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THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY
RELATING TO THE
MOTIONS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES
REVOLVING AROUND THE SUN IN ACCORDANCE WITH
THE LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
EMBRACING
A SYSTEMATIC DERIVATION OF THE FORMULA FOR THE CALCULATION OF THE GEOCENTRIC AND
CENTRIC PLACES, FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE ORBITS OF PLANETS AND COMETS, FOB
THE CORRECTION OF APPROXIMATE ELEMENTS, AND FOR THE COMPUTATION OF
SPECIAL PERTURBATIONS; TOGETHER WITH THE THEORY OF THE COMBINATION OF OBSERVATIONS AND THE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES.
Wtiili
Uunwwtl feunjjte
mul ^uriliarg
BY
JAMES
C.
WATSON
DIRECTOR OF THE OBSERVATORY AT ANN ARBOR, AND PROFESSOR OF ASTRONOMY IN THE
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
PHILADELPHIA
J.
B.
LIPPINCOTT &
LONDON: TRUBNER &
1868
CO.
CO.
ASTRONOMY UBRAR*
/
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year
J.
B.
LIPPINCOTT &
1868,
by
CO.,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District
of Pennsylvania.
W3
PREFACE.
THE
discovery of the great law of nature, the law of gravitation, by
NEWTON, prepared
the
way
for the brilliant
achievements which have
A first essential, how
distinguished the history of astronomical science.
ever, to the solution of those recondite
the effect of the mutual
problems which were
to exhibit
attraction of the bodies of our system, was the
development of the infinitesimal calculus and the labors of those who
devoted themselves to pure analysis have contributed a most important
part in the attainment of the high degree of perfection which character;
izes the results
of astronomical investigations.
Of
the earlier efforts to
develop the great results following from the law of gravitation, those of
EULER
in
stand preeminent, and the memoirs which he published have,
reality,
celestial
furnished
mechanics.
the
In
germ of
all
subsequent investigations
this connection also the
in
names of BERNOUILLI,
CLAIRAUT, and D'ALEMBERT deserve the most honorable mention
as
having contributed also, in a high degree, to give direction to the investigations
which were
to unfold so
many
mysteries of nature.
By means
of the researches thus inaugurated, the great problems of mechanics
were successfully solved, many beautiful theorems relating to the planetary motions demonstrated, and many useful formulae developed.
It is true,
however, that in the early stage of the science methods
were developed which have since been found to be impracticable, even
if not erroneous; still, enough was effected to direct attention in the
proper channel, and to prepare the
way
for the
LAGRANGE and LAPLACE. The genius and
extraordinary men gave to the progress of
most rapid
strides
and the
intricate investigations
fully performed, served constantly to educe
all
more complete labors of
the analytical skill of these
Theoretical Astronomy the
new
which they success
discoveries, so that of
the problems relating to the mutual attraction of the several planets
PREFACE.
more remained to be accomplished by their successors than to
and
develop
simplify the methods which they made known, and to introbut
little
duce such modifications as should be indicated by experience or rendered
by the latest discoveries in the domain of pure anatysis.
The problem of determining the elements of the orbit of a comet
moving in a parabola, by means of observed places, which had been
possible
considered by
received from
NEWTON, EULER, BOSCOVICH, LAMBERT, and
LAGRANGE and LAPLACE
in the light of all that
by the former
is
others,
the most careful consideration
had been previously done.
The
solution given
analytically complete, but far from being practically
complete; that given by the latter
far as regards the labor of
is
especially simple
and practical
so
computation; but the results obtained by
it
are so affected by the unavoidable errors of observation as to be often
little
more than rude approximations.
The method which was found
to
answer best in actual practice, was that proposed by OLBERS in his
work entitled Leichteste und bequemste Methode die Bakn eines Cometen
zu berechnen, in which, by
bolic motion demonstrated
adopting a method of
certain equations, he
making use of a beautiful theorem of paraby EULER and also by LAMBERT, and by
trial
and error
was enabled
in the numerical
to effect
solution of
a solution which could be
performed with remarkable ease. The accuracy of the results obtained
by OLBERS'S method, and the facility of its application, directed the
attention of
LEGENDRE, IVORY, GAUSS, and ENCKE
to this subject,
by them the method was extended and generalized, and rendered
cable in the exceptional cases in which the other methods failed.
It should
and
appli
be observed, however, that the knowledge of one element,
the eccentricity, greatly facilitated the solution
and, although elliptic
elements had been computed for some of the comets, the
was that of parabolic motion,
first
hypothesis
so that the subsequent process
required
simply the determination of the corrections to be applied to these
ments in order to satisfy the observations. The more difficult
ele
problem
of determining all the elements of planetary motion
directly from three
observed places, remained unsolved until the discovery of Ceres
by
PIAZZI in 1801, by which the attention of GAUSS was directed to this
result of which was the subsequent
publication of his
Theoria Motus Corporum Ccelestium, a most able work, in which he
gave
to the world, in a finished form, the results of
of
attention
many
subject, the
years
PREFACE.
to the subject of
which
it
His method
treats.
for determining all the
elements directly from given observed places, as given in the Theoria
Motus, and as subsequently given in a revised form by ENCKE, leaves
scarcely any thing to be desired on this topic.
In the same work he
gave the first explanation of the method of least squares, a method
which has been of inestimable service in investigations depending on
observed data.
The discovery of the minor
planets directed attention also to the
methods of determining their perturbations, since those applied in the
For a long
case of the major planets were found to be inapplicable.
time astronomers were content simply to compute the special perturbations of these bodies
mencement
from epoch
to epoch,
and
of the brilliant researches by
it
was not until the com
HANSEN
that serious hopes
were entertained of being able to compute successfully the general perturbations of these bodies. By devising an entirely new mode of considering the perturbations, namely,
by determining what may be
called
the perturbations of the time, and thus passing from the undisturbed
place to the disturbed place, and by other ingenious analytical and
mechanical devices, he succeeded in effecting a solution of
difficult
problem, and his latest works contain
required for the cases actually occurring.
analysis
all the
The
this
most
formulae which are
refined
and
and the laborious calculations involved were such
difficult
that,
even
HANSEN'S methods were made known, astronomers still adhered
the method of special perturbations by the variation of constants
after
to
as
developed by LAGRANGE.
The discovery of
Astrcea
by HENCKE was speedily followed by the
discovery of other planets, and fortunately indeed
it
the subject of special perturbations was to receive a
so
happened that
new improvement.
The discovery by BOND and ENCKE of a method by which we determine
at once the variations of the rectangular coordinates of the disturbed
body by integrating the fundamental equations of motion by means of
mechanical quadrature, directed the attention of HANSEN to this phase
of the problem, and soon after he gave formula for the determination
of the perturbations of the latitude, the
mean anomaly, and
the loga
rithm of the radiusvector, which are exceedingly convenient in the
process of integration, and which have been found to give the most
satisfactory results.
The formulse
for the perturbations of the latitude,
PREFACE.
6
true longitude,
and
radiusvector, to be integrated in the
same manner,
were afterwards given by BRUNNOW.
Having thus stated briefly a few historical facts relating to the
problems of theoretical astronomy, I proceed to a statement of the
The discovery of
object of this work.
so
planets and comets has
many
furnished a wide field for exercise in the calculations relating to their
motions, and
it
has occurred to
me
that a
work which should contain a
development of all the formulae required in determining the orbits of the
heavenly bodies directly from given observed places, and in correcting
these orbits by means of more extended discussions of series of observations, including also the
determination of the perturbations, together
with a complete collection of auxiliary tables, and also such practical
directions as might guide the inexperienced computer, might add very
by attracting the attention of a
number
of
competent computers. Having carefully read the
greater
works of the great masters, my plan was to prepare a complete work on
materially to the progress of the science
commencing with the fundamental principles of dynamics,
and systematically treating, from one point of view, all the problems
The scope and the arrangement of the work will be best
presented.
this subject,
understood after an examination of
its
contents
and
let it suffice to
add
that I have endeavored to keep constantly in view the wants of the
computer, providing for the exceptional cases as they occur, and giving
all the formulae which appeared to me to be best adapted to the
problems
under consideration.
have not thought
geometrical signification of
many
worth while to trace out the
of the auxiliary quantities introduced.
Those who are curious in such matters
tiful
it
may
readily derive
many
beau
theorems from a consideration of the relations of some of these
For convenience, the formula) are numbered consecutively
each
through
chapter, and the references to those of a preceding chapter
are defined by adding a subscript figure denoting the number of the
auxiliaries.
chapter.
Besides having read the works of those
who have given
special atten
have consulted the Astronomische Nachrichten,
the Astronomical Journal, and other astronomical
periodicals, in which
tion to these problems, I
is
to
be found much valuable information
resulting from the experiwho have been or are now actively engaged in astro
ence of those
nomical pursuits.
must
also express
my
obligations to the publishers,
PREFACE.
Messrs. J. B.
LIPPINCOTT
&
Co., for the generous interest
which they
have manifested in the publication of the work, and also to Dr. B. A.
GOULD, of Cambridge, Mass., and to Dr. OPPOLZER, of Vienna, for
valuable suggestions.
For the determination of the time from the perihelion and of the true
anomaly in very eccentric orbits I have given the method proposed by
BESSEL
in the Monatliche Correspondenz, vol.
were subsequently given
by BRUNNOW
xii.,
the tables for which
in his Astronomical Notices,
and
method proposed by GAUSS, but in a more convenient form.
For obvious reasons, I have given the solution for the special case of
also the
parabolic motion before completing the solution of the general problem
of finding all of the elements of the orbit by
places.
The
differential formulae
means of three observed
and the other formulae
for correcting
approximate elements are given in a form convenient for application,
for finding the chord or the time of describing the
and the formulae
subtended arc of the orbit, in the case of very eccentric
orbits, will
be
found very convenient in practice.
I have given a pretty full development of the application of the
theory of probabilities to the combination of observations, endeavoring
to direct the attention of the reader, as far as possible, to the sources of
ing the problem so
and
most advantageous method of treatas to eliminate the effects of these errors.
For the
error to be apprehended
to the
rejection of doubtful observations, according to theoretical considerations,
I have given the simple formula, suggested
by CHAUVENET, which
fol
lows directly from the fundamental equations for the probability of
errors,
the
and which
will
more complete
answer for the purposes here required as well as
In the chapter
proposed by PEIRCE.
criterion
devoted to the theory of special perturbations I have taken particular
pains to develop the whole subject in a complete and practical form,
keeping constantly in view the requirements for accurate and convenient
numerical application. The time is adopted as the independent variable
in the determination of the perturbations of the elements directly, since
experience has established the convenience of this form and should it
;
be desired to change the independent variable and to use the differential
coefficients with respect to the eccentric anomaly, the equations between
this function
and the mean motion
required transformation.
will enable us to effect readily the
PREFACE.
The numerical examples involve data derived from actual observations, and care has been taken to make them complete in every respect,
so as to serve as a guide to the efforts of those not familiar with these
calculations;
and when
different
presumed that the reader
astronomy, so that
is
it
centre of the sphere
is
fundamental planes are spoken
of, it is
familiar with the elements of spherical
is
state, in all cases,
unnecessary to
whether the
taken at the centre of the earth, or at any other
point in space.
The preparation of the Tables has
me
cost
logarithms of ten decimals being employed
last
decimal given.
Several of those in previous use have been recom
puted and extended, and others here given
prepared with special care.
solar attraction
is
a great amount of labor,
in order to be sure of the
for the first
time have been
The adopted value of the constant of the
that given
by GAUSS, which,
as will appear,
accurately in accordance with the adoption of the
mean
is
not
distance of the
earth from the sun as the unit of space; but until the absolute value of
the earth's
mean motion
and accuracy,
is
known,
it is
best, for the
sake of uniformity
to retain GAUSS'S constant.
The preparation of
this
work has been
effected
amid many interrup
and with other labors constantly pressing me, by which the progress
of its publication has been somewhat delayed, even since the stereo
tions,
typing was commenced, so that in some cases I have been anticipated
in the publication of formulae which would have here appeared for the
first
time.
I have, however, endeavored to perform conscientiously the
selfimposed task, seeking always to secure a logical sequence in the development of the formulae, to preserve uniformity and elegance in the
notation, and to elucidate the successive steps in the analysis, so that the
work may be read by those who,
possessing a respectable mathematical
education, desire to be informed of the
enabled to arrive at so
means by which astronomers are
results connected with the motions
many grand
of the heavenly bodies, and by which the grandeur and
sublimity of
creation are unveiled.
The labor of the preparation of the work will
have been fully repaid
if it shall
be the means of directing a more
general attention to the study of the wonderful
vens, the contemplation of
mind the
mechanism of the hea
which must ever serve
to impress upon the
of
the
of
the
reality
perfection
OMNIPOTENT, the LIVING
OBSERVATORY, ANN ARBOR,
GOD
June, 1867.
CONTENTS.
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
CHAPTER
I.
INVESTIGATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION, AND OF THE FORMULAE FOR DETERMINING, FROM KNOWN ELEMENTS, THE HELIOCENTRIC AND
GEOCENTRIC PLACES OF A HEAVENLY BODY, ADAPTED TO NUMERICAL COMPUTATION FOR CASES OF ANY ECCENTRICITY WHATEVER.
PAGE
Fundamental Principles..
15
Attraction of Spheres
Motions of a System of Bodies
23
19
Invariable Plane of the System
Motion of a Solid Body
The Units of Space, Time, and Mass
Motion of a Body relative to the Sun
29
31
36
38
Equations for Undisturbed Motion
Determination of the Attractive Force of the Sun
Determination of the Place in an Elliptic Orbit
42
Determination of the Place in a Parabolic Orbit
Determination of the Place in a Hyperbolic Orbit
59
Methods
for finding the
True Anomaly and the Time from the Perihelion
49
53
65
in the
case of Orbits of Great Eccentricity
70
Determination of the Position in Space
Heliocentric Longitude and Latitude
Eeduction to the Ecliptic
81
Geocentric Longitude and Latitude
Transformation of Spherical Coordinates
Direct Determination of the Geocentric Eight Ascension and Declination
Reduction of the Elements from one Epoch to another
86
83
85
87
90
99
Numerical Examples
Interpolation
Time of Opposition
103
112
114
9
CONTENTS.
10
CHAPTEE
II.
FORMULA WHICH EXPRESS THE RELATION
BETWEEN THE GEOCENTRIC OR HELIOCENTRIC PLACES OF A HEAVENLY BODY
AND THE VARIATIONS OF THE ELEMENTS OF ITS ORBIT.
INVESTIGATION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL
PAGE
Variation of the Right Ascension and Declination
Case of Parabolic Motion
118
Case of Hyperbolic Motion
Case of Orbits differing but little from the Parabola
128
125
130
Numerical Examples
Variation of the Longitude and Latitude
The Elements referred to the same Fundamental Plane as the Geocentric Places
Numerical Example
Plane of the Orbit taken as the Fundamental Plane to which the Geocentric
Places are referred
135
143
149
150
153
Numerical Example
159
Variation of the Auxiliaries for the Equator
163
CHAPTER
III.
INVESTIGATION OF FORMULA FOR COMPUTING THE ORBIT OF A COMET MOVING
IN A PARABOLA, AND FOR CORRECTING APPROXIMATE ELEMENTS BY THE
VARIATION OF THE GEOCENTRIC DISTANCE.
Correction of the Observations for Parallax
167
Fundamental Equations
169
Particular Cases
172
Ratio of
Two
Curtate Distances
178
Determination of the Curtate Distances
181
Relation between Two RadiiVectores, the Chord joining their Extremities, and
the Time of describing the Parabolic Arc
184
Determination of the Node and Inclination
192
Perihelion Distance and Longitude of the Perihelion
194
Time of Perihelion Passage
195
'.
Numerical Example
Correction of Approximate Elements by varying the Geocentric Distance
Numerical Example
CHAPTER
199
208
213
IV.
DETERMINATION, FROM THREE COMPLETE OBSERVATIONS, OF THE ELEMENTS OF
THE ORBIT OF A HEAVENLY BODY, INCLUDING THE ECCENTRICITY OR FORM
OF THE CONIC SECTION.
Reduction of the Data
Corrections for Parallax
220
..
223
CONTENTS.
11
PAGE
Fundamental Equations
225
Formulae for the Curtate Distances
Modification of the Formulae in Particular Cases
..
.
228
231
Determination of the Curtate Distance for the Middle Observation
Case of a Double Solution
Position indicated by the Curvature of the Observed Path of the Body
Formulae for a Second Approximation
Formulae for finding the Ratio of the Sector to the Triangle
Final Correction for Aberration
Determination of the Elements of the Orbit
236
239
242
243
247
257
259
Numerical Example
264
Correction of the First Hypothesis
Approximate Method of finding the Katio of the Sector to the Triangle
278
CHAPTER
279
V.
DETERMINATION OF THE ORBIT OF A HEAVENLY BODY FROM FOUR OBSERVATIONS, OF WHICH THE SECOND AND THIRD MUST BE COMPLETE.
Fundamental Equations
282
Determination of the Curtate Distances
289
Successive Approximations
Determination of the Elements of the Orbit
293
294
Numerical Example
294
Method
for the Final
307
Approximation
CHAPTER
3TL
FORMULA FOR THE CORRECTION OF THE APPROXIMATE ELEMENTS OF THE ORBIT OF A HEAVENLY BODY.
INVESTIGATION OF VARIOUS
311
Determination of the Elements of a Circular Orbit
Variation of
Differential
Two
313
Geocentric Distances
Formula
318
Plane of the Orbit taken as the Fundamental Plane
Variation of the Node and Inclination
320
One Geocentric Distance
328
Variation of
324
Determination of the Elements of the Orbit by means of the Coordinates and
332
Velocities
335
Correction of the Ephemeris
Final Correction of the Elements
Relation between
Modification
Two
when
338
339
Places in the Orbit
the SemiTransverse Axis
is
very large
Modification for Hyperbolic Motion
Variation of the SemiTransverse Axis and Katio of
341
346
Two
Curtate Distances
349
CONTENTS.
12
PAGE
Variation of the Geocentric Distance and of the Reciprocal of the SemiTrans
352
verse Axis
Equations of Condition
353
Orbit of a Comet
355
Variation of
Two
357
EadiiVectores
CHAPTER
VII.
METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES, THEORY OF THE COMBINATION OF OBSERVATIONS,
AND DETERMINATION OF THE MOST PROBABLE SYSTEM OF ELEMENTS FROM
A SERIES OF OBSERVATIONS.
Statement of the Problem
Fundamental Equations for the Probability of Errors
Determination of the Form of the Function which expresses the Probability
The Measure of Precision, and the Probable Error
360
362
...
363
366
Distribution of the Errors
367
The Mean Error, and the Mean of the Errors
The Probable Error of the Arithmetical Mean
368
Determination of the
Mean and Probable
370
Errors of Observations
Weights of Observed Values
371
372
376
Equations of Condition
Normal Equations
Method of Elimination
378
380
Determination of the Weights of the Resulting Values of the
Unknown
Quanti
386
ties
Separate Determination of the Unknown Quantities and of their Weights
Relation between the Weights and the Determinants
Case in which the Problem
nearly Indeterminate
and Probable Errors of the Results
392
396
is
398
Combination of Observations
399
401
Mean
Errors peculiar to certain Observations
Rejection of Doubtful Observations
Correction of the Elements
408
410
412
415
418
423
Arrangement of the Numerical Operations
Numerical Example
Case of very Eccentric Orbits
CHAPTER
VIII.
INVESTIGATION OF VARIOUS FORMULAE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE SPECIAL
PERTURBATIONS OF A HEAVENLY BODY.
Fundamental Equations
Statement of the Problem
426
428
Variation of Coordinates
429
CONTENTS.
13
PAGE
Mechanical Quadrature
The Interval for Quadrature
433
443
445
Mode
of effecting the Integration
Perturbations depending on the Squares and Higher Powers of the Masses
446
Numerical Example
Change of the Equinox and Ecliptic
Determination of New Osculating Elements
448
455
459
462
Variation of Polar Coordinates
Determination of the Components of the Disturbing Force
Determination of the Heliocentric or Geocentric Place
467
Numerical Example
Change of the Osculating Elements
Variation of the Mean Anomaly, the Kadius Vector, and the Coordinate
Fundamental Equations
Determination of the Components of the Disturbing Force
474
477
480
483
489
493
495
502
505
510
516
523
526
471
z......
Case of very Eccentric Orbits
Determination of the Place of the Disturbed Body
Variation of the Node and Inclination
Numerical Example
Change of the Osculating Elements
'.
Variation of Constants
Case of very Eccentric Orbits
Variation of the Periodic Time
Numerical Example
529
Formulae to be used when the Eccentricity or the Inclination
Correction of the
Assumed Value
of the Disturbing
is
533
small
Mass
535
Perturbations of Comets
536
Motion about the Common Centre of Gravity of the Sun and Planet
537
Reduction of the Elements to the Common Centre of Gravity of the Sun and
Planet
Reduction by means of Differential Formulae
Near Approach of a Comet to a Planet
The Sun may be regarded as the Disturbing Body
540
546
Determination of the Elements of the Orbit about the Planet
550
Subsequent Motion of the Comet
551
538
548
Effect of a Resisting Medium in Space
Variation of the Elements on account of the Resisting
Method
to be applied
the Ether
when no Assumption
is
made
552
Medium
554
in regard to the Density of
..
556
CONTENTS.
14
TABLES.
PAGE
I.
II.
561
Angle of the Vertical and Logarithm of the Earth's Radius
For converting Intervals of Mean Solar Time into Equivalent Intervals
of Sidereal
III.
563
Time
For converting Intervals of Sidereal Time
into Equivalent Intervals
564
of Mean Solar Time
IV. For converting Hours, Minutes, and Seconds into Decimals of a Day... 565
565
V. For finding the Number of Days from the Beginning of the Year
VI. For finding the True Anomaly or the Time from the Perihelion in a
566
Parabolic Orbit
VII. For finding the True Anomaly in a Parabolic Orbit when v is nearly 180 611
612
VIII. For finding the Time from the Perihelion in a Parabolic Orbit
IX. For finding the True Anomaly or the Time from the Perihelion in Orbits
614
of Great Eccentricity
X. For finding the True Anomaly or the Time from the Perihelion in Elliptic and Hyperbolic Orbits
XL For the Motion in a Parabolic Orbit
m sin 4 z' ...
