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Assessment Problems

AP 3.1

Start from the right hand side of the circuit and make series and parallel

combinations of the resistors until one equivalent resistor remains. Begin by

combining the 6 resistor and the 10 resistor in series:

6 + 10 = 16

Now combine this 16 resistor in parallel with the 64 resistor:

16 k64 =

(16)(64)

1024

=

= 12.8

16 + 64

80

12.8 + 7.2 = 20

Finally, this equivalent 20 resistor is in parallel with the 30 resistor:

20 k30 =

(20)(30)

600

=

= 12

20 + 30

50

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32

[a] With the simplified circuit we can use Ohms law to find the voltage across

both the current source and the 12 equivalent resistor:

v = (12 )(5 A) = 60 V

[b] Now that we know the value of the voltage drop across the current source,

we can use the formula p = vi to find the power associated with the

source:

p = (60 V)(5 A) = 300 W

Thus, the source delivers 300 W of power to the circuit.

[c] We now can return to the original circuit, shown in the first figure. In this

circuit, v = 60 V, as calculated in part (a). This is also the voltage drop

across the 30 resistor, so we can use Ohms law to calculate the current

through this resistor:

60 V

iA =

=2A

30

Now write a KCL equation at the upper left node to find the current iB :

5 A + iA + iB = 0

so

iB = 5 A iA = 5 A 2 A = 3 A

Next, write a KVL equation around the outer loop of the circuit, using

Ohms law to express the voltage drop across the resistors in terms of the

current through the resistors:

v + 7.2iB + 6iC + 10iC = 0

So

38.4

= 2.4 A

16

Now that we have the current through the 10 resistor we can use the

formula p = Ri2 to find the power:

Thus

iC =

AP 3.2

[a] We can use voltage division to calculate the voltage vo across the 75 k

resistor:

75,000

vo (no load) =

(200 V) = 150 V

75,000 + 25,000

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Problems

33

[b] When we have a load resistance of 150 k then the voltage vo is across the

parallel combination of the 75 k resistor and the 150 k resistor. First,

calculate the equivalent resistance of the parallel combination:

(75,000)(150,000)

= 50,000 = 50 k

75,000 + 150,000

Now use voltage division to find vo across this equivalent resistance:

50,000

vo =

(200 V) = 133.3 V

50,000 + 25,000

75 kk150 k =

removed from the circuit, leaving only the voltage source and the 25 k

resistor. We can calculate the current in the resistor using Ohms law:

200 V

i=

= 8 mA

25 k

Now we can use the formula p = Ri2 to find the power dissipated in the

25 k resistor:

p25k = (25,000)(0.008)2 = 1.6 W

[d] The power dissipated in the 75 k resistor will be maximum at no load

since vo is maximum. In part (a) we determined that the no-load voltage

is 150 V, so be can use the formula p = v 2/R to calculate the power:

p75k (max) =

(150)2

= 0.3 W

75,000

AP 3.3

[a] We will write a current division equation for the current throught the 80

resistor and use this equation to solve for R:

R

i80 =

(20 A) = 4 A

so

20R = 4(R + 120)

R + 40 + 80

480

Thus

16R = 480

and

R=

= 30

16

[b] With R = 30 we can calculate the current through R using current

division, and then use this current to find the power dissipated by R,

using the formula p = Ri2 :

40 + 80

iR =

(20 A) = 16 A

so

pR = (30)(16)2 = 7680 W

40 + 80 + 30

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34

[c] Write a KVL equation around the outer loop to solve for the voltage v,

and then use the formula p = vi to calculate the power delivered by the

current source:

v + (60 )(20 A) + (30 )(16 A) = 0

Thus,

so

AP 3.4

[a] First we need to determine the equivalent resistance to the right of the

40 and 70 resistors:

1

1

1

1

1

Req = 20 k30 k(50 + 10 )

so

=

+

+

=

Req

20 30 60

10

Thus,

Req = 10

vo =

40

(60 V) = 20 V

40 + 10 + 70

[b] The current through the 40 resistor can be found using Ohms law:

vo

20 V

=

= 0.5 A

40

40

This current flows from left to right through the 40 resistor. To use

current division, we need to find the equivalent resistance of the two

parallel branches containing the 20 resistor and the 50 and 10

resistors:

(20)(60)

20 k(50 + 10 ) =

= 15

20 + 60

Now we use current division to find the current in the 30 branch:

15

i30 =

(0.5 A) = 0.16667 A = 166.67 mA

15 + 30

i40 =

[c] We can find the power dissipated by the 50 resistor if we can find the

current in this resistor. We can use current division to find this current

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Problems

35

from the current in the 40 resistor, but first we need to calculate the

equivalent resistance of the 20 branch and the 30 branch:

(20)(30)

= 12

20 + 30

Current division gives:

12

(0.5 A) = 0.08333 A

i50 =

12 + 50 + 10

20 k30 =

Thus,

AP 3.5 [a]

1V

i=

= 0.01 A = 10 mA

100

[b]

Rm = 50 k5.555 = 5

We can use the meter resistance to find the current using Ohms law:

imeas =

1V

= 0.009524 = 9.524 mA

100 + 5

AP 3.6 [a]

75,000

v=

(60 V) = 50 V

75,000 + 15,000

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36

[b]

Rm = 149,950 + 50 = 150,000

We can use voltage division to find v, but first we must calculate the

equivalent resistance of the parallel combination of the 75 k resistor and

the voltmeter:

(75,000)(150,000)

75,000 k150,000 =

= 50 k

75,000 + 150,000

Thus,

vmeas =

50,000

(60 V) = 46.15 V

50,000 + 15,000

AP 3.7 [a] Using the condition for a balanced bridge, the products of the opposite

resistors must be equal. Therefore,

(1000)(150)

= 1500 = 1.5 k

100

[b] When the bridge is balanced, there is no current flowing through the

meter, so the meter acts like an open circuit. This places the following

branches in parallel: The branch with the voltage source, the branch with

the series combination R1 and R3 and the branch with the series

combination of R2 and Rx . We can find the current in the latter two

branches using Ohms law:

100Rx = (1000)(150)

so

Rx =

5V

5V

= 20 mA;

iR2 ,Rx =

= 2 mA

100 + 150

1000 + 1500

We can calculate the power dissipated by each resistor using the formula

p = Ri2 :

iR1 ,R3 =

p150 = (150 )(0.02 A)2 = 60 mW

p1000 = (1000 )(0.002 A)2 = 4 mW

p1500 = (1500 )(0.002 A)2 = 6 mW

Since none of the power dissipation values exceeds 250 mW, the bridge

can be left in the balanced state without exceeding the power-dissipating

capacity of the resistors.

