Voltage 
24 
V 
24 V 

Transformer Rectifier Current 
10 
A 
5 A 

MMO Ribbon Length 
414 
m 
208 m 

Powerfeed Number 
7 
5 

Powerfeed Cable Size 
16 mm ^{2} 
16 
mm ^{2} 

Powerfeed Cable Length 
150 
m 
100 m 

Feeder Cable Size 
35 mm ^{2} 
35 
mm ^{2} 

Total Feeder Length (including 20 % spare for routing) 
200 
200 

Number of Reference Electrodes 
5 
5 
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
19 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
6 
CORROSION CONTROL METHODS – INTERNAL CP 
6.1 
GENERAL 
The corrosion protection system selected shall be based on a high integrity coating system in 

combination with a cathodic protection system. 

6.2 
COATING SYSTEMS 
The tank shall be coated internally in line with project specifications. 

6.3 
CATHODIC PROTECTION 
The permanent CP system for the tanks will be a sacrificial anode cathodic protection (SACP)
system. The design criteria for the cathodic protection system are outlined in the sections
below:
6.3.1 DESIGN LIFE
The design life shall be 25 years for sacrificial anodes.
6.3.2 COATING BREAKDOWN AND DESIGN CURRENT DENSITIES
The current density below is taken from CPCL experience and international specifications:
Structure Surface 
Minimum Current Density (mA/m ^{2} ) 
Tank Internals 
100 
For the protection of structure with elevated operating temperatures the minimum design current densities given above shall be increased by 25% per 10 °C rise in temperature above 30 °C.
All tanks will be at an operating temperature at 48 ^{o} C therefore, a design current density of 156.25 mA/m ^{2} is considered suitable.
The current density below is taken from Project Document:
Structure Surface 
Coating Breakdown (%) 
Gasoline / Gas Oil 
5 
Firewater 
10 
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
20 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
6.3.3 CURRENT DRAIN
The tanks do not need to be electrically isolated from any foreign structures using isolation joints / flanges and polarisation cells as this is an internal system. Where possible the tank should be electrically isolated from earthing / grounding systems and any rebar used in construction.
6.3.4 CURRENT DEMAND
The current demand for each tank is calculated based on the surface area and the applicable final current density for steel as given in section 6.3.2.
6.3.5 CP PROTECTION POTENTIAL RANGES
The effectiveness of the cathodic protection systems should be determined by potential shift. The following “instant off” or IR free potentials should apply in the case of all tank bases.
The protection criteria for items in contact with soil are in line with international specifications and in summary:
• Steel in Water 0.800 to 1.050 Volts with respect to a Ag/AgCl reference electrode.
• 100 mV polarisation shift.
• All above potentials are IR free or “OFF” potentials.
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
21 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
7 
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS – INTERNAL CP 

7.1 
DESIGN PARAMETERS 

Structure to be protected and Diameter / Height considered for CP 
: 

Coating 
: 

Design Life 
: 

Current Density 
: 

CP Protection Criteria, E _{a}_{g} 
: 

Water Resistivity 
: 

7.2 
CATHODIC PROTECTION PHILOSOPHY 
Gas Oil: 25 m / 1 m
Gasoline: 17.5 m / 1 m
Firewater: 17.5 m / 12.5 m
10 % Coating Breakdown Factor
5 % for Firewater only
25 Years – Permanent CP
156.25 mA/m² at 30 ^{o} C
0.80 V (IR Free)
200 Ohm.cm or less
The cathodic protection system for the internal surfaces will be based on a sacrificial anode cathodic protection (SACP) system and the minimum design life for the permanent system shall be 25 years.
The permanent cathodic protection system for the internal of the tanks will be based on aluminium sacrificial anodes which shall be bolted to welded support brackets installed at various locations around the base of each tank.
Temporary protection is not required as the permanent system can be energised upon completion of the tank.
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
22 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
8 
DESIGN CALCULATIONS – INTERNAL CP 
The design of the system is based on the diameter and height of the tank bottom, anode size and weight, and the cathodic protection current requirement for the given environment. The equations derived enabled the determination of the number of anodes and the anode resistances. 

8.1 
CALCULATION SUMMARY 
The table below is an executive summary of the calculations in this section:
Tank 
Gas Oil 
Gasoline 
Firewater 
Unit 

SA 
= 
Surface Area (m²) 
570 
296 
928 
m² 
I f 
= 
Current 
8.90 
4.62 
7.25 
A 
I a 
= 
Individual Anode Current 
0.25 
0.25 
0.25 
A 
A n1 
= 
Anode Number for Current 
36 
19 
29 
No 
M a 
= 
Individual Anode Mass 
25.2 
25.2 
25.2 
kg 
A n2 
= 
Anode Number for Mass 
37 
19 
30 
No 
A t 
= 
Anode Number Required 
40 
24 
34 
No 
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
23 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
8.2 CURRENT REQUIREMENTS
The current required for the internal tank surface to be protected is shown below:
The internal surface area of the structure (GAS OIL TANK ONLY) is calculated using the following formula:
SA
=π
.r
2
+π
.d.h
Where for tank,
π 
= 
Pi 
3.142 

R 
= 
Radius 
12.5 
m 
D 
= 
Diameter 
25.0 
m 
H 
= 
Height 
1.0 
m 
_{S}_{A} 
= 
Surface Area (m²) 
569.41 
m² 
The current required for GAS OIL TANK can then be calculated using the following:
_{I}_{f} _{=} (SA.J.Fc)
Where for tank,
SA 
Surface Area 
596.41 
m² 

J 
Current Density 
156.25 
mA 

F _{c} 
Coating Breakdown Factor 
10 
% 

_{I} _{f} 
= 
Final Current 
8.90 
A 
Document Title 
Detailed Design Calculations 
Date 
28/03/2012 
Document No 
16227CP03DD 
Revision 
0 
CPCL Project No 
12/P16227 
Page 
24 of 27 
TETCO – Gadarif Strategic Depot Project
Tank External Base and Internal Cathodic Protection
Detailed Design Calculations
8.3 NUMBER OF ANODES BY CURRENT OUTPUT
The anode resistance is calculated using the following equation:
Where,
R
f
=
ρ
l
2
π
f
(ln
4
l
f
r
f
− 1)
ρ 
= 
Water Resistivity 
2 
Ohm.m 
l _{f} 
= 
Final Anode Length (90%) 
112.5 
cm 
r _{f} 
= 
Final Effective Anode Radius (50%) 
49.2 
cm 
_{R} _{f} 
= 
Final Anode Resistance to Earth 
1.19 
Ohm 
Then, the maximum current output per anodes is calculated using Ohm’s Law:
Where,
I
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