XII. For the Limits of the Eoots of the Equation sin (z'
)
XIII. For finding the Ratio of the Sector to the Triangle
XIV. For finding the Ratio of the Sector to the Triangle
XV. For Elliptic Orbits of Great Eccentricity
XVI. For Hyperbolic Orbits
XVII. For Special Perturbations
XVIII. Elements of the Orbits of the Comets which have been observed
XIX. Elements of the Orbits of the Minor Planets
XX. Elements of the Orbits of the Major Planets
XXL
Constants,
&c
618
619
622
624
629
632
632
633
638
646
648
649
EXPLANATION OF THE TABLES
651
APPENDIX.
657
Precession
Nutation
658
Aberration
659
660
Intensity of Light
Numerical Calculations
662
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
CHAPTER
I.
INVESTIGATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL, EQUATIONS OF MOTION, AND OF THE FORMULAE FOB DETERMINING, FROM KNOWN ELEMENTS, THE HELIOCENTRIC AND
GEOCENTRIC PLACES OF A HEAVENLY BODY, ADAPTED TO NUMERICAL COMPUTATION FOR CASES OF ANY ECCENTRICITY WHATEVER.
THE
1.
study of the motions of the heavenly bodies does not re
quire that we should know the ultimate limit of divisibility of the
matter of which they are composed, whether it may be subdivided
indefinitely, or
Nor
are
whether the limit
we concerned with
is an indivisible, impenetrable atom.
the relations which exist between the
separate atoms or molecules, except so far as they form, in the aggregate, a definite body whose relation to other bodies of the system it
is
On the contrary, in considering the operequired to investigate.
ration of the laws in obedience to which matter is aggregated into
single bodies
of
its
and systems of
bodies,
it is
sufficient to conceive
simply
which may be regarded as infinitesimal
volume of the body, and to regard the mag
divisibility to a limit
compared with the
finite
nitude of the element of matter thus arrived at as a mathematical
point.
An
element of matter, or a material body, cannot give itself
motion; neither can it alter, in any manner whatever, any motion
which may have been communicated to it. This tendency of matter
to resist all changes of its existing state of rest or
as inertia,
and
is
motion
is
known
Ex
the fundamental law of the motion of bodies.
perience invariably confirms it as a law of nature; the continuance of
motion as resistances are removed, as well as the sensibly unchanged
motion of the heavenly bodies during
many
centuries, affording the
15
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
16
most convincing proof of
its
universality.
Whenever,
therefore, a
material point experiences any change of its state as respects rest or
motion, the cause must be attributed to the operation of something
external to the element itself, and which we designate by the word
forces is generally unknown, and we estimate
which
the
effects
them by
they produce. They are thus rendered comand
may be expressed by abstract numbers.
parable with some unit,
2. If a material point, free to move, receives an impulse by virtue
The nature of
force.
of the action of any force, or
at
if,
any
instant, the force
by which
shall cease to act, the subsequent motion of
the point, according to the law of inertia, must be rectilinear and
being described in equal times. Thus, if s, v,
motion
is
communicated
uniform, equal spaces
and
represent, respectively, the space, the velocity,
and the
time, the
measure of v being the space described in a unit of time, we shall
have, in this case,
s
vt.
evident, however, that the space described in a unit of time will
vary with the intensity of the force to which the motion is due, and,
the nature of the force being unknown, we must necessarily compare
It
is
the velocities communicated to the point by different forces, in order
are thus led to regard
to arrive at the relation of their effects.
We
the force as proportional to the velocity; and this also has received
the most indubitable proof as being a law of nature.
Hence, the
principles of the composition and resolution of forces
also to the composition and resolution of velocities.
If the force
acts incessantly, the velocity will
may
be applied
be accelerated, and
the force which produces this motion is called an accelerating force.
In regard to the mode of operation of the force, however, we may
consider
it
it
as acting absolutely without cessation, or
we may
regard
as acting instantaneously at successive infinitesimal intervals repre
sented by
dt,
and hence the motion
as
uniform during each of these
that which is best adapted to
The latter supposition is
the requirements of the infinitesimal calculus; and, according to the
fundamental principles of this calculus, the finite result will be the
intervals.
same as in the
case of a force whose action is absolutely incessant.
Therefore, if we represent the element of space by ds, and the element of time by dt, the instantaneous velocity will be
which will vary from one instant
to another.
FUNDAMENTAL
Since the force
3.
17
proportional to the velocity, its measure at
by the corresponding velocity. If
constant, the motion will be uniformly accele
instant will be determined
any
the accelerating force
rated; and
unit
is
PRINCIPLES.
of/
is
we
designate the acceleration due to the force by/, the
the
velocity generated in a unit of time, we shall have
being
if
however, the force be variable,
If,
we
shall have, at
any
instant,
the relation
/=
dt
the force being regarded as constant in its action during the element
The instantaneous value of v gives, by differentiation,
of time dt.
dv
~dt
_
==
d*s
~di?
and hence we derive
d*s
so that, in varied motion, the acceleration
due
to the force is
mea
sured by the second differential of the space divided by the square
of the element of time.
4.
By
ter.
entire
is
the mass of the body we mean its absolute
quantity of matis
the
mass
of
a
unit
of
density
volume, and hence the
The
mass
is
required to
If
equal to the volume multiplied by the density.
the
forces
which
act
different
compare
bodies,
upon
it
it
must be considered. If equal masses
the
action of instantaneous forces, the forces
impulses by
acting on each will be to each other as the velocities imparted ; and
if we consider as the unit of force that which
gives to a unit of mass
is
evident that the masses
receive
the unit of velocity,
the mass by M,
This
is
we have
for the
measure of a force F, denoting
F = Mo.
called the quantity of motion of the body, and expresses its
overcome inertia. By virtue of the inert state of matter,
capacity to
there can be no action of a force without an
equal and contrary reaction ; for, if the body to which the force is applied is fixed, the
equilibrium between the resistance and the force necessarily implies
the development of an equal and contrary force ; and, if the body be
free to move, in the
change of state, its inertia will oppose equal and
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
18
Hence, as a necessary consequence of inertia, it
contrary resistance.
reaction are simultaneous, equal, and contrary.
and
action
follows that
If the body is acted upon by a force such that the motion is varied,
the accelerating force upon each element of
7,
and the entire motive force
is
its
mass
is
represented by
expressed by
clt
M being the sum of
all
the elements, or the mass of the body.
V
Since
ds
=W
this gives
is the expression for the intensity of the motive force, or of
For the unit of mass, the measure
the force of inertia developed.
of the force is
which
and
part of the intensity of the motive
the
unit of mass, and is what is usually
impressed upon
this, therefore, expresses that
force
which
is
called the accelerating force.
5.
The
force in obedience to
which the heavenly bodies perform
through space, is known as the attraction of gravitation ;
and the law of the operation of this force, in itself simple and unique,
has been confirmed and generalized by the accumulated researches of
modern science. Not only do we find that it controls the motions of
the bodies of our own solar system, but that the revolutions of binary
their journey
systems of stars in the remotest regions of space proclaim the universality of its operation. It unfailingly explains all the phenomena
observed, and, outstripping observation, it has furnished the means
of predicting
many phenomena
particle by a force which varies
The law of
subsequently observed.
this force is that every particle of matter is attracted
directly as the mass
by every other
inversely as
and
the square of the distance of the attracting particle.
This reciprocal action
is instantaneous, and is not
modified, in any
the
of
other
or
bodies of matter. It
degree, by
interposition
particles
is also absolutely independent of the nature of the molecules them
selves,
and of
their aggregation.
ATTRACTION OF SPHERES.
If we consider two bodies the masses of which are
19
and m', and
so
are
to
their
mutual
distance />,
whose magnitudes
small, relatively
that we may regard them as material points, according to the law of
of
gravitation, the action
in
,
and the
total force
on each molecule or unit of m' will be
on m! will be
m,m
f>'
The
action of m' on each molecule of
its total
action
will be expressed
by
,
and
by
m'
which the masses m and m f tend
toward each other is, therefore, the same on each body, which result
is a
necessary consequence of the equality of action and reaction.
The velocities, however, with which these bodies would approach
each other must be different, the velocity of the smaller mass exceeding that of the greater, and in the ratio of the masses moved. The
expression for the velocity of m', which would be generated in a unit
of time if the force remained constant, is obtained by dividing the
absolute force exerted by m by the mass moved, which gives
The
absolute or
moving
force with
m
and
this
action of
action of
6.
is,
measure of the acceleration due to the
For the acceleration due to the
at the distance p.
therefore, the
m! we derive, in a similar manner,
Observation shows that the heavenly bodies are nearly spherical
and we shall therefore, preparatory to finding the equations
which express the relative motions of the bodies of the system, determine the attraction of a spherical mass of uniform density, or
in form,
varying from the centre to the surface according to any law, for a
point exterior to it.
If we suppose a straight line to be
drawn through the
centre of the
on the
attracted, the total action of the sphere
mass
of the
the
since
this
will
be
a
force
line,
point
acting along
element
an
denote
dm
Let
to
it.
is
with
sphere
symmetrical
respect
sphere and the point
THEOEETICAL ASTEONOMY.
20
of the mass of the sphere, and p
distance from the point attracted ;
its
then will
dm
on the point attracted. If we supexpress the action of this element
and equal to unity, the
pose the density of the sphere to be constant,
and
will be expressed by
element dm becomes an element of volume,
dm = dx dy dz
being the coordinates of the element referred to a system
of rectangular coordinates. If we take the origin of coordinates
at the centre of the sphere, and introduce polar coordinates, so that
and
x, y,
= r cos
=
r cos
y
x
z
the expression for
dm
=r sin
its
we suppose
0,
&,
?>,
cos
<p
action on the point attracted
r2 cos
, ,
If
<f>
becomes
dm = r
and
cos
sin
(p
<p
dr dy dO
is
dr
dO
d<p
the axis of z to be directed to the point attracted,
the coordinates of this point will be
a being the
distance of the point from the centre of the sphere, and,
since
P*=(x xy +
we
shall
have
z
The component of
a?
(y
I/)
2ar sin
+ (z  zj,
<p j
r2
the force df in the direction of the line a, join
ing the point attracted and the centre of the sphere,
is
dfcosr,
where f is the angle at the point attracted between the element dm
and the centre of the sphere. It is evident that the sum of all the
components which act in the direction of the line a will express the
total action of the sphere, since the
sum
of those which act perpen
ATTRACTION OF SPHERES.
21
dicular to this line, taken so as to include the entire mass of the
sphere,
is
zero.
But we have
a
z j
and hence
cos Y
=a
r sin
<p
.
The
differentiation of the expression for
dp
f
da
Therefore, if
we denote
=a
r sin
<p
= cos
with respect to
a, gives
Y.
the attraction of the sphere by A,
have, by means of the values of df and
a A.
2
/>
=r
cos
dr dy do
<p
we
shall
cos f,
dp
.
=,
da
or
dA
The
polar coordinates
r, <p y
r2 cos
<p
dr dy do
r.
aa
and 6 are independent of
a,
and hence
d
da
Let us now put
(2)
and we
shall
have
~~da'
Consequently, to find the total action of the sphere on the given
we have only to find
by means of equation (2), the limits
point,
of the integration being taken so as to include the entire mass of the
sphere, and then find its differential coefficient with respect to a.
If
is
we
integrate equation (2) first with reference to 6, for
and d
constant, between the limits 6
2x, we get
cos y dr
which p
dy
This must be integrated between the limits
<p
= \%n and =
<p
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
22
but since p is a function of ^>,
2
p with respect to <p, we have
r cos
we
if
dtp
<p
differentiate the expression for
dp,
and hence
V=
ffr
a JJ
dr dp.
a
a\r;
r, and p
Corresponding to the limits of <p we have p
these limits, we
to
between
with
and taking the integral
respect
p
obtain
Integrating, finally, between the limits r
being the radius of the sphere, and,
m, this becomes
r,
F=
if
and r
we denote
=r
its
f,
we
entire
get
mass by
.
a*
Therefore,
A=
=a4
da
'
from which it appears that the action of a homogeneous spherical
mass on a point exterior to it, is the same as if the entire mass were
concentrated at
we
its
centre.
r
take the limits r and r",
and, denoting by
and
r' y this
If, in
we
the integration with respect to
r,
obtain
the mass of a spherical shell whose radii are r"
becomes
A
A
m
;.
a2
Consequently, the attraction of a homogeneous spherical shell on a
point exterior to it, is the same as if the entire mass were concentrated
at its centre.
The
supposition that the point attracted is situated within a
spherical shell of uniform density, does not change the form of the
FUNDAMENTAL
PRINCIPLES.
23
general equation; but, in the integration with reference to p, the
r
r
limits will be p
a, and p
a, which give
= +
and
this being
independent of
a,
we have
Jt=if=u
da
Whence
it
follows that a point placed in the interior of a spherical
and that, if not subject to
shell is equally attracted in all directions,
the action of any extraneous force,
it
will be in equilibrium in every
position.
7. Whatever may be the law of the change of the density of the
heavenly bodies from the surface to the centre, we may regard them
as composed of homogeneous, concentric layers, the density varying
only from one layer to another, and the number of the layers may
be indefinite.
The
mass were united
same as if its
and hence the total action
the entire mass were concentrated
action of each of these will be the
at the centre of the shell
of the body will be the same as if
The planets are indeed not exactly spheres,
at its centre of gravity.
but oblate spheroids differing but little from spheres ; and the error
of the assumption of an exact spherical form, so far as relates to
upon each other, is extremely small, and is in fact com
their action
pensated by the magnitude of their distances from each other for,
whatever may be the form of the body, if its dimensions are small
;
in
body which
action will be sensibly the same as if
comparison with
evident that
its
its
distance from the
If
it attracts, it is
its
entire
mass
we
suppose a system
of bodies to be composed of spherical masses, each unattended with
any satellite, and if we suppose that the dimensions of the bodies
are small in comparison with their mutual distances, the formation
were concentrated at
its
centre of gravity.
of the equations for the motion of the bodies of the system will be
reduced to the consideration of the motions of simple points endowed
with forces of attraction corresponding to the respective masses. Our
the several systems
is, in reality, a compound system,
of primary and satellites corresponding nearly to the case supposed ;
and, before proceeding with the formation of the equations which are
solar system
applicable to the general case, we will consider, at first, those for a
their
simple system of bodies, considered as points and subject to
the
to
mutual actions and the action of the forces which correspond
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
24
actual velocities of the different parts of the system for any instant.
It is evident that we cannot consider the motion of any single body
as free, and subject only to the action of the primitive impulsion
which
it
has received and the accelerating forces which act upon
it
but, on the contrary, the motion of each body will depend on the
force
which
acts
it
upon
and
directly,
also
on the reaction due
to the
The consideration, however, of the variaother bodies of the system.
tions of the motion of the several bodies of the system is reduced to
the simple case of equilibrium by means of the general principle that,
if we assign to the different bodies of the system motions which are
modified by their mutual action, we may regard these motions as
composed of those which the bodies actually have and of other
motions which are destroyed, and which must therefore necessarily
be such that, if they alone existed, the system would be in equilibrium.
We are thus enabled to form at once the equations for the
Let m, m r m", &c. be the masses of
the several bodies of the system, and x, y, z, x', y 2', &c. their comotion of a system of bodies.
',
any system of rectangular axes. Further, let
the components of the total force acting upon a unit of the mass of
m, or of the accelerating force, resolved in directions parallel to the
ordinates referred to
coordinate axes, be denoted by X,
and
m Yj
mX,
Z, respectively, then will
mZ,
be the forces which act upon the body in the same directions. The
velocities of the body m at any instant, in directions
parallel to the
coordinate axes, will be
dx
and the corresponding
dx
By
dz
forces are
dy
dz
virtue of the action of the accelerating force, these forces for the
next instant become
m jj + mXdt
>
mjt+mYdt,
which may be written respectively:
f
mZdt
MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES.
dx
The
dx
25
dx
actual velocities for this instant are
5+4
1+4
and the corresponding
dx
+4>
forces are
jdx
dy
dz
jdy
dz
Comparing these with the preceding expressions for the forces, it
appears that the forces which are destroyed, in directions parallel to
the coordinate axes, are
md =md^jL
md
In the same manner we find
in the case of the body m!
r
\
mXdt,
+ mYdt,
(3)
f mZdt.
for the forces
which will be destroyed
fJr'
m'd^ + m'X'dt,
m'd^jt
+ m'Y'dt,
m'd^+m'Z'dt;
dt
and similarly
According to the
the action of
under
general principle above enunciated, the system
for the other bodies of the system.
these forces alone, will be in equilibrium.
The conditions of equilibrium for a system of points of invariable but arbitrary form, and
subject to the action of forces directed in any manner whatever, are
IX,
2Y
0,
Q,
in
which X,,
Y,, Z,,
SZ,
0,
Z(X,zZp) =
0,
0,
Z (Z ,y 
Y,z~)
denote the components, resolved parallel to the
THEORETICAL ASTEONOMY.
26
coordinate axes, of the forces acting on any point, and x 9 y, z, the
These equations are equally applicable to
coordinates of the point.
the case of the equilibrium at any instant of a system of variable
form ; and substituting in them the expressions (3) for the forces destroyed in the case of a system of bodies,
we
shall
have
2mX= 0,
^m ~jr
(4)
which are the general equations
8.
Let x y h
t)
z t)
for the motions of a system of bodies.
be the coordinates of the centre of gravity of the
differentiation of the equations for the coordinates
system, and, by
of the centre of gravity, which are
Xf
we
= 2mx
~Zm'
'
2my
= ~Zm~'
*'
2mz
^ ~Ym'
get
v
2m
df
"v
ffix
dt
d*y
Sm
Introducing these values into the
first
d*z
2m
dp
three of equations
(4),
they
become
fe, ~
__
ImX
tfy,
Zm'
~di?
'
~dP
from which
it
_ZmY
tfz,
2m'
~dP
'
__
~~
ImZ
'
~2m
appears that the centre of gravity of the system moves
in space as if the masses of the different bodies of which it is composed, were united in that point, and the forces directly applied to it.
If we suppose that the only accelerating forces which act on the
bodies of the system, are those which result from their mutual action,
we have the obvious relation
:
ro'JT,
mY=
m'Y',
mZ=
m'Z',
MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES.
and similarly
for
any two bodies
2mX = 0,
so that equations (5)
27
and, consequently,
SmY= 0,
ZmZ=
become
= o,
^t
dff
*5 = o,
dt*
**'
o.
d?
Integrating these once, and denoting the constants of integration by
the results,
c, c', c"', we find, by combining
and hence the absolute motion of the centre of gravity of the system,
when subject only to the mutual action of the bodies which compose
be uniform and rectilinear. Whatever, therefore, may be
it, must
the relative motions of the different bodies of the system, the motion
of its centre of gravity is not thereby affected.
9. Let us now consider the last three of equations (4), and suppose
the system to be submitted only to the mutual action of the bodies
which compose it, and to a force directed toward the origin of co
The
ordinates.
tion, is
action of m' on m, according to the law of gravita
expressed by
in
which p denotes the distance of m from m'.
To
resolve this force in directions parallel to the three rectangular
axes, we must multiply it by the cosine of the angle which the line
joining the two bodies
makes with the coordinate axes
which gives

A = m'(af
x)
=
3

v = m'tf
JL
 
A = m'(z'z)
3
y)
p*
respectively,
Further, for the components of the accelerating force of
on
m we
r
have
,
m (x
m(y
~~
of)
m(z
~
)
'
'
Hence we derive
m(Yx
Xy)
+ m' (FV
Xy) = 0,
and generally
Q.
(6)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
28
In a similar manner, we
find
2m (Xz
2m (Zy
Zx)
Yz)
These relations will not be altered
if,
=
=
(7)
0,
0.
in addition to their reciprocal
action, the bodies of the system are acted upon by forces directed to
the origin of coordinates.
Thus, in the case of a force acting upon
m, and directed to the origin of coordinates,
alone,
Yx
= Xy,
Xz
= Zx,
we
have, for
its
action
Zy=Yz,
and similarly for the other bodies. Hence these forces disappear
from the equations, and, therefore, when the several bodies of the
system are subject only to their reciprocal action and to forces directed
to the origin of coordinates, the last three of equations (4) become
the integration of which gives
2m (xdy
2m (zdx
2m (ydz
c,
is
=
xdz) =
cdt,
zdy}
c"dtj
ydx]
c'dt,
(8)
c', and c" being the constants of integration.
Now, xdy ydx
double the area described about the origin of coordinates by the
m with the origin of
on the plane of xy during the element of time dt; and,
zdx
xdz and ydz
zdy are respectively double the areas
projection of the radiusvector, or line joining
coordinates,
further,
described, during the same time, by the projection of the radiusvector
on the planes of xz and yz. The constant c, therefore, expresses the
sum of the products formed by multiplying the areal velocity of each
body, in the direction of the coordinate plane xy, by its mass; and
r/
c', c , express the same sum with reference to the coordinate planes
xz and yz respectively.
Hence the sum of the areal velocities of the
several bodies of the system about the
origin of coordinates, each
multiplied by the corresponding mass, is constant; and the sum of
the areas traced, each multiplied by the
corresponding mass, is proIf the only forces which operate, are those
portional to the time.
INVAKIABLE PLANE.
from the mutual action of the bodies which compose the
resulting
system, this result is correct whatever
taken as the origin of coordinates.
The
29
areas described
may
be the point in space
by the projection of the radiusvector of each
body on the coordinate planes, are the projections, on these planes, of
the areas actually described in space. We may, therefore, conceive of
a resultant, or principal plane of projection, such that the sum of the
by the projection of each radiusvector on this plane,
projected on the three coordinate planes, each being multiplied
areas traced
when
by the corresponding mass, will be respectively equal to the first
members of the equations (8). Let
and y be the angles which
/9,
makes
with
the
this principal plane
coordinate planes xy, xz, and yz
respectively; and let 8 denote the sum of the areas traced on this
,
plane, in a unit of time,
by the projection of the radiusvector of
each of the bodies of the system, each area being multiplied by the
corresponding mass. The sum S will be found to be a maximum,
and
its
projections on the coordinate planes, corresponding to the
dt, are
element of time
S cos a dt,
Therefore,
c
S cos
/?
by means of equations
= S cos
2
and, since cos a
+ cos
(8),
= S cos
=
f cos
we have
a,
S cos Y dt.
dt,
c"
/?,
= S cos
Y,
/5
7
1,
Hence we derive
cos a
_ /
'21
cos Y
cos
'/2
/5
c"
These angles, being therefore constant and independent of the time,
this principal plane of projection remains constantly par
show that
allel
to itself
during the motion of the system in space, whatever
the relative positions of the several bodies; and for this
Its position
reason it is called the invariable plane of the system.
with reference to any known plane is easily determined when the
may be
velocities, in directions
parallel to the
coordinate axes, and the
masses and coordinates of the several bodies of the system, are
known. The values of c, c r , c" are given by equations (8), and
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
30
hence the values of
a,
/9,
and
7,
which determine the position of the
invariable plane.