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Problems

37

-connected resistors Ra , Rb, and Rc . To assist you the figure below has both

the Y-connected resistors and the -connected resistors

= 17.5

20

(5)(10) + (5)(20) + (10)(20)

Rb =

= 35

10

(5)(10) + (5)(20) + (10)(20)

= 70

Rc =

5

Ra =

From this circuit we see that the 70 resistor is parallel to the 28 resistor:

70 k28 =

(70)(28)

= 20

70 + 28

17.5 k105 =

(17.5)(105)

= 15

17.5 + 105

Once the parallel combinations are made, we can see that the equivalent 20

resistor is in series with the equivalent 15 resistor, giving an equivalent

resistance of 20 + 15 = 35 . Finally, this equivalent 35 resistor is in

parallel with the other 35 resistor:

35 k35 =

(35)(35)

= 17.5

35 + 35

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38

Thus, the resistance seen by the 2 A source is 17.5 , and the voltage can be

calculated using Ohms law:

v = (17.5 )(2 A) = 35 V

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Problems

39

Problems

P 3.1

resistors. The simplified circuit is shown below:

shown below:

[c] The 300 , 400 , and 500 resistors are in series. The simplified circuit is

shown below:

P 3.2

[a] The 10 and 40 resistors are in parallel, as are the 100 and 25

resistors. The simplified circuit is shown below:

circuit is shown below:

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310

[c] The 600 , 200 , and 300 resistors are in parallel. The simplified circuit

is shown below:

P 3.3

Always work from the side of the circuit furthest from the source. Remember

that the current in all series-connected circuits is the same, and that the

voltage drop across all parallel-connected resistors is the same.

[a] Req = 6 + 12 + [4k(9 + 7)] = 6 + 12 + 4k16 = 6 + 12 + 3.2 = 21.2

[b] Req = 4 k + [10 kk(3 k + 5 k + 7 k)] = 4 k + 10 kk15 k = 4 k + 6 k = 10 k

[c] Req = 300 + 400 + 500 + (600k1200) = 300 + 400 + 500 + 400 = 1600

P 3.4

Always work from the side of the circuit furthest from the source. Remember

that the current in all series-connected circuits is the same, and that the

voltage drop across all parallel-connected resistors is the same.

[a] Req = 18 + [100k25k(10k40 + 22)] = 18 + [100k25k(8 + 22)]

= 18 + [100k25k30] = 18 + 12 = 30

[b] Req = 10 kk[5 k + 2 k + (9 kk18 kk6 k)] = 10 kk[5 k + 2 k + 3 k]

= 10 kk10 k = 5 k

[c] Req = 600k200k300k(250 + 150) = 600k200k300k400 = 80

P 3.5

[b] Rab = 30 kk60 kk[20 k + (200 kk50 k)] = 30 kk60 kk(20 k + 40 k)

= 30 kk60 kk60 k = 15 k

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Problems

P 3.6

15 + 8 + 7 = 30

311

12k24 = 288/36 = 8

30k120 = 3600/150 = 24

Rab = 15 + 24 + 25 = 64

[b] 35 + 40 = 75

75k50 = 3750/125 = 30

30 + 20 = 50

50k75 = 3750/125 = 30

30 + 10 = 40

40k60 + 9k18 = 24 + 6 = 30

30k30 = 15

Rab = 10 + 15 + 5 = 30

[c] 50 + 30 = 80

P 3.7

80k20 = 16

16 + 14 = 30

30 + 24 = 54

54k27 = 18

18 + 12 = 30

30k30 = 15

Rab = 3 + 15 + 2 = 20

Rab = 4k(3 + 7 + 2) = 4k12 = 3

For circuit (b)

Rab = 6 + 2 + [8k(7 + 5k2.5k7.5k5k(9 + 6))] = 6 + 2 + 8k(7 + 1)

= 6 + 2 + 4 = 12

For circuit (c)

144k(4 + 12) = 14.4

14.4 + 5.6 = 20

20k12 = 7.5

7.5 + 2.5 = 10

10k15 = 6

14 + 6 + 10 = 30

Rab = 30k60 = 20

[b] Pa =

Pb =

152

= 75 W

3

482

= 192 W

12

Pc = 52 (20) = 500 W

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312

P 3.8

[a] p4

p3

(8)2 3 = 192 W

p6 = (8)2 6 = 384 W

[c] pdiss = 576 + 288 + 192 + 384 = 1440 W

P 3.9

i2 = 8 A,

is = 12 A

at node b: 12 + 4 + 8 = 0,

at node d: 12 4 8 = 0

[b] v1

= 4is = 48 V

v3 = 3i2 = 24 V

v2 = 18i1 = 72 V

v4 = 6i2 = 48 V

loop abda: 120 + 48 + 72 = 0,

loop bcdb: 72 + 24 + 48 = 0,

loop abcda: 120 + 48 + 24 + 48 = 0

P 3.10

v10A = v10 = (10 A)(5 ) = 50 V

Using voltage division:

v5 =

5k(8 + 12)

4

(50) =

(50) = 20 V

6 + 5k(8 + 12)

6+4

Thus, p5 =

P 3.11

2

v5

202

=

= 80 W

5

5

[a]

v2.4A = 10(2.4) = 24 V

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Problems

vo = v20 =

v90 =

io =

313

20

(24) = 16 V

10 + 20

90k10

9

(24) = (24) = 14.4 V

6 + (90k10)

15

14.4

= 0.16 A

90

(v2.4A v90)2

(24 14.4)2

=

= 15.36 W

6

6

[c] p2.4A = (2.4)(24) = 57.6 W

Thus the power developed by the current source is 57.6 W.