Since the positions of the coordinate planes are arbitrary, we may
suppose that of xy to coincide with the invariable plane, which gives
cos
/?
and
cos f
= 0, and, therefore, =
c'
and c"
0.
Further,
since the positions of the axes of x and y in this plane are arbitrary,
it follows that for every plane perpendicular to the invariable plane,
the
sum
of the areas traced by the projections of the radii vector es
of the several bodies of the system, each multiplied by the corresponding mass, is zero. It may also be observed that the value of S
is
constant whatever
and that
its
value
is
be the position of the coordinate planes,
necessarily greater than that of either of the
may
quantities in the second
member of
the equatity.
when two of them are each equal to zero. It is, therefore, a
maximum, and the invariable plane is also the plane of maximum
except
areas.
10. If we suppose the origin of coordinates itself to move with
uniform and rectilinear motion in space, the relations expressed by
Thus, let xn yn z, be the coequations (8) will remain unchanged.
ordinates of the movable origin of coordinates, referred to a fixed
'
point in space taken as the origin ; and let XQ , yQ9 z , a? ', y 9 z/, &c.
be the coordinates of the several bodies referred to the movable
origin.
Then, since the coordinate planes in one system remain
always parallel to those of the other system of coordinates, we shall
have
J
x
XQ
*
z
x,
*,
y
y, ryQ
= +
and similarly for the other bodies of the system. Introducing these
values of x y and z into the first three of equations (4), they become
9
The
gives
condition of uniform rectilinear motion of the movable
origin
MOTION OF A SOLID BODY.
33
and the preceding equations become
o,
(9)
ZmZ =0.
Substituting the same values in the last three of equations (4), observing that the coordinates x h y,, z, are the same for all the bodies
of the system, and reducing the resulting equations by means of
equations
(9),
we
get
rf
^W~ x
(r7
*,
Hence
~ 2m (**  2O =
0,
(10)
appears that the form of the equations for the motion of the
of
bodies, remains unchanged when we suppose the origin of
system
coordinates to move in space with a uniform and rectilinear motion.
it
The
equations already derived for the motions of a system of
considered
as reduced to material points, enable us to form at
bodies,
once those for the motion of a solid body. The mutual distances of
11.
the parts of the system are, in this case, invariable, and the masses
of the several bodies become the elements of the mass of the solid
we
denote an element of the mass by dm, the equations (5)
for the motion of the centre of gravity of the body become
body.
If
(11)
the summation, or integration with reference to dm, being taken so as
to include the entire mass of the body, from which it appears that
the centre of gravity of the body moves in space as if the entire mass
were concentrated in that point, and the forces applied to it directly.
If we take the origin of coordinates at the centre of gravity of
the body, and suppose it to have a rectilinear, uniform motion in
and denote the coordinates of the element dm, in reference
of the equations (10),
origin, by XQ , y Q ZQ we have, by means
space,
this
to
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
32
y.
*,
dm f ( Yx
~ x%) dm =
dm  (Xz
 Zx
dm
dm
(%  K ^ =
O)
o,
the integration with respect to dm being taken so as to include the
These equations, therefore, determine the
entire mass of the body.
motion of rotation of the body around
its
centre of gravity regarded
as fixed, or as having a uniform rectilinear motion in space.
Equations (11) determine the position of the centre of gravity for any
instant, and hence for the successive instants at intervals equal to dt;
and we may consider the motion of the body during the element of
time dt as rectilinear and uniform, whatever may be the form of its
Hence, equations (11) and (12) completely determine the
trajectory.
the former relating to the motion of
position of the body in space,
translation of the centre of gravity, and the latter to the motion of
It follows, therefore, that for any forces
rotation about this point.
act upon a body we can always decompose the actual motion
which
into those of the translation of the centre of gravity in space, and of
the motion of rotation around this point ; and these two motions may
be considered independently of each other, the motion of the centre
of gravity being independent of the form and position of the body
about this point.
If the only forces which act upon the body are the reciprocal action
of the elements of its mass and forces directed to the origin of coordinates, the second terms of equations (12) become each equal to
zero, and the results indicated by equations (8) apply in this case
also.
of
The
parts of the system being invariably connected, the plane
areas, or invariable plane, is evidently that which is
maximum
perpendicular to the axis of rotation passing through the centre of
gravity, and therefore, in the motion of translation of the centre of
gravity in space, the axis of rotation remains constantly parallel to
itself.
Any extraneous force which tends to disturb this relation
will necessarily develop a contrary reaction,
any change of
and hence a rotating body
We
plane of rotation not parallel to itself.
that
on
account of the invariability of the mutual
may observe, also,
distances of the elements of the mass, according to equations (8), the
resists
its
motion of rotation must be uniform.
12.
We
shall
now
consider the action of a system of bodies on a
MOTION OF A SOLID BODY.
33
Let xw yQ , ZQ , x f , y ', z ',
distant mass, which we will denote by M.
&c. be the coordinates of the several bodies of the system referred
its centre of gravity as the origin of coordinates; xn
y, 9 and z,
the coordinates of the centre of gravity of the system referred to
to
The coordinates of the body
the centre of gravity of the body M.
m, of the system, referred to this origin, will therefore be
x
= +
x,
a?
f y
y,
fl ,
z,\ z
and similarly for the other bodies of the system. If we denote by
r the distance of the centre of gravity of
from that of M, the
force
of
the
former
on
an
element
of mass at the centre
accelerating
of gravity of the
latter,
resolved parallel to the axis of xy will be
mx
and, therefore, that of the entire system on the element of
in the same direction, will be
We
have also
r
and, if
+xY+
(x,
we denote by
(y,
2
2/
(*/
+z
M resolved
9
the distance of the centre of gravity of the
r,
system from M,
= + +
*,
r,
y,
i,,
Therefore
x
We
shall
+X
Q}
(X,
+ 2(^ + Mo + z,z + r
now suppose
system to be so small in
S
2
(r;
the mutual distances of the bodies of the
comparison with the distance
r,
of
its
centre
of gravity from that of
that terms of the order r 2 may be neglected
9
a condition which is actually satisfied in the case of the secondary
systems belonging to the solar system. Hence, developing the second
factor of the second
of the order r
2
,
we
member
shall
of the last equation, and neglecting terms
have
~~
r3
r/
r,
and
=x
rf
~
L,
3
r,
(x,ZmxQ
+ y,Zmy
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
34
But, since o? , y , zw are the coordinates in reference to the centre of
gravity of the system as origin, we have
SmyQ
and the preceding equation reduces
to
ImxQ
0,
mx
^=
Sm&
0,
0,
2m
'^
In a similar manner, we find
Sm
my
mz
'
q~~
r3
The second members
M resolved
9
q
3
r3
r,
total accelerating force
on
\J 9
Zm
r,
of these equations are the expressions for the
due to the action of the bodies of the system
parallel to the coordinate axes respectively,
when we
consider the several masses to be collected at the centre of gravity
of the system. Hence we conclude that when an element of mass
is
attracted
by a system of bodies so remote from
it
that terms of the
order of the squares of the coordinates of the several bodies, referred
to the centre of gravity of the system as the origin of coordinates,
may be neglected in comparison with the distance of the system from
the point attracted, the action of the system will be the same as if
the masses were all united at its centre of gravity.
If we suppose the masses w, m', m", &c. to be the elements of the
mass of a single body, the form of the equations remains unchanged;
and hence it follows that the mass
is acted upon
by another mass,
or by a system of bodies, as if the entire mass of the body, or of the
It is evident, also,
system, were collected at its centre of gravity.
that reciprocally in the case of two systems of bodies, in which the
mutual distances of the bodies are small in comparison with the
distance between the centres of gravity of the two systems, their
mutual action is the same as if all the several masses in each system
were collected at the
common
centre of gravity of that system ; and
move as if the masses were thus
the two centres of gravity will
united.
13. The results already obtained are sufficient to enable us to form
the equations for the motions of the several bodies which
compose the
solar system.
If these bodies were exact spheres, which could be
considered as composed of homogeneous concentric
spherical shells,
the density varying only from one layer to
another, the action of
MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES.
35
each on an element of the mass of another would be the same as if
the entire mass of the attracting body were concentrated at its centre
The slight deviation from this law, arising from the
form of the heavenly bodies, is compensated
by the magnitude of their mutual distances; and, besides, these mutual distances
of gravity.
ellipsoidal
are so great that the action of the attracting
body on the entire mass
of the body attracted, is the same as if the latter were concentrated
at its centre of gravity.
Hence the consideration of the reciprocal
action of the single bodies of the system, is reduced to that of material
points corresponding to their respective centres of gravity, the masses
of which, however, are equivalent to those of the
corresponding
bodies.
The mutual distances of the bodies composing the secondary
systems of planets attended with satellites are so small, in comparison
with the distances of the different systems from each other and from
the other planets, that they act upon these, and are
reciprocally acted
upon, in .nearly the same manner as if the masses of the secondary
systems were united at their common centres of gravity, respectively.
The motion of
planet and
the centre of gravity of a system
consisting of a
not affected by the reciprocal action of the
its satellites is
bodies of that system, and hence it may be considered
independently
of this action.
The difference of the action of the other planets on
a planet and its satellites will simply produce
inequalities in the
relative motions of the latter bodies as determined
action alone,
and
will not affect the motion of their
by
their
common
mutual
centre
of gravity.
Hence, in the formation of the equations for the motion
of translation of the centres of gravity of the several planets or
secondary systems which compose the solar system, we have simply
them as points endowed with attractive forces correspond
to consider
ing to the several single or aggregated masses. The investigation
of the motion of the satellites of each of the planets thus attended,
forms a problem entirely distinct from that of the motion of the
centre of gravity of such a system.
The consideration of
the motion of rotation of the several bodies of the solar system about
their respective centres of gravity, is also independent of the motion
common
the forces which act upon a
planet passed through the centre of gravity, the motion of rotation
would be undisturbed; and, since this resultant in all cases very
of translation.
If the resultant of
all
nearly satisfies this condition, the disturbance of the motion of rotais
very slight. The inequalities thus produced in the motion
tion
fact, sensible, and capable of being indicated by
It has, indeed,
in
the case of the earth and moon.
observation, only
of rotation are, in
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
36
been rigidly demonstrated that the axis of rotation of the earth relative to the body itself is fixed, so that the poles of rotation and the
same position in reference
also the velocity of rotation is constant.
terrestrial equator preserve constantly the
and that
to the surface;
This assures us of the permanency of geographical positions, and,
in connection with the fact that the change of the length of the
day arising from the variation of the obliquity of the
of the tropical year, due to the action of
ecliptic and in the length
the sun, moon, and planets upon the earth, is absolutely insensible,
mean
solar
amounting
years,
to only a small fraction of a second in a million of
assures us also of the
permanence of the interval which we
adopt as the unit of time in astronomical investigations.
we
on one of the bodies of the system, it is
only possible to deduce from observation the relative motions of the
These relative motions in the case of the
different heavenly bodies.
14. Placed, as
are,
comets and primary planets are referred to the centre of the sun,
since the centre of gravity of this body is near the centre of gravity
of the system, and its preponderant mass facilitates the integration
of the equations thus obtained. In the case, however, of the secondary
systems, the motions of the satellites are considered in reference to
We
the centre of gravity of their primaries.
shall, therefore, form
the equations for the motion of the planets relative to the centre of
gravity of the sun; for which it becomes necessary to consider more
particularly the relation between the heterogeneous quantities, space,
Each denomination,
time, and mass, which are involved in them.
being divided by the unit of its kind, is expressed by an abstract
number ; and hence it offers no difficulty by its presence in an equa
For the unit of space we may arbitrarily take the mean distance of the earth from the sun, and the mean solar day may be
taken as the unit of time. But, in order that when the space is
tion.
expressed by
1,
and the time by
1,
the force or velocity
may
also be
of space is first adopted, the relation of
which determines the measure of the force
1, if the unit
expressed by
the time and the mass
will be such that the units of both
if
we denote by /
cannot be arbitrarily chosen.
the acceleration due to the action of the
Thus,
mass m on a material point at the distance a, and by/' the acceleration corresponding to another mass m!
acting at the same distance,
we have
the relation
MOTION KELATIVE TO THE SUN.
37
and hence, since the acceleration is proportional to the mass, it may
But we have, for the measure
be taken as the measure of the latter.
of/,
^
dV
Integrating this, regarding /as constant, and the point to
a state of rest, we get
s
The
move from
(13)
$fi*.
acceleration in the case of a variable force
is, at any instant,
measured by the velocity which the force acting at that instant would
generate, if supposed to remain constant in its action, during a unit
of time.
The
last
equation gives,
when
1,
/=2;
and hence the acceleration is also measured by double the space which
would be described by a material point, from a state of rest, during
a unit of time, the force being supposed constant in its action during
this time.
In each case the duration of the unit of time is involved
measure of the acceleration, and hence in that of the mass on
which the acceleration depends and the unit of mass, or of the force,
will depend on the duration which is chosen for the unit of time. In
in the
general, therefore, we regard as the unit of mass that which, acting
constantly at a distance equal to unity on a material point free to
move, will give to
this point, in a unit of time, a velocity which,
the force ceased to act, would cause
tance in the unit of time.
if
it
to describe the unit of dis
Let the unit of time be a mean solar day; ]& the acceleration due
by the mass of the sun at the unit of distance;
and /the acceleration corresponding to the distance T; then will
to the force exerted
becomes the measure of the mass of the sun. The unit of
mass is, therefore, equal to the mass of the sun taken as many times
and
contained in unity.
Hence, when we take the mean solar
day as the unit of time, the mass of the sun is measured by F; by
which we are to understand that if the sun acted during a mean solar
as 1&
is
day, on a material point free to move, at a distance constantly equal
to the mean distance of the earth from the sun, it would, at the end
of that time, have communicated to the point a velocity which, if
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
38
the force did not thereafter act, would cause
2
of time, the space expressed by /v
it
to describe, in a unit
The
acceleration
due
to the action of the sun at the unit of distance
the square root of this quantity appears
designated by
formulae
will be derived.
in
the
which
frequently
k? } since
is
If
we take
arbitrarily the
mass of the sun as the unit of mass, the
Let t denote the number of mean
unit of time must be determined.
solar days which must be taken for the unit of time when the unit
The space which the force due to
of mass is the mass of the sun.
on a material point at a distance equal to
the mean distance of the earth from the sun, would cause the point
this mass, acting constantly
to describe in the time
t,
is,
according to equation (13),
But, since t expresses the number of mean solar days in the unit of
time, the measure of the acceleration corresponding to this unit is 2s,
and this being the unit of force, we have
W=
and hence
=!
Therefore, if the mass of the sun is regarded as the unit of mass, the
solar days in the unit of time will be equal to unity
number of mean
divided by the square root of the acceleration due to the force exerted
this mass at the unit of distance.
The numerical value of k will
by
be subsequently found to be 0.0172021, which gives 58.13244 mean
solar days for the unit of time, when the mass of the sun is taken as
the unit of mass.
15.
Let
x, y, z
be the coordinates of a heavenly body referred to
the centre of gravity of the sun as the origin of coordinates; r its
denote the
radiusvector, or distance from this origin; and let
quotient obtained by dividing its mass by that of the sun; then,
taking the mean solar day as the unit of time, the mass of the sun is
z
For a
expressed by F, and that of the planet or comet by mk
r
second body let the coordinates be a/, y , z' ; the distance from the
.
2
sun, r' ; and the mass, m'k ; and similarly for the other bodies of the
Let the coordinates of the centre of gravity of the sun
system.
referred to any fixed point in
space be , 57, , the coordinate planes
being parallel to those of
x, y,
and
2,
respectively;
then will the
MOTION RELATIVE TO THE SUN.
acceleration
due to the action of
and the three components of
39
on the sun be expressed by ^~,
this force in directions
parallel to the
coordinate axes, respectively, will be
mtf,
mtfV,
r3
r3
The
action of
mJc2
r3
on the sun will be expressed by
and hence the acceleration due
to the
combined and simultaneous
action of the several bodies of the system on the sun, resolved parallel to the coordinate axes, will be
mx
" my
"73"'
The motion of
>
mz
^*'
the centre of gravity of the sun, relative to the fixed
be determined by the equations
origin, will, therefore,
Let p denote the distance of in from m r p f its distance from m" y
adding an accent for each successive body considered; then will the
action of the bodies m', m", &c. on m be
of which the three components parallel to the coordinate axes, respectively, are
The
action of the sun
on m, resolved in the same manner,
is
expressed
by
Vx
tf
tfz
which are negative, since the force tends to diminish the coordinates
The three components of the total action of the other
Xj y, and z.
bodies of the system on
are, therefore,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
40
&x
_j_
7. 2
v ra'<y
a)
"7
~F'
'
i./jX^y)
3
,..
,
"jr
m referred to the fixed origin
and, since the coordinates of
+ a,
>?
c f
y,
are
the equations which determine the absolute motion are
<*
dt*
cfcc
"
F*
_
"
7<2V
mV
x)
'
r3
"
'
the symbol of summation in the second members relating simply to
the masses and coordinates of the several bodies which act on m,
exclusive of the sun.
Substituting for j^,
O/t
given by equations (14),
we
and
~
their values
ut
(Mi
get
Since x, y y z are the coordinates of m relative to the centre of gravity
of the sun, these equations determine the motion of m relative to that
The second members may be put in another form, which
point.
greatly facilitates the solution of some of the problems relating to
the motion of m.
Thus, let us put
t\
m'
m"
xx'+yy' +z^\
II
xx"+yy"+2z"
(17)
and we
shall
have for the partial
differential coefficient of this
with
respect to x,
^\_L/_
i*_^.\ +j5L/_ i*:_^.\ 4
m\
dxl
l
p*
dx
r'
!^l + m\
p'*
dx
r" 3
&c
MOTION EELATIVE TO THE SUN.
41
But, since
we have
dp _
dx
dp' _
x"
dx
f>
and hence we derive
(d^\_
m'
Ix'
x'
m"
lx"x
x"
or
We
same manner,
with respect to y and z,
find, also, in the
cients
The
for the partial differential coeffi
equations (16), therefore, become
members of equations (16) exthe
difference
between
action
of the bodies m', m", &c. on
the
press
and on the sun, resolved parallel to the coordinate axes respectIt will be observed that the second
The mutual distances of the planets are such that these quanare generally very small, and we may, therefore, in a first
relative to the sun, neglect the
approximation to the motion of
second members of these equations; and the integrals which may
ively.
tities
then be derived, express what is called the undisturbed motion of m.
By means of the results thus obtained for the several bodies successively, the
approximate values of the second members of equations
and hence a still closer approximation to the
The force whose components are expressed by
(16) may be found,
actual motion of m.
the second
members of
these equations
is
called the disturbing force ;
THEOEETICAL ASTKONOMY.
42
which
,
and, using the second form of the equations, the function
determines these components, is called the perturbing function. The
complete solution of the problem is facilitated by an artifice of the
infinitesimal calculus,
known
constants, according to
which the complete integrals of equations (16)
are of the
same form
as the variation of parameters, or of
as those obtained
by putting the second mem
arbitrary constants, however, of the latter
These constants of integraintegration being regarded as variables.
of
relative to the
the
motion
determine
tion are the elements which
bers equal to zero, the
neglected the elements are pure
sun, and when the disturbing force
The variations of these, or of the coordinates, arising
constants.
from the action of the disturbing force are, in almost all cases, very
is
The problem which first
small, and are called the perturbations.
presents itself is, therefore, the determination of all the circumstances
of the undisturbed motion of the heavenly bodies, after which the
action of the disturbing forces may be considered.
may be further remarked that, in the formation
equations, we have supposed the different bodies to
It
of the preceding
be free to move,
There are, inand, therefore, subject only to their mutual action.
facts
derived
from
the
of
the
motion
of
the
comets which
deed,
study
to indicate that there exists in space a resisting medium which
If such a
opposes the free motion of all the bodies of the system.
seem
medium
actually exists, its effect is very small, so that it can be senonly in the case of rare and attenuated bodies like the comets,
since the accumulated observations of the different planets do not
sible
exhibit
any
effect
of such resistance.
But, if
we assume
its
existence,
evidently necessary only to add to the second members of equations (16) a force which shall represent the effect of this resistance,
which, therefore, becomes a part of the disturbing force, and the
it is
motion of
will be completely determined.
16. When we consider the undisturbed motion of a
planet or
comet relative to the sun, or simply the motion of the body relative
to the sun as subject only to the reciprocal action of the two
bodies,
the equations (16) become
g + *(!+ *) =
g + *(! + 1 =
)
<),
0,
(19)
MOTION RELATIVE TO THE SUN.
43
The
equations for the undisturbed motion of a satellite relative to its
2
primary are of the same form, the value of k , however, being in this
case the acceleration
primary
due to the
at the unit of distance,
force exerted
and
by the mass of the
the ratio of the mass of the
of the primary.
integrals of these equations introduce six arbitrary constants
of integration, which, when known, will completely determine the
satellite to that
The
undisturbed motion of
If
a?,
we multiply
the
and subtract the
m relative
of these equations by yy and the second by
first
last
to the sun.
product from the
first,
we
shall find,
by
inte
grating the result,
ydx
xdy
~~
_~
being an arbitrary constant.
In a similar manner, we obtain
xdz
zdx
~~
ydz
:c
>
zdy
'
If we multiply these three equations respectively by
z,
y,
and
x,
and add the products, we obtain
ez
c'y
f c"x
0.
This, being the equation of a plane passing through the origin of
shows that the path of the body relative to the sun is a
coordinates,
plane curve, and that the plane of the orbit passes through the centre
of the sun.
Again,
if
we multiply
of equations (19) by 2dx, the second
take
the sum and integrate, we shall
2dz,
the
by 2dy, and the third by
first
find
2
But, since r
= x + y*
2
\
rdr
we
shall have,
= xdx
j
ydy
f
by
differentiation,
zdz.
Therefore, introducing this value into the preceding equation,
m)
ft
j
Civ
h being an arbitrary constant.
=^
we obtain
44
If
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
we add
and put
for
together the squares of the expressions
+ c' + c
2
//2
4/
we
shall
c, c',
and c",
have
'
df
df
4f2 '
or
^=
4^
If we represent by dv the infinitely small angle contained between
2
2
2
radii vectores r and r
dr, since doc \ dy f dz is
the square of the element of path described by the body, we shall
two consecutive
have
da?
+ dy
f dz
= dr + r dv\
Substituting this value in the preceding equation,
2
r dv
it
becomes
(22)
2fdt.
2
quantity r dv is double the area included by the element of path
in
the
element of time dt, and by the radiivectores r and
described
The
f dr; and/, therefore, represents the areal velocity, which, being a
constant, shows that the radiusvector of a planet or comet describes
equal areas in equal intervals of time.
From
the equations (20) and (21)
dt
we
find,
by elimination,
rdr
+ m)
l/SwF (1
hr2
Substituting this value of dt in equation (22),
^
2
(1 f
which
gives, in order to find the
dr
_ rVZrk (1
we
get
m)
(24)
/tr
4/
maximum and minimum values of r,
f
(23)
4/
hr 2
m)
4/
>
"IT"
eft;
or
Therefore
ff(l+m)
and
m)
JT T
are, respectively, the
2
/
Vy
4/
*(!
m)
maximum and minimum
values of
r.
The
MOTION RELATIVE TO THE SUN.
45
points of the orbit, or trajectory of the body relative to the sun, corr, are called the apsides; the former,
the aphelion, and the latter, the perihelion.
If we represent these
responding to these values of
values, respectively,
which
a
it becomes
(24),
in
>
by a (I
(1
and a(l
e)
we
e),
shall
have
Introducing these values into the equation
).
tg.
j/jp dr
the integral of which gives
v
to
1
CD
f cos
being an arbitrary constant.
Therefore
1
I(^_
r
e
\
e\ r
1,
we
=cog(,_
fl,
shall
have
),
from which we derive
r= 1
which
P
,
f
e cos (v
>)
the polar equation of a conic section, the pole being at the
to the
focus, p being the semiparameter, e the eccentricity, and v
angle at the focus between the radiusvector and a fixed line, in the
plane of the orbit, making the angle to with the semitransverse
is
axis a.
If the angle v
CD is
counted from the perihelion,
we have
0,
and
1
f
e cos v
The angle v is called
Hence we conclude
around
the
sun
is
the true anomaly.
that the orbit of a heavenly body revolving
a conic section with the sun in one of the foci.
Observation shows that the planets revolve around the sun in ellipses,
usually of small eccentricity, while the comets revolve either in
ellipses of great eccentricity, in parabolas, or in hyperbolas,
cir
cumstance which, as we shall have occasion to notice hereafter, greatly
THEOKETICAL ASTRONOMY.
46
amount of labor
lessens the
in
many computations
respecting their
motion.
2
Introducing into equation (23) the values of h and 4/ already
we
found,
obtain
rdr
I/a
_l<V
l^r)
the integration of which gives
t=~
/
...
i/a
cos
^1/1 +7^\
e\\

/
la
i\
rV\
ae
TV.
ff)fi
(26)
'
and the integral reduces to t
we denote the time from the perihelion by tQJ we
In the perihelion, r
therefore, if
=a
r\
ae
(1
g),
= C;
shall
have
f
m\
ae
ae
(27)
an d therefore we shall have, for the
a (1
In the aphelion, r
&)
time in which the body passes from the perihelion to the aphelion,
t
\r,
',
or
^
_ a
ky'l \m
r being the periodic time, or time of one revolution of the planet
around the sun, a the semitransverse axis of the orbit, or mean distance from the sun, and n the semicircumference of a circle whose
radius
is
unity.
Therefore
we
shall
have
MOTION RELATIVE TO THE SUN.
For a second
planet,
we
shall
47
have
and, consequently, between the mean distances and periodic times of
any two planets, we have the relation
m')r'
If the masses of the two planets m and m' are very nearly the
1 j m' and hence, in this case, it follows
same, we may take 1 f m
that the squares of the periodic times are to each other as the cubes of
mean distances from the sun. The same result may be stated in
the
another form, which is sometimes more convenient. Thus, since nab
is the area of the
ellipse, a and 6 representing the semiaxes, we
shall
have
=/= areal velocity;
2
and, since b
=a
(1
),
we have
TO'g'(l^)'
which becomes, by substituting the value of r already found,
(30)
F1S).
In
like
manner, for a second planet, we have
+m
and, if the masses are such that we may take 1
sensibly equal
to 1 f m', it follows that, in this case, the areas described in equal
times, in different orbits, are proportional to the square roots of their
parameters.
We
17.
shall now consider the signification of some of the constants of integration already introduced.
Let i denote the inclination
of the orbit of
to the plane of xy, which is thus taken as the plane
&
of reference, and let
be the angle formed by the axis of x and the
line of intersection of the plane of the orbit with the plane of xy;
then will the angles i and & determine the position of the plane of
48
the orbit in space.
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
The
constants
equation
cz
c'y \
c"x
and
c',
c,
c", involved in the
0,
double the projections, on the coordinate planes,
of the areal velocity /; and hence we shall have
are, respectively,
xy
xz,
and
yz,
cos
the intersection of
projection of 2/ on a plane passing through
the plane of the orbit with the plane of xy, and perpendicular to the
The
latter, is
2/sini;
and the projection of this on the plane of
at an angle equal to &, gives
c'
Its projection
= 2/ sin
cos
xz, to
which
sin
inclined
it is
&.
on the plane of yz gives
c"
= 2/sin
sin
&
Hence we derive
z cos i
y sin i cos
1 \
x sin
(31)
0,
the equation of the plane of the orbit; and, by means of
the value of / in terms of p, and the values of c, c', c", we derive,
"which
is
also,
+ m) cos a
sin
(82)
*'
sn
These equations will enable us to determine &, i, and p, when, for
any instant, the mass and coordinates of m, and the components of
its velocity, in directions parallel to the coordinate axes, are known.
The constants a and e are involved in the value of p, and hence four
constants, or elements, are introduced into these equations,
two of
which, a and e, relate to the form of the orbit, and two, 1 and i, to
co
If we measure the angle v
the position of its plane in space.
from the point in which the orbit intersects the plane of xy, the conwill determine the position of the orbit in its
Finally, the constant of integration C, in equation (26),
stant
co
own
is
plane.
the time
MOTION EELATIVE TO THE SUN.
49
of passage through the perihelion ; and this determines the position
of the body in its orbit.
When these six constants are known, the
undisturbed orbit of the body is completely determined.
Let
denote the velocity of the body in its orbit; then will
equation (20) become
At
the perihelion, r is a minimum, and hence, according to this
is a maximum.
At the
equation, the corresponding value of
F is
minimum.
aphelion,
In the parabola, a
oo,
a
and hence
which
will determine the velocity at any instant, when r is known.
It will be observed that the velocity, corresponding to the same value
of r, in an elliptic orbit is less than in a parabolic orbit, and that,
negative in the hyperbola, the velocity in a hyperbolic
greater than in the case of the parabola.
Further, since
the velocity is thus found to be independent of the eccentricity, the
since
orbit
is
is still
no influence on the
direction of the motion has
species of conic section
described.
If the position of a heavenly body at any instant, and the direction
velocity, are given, the relations already derived
and magnitude of its
will enable us to determine the six constant elements of its orbit.
But
since
we cannot know
in
advance the magnitude and direction
of the primitive impulse communicated to the body, it is only by
the aid of observation that these elements can be derived; and
therefore, before considering the formula necessary to determine
unknown elements by means of observed
positions,
we
will investi
gate those which are necessary for the determination of the heliocentric and geocentric places of the body, assuming the elements to
be known.
The
results thus obtained will facilitate the solution of
the problem of finding the
by observation.
unknown elements from
To determine the value of &, which
system, we have, from equation (28),
18.
VI
4
is
the data furnished
a constant for the solar
THEORETICAL ASTEONOMY.
50
In the case of the earth, a
l,
and therefore
rl/1
+m
In reducing this formula to numbers we should properly use, for r,
The
the absolute length of the sidereal year, which is invariable.
eifect of the action of the other bodies of the system on the earth is
to produce a very small secular change in its mean longitude correthe elements; and
sponding to any fixed date taken as the epoch of
a correction corresponding to this secular variation should be applied
The eifect of this corto the value of r derived from observation.
rection
is
to slightly increase the observed value of r; but to deter
with precision requires an exact knowledge of the masses of
all the bodies of the system, and a complete theory of their relative
a problem which is yet incompletely solved. Astronomical
motions,
mine
it
usage has, therefore, sanctioned the employment of the value of k
found by means of the length of the sidereal year derived directly
from observation. This is virtually adopting as the unit of space a
distance which is very little less than the absolute, invariable mean
distance of the earth from the sun; but, since this unit may be arbitrarily chosen, the accuracy of the results is not thereby aifected.
The value of
r from which the adopted value of k has been commean solar days; and the value of the com365.2563835
puted,
bined mass of the earth and moon is
is
m=
Hence we have log r
log
271
354710
= 2.5625978148;
= 0.7981798684;
log j/1
+m = 0.0000006 122;
and, consequently,
log k
= 8.2355814414.
If we multiply this value of k by 206264.81, the number of seconds
of arc corresponding to the radius of a circle, we shall obtain its
value expressed in seconds of arc in a circle whose radius is unity, or
on the orbit of the earth supposed
seconds
is,
therefore,
log k
The
in a
quantity
mean
therefore,
and
The value of k
in
= 3.5500065746.
expresses the
solar day,
have
to be circular.
is
mean angular motion of a
usually designated by p.
We
planet
shall,
MOTION RELATIVE TO THE SUN.
*
4 m
= &1/1 f,
for the expression for the
51
mean
(33)
daily motion of a planet.
V\
differs very little from
fSince, in the case of the earth,
1,
will be observed that k very nearly expresses the mean angular
motion of the earth in a mean solar day.
it
In the
that
case of a small planet or of a comet, the
may, without sensible error, be neglected;
it
mass m is so small
and then we shall
have
= 4a
For the old planets whose masses
pression (33) must be used.
(34)
are considerable, the rigorous ex
Let us now resume the polar equation of the
which is
19.
ellipse,
the pole
being at the focus,
a(le )
"
e cos v
If
we
shall
by <p the angle included between the conjugate axis
drawn from the extremity of this axis to the focus, we
represent
and a
line
have
sin
2
and, since a(l
is
tp
e;
half the parameter of the transverse axis,
which we have designated by p, we have
P
1
The angle
(p
is
f
sin
<f>
cos v
called the angle of eccentricity.
2
e )
a (1
a cos2 <p, we have
Again, since p
=1
a cos
f
sin
<f>
<p
cos v
(35)
r in an
evident, from this equation, that the maximum value of
value
minimum
the
that
and
orbit
v
to
180,
elliptic
corresponds
It
is
of r corresponds to v
It therefore increases from the perihelion
0.
to the aphelion, and then decreases as the planet approaches the perihelion.
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
52
In the
case of the parabola,
<p
= 90,
and sin
<p
conse
quently,
ff
But, since 1
+ cos v = 2 cos
2
Jt>,
j
COS
V*
we put 5
if
we
_p,
shall
have
(36)
in
which q
course
In this case, therefore, when
the perihelion distance.
r will be infinite, and the comet will never return, but
is
180,
way
its
The angle
to other systems.
cannot be applied to the case of the hyperbola, since
in a hyperbolic orbit e is greater than 1 ; and, therefore, the eccen<f>
cannot be expressed by the sine of an arc. If, however, we
designate by ^ the angle which the asymptote to the hyperbola makes
with the transverse axis, we shall have
tricity
e cos
Introducing this value of
becomes
e into
1.
the polar equation of the hyperbola,
it
p
cost;
But, since cos v
cos
j
^
cos 4*
_ _
+ cos ^ = 2 cos } (v + ^) cos \(v
=
ff
$), this gives
cos4
'
It appears from this formula that r increases with v, and becomes in180
finite when 1
e cosv
cos^, in which case v
0, or cosv
J/
consequently, the maximum positive value of v is represented
180
^, and the maximum negative value by
by
(180^).
it
is evident that the orbit will be that branch of the hyperFurther,
:
bola which corresponds to the focus in which the sun is placed, since,
under the operation of an attractive force, the path of the body must
A body subject to a
and
intensity,
varying according to
the same law, would describe the other branch of the curve.
be concave toward the centre of attraction.
force of repulsion of the
same
The problem of finding the position of a heavenly body as seen
from any point of reference, consists of two parts: first, the determination of the place of the body in its orbit; and then, by means
of this and of the elements which fix the position of the plane of the
PLACE IN THE ORBIT.
53
and that of the orbit in its own plane, the determination of
the position in space.
In deriving the formulae for finding the place of the body in its
orbit, we will consider each species of conic section separately, comorbit,
mencing with the
ellipse.
20. Since the value of
+ ae,
we may
r can never exceed the limits
introduce an auxiliary angle such that
=
we
ae and
have
shall
cos E.
ae
This auxiliary angle
metrical signification
true anomaly.
called the eccentric
is
may
be easily
anomaly; and
known from
its
Introducing this value of
geo
into the equation
ctC'
its
relation to the
and writing t
in place of tw
being the time of perihelion
passage, and t the time for which the place of the planet in its orbit
is to be computed, we obtain
(27)
 = mean daily motion of the planet =
But 
//
therefore
The quantity
(t
T) represents what would be the angular distance
from the perihelion if the planet had moved uniformly in a circular
orbit whose radius is a, its mean distance from the sun.
It is called
the
fjt
mean anomaly, and
fore,
is
usually designated by
M.
We shall,
there
have
M=v(tT),
M=EesinE.
When
the planet or comet
mean anomaly, and
eccentric
is
in
its
anomaly
(39)
perihelion, the true anomaly,
All
are each equal to zero.
three of these increase from the perihelion to the aphelion, where
they are each equal to 180, and decrease from the aphelion to the peri
provided that they are considered negative. From the periis greater than M.
is greater than E, and
The same relation holds true from the aphelion to the perihelion, if
helion,
helion to the aphelion v
we regard,
As soon
in this case, the values of v, E,
and
as negative.
obtained by means of the
motion and eccentricity, the values of r and v may be derived.
as the auxiliary angle
is
mean
For
THEOEETICAL ASTRONOMY.
54
which may be applied in
this purpose there are various formulae
will now develop.
practice, and which we
The
equation
= cos E,^
ae
gives
This also gives
ae
or
= a cos E
P
E
a cos
ae,
T^
ae,
which, by means of equation (25), reduces to
r cos v
= a cos E
ae.
(41)
If we square both members of equations (40) and (41), and subtract
the latter result from the former, we get
or
r sin v
E = b sin E.
aj/1
e sin
(42)
By means of the equations (41) and (42) it may be easily shown
that the auxiliary angle
or eccentric anomaly, is the angle at the
y
centre of the ellipse between the semitransverse axis, and a line
drawn from the
centre to the point where the prolongation of the
ordinate perpendicular to this axis, and drawn through the place of
the body, meets the circumference of the circumscribed circle.
Equations (40) and (41) give
r (1 HH cos v)
By
using
first
= a(l
e) (1 q= cos
E).
the upper sign, and then the lower sign,
we
obtain,
by
reduction,
1/r sin ^v
Vr cos
which are convenient
when
<y
= l/a(l
= Va(l
f
e} sin
for the calculation of r
several places are required.
tan %o
=^
By

\E,
e) cos \E,
and
(43)
v,
and
especially so
division, these equations give
tan
E.
(44)
PLACE IN THE ORBIT.
Since e
= sin ^, we have
~ = ~ Sm ? _
e
..
tan (450
sm <p
55
Consequently,
tan
Again,
1/1
tan (45
\E
+ e = 1/1
sin
j
\<p)
1/1
<p
f
tan
(45)
\v.
2 sin
\<?
cos jp,
which may be written
1/1
+ e = I/sin
or
1/1
cos
J$p 
^
= sin
\<p
?> f
+ 2 sin \y cos ^,
cos
^9?.
In a similar manner we find
1/1
From
these
sin \<p f cos
\<p.
two equations we obtain
1/1 f
p/rqr;
f 1/1
._
/i~=7
= 2 cos J^,
= 2 sin I?,
(46)
which are convenient in many transformations of equations involving
e or
Equation (42) gives
r,
=
sm 1?
r sin v
j
rp
(
but
a cos2 <p, and 6
= a cos
b (1
<p y
sin v

r
e cos v)
hence
rsinv
cos^sinv
+6
,.>.
(47)
cosv
Equation (41) gives
cos
_,
J5J
= r cos va +
ae
cos v
a (1
e cos v )
or
cos^=^
cos v
4
a(l
2
and, putting a cos
2
ae 4 ae cos v
instead of p,
}
e cos v)
and
sin
cosv
fe
1 4 e cos
If
we multiply
the
first
for
e,
we
get
S AQ ^
(48)
i;
of equations (43) by
cos^, and
the
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
56
second by sin22, successively add and subtract the products, and
reduce by means of the preceding equations, we obtain
The
sin J (v f
E}
sin J (v
J)
\<p sin
The
difference
E,
= J sin J? sin E.
perihelion distance, in an elliptic orbit,
tion
21.
J cos
= a(l
(49)
given by the equa
is
e).
between the true and the mean anomaly, or
called the equation of the centre, and is positive from the
M,
perihelion to the aphelion, and negative from the aphelion to the
When the body is in either apsis, the equation of the
perihelion.
is
centre will be equal to zero.
We have,
Expanding
from equation
this
(39),
by Lagrange's theorem, we get
d
Bin

21.,dF(M)
fKn .
Let us now take, equation
(40),
dnd, consequently,
Therefore
we
shall
= (1
= (l
e cos
if)".
have
e cos
M)~
 2e
sin
M(l
e cos
M)~
Expanding
these terms,
cosM)~
....
and performing the operations indicated, we
get
= 1 f 2e cos M f  (6 cos M
2
f
3
(16 cos
36 sin 2
4 sin 2
M cos M) +
M
.
PLACE IN THE ORBIT.
57
which reduces to
....
(51)
Equation (22) gives
and, since /=i&/p(l
+ m),
we have

3a,
(52 )
or
_.
f
But
m=
,
z
e dt.
U and therefore
ss
By expanding
a2
1/f^l*
tidt
the factor }/l
e*=l
I/I
= Vle*
we
dM.
obtain
e*
...,
and hence
Substituting for
=
get, since v
v
 its
when
value from equation (51), and integrating,
M=
we
0,
3f=2esmif+je sm2Jf+^(13sm3Jf
1Z
3sinJf)+...
(53)
which is the expression for the equation of the centre to terms involving
3
e
In the same manner, this series may be extended to higher powers
.
of
e.
When
the eccentricity
is
and the value of v
very small, this
series
converges very
rapidly ;
any planet may be arranged in
a table with the argument M.
For the purpose, however, of computing the places of a heavenly
body from the elements of its orbit, it is preferable to solve the
equations which give v and
for
E directly
and when the
eccentricity is
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
58
very great, this mode
indispensable, since the series will not in
is
that case be sufficiently convergent.
It will be observed that the formula which
must be used
in obtain
the mean anomaly is transcendental,
ing the eccentric anomaly from
and hence it can only be solved either by series or by trial. But
it so happens that the circumstances of the celesmotions render these approximations very rapid, the orbits being
fortunately, indeed,
tial
eccentric.
usually either nearly circular, or else very
in equation (50), we put F(E) = E, and consequently F(M)
= M, we shall have, performing the operations indicated and reducing,
(54)
E=M+esmM+ ^ sin 2M + &c.
If,
Let us now denote the approximate value of
equation by
Ew then will
77*
Q f
which
&EQ is the correction
AJEj,
and, denoting by
also
have
T71
./!/,
to be applied to the
Substituting this in equation (39),
M = E f
~I7V
AJ!/
L/
in
E computed from this
we
e sin
assumed value of E.
get
e cos
E &E
M the value of M corresponding
M=E
e sin
to
Ew
we
shall
Subtracting this equation from the preceding one,
we
obtain
= &Ef
It remains, therefore, only to add the value of AjE7 found from this
formula to the first assumed value of E, or to
w and then, using
this for a new value of
w to proceed in precisely the same manner
for a second approximation,
When
and so on, until the correct value of
the values of
is
E for
a succession of dates, at equal
be obintervals, are to be computed, the assumed values of
Q may
tained so closely by interpolation that the first approximation, in the
manner just explained, will give the correct value; and in nearly
obtained.
every case two or three approximations in this manner will suffice.
for any
Having thus obtained the value of
corresponding to
instant of time, we may readily deduce from it, by the formulae
already investigated, the corresponding values of r and v.
In the case of an ellipse of very great eccentricity, corresponding
to the orbits of many of the comets, the most convenient method of
PLACE IN THE CEBIT.
59
computing r and
The
v, for any instant, is somewhat different.
manner of proceeding in the computation in such cases we shall consider hereafter; and we will now proceed to
investigate the formula
for determining r and v, when the orbit is a parabola, the formulae
for elliptic
and
motion not being applicable,
since, in the parabola,
<x>
,
\.
shows that the masses of the comets are insensible
22. Observation
in comparison with that of the sun ; and, consequently, in this
case,
and equation
putting for
(52),
dt
kV2q
value 2g, becomes
its
or
which may be written
JO*L =4(1
+ tan
t>)
sec %vdv
= (1 + tan
d tan
fr.
1/2 2*
Integrating this expression between the limits
= tan +
it;
T and
t,
we
obtain
tan3 >,
(55)
which is the expression for the relation between the true anomaly
and the time from the perihelion, in a parabolic orbit.
Let us now represent by r the time of describing the arc of a
parabola corresponding to v
= 90
then we shall have
Jcr
or
 is
constant,
Now,
take
<?
1,
which
is
and
its
logarithm
is
8.5621876983; and
if
we
equivalent to supposing the comet to move in
is equal to the semitransverse
a parabola whose
perihelion distance
axis of the earth's orbit, we find
days
log r
that
is,
= 2.03987229, or r = 109.61558 days
a comet moving in a parabola whose perihelion distance
THEOEETICAL ASTRONOMY.
60
distance of the earth from the sun, requires
mean
equal to the
is
90.
109.61558 days to describe an arc corresponding to v
as
are
such
contains
comparable with
quantities
only
Equation (55)
from
the
time
t
the
it
and
each other,
perihelion, may be
T,
by
are known ; but, in order
readily found when the remaining terms
be
to find v from this formula, it will
necessary to solve the equation
of the third degree, tan \v being the unknown quantity. If we put
= tan
\v, this
equation becomes
a?
+ 3x
0,
is the known quantity, and is negative before, and positive
the perihelion passage.