[b] p6 =

P 3.12

[a] R + R = 2R

[b] R + R + R + + R = nR

[c] R + R = 2R = 3000 so R = 1500 = 1.5 k

This is a resistor from Appendix H.

[d] nR = 4000;

so if n = 4, R = 1 k

This is a resistor from Appendix H.

P 3.13

[a] Req

R2

R

= RkR =

=

2R

2

[b] Req

=

=

=

RkRkRk kR

(n Rs)

R

Rk

n1

R2 /(n 1)

R2

R

=

=

R + R/(n 1)

nR

n

R

= 5000 so R = 10 k

2

This is a resistor from Appendix H.

R

= 4000 so R = 4000n

[d]

n

If n = 3

r = 4000(3) = 12 k

This is a resistor from Appendix H. So put three 12k resistors in parallel

to get 4k.

[c]

P 3.14

4=

20R2

R2 + 40

so

R2 = 10

3=

20Re

40 + Re

so

Re =

Thus,

120

10RL

=

17

10 + RL

120

17

so

RL = 24

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314

P 3.15

[a] vo =

160(3300)

= 66 V

(4700 + 3300)

[b] i = 160/8000 = 20 mA

PR1 = (400 106 )(4.7 103 ) = 1.88 W

PR2 = (400 106 )(3.3 103 ) = 1.32 W

[c] Since R1 and R2 carry the same current and R1 > R2 to satisfy the voltage

requirement, first pick R1 to meet the 0.5 W specification

iR1

160 66

=

,

R1

Thus, R1

942

0.5

Therefore,

or

94

R1

2

R1 0.5

R1 17,672

R2

(160) = 66

R2 + 17,672

Thus, R2 = 12,408

P 3.16

[a] vo =

40R2

=8

R1 + R2

Let Re = R2 kRL =

vo =

so

R2 RL

R2 + RL

40Re

= 7.5

R1 + Re

so

Thus, R2 = 300

R1 = 4R2

R1 = 4.33Re

4.33(3600R2 )

3600 + R2

and

R1 = 4(300) = 1200

[b] The resistor that must dissipate the most power is R1 , as it has the largest

resistance and carries the same current as the parallel combination of R2

and the load resistor. The power dissipated in R1 will be maximum when

the voltage across R1 is maximum. This will occur when the voltage

divider has a resistive load. Thus,

vR1 = 40 7.5 = 32.5 V

pR1 =

32.52

= 880.2 m W

1200

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Problems

P 3.17

315

Refer to the solution to Problem 3.16. The voltage divider will reach the

maximum power it can safely dissipate when the power dissipated in R1 equals

1 W. Thus,

vR2 1

=1

1200

so

vR1 = 34.64 V

vo = 40 34.64 = 5.36 V

So,

40Re

= 5.36

1200 + Re

Thus,

and

(300)RL

= 185.68

300 + RL

Re = 185.68

and

RL = 487.26

P 3.18

Begin by using the relationships among the branch currents to express all

branch currents in terms of i4:

i1 = 2i2 = 2(2i3 ) = 4(2i4 )

i2 = 2i3 = 2(2i4 )

i3 = 2i4

Now use KCL at the top node to relate the branch currents to the current

supplied by the source.

i1 + i2 + i3 + i4 = 1 mA

Express the branch currents in terms of i4 and solve for i4:

1 mA = 8i4 + 4i4 + 2i4 + i4 = 15i4

so

i4 =

0.001

A

15

Since the resistors are in parallel, the same voltage, 1 V appears across each of

them. We know the current and the voltage for R4 so we can use Ohms law

to calculate R4 :

R4 =

vg

1V

=

= 15 k

i4

(1/15) mA

i3 = 2i4 =

0.002

A

15

vg

1V

.. R3 =

=

= 7.5 k

i3

(2/15) mA

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316

Calculate i2 from i4 and use Ohms law as above to find R2 :

i2 = 4i4 =

0.004

A

15

vg

1V

.. R2 =

=

= 3750

i2

(4/15) mA

i1 = 8i4 =

0.008

A

15

vg

1V

.. R1 =

=

= 1875

i1

(8/15) mA

P 3.19

[a ]

40 k + 60 k = 100 k

25 kk100 k = 20 k

vo1 =

vo =

20,000

(380) = 80 V

(75,000 + 20,000)

60,000

(vo1 ) = 48 V

(100,000)

[b ]

i=

380

= 3.8 mA

100,000

25,000i = 95 V

vo =

60,000

(95) = 57 V

100,000

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Problems

317

[c] It removes loading effect of second voltage divider on the first voltage

divider. Observe that the open circuit voltage of the first divider is

0

vo1

=

25,000

(380) = 95 V

(100,000)

Now note this is the input voltage to the second voltage divider when the

current controlled voltage source is used.

P 3.20

(24)2

= 80,

R1 + R2 + R3

Therefore, R1 + R2 + R3 = 7.2

(R1 + R2 )24

= 12

(R1 + R2 + R3 )

Therefore, 2(R1 + R2) = R1 + R2 + R3

Thus, R1 + R2 = R3 ;

2R3 = 7.2;

R3 = 3.6

R2 (24)

=5

R1 + R2 + R3

4.8R2 = R1 + R2 + 3.6 = 7.2

Thus, R2 = 1.5 ;

P 3.21

R1 = 7.2 R2 R3 = 2.1

[a] Let vo be the voltage across the parallel branches, positive at the upper

terminal, then

ig = voG1 + voG2 + + voGN = vo (G1 + G2 + + GN )

It follows that

vo =

ig

(G1 + G2 + + GN )

ik =

[b] i5 =

P 3.22

ik = vo Gk ;

Thus,

ig Gk

[G1 + G2 + + GN ]

40(0.2)

= 3.2 A

2 + 0.2 + 0.125 + 0.1 + 0.05 + 0.025

[a] At no load:

At full load:

vo = kvs =

R2

vs .

R1 + R2

vo = vs =

Re

vs ,

R1 + Re

where Re =

Ro R2

Ro + R2

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318

Therefore k

Thus

R2

R1 + R2

Re

R1 + Re

R1 =

[b] R1

R2

and

(1 k)

R2

k

(1 )

R1 =

Re

R1 =

R2 Ro

(1 k)

=

R2

Ro + R2

k

Also,

and

R2 =

(1 k)

R2

k

(k )

Ro

(1 k)

..