According to the general principle in
the theory of equations that in every equation, whether complete or
in
which a
after,
incomplete, the number of positive roots cannot exceed the number
of variations of sign, and that the number of negative roots cannot
exceed the number of variations of sign, when the signs of the terms
containing the odd powers of the unknown quantity are changed, it
when a
is one positive root and no
is one
there
negative,
negative root and
and
no positive root;
hence we conclude that equation (55) can have
follows that
negative root.
is
When
positive, there
is
but one real root.
We
may
dispense with the direct solution of this equation by
T
forming a table of the values of v corresponding to those of t
in a parabola whose perihelion distance is equal to the mean distance
of the earth from the sun. This table will give the time corresponding to the anomaly v in any parabola, whose perihelion distance
is
q, by multiplying by q* the time which corresponds to the same
anomaly in the table. We shall have the anomaly v corresponding
to the time t
T by dividing t T by f, and seeking in the table
the anomaly corresponding to the time resulting from this division.
A more convenient method, however, of finding the true anomaly
from the time, and the reverse, is to use a table of the form gene9
rally known as Barker's Table.
struction
The
following will explain
Multiplying equation (55) by 75,
75k
Let us now put
we
obtain
(tT) = 75 tan Jv + 25 tan
M = 75 tan %v f 25 tan
v,
$v.
its
con
PLACE IN THE ORBIT.
and
75k
=,
which
The value of
is
a constant quantity ; then will
is
log
let
Again,
61
= 9.9601277069.
us take
~
which
is
called the
mean
daily motion in the parabola; then will
5
now compute
If we
values of v from v
tan iv
the values of
to v
+ 25
M corresponding
= 180, and
we may derive at once, from this
when v is known, or v when
also
be observed that when t
T is
may
with the argument v,
time (t
T) either
known.
is
It
to successive
arrange them
in a table
table, for the
M= m
T)
(t
negative, the
hence it is not neces
is considered as
being negative, and
T than
pay any further attention to the algebraic sign of t
give the same sign to the value of v obtained from the table.
Table VI. gives the values of
for values of v from
to 180,
value of v
sary to
to
with differences for interpolation, the application of which will be
easily understood.
23.
When
v approaches near to
180,
this table will
be extremely
inconvenient, since, in this case, the differences between the values of
for a difference of one minute in the value of v increase very
rapidly and it will be very troublesome to obtain the value of v
from the table with the requisite degree of accuracy. To obviate
;
the necessity of extending this table,
manner
we proceed
in the following
Equation (55) may be written
k
^~P =
tanit> (1
+ 3 cot
and, multiplying and dividing the second
we
shall
(t
P=
1/2 g*
I tan
& (1 + cot
member by
have
k
4t>)
^) JJ
(1
f
cot v)
3
,
THEOEETICAL ASTRONOMY.
62
But
1 f cot iv
and consequently
sin v tan %v
k(tT}_
1/2 gt
Now, when
+ cot ^)
2
(1
'
180, cot^v will be very small, and
member of this equation will nearly
v approaches near to
the second factor of the second
~~3snr
the value of v on the supposition
that this factor is equal to unity, which will be strictly true when
v
180, and we shall have, for the correct value of v, the following
1.
Let us therefore denote by
equation
=W+ A
We shall therefore have
A O being a very small quantity.
and, putting tan
%w
and tanA
0,
"I
03
Multiplying this through by
= 30 (1 f 40
fs
Dividing through by the
30 (1 4
'
we
0#)
(1
)
2
=x
this equation,
expanding and reducing,
30 2 (1
4 30* 4
coefficient
of x,
W{
40^+20* ~+0)
from
20* f
get,
(lex)
(2 4 60
4
x,
to
there results the following equation
1 4 30 2
we
+ 40 + 20
2
4
x2
) a?.
obtain
__
402
_j_
2^4
__
^)
Let us now put
1430
2
30(lf 40
20*
)~~
then, substituting this in the preceding equation, inverting the series
and reducing, we obtain finally
But tan A O
x, therefore
PLACE IN THE ORBIT.
63
Substituting in this the value of x above found, and reducing,
obtain
For
the cases in which
all
this equation
is
we
to be applied, the third
term of the second member will be insensible, and we shall have, to
a sufficient degree of approximation,
Table VII. gives the values of A O expressed in seconds of arc,
155 to w
180.
corresponding to consecutive values of w from w
In the application of this table, we have only to compute the value
,
of
which Table VI.
precisely as for the case in
namely,
M=m(t
then will
is
to be used,
T~);
be given by the formula
3
w = \
sin
since
200
,
we have already found
8
3sm
i(/
or
200
r
Having computed the value of w from
will furnish the corresponding value of A
for the correct value of the true anomaly,
=W
f
this equation,
;
and then we
Table VII.
shall have,
which will be precisely the same as that obtained directly from Table
VI., when the second and higher orders of differences are taken into
account.
If v
is
given and the time
T is
by inspection, an approximate value of
then
is
given by
w=v
An
required, the table will give,
A, using v as argument, and
THEOBETICAL ASTRONOMY.
64
The
exact value of A O
then found from the table, and hence we
is
derive that of w; and finally
T from
a
24.
is
The problem of
given,
small,
may also
finding the time
by the following process
Equation (55)
T when
the true anomaly
when v is
be solved conveniently, and especially so
is
easily transformed into
_.
= cos V
iv
2q?
from which we obtain, since q
,Q
2 sm'itr).
(3
= r cos
Jv,
1/2
= sin
3,
Let us now put
sm # =
sin 4 y
r=,
1/2
and we have
3&
= 3 sm x
T}
(i
4 sin3 re
Consequently,
which admits of an accurate and convenient numerical
facilitate
the calculation
solution.
To
we put
sino
the values of which
v
= 0, we
shall
from which
it
may
have
be tabulated with the argument
N= fv'2,
and when v
90,
v.
When
we have
N=l;
appears that the value of
^changes slowly for values
180, we shall have ^V oo;
to 90.
But when v
and hence, when v exceeds 90, it becomes
necessary
We shall, therefore, put
auxiliary different from N.
of v from
N'
= N sin v
sin 3z;
to introduce
in this case,
an
PLACE IN THE ORBIT.
from which
it
N'=\
appears that
Therefore
when v = 180.
when
which log
in
is
greater than
OA/
= 90, and that N' = $\/2
have, finally,
when
is less
than
90,
T=JN
and,
we
when
65
90,
= 1.5883272995, from which
T is
easily derived
known.
when
Table VIII. gives the values of N, with differences for interpolaf
to v
tion, for values of v from v
90, and the values of
for those of v from v
90 to v
180.
v
is
We
now
consider the case of the hyperbola, which differs
ellipse only that e is greater than 1 ; and, consequently, the
formulae for elliptic and hyperbolic motion will differ from each other
25.
shall
from the
only that certain quantities which are positive in the ellipse are negative or imaginary in the hyperbola.
may, however, introduce
auxiliary quantities which will serve to preserve the analogy between
We
the two, and yet to
For
mark
the necessary distinctions.
resume the equation
this purpose, let us
p
2 cos
When v = 0, the
vanish
(v
f
factors cos^fv
nominator will be equal
180
^ and (180
for the
~i
and
cos
4) cos \ (v
a]/)
and cos(v
40
in the de
since the limits of the values of v are
follows that the
first
factor will vanish
maximum positive value of v, and that the
for the maximum negative value of v, and,
second factor will
either case, r
J/),
it
quently,
we
therefore, that, in
oo.
In the hyperbola, the semitransverse axis
is
negative, and, conse
have, in this case,
We
4)'
= a(e
or a
1),
have, also, for the perihelion distance,
q
a(e
Let us now put
tan
F = tan
1).
=p cot
4.
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
66
which
is
analogous to the formula for the eccentric anomaly
ellipse: and. since e
= cos
~~
and, consequently,
now
shall
have
cos
4~
^F = tan %v tan
tan
We shall
we
E in an
*.
(57)
introduce an auxiliary quantity
<r,
such that
whence we derive
tan^=^=i
and
(58)
also
= COBJfr*)
cosK^
+ 4)
= 1 when the comet
equation shows that
=
oo
when
lion;
^=180^; and 0=0 when v
2 tan ijP
Since tan F=
TT^T' we shall have
1
tan F
This
last
is
<r
in
its
perihe
(180
if/).
(60)
Squaring this equation, adding 1 to both members, and reducing we
obtain
Keplacing a in this equation by
_ cos
COS jP
its
value from equation (59),
cos %(v
4Q
^ (v
2 COS ^ (V f 4) COS (v
we
get
4)
'
4)
or
1
cos
~~
2 cos 2
which reduces
+ cos v cos 4
+ 4) cos 2
(e f cos v) cos
~~

4)
4
'
2 cos
(v f 4) cos
(v
to
_J
__r(e
cos^
+ cost;)
'
(b2)
PLACE IN THE ORBIT.
If we add =p
1 to
both members of this equation,
l=Fcos^_r(eq=l)
cosF
Taking
we
first
67
we
shall
have
+ CQSV)
(1
~~p
the upper sign, and then the lower
sign, and reducing,
get
,
VcosF
Vr cos
/~
<
VcoaF
These equations
for finding r
and
v, it
to those previously investigated for
give,
by
(63)
will be observed, are
analogous
= \ ^L tan
G
identical with the equation (56),
is
F,
JL
and may be employed
verify the computation of r and v.
Multiplying the last of equations (63) by the
2
2
e
1 its value tan ^, and
reducing, we obtain
r sin v
Further,
These equations
elliptic orbit.
division,
tan %o
which
an
cos \F.
= a tan 4 tan F= ^a tan
4>
ff
first,
I.
to
putting for
(64)
we have
p
T
f
cos v
e cos v
ar (e 4 cos v)
which, combined with equation (62), gives
(65)
If we square these values of r sin v and r cos v, add the results together, reduce, and extract the square root, we find
(66)
We
might
also introduce the auxiliary quantity
ff
into the equations
(63); but such a transformation is hardly necessary, and, if at all
desirable, it can be easily effected by means of the formulae which we
have already derived.
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
68
26.
Let us now resume the equation
_ cos %(v
4)
~~
cos
J
(v
4)*
j
we have
Differentiating this, regarding fy as constant,
dff
=~
sin
r dv,
p
jyr
and, dividing this equation by the preceding one,
~
dff
sin
~~
2 cos ^(v
we
get
+ 4) cos
4)
(v
But
7*
cos
r tan
consequently,
_
dv,
ff
which gives
tan 4
z
instead
Substituting this value of r dv in equation (22), and putting
of 2/
its
value
feVjpj
from equation
mass being considered as
(30), the
we
insensible in comparison with that of the sun,
get
ff
tan 4
Then, substituting for r its value from equation
2
value a tan ^, we have
Ue
Integrating this between the limits
k\/p
in
which loge o
Vp = Va tan
T)
(t
is
oj/,
a?
tan 4
(
(l
+3}
T and
\e ( ff
(66),
and
we put
its
Jc?(r.
we
^\
obtain
(67)
log e <r\,
the Naperian or hyperbolic logarithm of
if
for
ff.
Since
PLACE IN THE ORBIT.
which
in
v is the
mean
which
in
shall have,
we
daily motion; and if
v
(tT)=N
corresponds to the
from equation
69
also
put
mean anomaly
in an ellipse,
we
(67),
'
(68)
)log.'.
If we multiply both members of this equation by X
0.434294482,
the modulus of the common system of logarithms, and put
we
shall
have
= \eX
ff
log
<r,
wherein logJ
7.8733657527.
9.6377843113, and log^
Let us now introduce jPinto this formula; and for this purpose we
have
and also
log
Therefore
we
ff
= log tan (45 +
obtain
JV= eX tan F
log tan (45
This equation will give, directly, the time t
a, e, and .Fare knoAvn; but, since it
when
+ %F).
(69)
T from
is
the perihelion,
transcendental, in the
solution of the inverse problem, that of finding the true
and radiusvector from the time, the value of
anomaly
F can only be found by
successive approximations.
If
able,
we
we
differentiate the last equation, regarding
F as
vari
get
dN= ^=,(e
coslF
Hence,
^Vand
if
cosF) dF.
we denote an approximate value of
F by Fn
and the cor
responding value of j!V by n the correction A.F, to the assumed value
of
may be computed by the formula
(NN,)c<**F,
'
'
'
A(e
cos* ,)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
70
This correction being applied to F,, a nearer approximation to the
will be obtained; and by repeating the operation
This process may be conthere results a still closer approximation.
true value of
is found, and, when several suctinued until the exact value of
value may be estimated,
assumed
first
the
are
cessive places
required,
In practice,
in advance, so closely that a very few trials will suffice.
be applied,
will
this
formula
in
which
occur
cases will rarely
however,
since the probability of hyperbolic motion is small, and, whenever
than 1 has been
any positive indication of an eccentricity greater
has only been after a very accurate series of observaFor a
tions has been introduced as the basis of the calculation.
and
accurate
the most
majority of the cases which do really occur,
convenient method of finding r and v will be explained hereafter.
found to
exist, it
27. If
we
consider the equation
/
M=E
we
shall see that,
the error which
e&mE,
when logarithms of
may
six or seven decimals are used,
exist in the determination of
are given, will increase as e increases, but in a
E when M and e
much
greater ratio;
the eccentricity becomes nearly equal to that of the paraIn the case of hyperbolic motion,
bola, the error may be very great.
1 is very
also, the numerical solution of equation (69), when e
and,
when
tables, becomes very unThis can only be remedied, when equations (39) and (69)
are employed, by using more extended logarithmic tables; and when
the orbit differs only in an extremely slight degree from a parabola,
small,
and with the ordinary logarithmic
certain.
even with the most extended logarithmic tables which have been
For this reason we have
constructed, the error may be very large.
recourse to other methods, which will give the required accuracy
without introducing inconveniences which are proportionally great.
shall, therefore, now proceed to develop the formula for find
We
ing the true anomaly in ellipses and hyperbolas which differ but
little from the parabola, such that they will furnish the required
accuracy,
when
the exact solution of equations (39) or (69) with the
common use is impossible.
logarithmic tables in
For this purpose, let us resume equation (22), which, by substituting for 2/ its value k\/ p, the mass of the comet being neglected
in comparison with that of the sun, becomes
k i/p dt
r"*dv,
PLACE IN THE ORBIT.
71
or
(1
f
e cos v) 2
= tanv, and we shall have
Let us now put u
2du
u*
1fw
'
1fl*
'
Substituting these values in the preceding equation, and putting
or, since
+ e\
q (1
~e
dt(l + u^ du
Let us now develop the second member into a
series.
This
may be
written thus:
and developing the
+ m )" =
1
(1
last factor into
2
2m
series,
we
+ 3iV
obtain
4iV +
&c.
Consequently,
Multiplying this equation through by du, and integrating between
the limits
T and
the result
is
j tt )
In the case of the parabola,
identical with (55).
Let us now put
+ &c
(70)
= 1 and = 0, and this equation becomes
i

6==
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
72
and
also
Z7=tan7;
will not be the true anomaly in the parabola, but
then the angle
the solution of a cubic equation of the same
from
an angle derived
form as that for finding the parabolic anomaly; and its value may
be found by means of Table VI.,
we
if
use for
M the
value com
puted from
_ _
M
i^riv
L
\v
7?J
T/2?
Let
which
U" be
is
expanded into a
independent
<if
i.
It remains
of the form
series
evidently admissible, a,
J.
/?,
being functions of u and
ft
now
to determine the values of the
&c., and, in doing so, it will only be necessary to
3
consider terms of the third order, or those involving i , since, for
coefficients a,
^,
/9,
nearly all of those cases in which the eccentricity is such that terms
of the order i* will sensibly affect the result, the general formula
already derived, with the ordinary means of solution, will give the
required accuracy.
tf+
or,
We
have
shall, therefore,
= U + ai f P# f rf + \ (u f ai +
again neglecting terms of the order
But we have already found,
ffi
+ ri
4
,
(70),
k(t
Since the first members of these equations are identical, it follows, by
the principle of indeterminate coefficients, that the coefficients of the
like powers of i are equal, and we shall, therefore, have
= 2 Qw
+ <) = + 3 (> +
+ + O r = 4 (>' 42
(1 f
u**
3
a
From
the
first
+ 2wa
f
ii )
(1
j
/?
(1
of these equations
we
find
PLACE IN THE ORBIT.
1fw
The second equation
or, substituting for
We
73
gives
its
value just found, and reducing,
have also
and hence, substituting the values of a and
reducing,
we
/?
already found, and
obtain finally
r~
"(1
+ u'V"
Again, we have
1
tan
Developing
Now,
since
this,
U = tan
TT
1 x
(u
\
ai
f
.
,
pi* f ^i ).
and neglecting terms of the order
= tan Jv and
Z7= tan  F, we
shall
we
get
have
or
2a
U
,
Substituting in this equation the values of a,
and reducing, we obtain finally
/?,
and f already found,
(i
^+ttft^+j^^^
(73)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
74
This equation can be used whenever the true anomaly in the
the time from the perihelion is to
ellipse or hyperbola is given, and
with the argument
and then we derive
Fand
we
enter Table
VI.
take out the corresponding value of
M;
Having found the value of
be determined.
V,
T from
Mq*
~CT\T
C
which log
in
== 9.96012771.
For the converse of
difference v
which the time from the perihelion
this, in
given and the true anomaly
it is
Let
coefficients are functions of U.
= U+
Substituting this value of
multiplied by
+ G3'(l +
2
Z7 )
U*)
+ JV +
shall have,
'
r (1
first
+ /3V + r + &c.
'i*
i,
we
get
member of
+i +2
a'
and neglecting terms
in equation (70),
^_
f/9)
Z7d'/5'
+3
C7*a' (1
these equations,
we
%U3 we
,
coefficients,
C7 )
4J7
From
this equation is equal to U\
by the principle of indeterminate
?7 )
put
ffV (1 + U 2 ) +  U5 f  J7 ) i2
2pU2 (l + C7 2)
2Ua'/S'f 3C7V(1 f U^
Ua'
4 C7 3 a' 2
But, since the
o!i
us, therefore,
and higher powers of
i*
is
necessary to express the
required,
in a series of ascending powers of i, in which the
is
2/5'
==0<
C7 (1
C7 )
find
.^
_ If! ^ + 3111
T
(i
If
we
'
/?',
interchange v and
for a, ft r,
V in
f
c/" )
equation (72),
it
becomes, writing a',
PLAOE IN THE ORBIT.
~ VJr
75
i+u* ~^U+
U*
4.^17
(1
(1 f C7
2(t7'j)
j)
*7 )
(1
)
\
IP)
Substituting in this equation the above values of a/,
reducing,
we
=v
/3',
and f, and
obtain, finally,
iu* +
1 rp
i fi^ + iHt/'+^^+T^ ""
_l_tii^
(1
+ C7
by means of which v may be determined, the angle F being taken
from Table VI., so as to correspond with the value of
derived
from
Equations (73) and (74) are applicable, without any modification,
to the case of a hyperbolic orbit which differs but little from the
In this case, however, e is greater than unity, and, conseparabola.
quently,
28.
i is
negative.
In order
to render these formulae convenient in practice, tables
be constructed in the following manner
Let x
v or F, and tan \x
6, and let us put
may
100(1 f
'
10000 (1
10000 (1M 2 ) 4
1000000 (1
?0 + If l^
r _ ^ + iill^ + flf
1000000 (1 +
9
^ )6
2
13
4
4IIF
15
jjfrV"
s expresses the number of seconds corresponding to the
5.31442513.
of
arc equal to the radius of a circle, or logs
length
wherein
We
shall,
therefore, have:
WhenzF,
v=V+A (1000
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
76
and,
when x
=
V=vA (lOOi) + S (10(K)
v,
Table IX. gives the values of
to x
tive values of x from #
J.,
B,
C" (lOOi)
and
C,
= 149, with
3
.
for consecu
differences for inter
polation.
When
the value of v has been found, that of r
may
be derived*
from the formula
_
\\e
cos
v"
Similar expressions arranged in reference to the ascending powers
of (1
e)
or of
11 may be derived, but they do not con
verge with sufficient rapidity ;
for,
although
is less
than ij yet the coefficients are, in each case, so much greater than
those of the corresponding powers of i, that three terms will not
same degree of accuracy as the same
the expressions involving i.
afford the
number of terms
in
29. Equations (73) and (74) will serve to determine v or t
in
all
cases
in
with
the
the
nearly
which,
ordinary logarithmic tables,
general methods
fail.
However, when the
orbit differs considerably
from a parabola, and when v is of considerable magnitude, the results
obtained by means of these equations will not be sufficiently exact,
and we must employ other methods of approximation in the case that
the accurate numerical solution of the general formula is still impossible.
It may be observed that when
or
exceeds 50 or 60, the
equations (39) and (69) will furnish accurate results, even when e
differs but little from
Still, a case may occur in which the
unity.
perihelion distance is very small and in which v may be very great
before the disappearance of the comet, such that neither the
general
method, nor the special method already given, will enable us to determine v or t
T with accuracy ; and we shall, therefore, investigate
another method, which will, in all cases, be
exact when
sufficiently
the general formulae are inapplicable
directly.
us resume the equation
For
this purpose, let
PLACE IN THE ORBIT.
which, since q
Ic
= a(l
T) l/l
(t
we put
If
we
shall
may
e),
77
be written
1
ft
1 f 9e
E
A 15 9E
have
^~e
2
20T/2
"9^+sm^~
+ 9e
.f
'
3*5(1
e)
Let us now put
201/A
and
4<% w1.2
then
..
__
we have
Htan
When B
is
known, the value of
be derived directly from Table
w.
may, according to
(75)
this equation,
VI. with the argument
75k(tr)
~
and then from
w we may
to find the value of IB ;
find the value of
and then that of
A. It remains, therefore,
from the resulting value
of A.
Now, we have
Sm
and
if
we put
tan
s in
We
r,
2 tan \E
^=l + tanV
we
get
E = j^ = 2ri (1
have, also,
E= 2 tan"
2r*(l
r f r
JT
+ ^r
r3
+ &c.).
3
4T
f
&c.).
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
78
Therefore,
15
(E Sin E) = 2r^(10r  ^r +
2
 if^r* + &c.),
yi*
and
9E +
= 2r* (10  V + VT
r
sin
Hence, by division,
and, inverting this series,
we
get
which converges rapidly, and from which the value of
A
may
be
found.
Let us now put
1
A
T<?
then the values of
C may
be tabulated with the argument A; and,
2
is small C will not diifer
besides, it is evident that as long as
much from
f
'
A.
Next, to find B, we have
and hence
from which we
easily find
5=1+ T f
If
we compare
equations (44) and (56),
tan
\E = T
we
get
tan J ^.
2
r r , we
Hence, in the case of a hyperbolic orbit, if we put tan \F
must write
r' in place of r in the formulae already derived ; and,
from the
series
which gives
this case negative.
Therefore,
in terms of r,
if
we
is in
appears that
the
equations for
distinguish
it
PLACE IN THE ORBIT.
79
hyperbolic motion from those for elliptic motion by writing
and C f in place of A, B, and (7, respectively, we shall have
S=1 +
"
A"  &c.
f
,
B' y
*+ &c,
Table X. contains the values of log B and log C for the ellipse
and the hyperbola, with the argument A, from A
Q to A
0.3.
For every case in which A exceeds 0.3, the general formulae (39)
and (69) may be conveniently applied, as already stated.
The equation
gives
or,
substituting the value of
in terms of w,
(76)
'<
The
last
of equations (43) gives
^=2
r COS
cos '
^=
Hence we derive
The equation
for v in a hyperbolic orbit is of
precisely the
as (76), the accents
being omitted,
same form
and the value of A being computed
from
^=
For the radiusvector in a hyperbolic
last
(78)
^gtaa<>.
orbit,
we
find,
by means of the
of equations (63),
T
(79)
^'
t
T is given and r and v are required, we
and enter Table VI. with the argument
When
B = 1,
^0 )cos
2
(1
first
assume
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
80
in
which log
Then we
of w.
and take out the corresponding value
from the equation
9. 96012771,
derive
5(1
e)
and from (78) in the case of a hyperbolic
orbit.
With the resulting value of A, we find from Table X. the
corresponding value of log B, and then, using this in the expression
in the case of the ellipse,
will not
for
we repeat the operation. The second result for
9
require any further correction, since the error of the first assumption
1 is very small ; and, with this as argument, we derive the
of J5
value of log C from the table, and then v and r by means of the
equations (76) and (77) or (79).
When the true anomaly is given, and the time
we
first
compute
T is
required,
from
in the case of the ellipse, or
from
_eJ
21
in the case of the hyperbola.
Then, with the value of r as argument, we enter the second part of Table X. and take out an approxi
mate value of A 9 and, with
The
argument, we find logB and log C.
equation
show whether the approximate value of
will
log
this as
C is
sufficiently exact, and, hence,
used in finding
latter requires
any
Next, to find w, we have
correction.
and, with
whether the
as argument,
we
derive
M from Table VI.
Finally,
we
have
(80)
by means of which the time from the perihelion may be accurately
determined.
POSITION IN SPACE.
30.
We
81
far treated of the motion of the heavenly bodies,
without considering the positions of their orbits
and the elements which we have employed are the eccen
have thus
relative to the sun,
in space
and semitransverse axis of the orbit, and the mean anomaly
at a given epoch, or, what is equivalent, the time of passing the
These are the elements which determine the position of
perihelion.
tricity
the body in
its
orbit at
It remains
any given time.
now
to fix its
position in space in reference to some other point in space from which
we conceive it to be seen. To accomplish this, the position of its
known plane must be given and the elements
which determine this position are the longitude of the perihelion, the
longitude of the ascending node, and the inclination of the plane of
orbit in reference to a
known plane, for which the plane of the ecliptic is
taken.
These three elements will enable us to determine the
usually
coordinates of the body in space, when its position in its orbit has
the orbit to the
been found by means of the formulae already investigated.
The longitude of the ascending node, or longitude of the point
through which the body passes from the south to the north side of
which we will denote by &, is the angular distance of
from the vernal equinox. The line of intersection of the
plane of the orbit with the fundamental plane is called the line of
the ecliptic,
this point
nodes.
The angle which the plane of
the orbit
makes with the plane of
the ecliptic, which we will denote by i, is called the inclination of.
It will readily be seen that, if we suppose the plane of
the orbit.
the orbit to revolve about the line of nodes, when the angle i exceeds
& will no longer be the longitude of the ascending node, but
become the longitude of the descending node, or of the point
through which the planet passes from the north to the south side of
180,
will
the ecliptic, which is denoted by 5 , and
case of
from the vernal equinox.
,
which
is
measured, as in the
&
It will easily be understood that, when seen from the sun, so long
as the inclination of the orbit is less than 90, the motion of the
body will be in the same direction
said to be direct.
When
as that of the earth,
the inclination
is
90,
and
it is
then
the motion will be at
right angles to that of the earth ; and when i exceeds 90, the motion
in longitude will be in a direction
opposite to that of the earth, and
then called retrograde.
It
inclination of the orbit only to
it is
customary, therefore, to extend the
90, and if this angle exceeds a right
is
angle, to regard its supplement as the inclination of the orbit, noting
simply the distinction that the motion is retrograde.
THEOEETICAL ASTRONOMY.
82
longitude of the perihelion, which is denoted by TT, fixes the
in the case of direct
position of the orbit in its own plane, and is,
The
motion, the
sum of
the longitude of the ascending node and the
angular distance, measured in the direction of the motion, of the
It is, therefore, the angular distance of
perihelion from this node.
in
the orbit whose angular distance back
a
the perihelion from
point
from the ascending node is equal to the longitude of this node; or
it may be measured on the ecliptic from the vernal equinox to the
ascending node, then on the plane of the orbit from the node to the
place of the perihelion.
In the case of retrograde motion, the longitudes of the successive
points in the orbit, in the direction of the motion, decrease, and the
point in the orbit from which these longitudes in the orbit are
measured
is
taken at an angular distance from the ascending node
equal to the longitude of that node, but taken, from the node, in the
same direction as the motion. Hence, in this case, the longitude of
the perihelion is equal to the longitude of the ascending node diminished by the angular distance of the perihelion from this node.
It may, perhaps, seem desirable that the distinctions, direct and
retrograde motion, should be abandoned, and that the inclination of
to 180, since in this case
the orbit should be measured from
of formula would be sufficient, while in the common form
However, the custom of astronomers
one
set
two
sets are in part required.
seems to have sanctioned these distinctions, and they
may
be per
may seem advantageous.
we
Further,
may remark that in the case of direct motion the sum
of the true anomaly and longitude of the perihelion is called the
true longitude in the orbit; and that the sum of the mean anomaly
and longitude of the perihelion is called the mean longitude^ an expression which can occur only in the case of elliptic orbits.
In the case of retrograde motion the longitude in the orbit is equal
to the longitude of the perihelion minus the true anomaly.
petuated or not, as
We
31.
will now proceed to derive the formulae for determining
the coordinates of a heavenly body in space, when its position in its
is known.
For the coordinates of the
orbit
position of the
have
x
y
= r cos v
r sin
v,
body
at the
time
we
POSITION IN SPACE.
83
the line of apsides being taken as the axis of x, and the origin being
taken at the centre of the sun.
we take
If
the line of nodes as the axis of x,
= r cos (v
y = r sin (y
x
f~
>),
f
0,
we
shall
have
being the arc of the orbit intercepted between the place of the
perihelion and of the node, or the angular distance of the perihelion
a)
from the node.
we have
Ntfw,
it
ft
a)
rc
in the case of direct motion,
ft
and hence the
in the case of retrograde motion ;
become
last
and
co
equations
= r cos (v =b qz ft)
=
K ^
r sin
y
TT
(v
the upper
the motion
ft)
and lower signs being taken,
is
The
direct or retrograde.
respectively, according as
TT ip ft
uis called
arc v
the argument of the latitude.
Let us now refer the position of the
body
to three coordinate
planes, the origin being at the centre of the sun, the ecliptic being
taken as the plane of xy, and the axis of x, in the line of nodes.
Then we
shall
have
x'
y'
= r cos u
= r sin u cos
t
r sin
If
i,
u sin i.
we denote
the time
the heliocentric latitude and longitude of the body, at
by 6 and I, respectively, we shall have
= r cos b cos
=
r cos b sin
y
= r sin
cos u = cos b cos
sin
cos = cos b sin
sin u sin = sin
x
(I
ft ),
(I
ft
z'
and, consequently,
rfc
),
6,
it
(I
ft),
(i
ft),
(81)
6.
From
these
we
derive
tan
(I
ft )
tan b
which serve
to
determine
== db tan u cos i,
= =b tan
and
6,
sin ( J
when
ft, ^,
(82)
ft ),
and
are given.
Since
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
84
cos b
is
it
always positive,
same quadrant when
or the motion
is
follows that
&
retrograde,
&
than 90
i is less
but
and u must
if i is greater
and 360
lie in
than
the
90,
will belong to the
same quadrant. Hence the ambiguity which the determination of
I
& by means of its tangent involves, is wholly avoided.
If we use the distinction of retrograde motion, and consider i
& and u will lie in the same quadrant.
always less than 90, I
of the equations (81) by sin u, and
the second by cos u, and combining the results, considering only the
upper sign, we derive
32.
By
multiplying the
first
cos b sin (u
cos b sin (u
I f
&)
or
In a similar manner, we
= 2 sin u cos u sin
= sin 2u sin
i,
^i.
find
cos b cos (u
I j
& ) = cos
it j
sin
it
cos
i,
which may be written
cos b cos (u
1\
Q ) = J (1
cos b cos (u
l\
& ) = ^ (1 + cos i) + 2 (1
or
and hence
cos 5 cos (u
If
we
f
cos 2it)
& ) = cos
f
j
cos 2u) cos
(1
cos i) cos 2w;
2
^i f sin \i cos 2w.
divide this equation by the value of cos b sin (u
already found,
we
shall
tan(M
1\
&
+&
have
_ +
f
n
= 1 J'^f!
*U
tan h cos
f
The angle w
i,
is
2tt
called the reduction to the ecliptic;
(83)
and the
may be arranged in a series which converges rapidly
when i is small, as in the case of the planets. In order to effect this
development, let us first take the equation
expression for it
tan y
=1
Differentiating this, regarding y
find
sin
j
and n
dy
dn
?i
f
cos x
as variables,
sin x
2n cos x
f ri*
and reducing, we
POSITION IN SPACE.
which
gives,
by division, or by the method of indeterminate
Cfl/
an
= sin x
n sin 2x
Integrating this expression,
y
85
= n sin x
^?i sin
we
2x
j
nz
3#
sin
get, since
3
j
^n
sin
4x
n* sin
3x
^n
4"
sin
&c.
4
when x
4#
coefficients,
= 0,
f~
(84)
is the general form of the development of the above
expression
The assumed expression for tan y corresponds exactly with
tan
for
y.
2
the formula for the reduction to the ecliptic by making n
tan \i
which
and x = 2u;
I j
and hence we obtain
&
= tan
1
When
tan
the value of
2u
sin Su
tan 4 ^i sin 4u j  tan6
10
i sin lOw
&c.
J tan
%i sin
i
does not exceed 10
or
the
12,
first
sin
6u
(85)
two terms
of this development will be sufficient.
To express u
1\ & .in
seconds of arc, the value derived from the second member of this
equation must be multiplied by 206264.81J the
corresponding to the radius of a circle.
If
we denote by
But we have v
the reduction to the ecliptic,
= u f
= v f
TT
J2 e
= M\ the equation of the centre
l=M}'K\ equation of the centre
and, putting
L = M}n = mean
=L
f
number of seconds
shall
have
hence
reduction to the ecliptic,
longitude,
equation of centre
we
we
get
reduction to ecliptic.
(86)
In the tables of the motion of the planets, the equation of the
centre (53) is given in a table with
as the argument and the
reduction to the ecliptic is given in a table in which i and u are the
arguments.
In determining the place of a heavenly body directly from
its orbit, there will be no
necessity for computing the
reduction to the ecliptic, since the heliocentric longitude and latitude
may be readily found by the formulae (82). When the heliocentric
place has been found, we can easily deduce the corresponding geo33.
the elements of
centric place.
Let
x, y, z
be the rectangular coordinates of the planet or comet
referred to the centre of the sun, the plane of
xy being in the
ecliptic,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
86
the positive axis of x being directed to the vernal equinox, and the
Then we shall
north pole of the ecliptic.
positive axis of z to the
have
= r cos b cos
= r cos b sin
= r sin
x
y
b.
Again,
let
X, F,
Z be
I,
/,
the coordinates of the centre of the sun re
XY
ferred to the centre of the earth, the plane of
being in the eclipand the axis of
being directed to the vernal equinox ; and let
tic,
denote the geocentric longitude of the sun,
the earth, and
its latitude.
= E sin
Z
Let
x'j y', z'
Then we
shall
its
distance from
have
I.
be the coordinates of the body referred to the centre of
the earth ; and let X and ft denote, respectively, the geocentric longitude and latitude, and J, the distance of the planet or comet from the
earth.
Then we
obtain
a/
if
z'
But, evidently,
we
also
= A cos
= A cos
= A sin
/?
cos
^,
/5
sin
A,
(87)
/?.
have
and, consequently,
= r cos cos
= r cos sin
= r sin b
A cos /? cos A
A cos /5 sin A
A sin /5
/ f
f
\
R cos 2 cos Q
E cos S sin O
R sin
(88)
I".
first of these equations by cos Q, and the second
and
add
the products; then multiply the first by sin O,
Q?
by
and the second by cos Q and subtract the first product from the
If we multiply the
sin
second,
we
get
A cos /?
A cos /?
A sin /5
cos (A
sin (A
O ) f cos b cos (I O ) + R cos ^,
Q = r cos b sin (7 O
= r sin b R sin
),
\
It will be observed that this transformation
(89)
I*.
is
equivalent to the sup
position that the axis of x, in each of the coordinate systems,
is
POSITION IN SPACE.
87
or that the system has been
directed to a point whose longitude is
>
revolved about the axis of z to a new position for which the axis of
with that of the primitive system.
abscissas makes the angle
We
therefore, in general, in order to effect such a transformation in
may,
systems of equations thus derived, simply diminish the longitudes by
the given angle.
equations (89) will determine A, /9, and A when r, 6, and
been derived from the elements of the orbit, the quantities R,
The
have
,
and
being furnished by the solar tables ; or, when J, /?, and / are given,
The latitude 2 of the sun
these equations determine
6, and r.
,
never exceeds
lected, so that cos
A cos /5 cos
A cos ft sin
A sin ft
If
tude
and
sin 2'
may
it
0".9, and, therefore,
Q = r cos b cos (I
Q ) = r cos b sin (I
(A
==r
sin b.
we suppose the axis of x to be directed to a
&, or to the ascending node of the planet
A cos
sin
point whose longior comet, the equa
become
ft
= r cos u R cos S cos (O &)>
=
r sin u cos
R cos S sin (O
^)
cos (A
A cos /? sin
/J
(90)
),
is
tions (88)
cases be neg
O + R,
Q
(A
most
in
= 0, and the last equations become
j
&)
i \
(A
==
/?
by means of which
/9
and
r sin w sin
may
i \
R sin
(91)
2",
be found directly from
&
i,
r,
and
u.
be required to determine the geocentric right ascension and
declination, denoted respectively by a and d, we may convert the
If
it
values of
tion,
/?
and
X into those of
a and
denoting by
cos d cos a
cos
ft
cos
cos d sin a
cos
ft
sin A cos
/?
sin A sin
sin
To
d.
eifect this
the obliquity of the ecliptic,
<5
= cos
A,
e f
sin
ft
sin
e,
sin
ft
cos
e.
Let us now take
and we
shall
sin
ra
cos
N = sin
N= cos
/5,
/5
sin
A,
have
COS d COS a
cos d sin a
sin
<S
we have
= COS COS
= w cos (JV+ 0>
= n sin (JV
ft
A,
j e).
transforma
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
88
Therefore,
we
obtain
cos
sin A
tan 5
We also
= tan (JV +
have
cos
_~ cos
(N fcos
which
) sin
(92)
<5
sin a
'
cos /5 sin A
a and 3. Since cos d and
must have the same sign,
will serve to check the calculation of
cos ft are always positive, cos a
and thus the quadrant in which
and cos
a is to be taken, is determined.
the
inverse
For the solution of
problem, in which a and d are
given and the values of A and /9 are required, it is only necessary to
e in
interchange, in these equations, a and A, d and /9, and to write
place of
s.
34. Instead of pursuing the tedious process, when several places
are required, of computing first the heliocentric place, then the geocentric place referred to the ecliptic, and, finally, the geocentric right
ascension and declination, we may derive formulae which, when certain constant auxiliaries
have once been computed, enable us to derive
the geocentric place directly, referred either to the ecliptic or to the
equator.
will
We
first
consider the case in which the ecliptic is taken as the
Let us, therefore, resume the equations
fundamental plane.
x'
y'
z'
= r cos u,
= r sin u cos
= r sin u sin
i,
i,
which the axis of x is supposed to be directed to the ascending node
If we now pass to a new system x, y, z,
of the orbit of the body.
the origin and the axis of z remaining the same,
in which the axis
in
directed to the vernal equinox, we shall move it back, in a
negative direction, equal to the angle &, and, consequently,
of x
is
=
y=
Therefore,
we
x'
cos
x'
sm
&
y'
sin
f y'
cos
obtain
x
y
z
= r (cos u cos & q= sin u cos sin &
= r (=h sin u cos cos & + cos u sin &
= r sin u sin
i
i,
),
),
(93)
POSITION IN SPACE.
89
which are the expressions for the heliocentric coordinates of a planet
or comet referred to the ecliptic, the positive axis of x being directed
equinox. The upper sign is to be used
and the lower sign when it is retrograde.
to the vernal
motion
when
the
is direct,
Let us now put
& sin a sin A,
& = sin a cos A,
sin & = sin b sin B,
cos & = sin b cos B,
cos
which
in
a and
become
sin
ordinates
qp cos
cos
sin
sin b are positive,
x
y
z
r sin a sin
and the expressions
(A
= rsmb sin (B
= r sin sin
i
f
u),
f
u),
for the co
(95)
tt.
The auxiliary quantities a, 6, ^L, and J5, it will be observed, are
functions of
and i, and, in computing an ephemeris, are constant
&
so long as these elements are regarded as constant.
the constants for the ecliptie.
To determine them, we
cot
A = q=
tan
&
cos
sin a
sin
&
sin
B and
The quadrants
signs.
in
cot
sin
the motion
sin 6 are
sin
&
which
&
cos
i,
sin
when
sign when it is retrograde.
The auxiliaries sin a and
cos
cot
i,
&
A
the upper sign being used
A and
are called
have, from equations (94),
cos
sin
They
is direct,
and the lower
always positive, and, therefore,
respectively, must have the same
and
are situated, are thus deter
mined.
From
the equations (94)
we
cos a
cos b
If
we add
easily find
= sin
=
&
sin
sin i cos
&
(96)
to the heliocentric coordinates of the
nates of the sun referred to the earth, for
already been given, we shall have

2/4z j
X= A cos
Y= J cos
sin
body the coordiwhich the equations have
/?
cos
A,
/^
sin
A,
(97)
THEOEETICAL ASTRONOMY.
90
which
suffice to
determine
),,
and
ft,
The
J.
a and
values of
may
be derived from these by means of the equations (92).
35.
We
shall
For
directly.
now
derive the formulae for determining
a and
this purpose, let x, y, z be the heliocentric coordinates
of the body referred to the equator, the positive axis of x being
To pass from the system of codirected to the vernal equinox.
ordinates referred to the ecliptic to those referred to the equator as
the fundamental plane, we must revolve the system negatively around
the axis of x, so that the axes of z and y in the new system make
the angle e with those of the primitive system,
of the ecliptic. In this case, we have
=
y" = y COS
z" = y sin
x"
x,
Z SHI
cos
e j z
Substituting for x, y, and z their values from
omitting the accents, we get
= r cos u cos rp r sin u cos
=
r sin u
r cos u sin & cos
y
= r cos u sin sin r sin u
x
f
e f
Q>
being the obliquity
sin
cos i cos
cos i cos
(=fc
equations (93), and
^ cos e
& sin
sin i sin e),
j
sin
cos
(98)
e).
These are the expressions for the heliocentric coordinates of the
To reduce them to a conplanet or comet referred to the equator.
venient form for numerical calculation, let us put
cos
qp cos
sin
zfc
cos
&
cos
cos
and the expressions
&
cos
}
&
sin
= sin a sin A,
= sin a cos
J.,
cos
sin
cos
sin b sin
B,
= sin b cos 5,
= sin sin
= sin cos C;
c
(7,
for the coordinates reduce to
x
y
2
The
sin
&
&
&
sin i sin
sin
rb cos
sin
r sin a sin
(A
= r sin 6 sin (5
= r sin sin C
c
j
w)>
f
u),
j
(100)
w).
6, c, J., J2, and (7, are constant so long
remain unchanged, and are called constants for the equator.
It will be observed that the equations involving a and J.,
regard
as Q>
auxiliary quantities, a,
and
ing the motion as direct, correspond to the relations between the
parts of a quadrantal triangle of which the sides are i and a, the
POSITION IN SPACE.
91
we
angle included between these sides being that which
Ay and the angle opposite the side a being 90
of b and
&
designate .by
In the case
the relations are those of the parts of a spherical triangle
6, i, and 90 f e,
being the angle included
J5,
of which the sides are
 & the
6, and 180
angle opposite the side 6.
Further,
by
in the case of c and C, the relations are those of the parts of a
spherical triangle of which the sides are c, i, and e, the angle C being
 ^ that included
that included by the sides i and c, and 180
by
the sides i and e.
We have, therefore, the following additional
i
and
equations
cos a
cos b
cos c
= sin sin &
= cos & sin
= cos & sin
i
cos
cos
sin
s,
sin
e {
cos
cos
e.
(101)
In the case of retrograde motion, we must substitute in these
im
180
place of
i.
The geometrical signification of the auxiliary constants for the
The angles a, 6, and c are those
equator is thus made apparent.
which a line drawn from the origin of coordinates perpendicular to
the plane of the orbit on the north side, makes with the positive co
ordinate axes, respectively ; and
are the angles which
9
B, and
the three planes, passing through this line and the coordinate axes,
make with a plane passing through this line and perpendicular to the
line of nodes.
In order to
facilitate
the computation of the constants for the
w such that
equator, let us introduce another auxiliary quantity
cos
eQ
cos
We
being always positive.
tan
&
cos
Q,
shall, therefore,
E=
have
_,
f
~cos
Since both e and sinz are positive, the angle
cannot exceed 180;
Q
and the algebraic sign of tan Q will show whether this angle is to
be taken in the
The
first
first
or second quadrant.
two of equations
cot
and the
first
(99) give
A=+
tan
&
cos i ;
gives
sm a =
cos
&
gin .4
THEOEETICAL ASTKONOMY.