R1 =

(k )

Ro

k

0.05

Ro = 2.5 k

0.68

0.05

Ro = 14.167 k

0.12

[c ]

PR2 (max)

[(60)(0.85)]2

=

= 183.6 mW

14,167

PR1 (max) =

[60 0.80(60)]2

= 57.60 mW

2500

[d ]

PR1

PR2

(60)2

= 1.44 W = 1440 mW

2500

(0)2

=0W

14,167

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Problems

P 3.23

319

[a] The equivalent resistance of the circuit to the right of the 18 resistor is

100k25k[(40k10) + 22] = 100k25k30 = 12

Thus by voltage division,

v18 =

18

(60) = 36 V

18 + 12

[b] The current in the 18 resistor can be found from its voltage using Ohms

law:

36

=2A

i18 =

18

[c] The current in the 18 resistor divides among three branches one

containing 100 , one containing 25 and one containing

(22 + 40k10) = 30 . Using current division,

100k25k30

12

(i18) = (2) = 0.96 A

25

25

[d] The voltage drop across the 25 resistor can be found using Ohms law:

i25 =

[e] The voltage v25 divides across the 22 resistor and the equivalent

resistance 40k10 = 8 . Using voltage division,

v10 =

P 3.24

8

(24) = 6.4 V

8 + 22

5 k + 2 k + [9 kk18 kk6 k)] = 10 k. Therefore,

10 kk10 k

(0.050) = 25 mA

10 k

[b] The voltage drop across the 10 k resistor can be found using Ohms law:

i10k =

[c] The voltage v10k drops across the 5 k resistor, the 2 k resistor and the

equivalent resistance of the 9 k, 18 k and 6 k resistors in parallel.

Thus, using voltage division,

v6k =

2k

2

(250) = (250) = 50 V

5 k + 2 k + [9 kk18 kk6 k]

10

[d] The current through the 2 k resistor can be found from its voltage using

Ohms law:

v2k

50

i2k =

=

= 25 mA

2000

2000

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320

[e] The current through the 2 k resistor divides among the 9 k, 18 k,

and 6 k. Using current division,

i18k =

P 3.25

9 kk18 kk6 k

3

(0.025) = (0.025) = 4.167 mA

18 k

18

Req = [(150k75) + 40]k(30 + 60) = 90k90 = 45

Use voltage division to find the voltage drop between the top and bottom

nodes:

vReq =

45

(3) = 1 V

45 + 90

v1 =

150k75

50

5

(1) = (1) = V

150k75 + 40

90

9

v2 =

P 3.26

30

1

(1) = V

30 + 60

3

i10k =

(18)(15 k)

= 6.75 mA

40 k

i3k = 18 m 6.75 m = 11.25 mA

v12k = (12 k)(11.25 m) = 135 V

vo = 101.25 (135) = 33.75 V

P 3.27

[a] v6k =

6

(18) = 13.5 V

6+2

v3k =

3

(18) = 4.5 V

3+9

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Problems

321

6

[b] v6k = (Vs ) = 0.75Vs

8

3

v3k = (Vs ) = 0.25Vs

12

vx = (0.75Vs ) (0.25Vs ) = 0.5Vs

P 3.28

5 k20 = 4 ;

Therefore, ig =

i6 =

P 3.29

4 + 6 = 10 ;

10k(15 + 12 + 13) = 8 ;

125

= 12.5 A

2+8

8

(12.5) = 10 A;

6+4

io =

5k20

(10) = 2 A

20

60k[8 + 30k(4 + 80k20)] = 60k[8 + 30k20] = 60k20 = 15

Thus,

300

ig =

= 20 A

15

[b] Use current division to find the current in the 8 division:

15

(20) = 15 A

20

Use current division again to find the current in the 30 resistor:

12

i30 = (15) = 6 A

30

Thus,

p30 = (6)2 (30) = 1080 W

P 3.30

The current in the 9 resistor is 18/9 = 2 A. The current in the 2

resistor is 1 + 2 = 3 A. Therefore, the voltage across the 24 resistor is

(2)(3) + 18 = 24 V.

The current in the 24 resistor is 1 A. The current in the 3 resistor is

1 + 2 + 1 = 4 A. Therefore, the voltage across the 72 resistor is

24 + 3(4) = 36 V.

The current in the 72 resistor is 36/72 = 0.5 A.

The 20 k5 resistors are equivalent to a 4 resistor. The current in

this equivalent resistor is 0.5 + 1 + 3 = 4.5 A. Therefore the voltage

across the 108 resistor is 36 + 4.5(4) = 54 V.

The current in the 108 resistor is 54/108 = 0.5 A. The current in the

1.2 resistor is 4.5 + 0.5 = 5 A. Therefore,

vg = (1.2)(5) + 54 = 60 V

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322

[b] The current in the 20 resistor is

(4.5)(4)

18

=

= 0.9 A

20

20

Thus, the power dissipated by the 20 resistor is

i20 =

P 3.31

RV + Rmovement =

full-scale reading

103

Rmovement =

Therefore,

20 mV

= 20

1 mA

RV = 1000 (full-scale reading) 20

[b] RV = 1000(5) 20 = 4980

[c] RV = 1000(0.25) 20 = 230

[d] RV = 1000(0.025) 20 = 5

P 3.32

[b] vtrue = (50 103 )(15k45) = 0.5625 V

% error =

P 3.33

0.5612

1 100 = 0.224%

0.5625

ig =

50

= 1.995526 A;

(15.05618 + 10)

ig =

60k20.1 = 15.05618 .

60

(1.996) = 1.494768 A

80.1

60k20 = 15 .

50

= 2 A;

(15 + 10)

%error =

imeas =

itrue =

60

(2) = 1.5 A

80

1.494768

1 100 = 0.34878% 0.35%

1.5

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Problems

P 3.34

323

Begin by using current division to find the actual value of the current io :

itrue =

15

(50 mA) = 12.5 mA

15 + 45

imeas =

15

(50 mA) = 12.4792 mA

15 + 45 + 0.1

12.4792

% error =

1 100 = 0.166389% 0.17%

12.5

P 3.35

[a] The model of the ammeter is an ideal ammeter in parallel with a resistor

whose resistance is given by

100 mV

= 50 .