92
From
and
Ew
we
eQ cos
(E
( e).
the fourth of equations (99), introducing eQ
sin b cos
B=e
cos
eQ sin
cos
But
sin b sin
sin e
^ = sin &
cos
get
therefore
sin
We
cos
tan &6 cos JbQ
cos e
have, also,
,
sin b
& cos
= sinsmB
5
:
In a similar manner, we find
cot
tan
Sm
^^cos A
Q
=r
sin e
and
sin
sin
sin
and sin c are always positive, and, thereand sin & and also sin C and sin &
must have the same signs, which will determine the quadrant in
which each of the angles A, B, and C is situated.
If we multiply the last of equations (99) by the third, and the
fifth of these equations by the fourth, and subtract the first product
The
auxiliaries sin a, sin 6,
fore, sin
from the
and
last,
cos
we
&
get,
sin
by reduction,
sin b sin e sin (
But
sinacosJ.
B)
= =F cos
sin
sin
&;
J3)
sin
&.
and hence we derive
sin b sin c sin (
sin a cosJ.
tan
i,
which serves to check the accuracy of the numerical computation of
the constants, since the value of tan i obtained from this formula
must agree exactly with that used in the calculation of the values of
these constants.
If we put A'
=A
TT
q=
a, B'
=B
q=
and C'
=C
=F Sly the upper or lower sign being used according as the motion
direct or retrograde, we shall have
n
is
POSITION IN SPACE.
= r sin a sin (A'
y = r sin sin (B
= r sin sin C"
x
a transformation which
v),
f
93
j
v),
j
v),
(102)
perhaps unnecessary, but which is convenient when a series of places is to be computed.
It will be observed that the formula? for computing the constants
a, 6, c,
A, By and
(7,
is
in the case of direct motion, are converted into
those for the case in which the distinction of retrograde motion
instead of i.
adopted, by simply using 180
is
i
When
the heliocentric coordinates of the body have been
found, referred to the equator as the fundamental plane, if we add to
these the geocentric coordinates of the sun referred to the same
36.
fundamental plane, the sum will be the geocentric coordinates of
the body referred also to the equator.
For the coordinates of the sun referred to the centre of the earth,
we have, neglecting the latitude of the sun,
X=Kcos,
Y= R sin O cos
= JR sin O sin = Ktan
e,
Z
in
which
e,
represents the radiusvector of the earth,
s the
obliquity of the ecliptic.
the sun's
longitude, and
We
shall, therefore,
have
x
{
y f
z f
which
If
suffice to
X=,A cos S cos a,
determine a,
we have regard
Y= A cos 8 sin
Z=
d,
(103)
a,
A sin d,
and
J.
to the latitude of the
sun in computing
centric coordinates, the formulae will evidently
Y= E sin O
Z = R sin O
in which, since
equal to 1,
The
and
S
sin
cos
cos
S cos e
S sin e
can never exceed
I=
E sin S sin
\
JR sin
its
geo
become
(104)
e,
S cos e,
0".9, cos
is
very nearly
2.
longitudes and latitudes of the sun may be derived from a
from the solar tables. The principal astronomical
solar ephemeris, or
ephemerides, such as the Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch, the
Nautical Almanac, and the American Ephemeris and Nautical Al
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
94
raanac, contain, for each year for which they are published, the
both to the mean equinox
equatorial coordinates of the sun, referred
year, and to the apparent equinox
latitude of the sun.
the
account
into
of the date, taking
and equator of the beginning of the
In the case of an elliptic orbit, we may determine the codirectly from the eccentric anomaly in the following
manner
The equations (102) give, accenting the letters a, 6, and c,
37.
ordinates
:
r cos v sin
a! sin
y = r cos v sin
= r cos v sin
Now, since r cos v = a cos E
z
A'
f
r sin v sin
\
r sin v sin b cosJB',
}
r sin v sin
sin
c'
sin C'
and r
ae,
a'
cos A',
b'
sin v
c'
cos C'.
= a cos
<p
we shall
sin E,
have
= a sin
y = a sin
= a sin
x
a' sin
A' cos
&'
sin
B' cos
c'
sin C' cos .E
ae sin
ae sin
>
ae sin
f
sin _B'
f
sin 6"
f
>'
c'
a cos ^ sin a! cos J sin E,
a cos 9? sin b' cos 1?' sin i,
a cos ^ sin c' cos (7 sin _Z
'
J/
a' sin
Let us now put
a cos
<p
sin a' cos A'
a sin a' sin J/
ae sin a' sin J/
a cos ^ sin
a sin
6'
ae sin
6'
6'
a cos f sin c'
a sin c'
ae sin
c'
A x cos
=
=
sin B' =
sin B' =
cos C' =
sin 0' =
sin C" =
cos B'
x,
A x sin _LX ,
eA x sin
A
A
Ly
cos
sin _Ly ,
Lx =
eA y sin Z/y
h z cos
vs
vz
jf/ z ,
A z sin .L 2 ,
eA z sin JO Z
sin a/, sin 6', and sin c' have the same values as in
equations
the
accents being added simply to mark the necessary dis(102),
tinction in the notation employed in these formulae.
shall,
in
which
We
therefore,
have
x
2,
=
=
=
l x sin (
A
smCLy
/ z sin
(Lz
+ .E)
+ )f,
+ E)
 v x ,
(105)
y,
f v z .
By means of these formulae, the coordinates are found directly
from the eccentric anomaly, when the constants ^ x , ^ v , ^ z Zx Ly Lz ,
vx , v , and vz have been
y
computed from those already found, or from
This method is very convenient when a great
a, 6, c, .A, J?, and (7.
,
POSITION IN SPACE.
95
geocentric places are to be computed ; but, when only a
few places are required, the additional labor of computing so many
auxiliary quantities will not be compensated by the facility afforded
in the numerical calculation, when these constants have been deter
number of
Further, when the ephemeris is intended for the comparison
series
of observations in order to determine the corrections to be
a
of
mined.
applied to the elements by means of the differential formulae which
we shall investigate in the following chapter, it will always be advisable to compute the coordinates by means of the radiusvector
and true anomaly, since both of these quantities will be required in
finding the differential coefficients.
In the case of a hyperbolic orbit, the coordinates may be computed directly from F, since we have
38.
r cos v
r sin v
=a
= a tan
sec
(e
<4/
F\
F
tan
and, consequently,
= ae
y = ae sin
= ae sin
sin a' sin
b sin
c'
F sin a! sin A'
F sin sin B'
a sec F sin sin C"
A'
a sec
B'
a sec
sin C'
\
c'
Let us now put
a tan
\
b'
j
=
A=
a tan % sin
cos A =
ae sin b sin B' =
a sin
sin B =
a tan ^ sin cos 5' =
ae sin sin C" =
a sin sin C' =
a tan 4 sin cos C" =
A'
ae sin
a' sin
a sin
a' sin
ju x ,
a'
vx
4
tan
a tan 4 tan
a tan 4 tan
F sin cos A',
F sin V cos B
F sin c cos G'.
a'
Ax,
6'
6'
c'
Az ,
c'
c'
Then we
shall
have
x
y
=
=
In a similar manner we
Ax
j /a x
Ay f
/*y
Az
fjL t
f
may
/x y ,
sec .F
f v x
F
sec F
j
sec
f
vz
/Jt z ,
vz .
tan
.F,
tan
JP,
(106)
tan P.
derive expressions for the coordinates,
when the auxiliary quantity a is
in the case of a
hyperbolic orbit,
used instead of F.
39. If
we denote by
TT',
',
and V the elements which determine
the position of the orbit in space
when
referred to the equator as the
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
96
fundamental plane, and by CO Q the angular distance between the
ascending node of the orbit on the ecliptic and its ascending node on
the equator, being measured positively from the equator in the
we
direction of the motion,
To
&
'
have
shall
we
have, from the spherical triangle formed by
the intersection of the planes of the orbit, ecliptic, and equator with
find
and
i',
the celestial vault,
cos
= cos
= sin
= cos
i'
&'
sin
i'
sin
sin
i'
cos SI
'
cos
sin
&
sin e
sin
sin
cos SI >
j
sin i cos e cos SI
Let us now put
wsin JV=cosi,
cosN= sint cos
and these equations reduce
Sit
to
cos
i'
sin
i'
sin
sin
i'
cos SI'
&'
= n sin (N
= sin sin
= n cos (N
i
e),
SI
e)
from which we find
= tan (N
cos &'.
positive, cos N and cos & must
cot
Since sin i
signs.
is
always
To prove
i*
sin
computing SI '.
In order to find
CO
Q)
we
sin
WQ
sin
i'
cos
fo
sin
i'
Let us now take
cos
&
cos SI'
member
the value of the second
in
i
i'
cos
cos
(N
e)'
of which must agree with that used
have, from the same triangle,
= sin & sin
= cos sin f sin
e,
m sin M= cos
m cos J[f = sin e cos &
cos
e,
and we obtain
have the same
we have
the numerical calculation,
sin
( 107 )
e)
cos
&
POSITION IN SPACE.
M = tan
cot
97
cos ft ,
and, also, to check the calculation,
sin e cos ft
cos
sinicosw
cos
(M
i)
If we apply Gauss's analogies to the same spherical triangle,
we
get
cosii'cos^(ft' f w
o*
sin K' sin J (ft'
=: sin Jft cos ^(i
cos^ft cos(i
1
ft sin
(i
e),
cos ^ ft sin ^ (i
f e).
cosK' sin^ (ft'
sin
ji'
{
'
cos
ft
=
= sin
e),
e),
<w
or J (ft
which J (ft' +
is situated, must be
)
)
and cos \i' shall be positive and the agreement
of the values of the latter two quantities, computed by means of the
value of \i* derived from tan Ji', will serve to check the accuracy of
The quadrant
in
ft>
so taken that sin
\i'
the numerical calculation.
For the case
must use 180
in
i
which the motion
instead of
*'
=*
is
regarded as retrograde, we
in these equations,
ft
ft'
>
and we have,
also,
We may
thus find the elements ?r', ft ', and i', in reference to the
from
the elements referred to the ecliptic; and using the
equator,
elements so found instead of TT, ft, and i, and using also the places
of the sun referred to the equator, we may derive the heliocentric
and geocentric places with respect to the equator by means of the
formulae already given for the ecliptic as the fundamental plane.
If the position of the orbit with respect to the equator is given,
and its position in reference to the ecliptic is required, it is only
^, e
necessary to interchange ft and ft', as Avell as i and 180
in
these
These
formula
remaining unchanged,
equations.
may
also be used to determine the position of the orbit in reference to
any plane in space but the longitude ft must then be measured
from the place of the descending node of this plane on the ecliptic.
;
The value of
ft, therefore,
which must be used in the solution of the
equations is, in this case, equal to the longitude of the ascending
node of the orbit on the ecliptic diminished by the longitude of the
descending node of the
r
quantities ft
i',
and
tt>
new plane of
will
reference on the ecliptic.
The
signification in reference
have the same
7
THEOKETICAL ASTRONOMY.
98
have in reference to the equator, with this disthat
&' is measured from the descending node of
tinction, however,
and e will in this case
this new plane of reference on the ecliptic
to this plane that they
denote the inclination of the ecliptic to this plane.
We
have now derived
all the formulae which can be required
undisturbed
of
in the case
motion, for the computation of the heliocentric or geocentric place of a heavenly fyody, referred either to the
40.
any other known plane, when the elements
are known and the formulae which have been derived
to
ecliptic or equator, or
of
its
orbit
are applicable to every variety of conic section, thus including all
possible forms of undisturbed orbits consistent with the law of universal gravitation.
The
circle is
an
ellipse of
M=v
which the
eccentricity
u 9 and r
a, for every point of
and, consequently,
There is no instance of a circular orbit yet known ; but
the orbit.
is zero,
in the case of the discovery of the asteroid planets between Mars
it is sometimes thought advisable, in order to facilitate
and Jupiter
the identification of comparison stars for a few days succeeding the
discovery, to compute circular elements, and from these an ephemeris.
The elements which determine
the form of the orbit remain con
stant so long as the system of elements is regarded as unchanged ;
but those which determine the position of the orbit in space, TT, &,
and i 9 vary from one epoch to another on account of the change of
the relative position of the planes to which they are referred.
Thus
the inclination of the orbit will vary slowly, on account of the change
of the position of the ecliptic in space, arising from the perturbations
of the earth by the other planets ; while the longitude of the perihelion and the longitude of the ascending node will vary, both on
account of this change of the position of the plane of the ecliptic,
and also on account of precession and nutation. If TT,
and i are
&
referred to the true equinox and ecliptic of any date, the resulting
heliocentric places will be referred to the same equinox and ecliptic ;
and, further, in the computation of the geocentric places, the longitudes of the sun must be referred to the same equinox, so that the
resulting geocentric longitudes or right ascensions will also be reIt will appear, therefore, that, on account
ferred to that equinox.
of these changes in the values of TT, &, and i, the auxiliaries sin a,
sin 6, sin c, A, J5, and (7, introduced into the formula? for the coordinates, will not be constants in the computation of the places for
a series of dates, unless the elements are referred constantly, in the
calculation, to a fixed
equinox and
ecliptic.
It
is
customary, there
POSITION IN SPACE.
99
reduce the elements to the ecliptic and
beginning of the year for which the ephemeris
fore, to
mean equinox of the
required, and then
or
comet
of
the
referred
the
to this equinox,
planet
compute
places
ascension
and
in
the
of
the
case
declination, the mean
right
using,
is
to
obliquity of the ecliptic for the date of the fixed equinox adopted, in
the computation of the auxiliary constants and of the coordinates
of the sun. The places thus found may be reduced to the true
equinox of the date by the wellknown formula? for precession and
nutation.
Thus, for the reduction of the right ascension and declination from the mean equinox and equator of the beginning of the
year to the apparent or true equinox and equator of any date, usually
the date to which the coordinates of the body belong, we have
+a
tan 3
a),
for
which the quantities/, g, and Gr are derived from the data given
and lunar tables, or in astronomical ephemerides,
either in the solar
such as have already been mentioned.
The problem of reducing the elements from the ecliptic of one
date t to that of another date t f may be solved by means of equations
making, however, the necessary distinction in regard to the
from
which & and & ' are measured. Let 6 denote the longipoint
tude of the descending node of the ecliptic of t' on that of t, and
let
denote the angle which the planes of the two ecliptics make
(109),
f}
with each other, then, in the equations (109), instead of & we must
'
write &
shall be measured from the
6, and, in order that &
&
'
vernal equinox, we must also write
d in place of Q, '
Finally,
we must write y instead of e, and AO> for CO Q , which is the variation
in the value of
co
in the interval
the position of the ecliptic
cos U' sin ('
cosU' cosi ('
sin
on account of the change of
then the equations become
+ Aw) = sin(&
+ A0 = cos (&
$ sin l ('
Aw)
AW)
'
= sin J
= cos^(&
(
0) cos
0)
cosi
0) sin
(1
(i
17),
+7
0) sin % (i
),
7 ),
(i
f
^).
These equations enable us to determine accurately the values of &',
i'j and AW, which give the position of the orbit in reference to the
The
ecliptic corresponding to the time t', when d and 37 are known.
longitudes, however, will
as before,
still
which we suppose
be referred to the same
mean equinox
to be that of t; and, in order to refer
THEORETICAL ASTKONOMY.
100
them
mean equinox of the epoch
to the
t'
',
amount of the
the
pre
t must also be
cession in longitude during the interval t
applied.
the
elements
are not of considerof
in
values
the
If the changes
able magnitude, it will be unnecessary to apply these rigorous formula,
and we may derive others sufficiently exact, and much more convenient in application. Thus, from the spherical triangle formed by
the intersection of the plane of the orbit and of the planes of the
two ecliptics with the celestial vault, we get
sin
T?
from which we
sin
We
(&
cos
cos
sin
sin
i \
cos
cos Aw,
easily derive
sin y cos (
i)
(i'
0)
0)
f
2 sin i' cos
sin
^Aw.
(112)
have, further,
sin
AW
sin
i'
= sin y sin (&
0),
We
(113)
have, also, from the same triangle,
AW
sin
j
cos
sin
i'
(&
cos
(^
0) cos
0) sin
(&'
0)
0) cos 7,
(^'
which gives
sin (ft'
ft)
sin
Aw
cos
i'
2 sin (ft
0) cos
(&'
0) sin
Jiy,
or
sin(&'
&) =
 2 sin (a
Finally,
sin 7 sin
*) cos
(&
('
0) coti'
0) sin
^.
(114)
we have
Since 37 is very small, these equations give, if we apply also the
precession in longitude so as to reduce the longitudes to the mean
equinox
of the date ',
sint
8'= 8 +<X
0~ ? sin(a
0)cot;'
ilsin2(a
^),
(115)
POSITION IN SPACE.
in
which
is
at
101
the annual precession in longitude, and in which
= 206264".8.
In most
cases, the last terms of the expressions for
the
second order, may be neglected.
of
TT', being
',
,
For the case in which the motion is regarded as retrograde, we
f
i and i ,
i and 180
must put 180
*', instead of
respectively, in
s
&
and
the equations for AW,
and &'; and
',
for
TT',
in this case,
we have
which gives
we adopt BesseFs determination of the lunisolar precession and
of the variation of the mean obliquity of the ecliptic, we have, at the
If
time 1750 f
r,
= 50".21129 4 O."0002442966r,
at
*=
0".48892
at
O."000006143r,
and, consequently,
77
and
r
in the
= \ (f
The
on the
== (0."48892
f)
computation of the values of these quantities we must put
1750, t and i being expressed in years.
longitude of the descending node of the ecliptic of the time
f
f f)
ecliptic of 1750.0
351
which
O."000006143r) (f
is
is
also
found
36' 10"
5".21
to
be
(t
1750),
measured from the mean equinox of the beginning of the year
1750.
The longitude of
of
t,
the descending node of the ecliptic of t' on that
measured from the same mean equinox, is equal to this value
diminished by the angular distance between the descending node of
the ecliptic of t on that of 1750 and the descending node of the
f
ecliptic of t on that of t, which distance is, neglecting terms of the
second order,
5".21(f
and the
result
1750);
is
351
36' 10"
5".21
351
36' 10"
10".42 (t
(t
1750)
5".21 (f
1750),
or
1750)
5".21 (f
f).
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
102
reduce this longitude to the mean equinox at the time t,
add the general precession during the interval t
1750, or
To
50".21
so that
we
1750),
have, finally,
= 351
When
(t
we must
36'
10"+
39".79(
1750)
5". 21(1?
.<).
&, and i have been thus reduced from the
are referred, to those of the
ecliptic and mean equinox to which they
date for which the heliocentric or geocentric place is required, they
the elements
TT,
be referred to the apparent equinox of the date by applying the
may
nutation in longitude.
Then, in the case of the determination of the
right ascension and declination, using the apparent obliquity of the
ecliptic in the computation of the coordinates, we directly obtain the
body referred to the apparent equinox. But, in comseries
of places, the changes which thus take place in the
a
puting
elements themselves from date to date induce corresponding changes
place of the
in the auxiliary quantities a, 6, c, A, jB, and (7, so that these are no
longer to be considered as constants, but as continually changing their
values by small differences.
The differential formulae for the comof
these
which
are easily derived from the equations
putation
changes,
will
be
in
the
next
(99),
given
chapter; but they are perhaps unnecessary, since it is generally
compute the
is
most convenient, in the cases which occur, to
extreme dates for which the ephemeris
auxiliaries for the
required, and to interpolate their values for intermediate dates.
It is advisable, however, to reduce the elements to the ecliptic
and
mean equinox of the beginning of the year for which the ephemeris
is required, and using the mean
obliquity of the ecliptic for that
epoch, in the computation of the auxiliary constants for the equator,
the resulting geocentric right ascensions and declinations will be
referred to the same equinox, and they may then be reduced to the
apparent equinox of the date by applying the corrections for precession
and nutation.
places which thus
The
result are free from parallax and aberration.
In comparing observations with an ephemeris, the correction for par
allax
is
applied directly to the observed apparent places, since this
correction varies for different places on the earth's surface.
The cor
rection for aberration
may
be applied in two different modes.
We
may
subtract from the time of observation the time in which the
light
from the planet or comet reaches the earth, and the true place
reduced time is identical with the apparent place for the time
for this
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES.
103
of observation ; or, in case we know the daily or hourly motion of
the body in right ascension and declination, we may compute the
motion during the interval which is required for the light to pass
from the body to the earth, which, being applied to the observed
place, gives the true place for the time of observation.
We
also include the aberration directly in the ephemeris
may
by
497*.78 A in computing the geocentric places for
using the time t
the time t, or by subtracting from the place free from aberration, com
puted for the time , the motion in a and o during the interval
497 S .78J, in which expression A is the distance of the body from the
and 497.78 the number of seconds in which light traverses the
mean distance of the earth from the sun.
It is customary, however, to compute the ephemeris free from
s
aberration and to subtract the time of aberration, 497 .78z/, from the
earth,
time of observation
when comparing
observations with an ephemeris,
method above mentioned. The places of the
computing its coordinates must also be free from aberra
according to the first
sun used in
the longitudes derived from the solar tables include
the
aberration,
proper correction must be applied, in order to obtain
the true longitude required.
tion;
and
if
EXAMPLES.
41.
We
will
now
collect
together, in
the
proper
order for numerical calculation, some of the principal formula which
have been derived, and illustrate them by numerical examples, commencing with the case of an elliptic orbit. Let it be required to find
and declination of the planet Eurynome
Washington, for the date 1865 February
the geocentric right ascension
(), for
mean midnight
at
24, the elements of the orbit being as follows:
Epoch
M=
1864 Jan. 1.0 Greenwich mean time.
1
29' 40".21
44
20 33 .09
Ecliptic and
^r^sM1
?=
11
Mean
'
15 51 .02
= 0.3881319
=
2.9678088
log
V = 928".55745
log a
/
When
done
is
a series of places is to be computed, the first thing to be
to compute the auxiliary constants used in the expressions for
and although but a single place is required in the
problem proposed, yet we will proceed in this manner, in order to
the coordinates,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
104
Since the elements JT, &,
exhibit the application of the formulae.
i are referred to the ecliptic and mean equinox of 1864.0, we will
For
first reduce them to the ecliptic and mean equinox of 1865.0.
and
t= 1864.0,
we have
this reduction
= 50".239,
^at
and t'= 1865.0, which give
= 352
51' 41",
we
Substituting these values in the equations (115),
i
i'
= Ai ==
obtain
= + 53".61,
Aft
0".40,
= 0".4882.
ATT
= + 50".23;
and hence the elements which determine the position of the orbit in
reference to the ecliptic of 1865.0 are
= 44
&
21' 23".32,
For the same
we
instant
= 206
43' 33".74,
is
36' 50".ll.