2 mA

We can calculate the current through the real meter using current

division:

(25/12)

25

1

im =

(imeas ) =

(imeas ) = imeas

50 + (25/12)

625

25

Rm =

throught the resistor RA :

RA =

im =

100 mV

100

=

4998 mA 4998

(100/4998)

1

(imeas) =

(imeas)

50 + (100/4998)

2500

[c] Yes

P 3.36

Original meter:

Re =

50 103

= 0.01

5

Modified meter:

Re =

(0.02)(0.01)

= 0.00667

0.03

.. Ifs = 7.5 A

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324

P 3.37

[a ]

80 103 (i1 iB) = 0.6 + 40iB (0.2 103 )

. .

Calculator solution yields iB = 225 A

[b] With the insertion of the ammeter the equations become

100i1 80iB = 7.5 103

(no change)

80i1 89iB = 0.6 103

Calculator solution yields iB = 216 A

216

[c] % error =

1 100 = 4%

225

P 3.38

iA = ifullscale = 2 103 A. The voltage across RA at full-scale deflection is

always 50 mV; therefore,

50 103

50

RA =

=

3

ifullscale 2 10

1000ifullscale 2

50

= 5.001 m

10,000 2

50

[b] RA =

= 50.1 m

1000 2

50

[c] RA =

= 1.042 m

50 2

[a] RA =

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Problems

[d] RA =

P 3.39

50

=

22

325

(open circuit)

At full scale the voltage across the shunt resistor will be 50 mV; therefore the

power dissipated will be

PA =

(50 103 )2

RA

Therefore RA

(50 103 )2

= 5 m

0.5

Otherwise the power dissipated in RA will exceed its power rating of 0.5 W

When RA = 5 m, the shunt current will be

iA =

50 103

= 10 A

5 103

.. Full-scale reading for practical purposes is 10 A.

P 3.40

Rmeter = Rm + Rmovement =

750 V

= 500 k

1.5 mA

vmeas = (25 kk125 kk50 k)(30 mA) = (20 k)(30 mA) = 600 V

vtrue = (25 kk125 k)(30 mA) = (20.83 k)(30 mA) = 625 V

600

% error =

1 100 = 4%

625

P 3.41

[a] Since the unknown voltage is greater than either voltmeters maximum

reading, the only possible way to use the voltmeters would be to connect

them in series.

[b ]

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326

i1

max

300

103 = 1.11 mA;

270

i2

max

150

103 = 0.833 mA

180

vmax = (0.833 103 )(270 + 180)103 = 375 V

Thus the meters can be used to measure the voltage.

320

[c] im =

= 0.711 mA

450 103

vm1 = (0.711)(270) = 192 V;

P 3.42

205.2

136.8

=

= 0.76 mA

270,000

180,000

im =

Vpower

P 3.43

supply

[b] Rmeter = (100)(200) = 20 k

20k70 = 15.555556 k

vmeter =

180

15.555556 = 78.75 V

35.555556

[c] 20k20 = 10 k

vmeter =

180

(10) = 22.5 V

80

vmeter b + vmeter c = 101.26 V

No, because of the loading effect.

P 3.44

Vs (10)

50 =

(1) Vs in mV; Rs in M

10 + Rs

48.75 =

Vs (6)

6 + Rs

(2)

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Problems

[a] From Eq (1)

327

10 + Rs = 0.2Vs

.. Rs = 0.2Vs 10

Substituting into Eq (2) yields

48.75 =

6Vs

0.2Vs 4

or

Vs = 52 mV

50 =

520

10 + Rs

or

50Rs = 20

So Rs = 400 k

P 3.45

[a] R1

(100/2)103 = 50 k

R2

(10/2)103 = 5 k

R3

(1/2)103 = 500

[b] Let ia

id

ia

Then % error =

1 100

id

100

100

=

,

ia =

50,000 + 25

50,025

ia

50,000

=

= 0.9995

id

50,025

For the 10 V scale:

ia

5000

=

= 0.995

id

5025

For the 1 V scale:

ia

500

=

= 0.9524

id

525

P 3.46

id =

100

50,000

[a] Rmovement = 50

R1 + Rmovement =

30

= 30 k

1 103

R2 + R1 + Rmovement =

.. R1 = 29,950

150

= 150 k

1 103

.. R2 = 120 k

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328

R3 + R2 + R1 + Rmovement =

300

= 300 k

1 103

.. R3 = 150 k

[b]

imove =

i1 =

144

= 0.96 mA

120 + 29.95 + 0.05

144

= 0.192 mA

750 k

vmeas = vx = 144 + 150i2 = 316.8 V

[c] v1 = 150 V;

i2 = 1 m + 0.20 m = 1.20 mA

i1 = 150/750,000 = 0.20 mA

.. vmeas = vx = 150 + (150 k)(1.20 m) = 330 V

P 3.47

450k360 = 200 k

Vmeter =

200

(600) = 500 V

240

True value =

% error =

360

(600) = 540 V

400

500

1 100 = 7.41%

540

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Problems

P 3.48

329

Since the bridge is balanced, we can remove the detector without disturbing

the voltages and currents in the circuit.

It follows that

i1 =

i2 =

ig (R2 + Rx )

ig (R2 + Rx )

X

=

R1 + R2 + R3 + Rx

R

ig (R1 + R3 )

ig (R1 + R3 )

X

=

R1 + R2 + R3 + Rx

R

v3 = R3 i1 = vx = i2Rx

R3 ig (R2 + Rx )

Rx ig (R1 + R3 )

X

X

..

=

R

R

.. R3 (R2 + Rx ) = Rx (R1 + R3 )

From which Rx =

P 3.49

R2 R3

R1

no current in the 5 k resistor. It follows that the equivalent resistance of the

circuit is

Req = 750 + (15,000 + 3000)k(25,000 + 5000) = 750 + 11,250 = 12 k

The source current is 192/12,000 = 16 mA.

The current down through the branch containing the 15 k and 3 k

resistors is

i3k =

11,250

(0.016) = 10 mA

18,000

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330

P 3.50

Redraw the circuit, replacing the detector branch with a short circuit.

6 kk30 k = 5 k

12 kk20 k = 7.5 k

is =

75

= 6 mA

12,500

v1 = 0.006(5000) = 30 V

v2 = 0.006(7500) = 45 V

i1 =

30

= 5 mA

6000

i2 =

45

= 3.75 mA

12,000

id = i1 i2 = 1.25 mA

P 3.51

[a]

The condition for a balanced bridge is that the product of the opposite

resistors must be equal:

(500)(Rx ) = (1000)(750)

so

Rx =

(1000)(750)

= 1500

500

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Problems

331

[b] The source current is the sum of the two branch currents. Each branch

current can be determined using Ohms law, since the resistors in each

branch are in series and the voltage drop across each branch is 24 V:

is =

24 V

24 V

+

= 28.8 mA

500 + 750 1000 + 1500

[c] We can use Ohms law to find the current in each branch:

ileft =

24

= 19.2 mA

500 + 750

iright =

24

= 9.6 mA

1000 + 1500

Now we can use the formula p = Ri2 to find the power dissipated by each

resistor:

p500 = (500)(0.0192)2 = 184.32 mW

p1000 = (1000)(0.0096)2 = 92.16 mW

p1500 = (1500)(0.0096)2 = 138.24 mW

Thus, the 750 resistor absorbs the most power; it absorbs 276.48 mW

of power.

[d] From the analysis in part (c), the 1000 resistor absorbs the least power;

it absorbs 92.16 mW of power.

P 3.52

In order that all four decades (1, 10, 100, 1000) that are used to set R3

contribute to the balance of the bridge, the ratio R2 /R1 should be set to 0.001.

P 3.53

Y-connected resistors. Both the Y-connected and -connected resistors are

shown below to assist in using Eqs. 3.44 3.46:

Now use Eqs. 3.44 3.46 to calculate the values of the Y-connected resistors:

R1 =

(40)(10)

= 4 ;

10 + 40 + 50

R2 =

(10)(50)

= 5 ;

10 + 40 + 50

R3 =

(40)(50)

= 20

10 + 40 + 50

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332

The transformed circuit is shown below:

series and parallel combinations of the resistors to the right of the 24 V source:

Req = (15 + 5)k(1 + 4) + 20 = 20k5 + 20 = 4 + 20 = 24

Therefore, the current i in the 24 V source is given by

i=

24 V

=1A

24

Use current division to calculate the currents i1 and i2 . Note that the current

i1 flows in the branch containing the 15 and 5 series connected resistors,

while the current i2 flows in the parallel branch that contains the series

connection of the 1 and 4 resistors:

i1 =

4

4

(i) = (1 A) = 0.2 A,

15 + 5

20

and

i2 = 1 A 0.2 A = 0.8 A

Now use KVL and Ohms law to calculate v1. Note that v1 is the sum of the

voltage drop across the 4 resistor, 4i2 , and the voltage drop across the 20

resistor, 20i:

v1 = 4i2 + 20i = 4(0.8 A) + 20(1 A) = 3.2 + 20 = 23.2 V

Finally, use KVL and Ohms law to calculate v2 . Note that v2 is the sum of

the voltage drop across the 5 resistor, 5i1 , and the voltage drop across the

20 resistor, 20i:

v2 = 5i1 + 20i = 5(0.2 A) + 20(1 A) = 1 + 20 = 21 V

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Problems

P 3.54

333

[a] After the 20 100 50 wye is replaced by its equivalent delta, the

circuit reduces to

96

(1000) = 240 mA

400

400

io =

(240) = 96 mA

1000

80

[b] i1 =

(240) = 48 mA

400

[c] Now that io and i1 are known return to the original circuit

i=

v2 = (50)(0.048) + (600)(0.096) = 60 V

i2 =

v2

60

=

= 600 mA

100

100

pg = (vg )(1) = 72.96 W

Thus the current source delivers 72.96 W.

P 3.55

R1 =

(18)(9)

= 6 k

27

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334

The lower left and right deltas can be replaced by wyes. Each resistance in the

wye equals 3 k. Thus our circuit can be reduced to

.. Rab = 3 k + 4 k + 3 k = 10 k

P 3.56

[a] Calculate the values of the Y-connected resistors that are equivalent to the

10 , 40 , and 50 -connected resistors:

RX =

(10)(50)

= 5 ;

10 + 40 + 50

RZ =

(10)(40)

= 4

10 + 40 + 50

RY =

(50)(40)

= 20 ;

10 + 40 + 50

Now calculate the equivalent resistance Rab by making series and parallel

combinations of the resistors:

Rab = 13 + 5 + [(8 + 4)k(20 + 4)] + 7 = 33

[b] Calculate the values of the -connected resistors that are equivalent to

the 10 , 8 , and 40 Y-connected resistors:

(10)(8) + (8)(40) + (10)(40)

800

RX =

=

= 100

8

8

(10)(8) + (8)(40) + (10)(40)

800

RY =

=

= 80

10

10

(10)(8) + (8)(40) + (10)(40)

800

RZ =

=

= 20

40

40

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Problems

335

equivalent resistance Rab:

100 k50 = 33.33 ;

80 k4 = 3.81

.. 20k(33.33 + 3.81) = 13

.. Rab = 13 + 13 + 7 = 33

[c] Convert the delta connection R4 R5R6 to its equivalent wye.

Convert the wye connection R3 R4 R6 to its equivalent delta.

P 3.57

R1 =

(50)(50)

= 12.5

200

R2 =

(50)(100)

= 25

200

R3 =

(100)(50)

= 25

200

R4 =

(60)(80)

= 24

200

R5 =

(60)(60)

= 18

200

R6 =

(80)(60)

= 24

200

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336

(120)(80)

+ 18 = 14 + 48 + 18 = 80

200

400

ig =

=5A

80

48

i31 = (5) = 3 A

80

p31 = (31)(3)2 = 279 W

P 3.58

Replace the upper and lower deltas with the equivalent wyes:

R1U =

(10)(50)

(50)(40)

(10)(40)

= 5 ; R2U =

= 20 ; R3U =

= 4

100

100

100

R1L =

(10)(60)

(60)(30)

(10)(30)

= 6 ; R2L =

= 18 ; R3L =

= 3

100

100

100

(4 + 6)k(20 + 32 + 20 + 18) = 10k90 = 9

Rab = 33 + 5 + 9 + 3 + 40 = 90

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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,

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Problems

P 3.59

337

8 + 12 = 20

20k60 = 15

15 + 20 = 35

35k140 = 28

28 + 22 = 50

50k75 = 30

30 + 10 = 40

ig = 240/40 = 6 A

io = (6)(50)/125 = 2.4 A

i140 = (6 2.4)(35)/175 = 0.72 A

p140 = (0.72)2 (140) = 72.576 W

P 3.60

is =

750

750

=

= 10 A

5 + (24 + 36)k(14 + 6) + 12 + 43

75

i1 =

(24 + 36)k(14 + 6)

15

(10) = (10) = 2.5 A

24 + 36

60

v = 36i1 6io = 36(2.5) 6(7.5) = 45 V

v

45

= 7.5 +

= 8.25 A

60

60

[d] Psupplied = (750)(10) = 7500 W

[c] i2 = io +

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338

P 3.61

25k6.25 = 5

i1 =

60k30 = 20

(6)(15)

= 2.25 A;

(40)

vx = 20i1 = 45 V

vg = 25i1 = 56.25 V

v6.25 = vg vx = 11.25 V

Pdevice =

P 3.62

+

+

= 298.6875 W

6.25

30

15

R1 R2 = (Rc Rb Rc Ra )/(Ra + Rb + Rc ).

Adding this expression to Eq. 3.41 and solving for R1 gives

R1 = Rc Rb/(Ra + Rb + Rc).

To find R2, subtract Eq. 3.43 from Eq. 3.41 and add this result to

Eq. 3.42. To find R3 , subtract Eq. 3.41 from Eq. 3.42 and add this result

to Eq. 3.43.

[b] Using the hint, Eq. 3.43 becomes

R1 + R3 =

Rb(R1 + R3 )R2

=

(R2/R1 )Rb + Rb + (R2 /R3 )Rb

(R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1 )

use Eqs. 3.443.46 to obtain the ratios (R1/R3 ) = (Rc /Ra ) or

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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,

mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,

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Problems

339

Rc = (R1 /R3 )Ra and (R1/R2 ) = (Rb /Ra ) or Rb = (R1/R2 )Ra. Now use

these relationships to eliminate Rb and Rc from Eq. 3.42. To find Rc , use

Eqs. 3.443.46 to obtain the ratios Rb = (R3 /R2 )Rc and

Ra = (R3 /R1 )Rc . Now use the relationships to eliminate Rb and Ra from

Eq. 3.41.

P 3.63

P 3.64

1

R1

=

Ra

R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3R1

1/G1

=

(1/G1 )(1/G2 ) + (1/G2 )(1/G3 ) + (1/G3 )(1/G1 )

(1/G1 )(G1 G2 G3 )

G2 G3

=

=

G1 + G2 + G3

G1 + G2 + G3

Similar manipulations generate the expressions for Gb and Gc .

Ga

Therefore

Thus

R2 (2R1 + RL )

= RL

2R1 + R2 + RL

2R1 RL +

R2 (2R1 + RL )

=0

2R1 + R2 + RL

vi /RL

Using current division, the current in the RL branch will be

vi

R2

RL 2R1 + R2 + RL

Therefore

and

vo =

vi

R2

RL

RL 2R1 + R2 + RL

vo

R2

=

vi

2R1 + R2 + RL

9 104 = R21 + R1 R2

vo

R2

= 0.6 =

vi

2R1 + R2 + 600

.. 1.2R1 + 0.6R2 + 360 = R2

0.4R2 = 1.2R1 + 360

R2 = 3R1 + 900

.. 9 104 = R21 + R1 (3R1 + 900) = 4R21 + 900R1

.. R21 + 225R1 22,500 = 0

2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be

obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,

mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,

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340

R1 = 112.5

.. R1 = 75

[c] From Appendix H, choose R1 = 68 and R2 = 1.2 k. For these values,

Rab = RL =

587.3

% error =

1 100 = 2.1%

600

vo

1200

=

= 0.624

vi

2(68) + 1200 + 587.3

0.624

% error =

1 100 = 4%

0.6

P 3.65

Now note:

Therefore

0.75R +

Rab

2.25R2 + 3.75RRL

3R

3R + RL

3R(3R + 5RL )

! =

=

2

2.25R + 3.75RRL

15R + 9RL

3R +

3R + RL

If R = RL , we have

Therefore

3RRL

2.25R2 + 3.75RRL

=

3R + RL

3R + RL

!

Rab =

3RL (8RL )

= RL

24RL

Rab = RL

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Problems

341

io =

ii(3RL )

1

1 vi

=

ii =

,

4.5RL

1.5

1.5 RL

Therefore

P 3.66

1

vo = 0.75RL io = vi ,

2

vo

= 0.5

vi

[a] 3.5(3R RL ) = 3R + RL

10.5R 1050 = 3R + 300

7.5R = 1350,

R = 180

2(180)(300)2

R2 =

= 4500

3(180)2 (300)2

[b ]

vo =

vi

42

=

= 12 V

3.5 3.5

io =

12

= 40 mA

300

i1 =

42 12

30

=

= 6.67 mA

4500

4500

ig =

42

= 140 mA

300

i3 = 40 6.67 = 33.33 mA

i4 = 133.33 33.33 = 100 mA

2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be

obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,

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342

p4500

top

p180

left

p180

right

p180

vertical

p300

load

= (100 103 )2 (180) = 0.48 W

[c] p180

left

= 3.2 W

[d] Two resistors dissipate minimum power the 4500 resistor and the 180

resistor carrying i3.

[e] They both dissipate 0.2 W.

P 3.67

[a ]

va =

vinR4

Ro + R4 + R

vb =

R3

vin

R2 + R3

vo = va vb =

R4 vin

R3

vin

Ro + R4 + R R2 + R3

R4

R3

vin =

vin

Ro + R4

R2 + R3

. .

R4

R3

=

Ro + R4

R2 + R3

Thus,

vo

=

=

=

R4 vin

R4 vin

Ro + R4 + R Ro + R4

1

1

R4 vin

Ro + R4 + R Ro + R4

R4 vin(R)

(Ro + R4 + R)(Ro + R4)

(R)R4 vin

,

since R << R4

(Ro + R4 )2

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Problems

343

[b] R = 0.03Ro

Ro =

R2 R4

(1000)(5000)

=

= 10,000

R3

500

R = (0.03)(104 ) = 300

. . v o

[c] vo

=

=

=

P 3.68

300(5000)(6)

= 40 mV

(15,000)2

(R)R4 vin

(Ro + R4 + R)(Ro + R4 )

300(5000)(6)

(15,300)(15,000)

39.2157 mV

(R)R4 vin

(Ro + R4 )2

true value =

. .

(R)R4vin

(Ro + R4 + R)(Ro + R4 )

approx value

(Ro + R4 + R)

=

true value

(Ro + R4 )

.. % error =

Ro + R4

R

1 100 =

100

Ro + R4 + R

Ro + R4

Note that in the above expression, we take the ratio of the true value to

the approximate value because both values are negative.

But Ro =

R2 R4

R3

.. % error =

[b] % error =

P 3.69

R3R

R4 (R2 + R3 )

(500)(300)

100 = 2%

(5000)(1500)

R(R3 )(100)

= 0.5

(R2 + R3)R4

R(500)(100)

= 0.5

(1500)(5000)

.. R = 75

% change =

75

100 = 0.75%

10,000

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Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

344

P 3.70

[a] From Eq 3.64 we have

i1

i2

2

R22

R21 (1 + 2)2

R2 =

R22

R1

R21 (1 + 2)2

R2 = (1 + 2)2 R1

[b] From Eq 3.67 we have

i1

R2

=

ib

R1 + R2 + 2Ra

But R2 = (1 + 2)2 R1 and Ra = R1 therefore

(1 + 2)2 R1

(1 + 2)2

i1

=

=

ib

R1 + (1 + 2)2 R1 + 2R1

(1 + 2) + (1 + 2)2

=

1 + 2

2(1 + )

It follows that

i1

ib

2

(1 + 2)2

4(1 + )2

Rb =

P 3.71

(1 + 2)2 Ra

(1 + 2)2 R1

=

4(1 + )2

4(1 + )2

From Eq 3.69

i1

R2 R3

=

i3

D

But D = (R1 + 2Ra )(R2 + 2Rb ) + 2Rb R2

where Ra = R1 ; R2 = (1 + 2)2 R1 and Rb =

(1 + 2)2R1

4(1 + )2

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Problems

=

=

=

345

2(1 + 2)2 R1

(R1 + 2R1 ) (1 + 2) R1 +

+

4(1 + )2

"

#

(1 + 2)2 R1

2

2(1 + 2) R1

4(1 + )2

"

#

(1 + 2)

3 2

(1 + 2) R1 1 +

+

2(1 + )2

2(1 + )2

(1 + 2)3R21

{2(1 + )2 + + (1 + 2)}

2(1 + )2

(1 + 2)3R21

{1 + 3 + 2 2}

(1 + )2

"

(1 + 2)4R21

D=

(1 + )

i1

..

i3

R2 R3 (1 + )

(1 + 2)4R21

(1 + 2)2R1 R3 (1 + )

=

(1 + 2)4R21

(1 + )R3

=

(1 + 2)2R1

When this result is substituted into Eq 3.69 we get

R3 =

(1 + )2R23 R1

(1 + 2)4 R21

R3 =

P 3.72

(1 + 2)4R1

(1 + )2

y

0.025

= =

= 0.025;

x

1

Vdc2

122

R3 =

=

= 1.2

p

120

R1 =

(1 + )2

R3 = 1.0372

(1 + 2)4

Calculate Ra , Rb , and R2 :

Ra = R1 = 0.0259

Rb =

(1 + 2)2R1

= 0.0068

4(1 + )2

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346

R2 = (1 + 2)2R1 = 1.1435

Using symmetry,

R4 = R2 = 1.1435

R5 = R1 = 1.0372

Rc = Rb = 0.0068

Rd = Ra = 0.0259

Test the calculations by checking the power dissipated, which should be 120

W/m. Calculate D, then use Eqs. (3.58)-(3.60) to calculate ib , i1, and i2:

D = (R1 + 2Ra )(R2 + 2Rb ) + 2R2 Rb = 1.2758

ib =

= 21 A

D

i1 =

Vdc R2

= 10.7561 A

D

i2 =

= 10.2439 A

D

3/0.025 = 120 W/m. The value of i21R1 = 120 W/m. The value of i22 R2 = 120

W/m. Finally, i21Ra = 3 W/m.

P 3.73

symmetry ic = 21 A thus the total current supplied by the 12 V source is

21 + 21 + 10 or 52 A. Therefore the total power delivered by the source is p12 V

(del) = (12)(52) = 624 W. We also have from the solution that

pa = pb = pc = pd = 3 W. Therefore the total power delivered to the vertical

resistors is pV = (8)(3) = 24 W. The total power delivered to the five

horizontal resistors is pH = 5(120) = 600 W.

..

P 3.74

pdiss = pH + pV = 624 W =

pdel

Since the power dissipation is 200 W/m the power dissipated in R3 must

be 200(1.5) or 300 W. Therefore

122

= 0.48

300

From Table 3.1 we have

(1 + )2R3

R1 =

= 0.4269

(1 + 2)4

R3 =

Ra = R1 = 0.0085

2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be

obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,

mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,

Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Problems

347

R2 = (1 + 2)2 R1 = 0.4617

Rb =

(1 + 2)2R1

= 0.0022

4(1 + )2

Therefore

R4 = R2 = 0.4617

R5 = R1 = 0.4269

Rc = Rb = 0.0022

Rd = Ra = 0.0085

i1 =

Vdc R2

= 26.51 A

D

i2 =

R1 + 2Ra

Vdc = 25.49 A

D

i21 Ra = 6 W or 200 W/m

ib =

R1 + R2 + 2Ra

Vdc = 52 A

D

isource = 52 + 52 +

12

= 129 A

0.48

pH = 5(300) = 1500 W

pV = 8(6) = 48 W

X

pdel =

pdiss = 1548 W

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