American Ephemeris and
mean
obliquity of the ecliptic,
= 23
=4
derive, from the
Nautical Almanac, the value of the
which
27' 24".03.
The auxiliary constants for the equator are then found by means of
the formulae
cot
A=
tan
&
tan
cos
cos
cos
& cos E
&
= cos
sm Ap
tan
sm a
The angle
is
E = cos
n
Q>
sin e
to be taken,
tan
i,
always
& B
sin b
less
than
sin
.
cos e

sm c
sm
180, and
&
~ sin
= sin sm
C
the quadrant in which
e
.
it is
indicated directly by the algebraic sign of tan Q
The
values of sin a, sin 6, and sin c are always positive, and, therefore, the
is
angles A, jB, and C must be so taken, with respect to the quadrant in
which each is situated, that sin
and cos &, sin
and sin &, and also
sin
C and
sin
&
shall
have the same
A = 296
B = 205
39'
3217.74,
212
5".07,
55 27
.14,
log sin a
log sin b
log sin
Finally, the calculation of these constants
formula
From
signs.
is
these
we
derive
= 9.9997156,
= 9.9748254,
= 9.5222192.
proved by means of the
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES.
tan^
= sin
sin a cos
b sin e sin
105
B)
which gives log tan i
8.9068875, agreeing with the value 8.9068876
derived directly from i.
Next, to find r and u. The date 1865 February 24.5 mean time
at Washington reduced to the meridian of Greenwich by applying
m
h
the difference of longitude, 5 S
1T.2, becomes 1865 February
24.714018 mean time at Greenwich.
The
interval, therefore,
from
the epoch for which the mean anomaly is given and the date for
which the geocentric place is required, is 420.714018 days; and multiplying the mean daily motion, 928".55745, by this number, and
adding the result to the given value of M, we get the mean anomaly
for the required place, or
M=
The
29' 40".21
eccentric
anomaly
+ 108
E is then
= 110
30' 57".14
37".35.
0'
computed by means of the equation
M=EesmE,
the value of
have log sin
<p
being expressed in seconds of arc. For Eurynome we
9.2907754, and hence the value of e exlog e
pressed in seconds is
log e
By means
of the equation (54)
namely,
.E
= 4.6052005.
we
derive an approximate value of E,
=119
49' 24",
2
the value of e2 expressed in seconds being log e
^ 3.895976;
with this we get
M=E
Q
e sin
E = 110
6'
50".
Then we have
MM,
^ = r=7^ET
which
gives, for a second
= 110
'
7'
approximation to the value of E,
^ = 119
This gives Jf
372".7
'T097
0' 36".98,
43'44".3.
and hence
and
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
106
Therefore,
we
have, for a third approximation to the value of E,
JE=119
which requires no further
43'44".64,
correction, since
it
satisfies
the equation
between J/and E.
To
find r
and
v,
we have
= l/a(l +
=
Vr cosJv l/a(l
1/r sin lv
The
values of the
equations are:
0.1468741
JT
The
E,
e) cos JJ.
members of
the second
= 0.2328104,
a'(^+~e)
these
and log V~a(l
=
e)
and we obtain
v
Since
log
in
factors
first
/
l
e) sin
= 0.4282854.
= 129 50".52,
log r
= 197 37' 49".58, we have
u = v + nQ = 326 41' 40".10.
3'
heliocentric coordinates in reference to the equator as the fun
damental plane are then derived from the equations
x
= r sin a sin {A
=r sin b
=r sin c
which
x
give, for
u),
j
sin
(B
f
u),
sin
( (7 f
u),
Eurynome,
2.6611270,
= + 0.3250277,
The American Nautical Almanac
= + 0.0119486.
gives, for the equatorial coordi
1865 February 24.5 mean time at Washington,
the mean equinox and equator of the beginning of the
nates of the sun for
referred to
year,
X= f 0.9094557,
Y=
Z=
0.3599298,
0.1561751.
Finally, the geocentric right ascension, declination, and distance are
given by the equations
tan a
= yy+Y
Z
+Z
=  +sm
a =  cos a
x
X
z
tan 5
y+Y
,
sm5'
form of the equation for tan d being used when sin a is
than
cos a.
greater
The value of J must always be positive; and d cannot exceed
90, the minus sign indicating south declination. Thus, we obtain
the
first
NUMEKICAL EXAMPLES.
a
= 181
To
24.5,
8'
29".29,
log J
42' 21".56,
0.2450054.
=s=
a and
to the true equinox and equator of February
the
Nautical Almanac,
from
have,
reduce
we
<5
107
/=fl6".80,
log
</
= 1.0168,
= 45
16';
and, substituting these values in equations (110), the result
Aa
Hence the
= 181
When
to
A5
= _7".i7.
geocentric place, referred to the true equinox
of the date,
a
= + 17".42,
8'
is
and equator
is
46".71,
only a single place
4
is
log J == 0.2450054.
42' 28".73,
required,
it is
little
more expeditious
compute r from
r
a(l
E from
and then v
sin J
J)
(y
cosJ),
= y sin
p sin E.
Thus, in the case of the required place of Eurynome, we get
log r
= 0.4282852,
v = 129
E= 9
v
3'
20' 5".92,
50".56,
agreeing with the values previously determined.
may be proved by means of the formula
sin
%(y
{
E)
= \~ cos \
The
calculation
E.
\<p sin
In the case of the values just found, we have
(v
= 124
while the second
log sin %(y
23' 47".60,
member
+ E) = 9.9165316,
of this equation gives
log sin %(y
+ E} = 9.9165316.
In the calculation of a single place,
it
is
also very little shorter to
the heliocentric longitude and latitude by means of the
compute
means
equations (82), then the geocentric latitude and longitude by
and
ascension
into
of (89) or (90), and finally convert these
right
first
declination
to be
by means of
computed,
it is
(92).
When
a large
often advantageous to
number of
compute
places are
the heliocentric
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
108
coordinates directly from the eccentric
anomaly by means of the
equations (105).
The
calculation of the geocentric place in reference to the ecliptic
which the equator is taken as the
in all respects, similar to that in
is,
fundamental plane, and does not require any further
illustration.
The determination of
the geocentric or heliocentric place in the
cases of parabolic and hyperbolic motion differs from the process
indicated in the preceding example only in the calculation of r and v.
To
illustrate the case
= 9.9650486;
logq
First,
in
we compute
from
C = 9.9601277,
which log
Then we
T=
of parabolic motion, let t
75.364 days;
let it be required to find r and v.
and
find
log
M from
and the
result is
m = 0.0125548.
M=m(t
T\
which gives
log
From
M we
this value of log
Finally, r
M= 1.8897187.
= 79
log r
55' 57".26.
= 0.1961120.
case of hyperbolic motion, let there be
given
65.41236 days;
= 0.6020600,
in
by means of Table VI.,
found from
is
which gives
For the
derive,
which log^
^ = 37
to find r
35' 0".0, or log e
and
v.
we compute J^from
= 9.6377843, and we obtain
logN= 8.7859356;
The value of
First,
= 0.1010188;
N= 0.06108514.
F must now be found from the equation
N=
el
tan
log tan (45
f
T=
and log a
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES.
If we assume
F= 30, a
109
may be
.more approximate value
derived
from
which gives F,
= 28
40' 23", and hence N,
===
0.072678.
Then we
compute the correction to be applied to this value of F, by means of
the equation
~
wherein
= 206264".8; and the result
=
F, = 4.6097 (N
is
JV,) s
3'
43".0.
Hence, for a second approximation to the value of
we have
= 25 36' 40".0.
The corresponding value of N N, = 0.0617653, and hence
= 12'
*F, = 5.199 (N
= 25 24' 30
The third approximation, therefore, gives
F,
is
9".4.
JV,) s
JF ,
repeating the operation,
we
r/
.6,
and,
get
^=25
24'27".74.
which requires no further correction.
To find r, we have
which gives
log r
Then, v
is
= 0.2008544.
derived from
= cot ^ tan ^F,
v = 67
tan %v
and we find
3' 0".0.
When
several places are required,
is
it
convenient to compute v
and r by means of the equations
VcosF
'
Vr cos ^v =
'i
\ v
;=
J. ;

VcosF
COS
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
110
For the given values of a and e we have log V a(e
7
== 0.0100829, and hence we derive
Iogl a(e
1)
v
2'
6.7
= 0.4782649,
= 0.2008545.
log r
59".92,
f 1)
It remains yet to illustrate the calculation of v and r for elliptic
orbits in which the eccentricity differs but little from
and hyperbolic
e
T= 68.25 days;
= 9.7668134. We compute M from
First, in the case of elliptic motion, let
unity.
= 0.9675212;
and log q
_H
__
qr
wherein log
= 9.9601277, which gives
log
With
this as
argument we
M= 2.1404550.
from Table VI.,
get,
F= 101
and then with
this value of
F as
= log ^"1
log
argument we
from Table IX.,
s>
i f e
v = Ff A (lOOt) +
we
find,
= 9".506,
C= 0".062.
=
8.217680, and from the equation
A = 1540".08,
Then we have
38' 3".74,
(100i)
C(1000
8
,
get
v= F+ 42'
The value
of r
is
22".28
+ 25".90
f
0".28
= 102
20' 52".20.
then found from
r=:
1
namely,
log r
We
first
may
also determine r
compute M from
(
cos
v'
= 0.1614051.
and v by means of Table X.
Thus, we
Assuming
jB
1,
we
get log
M= 2.13757, and, entering Table VI.
with this as argument, we find
from
w=
101
25 r
Then we compute
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES.
0.024985.
which gives A
Table
X.,
find, from
With
exact value of
is
this value of
as
argument, we
= 0.0000047.
log
The
Ill
then found to be
log
M= 2.1375635,
which, by means of Table VI., gives
w=
By means
of this
we
101
24' 36".26.
derive
A = 0.02497944,
and hence, from Table X.,
log
G =0.0043771.
Then we have
G tan ^w \
tan ^v
which gives
v
= 102
<
,
20' 52".20,
agreeing exactly with the value already found.
from which we get
log r
Finally, r
is
given by
= 0.1614052.
T is negative ; but the
Before the time of perihelion passage, t
value of v is computed as if this were positive, and is then considered
as negative.
In the case of hyperbolic motion, i is negative, and, with this distinction, the process when Table IX. is used is precisely the same
as for elliptic
motion; but when table X.
is
used, the value of
must be found from
and that of r from
f
the values of log
table
B and
which belong
AC
log
cos*v'
being taken from the columns of the
to hyperbolic motion.
In the calculation of the position of a comet in space,
if the
motion
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
112
retrograde and the inclination
is
is
tinctions indicated in the formulae
When we
42.
regarded as
less
than
90,
the dis
must be carefully noted.
have thus computed the places of a planet or comet
we may
readily interpolate the places
The
for intermediate dates by the usual formulae for interpolation.
is
made
interval between the dates for which the direct computation
for a series of dates equidistant,
should also be small enough to permit us to neglect the effect of the
fourth differences in the process of interpolation.
This, however, is
not absolutely necessary, provided that a very extended series of
of differences may
places is to be computed, so that the higher orders
be taken into account. To find a convenient formula for this inter
any date, or argument of the function, by
and
the
nct)j
corresponding value of the coordinate, or of the
the interpolation is to be made, by / (a
for
which
function,
no)).
If we have computed the values of the function for the dates, or
to, a f 2co, &c., we may assume that an
<o, a, a
arguments, a
function
for
the
which exactly satisfies these values will
expression
polation, let us denote
'{
also give the exact values corresponding to any intermediate value
If we regard n as variable, we may expand the
of the argument.
function into the series
f(a h
and
if
we
(116)
and
2,
2oi)
=/(a)
/ (a + (n
by f (a + na>)
)
may
+ n<o) f(a {(n
+
+
/
i)
f (a + (n
generally, the difference f(a
the difference
a>),
(a
(n
and similarly
Function.
f( a
w)
f(a)
i.+ 
/(
/(a
2 a>
III. Diff.
+2
+ 2a)
1) to)
1)
I. Diff.
/O20
+
{J
/ (a +
a
.)
a>)
a)
for the successive orders of differences,
be arranged as follows
Argument.
<o
II. Diff.
+B C A _ +c
=fW + A +B +C
=f(a)A
we symbolize,
A, B, and C. If we put n successively equal
and then take the successive differences of these
get
by
On* f &c.
I. Diff.
_w
/(
/(a f
these
coefficients
1, 0, 1,
values,
If
+ An f Bn +
regard the fourth differences as vanishing, it is only neces3
consider terms involving n in the determination of the
unknown
/(a
=/(a)
we
sary to
to
no>)
W
^
II. Diff.
III. Diff.
r(a)
/'(
+ *)
/'"(*
INTERPOLATION.
Comparing these expressions
113
for the differences
with the above,
we
get
c=tr(+i),
 if (a) B=if(),
A=f(a +
If' (a + ,

which, from the manner in which the differences are formed, give
C=
J.
To
a
=/(a +
(/" (a
_/(
_/"
( a)
i/
^
),
>)
J (/" ( a
/"
)
(a),
_/" ( a) ).
find the value of the function corresponding to the
f
w,
we have n
/(a
^,
>)
=/(a)
Substituting in this the values of
ducing,
f(a
we
argument
and, from (116),
14
+ iJJ + a
J., j5,
and
(7,
last
found, and re
get
+ /()) ~ I (J (/"
+ i0 = i (/( +
+ /" to)),
in which only fourth differences are neglected, and, since the place
of the argument for n
is arbitrary, we have, therefore,
generally,
 j a (r
t> + 1)
Hence, to interpolate the value of the function corresponding to a
midway between two dates, or values of the argument, for which
the values are known, we take the arithmetical mean of these two
date
known
values,
metical
mean of the second
and from
horizontal line as the
this
we
subtract oneeighth of the arithwhich are found on the same
differences
two given values of the function.
By extending the analytical process here indicated so as to include
the fourth and fifth differences, the additional term to be added to
equation (117)
is
found to be
and the correction corresponding to
this being applied, only sixth
differences will be neglected.
It is customary in the case of the comets
which do not move too
rapidly, to adopt an interval of four days, and in the case of the
asteroid planets, either four or eight days, between the dates for which
the direct calculation is made. Then, by interpolating, in the case of
CD, equal to four days, for the intermediate dates, we
obtain a series of places at intervals of two days ; and, finally, inter
an interval
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
114
we derive the places at
polating for the dates intermediate to these,
When a series of places has been computed,
intervals of one day.
the use of differences will serve as a check upon the accuracy of the
the place which is not
calculation, and will serve to detect at once
when any discrepancy is apparent. The greatest discordance
shown in the differences on the same horizontal line as the
erroneous value of the function and the discordance will be greater
and greater as we proceed successively to take higher orders of difIn order to provide against the contingency of systematic
ferences.
correct,
will be
error, duplicate calculation
which such an error
is
should be made of those quantities in
likely to occur.
The ephemerides of
the planets, to be used for the comparison of
are
observations,
usually computed for a period of a few weeks before
and after the time of opposition to the sun ; and the time of the
opposition may be found in advance of the calculation of the entire
ephemeris. Thus, we find first the date for which the mean longitude
of the planet is equal to the longitude of the sun increased by 180 ;
then we compute the equation of the centre at this time by means of
the equation (53), using, in most cases, only the first term of the
development, or
v
2esin M,
being expressed in seconds. Next, regarding this value as conwe find the date for which
stant,
L
is
j
equation of the centre
equal to the longitude of the sun increased by 180 ; and for this
and also for another at an interval of a few days, we compute
date,
Uj
and hence the heliocentric longitudes by means of the equation
tan
(I
& ) = tan u cos
i.
Let these longitudes be denoted by I and /', the times to which they
correspond by t and t and the longitudes of the sun for the same
times by O and O ' then for the time tw for which the heliocentric
longitudes of the planet and the earth are the same, we have
f
or
the
(113)
first
of these equations being used
when
180
is less
TIME OF OPPOSITION.
than V
180
O'.
If the time
115
differs considerably
from
or
be necessary, in order to obtain an accurate result, to repeat
the latter part of the calculation, using tQ for t, and taking t r at a
t',
it
may
small interval from this, and so that the true time of opposition shall
f
The longitudes of the planet and of the sun
fall between t and t
.
must be measured from the same equinox.
When
the eccentricity is considerable, it will facilitate the calculatwo terms of equation (53) in finding the equation of the
tion to use
centre, and, if e is expressed in seconds, this gives
M= 2e
sin if
+ 4
ez
sin
2M,
being the number of seconds corresponding to a length of arc equal
206264".8 ; and the value of v
will then be
to the radius, or
In all cases in which circular arcs are
expressed in seconds of arc.
involved in an equation, great care must be taken, in the numerical
application, in reference to the homogeneity of the different terms.
If the arcs are expressed by an abstract number, or by the length of
arc expressed in parts of the radius taken as the unit, to express them
in seconds
we must multiply by
arcs are expressed in seconds, each
number 206264.8 but if the
term of the equation must contain
the
'
only one concrete factor, the other concrete factors, if there be any,
being reduced to abstract numbers by dividing each by s the number
of seconds in an arc equal to the radius.
43. It is unnecessary to illustrate further the numerical application
of .the various formulae which have been derived, since by reference
to the formulae themselves the course of procedure is obvious.
It
be remarked, however, that in many cases in which auxiliary
angles have been introduced so as to render the equations convenient
may
for logarithmic calculation,
by the use of
tables
which determine the
logarithms of the sum or difference of two numbers
rithms of these numbers are given, the calculation
and
is
often even
when
is
the loga
abbreviated,
more accurately performed than by the aid of the
auxiliary angles.
The logarithm of the sum of two numbers may be found by means
of the tables of common logarithms.
Thus, we have
If
we put
log tan x
= ^ (log b
log a),
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
116
we
have
shall
log (a
f
log (a
f
= log a
6) = log
6)
or
The
first
form
is
form when cos x
used
when
is less
cos
2 log cos
x,
2 log sin
x.
greater than sin x,
is
and the second
than sin x.
It should also be observed that in the solution of equations of the
after tan (X
form of
using the notation of this particular
)
(89),
has been found by dividing the second equation by the first,
the second members of these equations being divided by cos (X
0)
two values of A cos /9, which should
and sin (X
), respectively, give
case
agree within the limits of the unavoidable errors of the logarithmic
;
but, in order that the errors of these tables shall have the
tables
least influence, the
ferred
when
value derived from the
cos (A
is
greater than sin
from the second equation when cos
The value
first
(A
O)
(A
equation
),
be derived from J cos /9 when
is
/9
less
to be pre
than sin
is less
of J, if the greatest accuracy possible
is
and that derived
is
45, and from A
than
0).
(A
required, should
sin
ft
greater than 45.
In the application of numbers to equations (109), when the values
of the second members have been computed, we first, by division,
when
is
/3
find tanJ(&'Hfl>
and tan
greater than cosJ(&'[
but
if sin 
(&'
o>
<w
),
* s ^ ess
('
we
fl>
find
); then, if
sin(&'f w
cos^ from the
tnan cos J(&'
+w
o)>
first
we ^ nc^
is
equation;
cos
Ji'
from
the second equation. The same principle is applied in finding sin
by means of the third and fourth equations. Finally, from sin
\%'
and cos \V we get tan \V ^ and hence i'. The check obtained by the
r
f
agreement of the values of sin \i and cos %i with those computed
f
f
from the value of i derived from tan \i , does not absolutely prove
the calculation. This proof, however, may be obtained by means of
,
the equation
sin
i'
sin
&'
sin
i'
sin
or by
= sin
= sin
i sin
&
e sin
&
In all cases, care should be taken in determining the quadrant in
which the angles sought are situated, the criteria for which are fixed
either
by the nature of the problem
directly, or
by the
relation of the
algebraic signs of the trigonometrical functions involved.
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAE.
CHAPTER
117
II.
INVESTIGATION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAE WHICH EXPRESS THE RELATION
BETWEEN THE GEOCENTRIC OR HELIOCENTRIC PLACES OF A HEAVENLY BODY
AND THE VARIATION OF THE ELEMENTS OF ITS ORBIT.
IN many
44.
it
calculations relating to the motion of a heavenly
becomes necessary to determine the variations which small
body,
increments applied to the values of the elements of its orbit will produce in its geocentric or heliocentric place. The form, however, in
which the problem most frequently presents itself is that in which
approximate elements are to be corrected by means of the differences
between the places derived from computation and those derived from
In this case it is required to find the variations of the
elements such that they will cause the differences between calculation
and observation to vanish ; and, since there are six elements, it follows
that six separate equations, involving the variations of the elements
observation.
unknown
must be formed. Each longitude or right
from observation,
will furnish one equation
and hence at least three complete observations will be required for the solution of the problem.
When more
than three observations are employed, and the number of equations
as the
quantities,
ascension, and each
latitude or declination, derived
;
exceeds the
tion
number of unknown
quantities, the equations of condito six final equations, from
which are obtained must be reduced
which, by elimination, the corrections to be applied to the elements
may be determined.
If
we suppose the
corrections
which must be applied to the
ele
ments, in order to satisfy the data furnished by observation, to be so
small that their squares and higher powers may be neglected, the
variations of those elements
which involve angular measure being
expressed in parts of the radius as unity, the relations sought
may
be determined by differentiating the various formulae which determine
the position of the body.
Thus, if we represent by 6 any coordinate of the place of the body computed from the assumed elements
of the orbit, we shall have, in the case of an elliptic orbit,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
118
M being the mean anomaly
Q
at the
Let
epoch T.
6'
denote the value
of this coordinate as derived directly or indirectly from observation ;
then, if we represent the variations of the elements by ATT, A&, A^,
&c., and if we suppose these variations to be so small that their
squares and higher powers may be neglected, we shall have
do
do
do
A3fo
dM
de
+ j *r
(1)
The
differential coefficients
=
=
dj:
d&
,
&c. must
now be
the equations which determine the place of the body
ments are known.
derived from
when
the ele
We
shall first take the equator as the plane to which the positions
of the body are referred, and find the differential coefficients of the
geocentric right ascension and declination with respect to the elements
of the
orbit, these
damental plane.
body in
elements being referred to the ecliptic as the funx, y, z be the heliocentric coordinates of the
Let
reference to the equator,
and we have
or
,
dO
dd
= =dx 4r y dy
y
dx
=
dO
4*
dy
= dz
dz
Hence we obtain
dO
dd_
dO_
'
dx
and similarly
dy
dy
dx
dO_
dz
dz
'
dn
(2)
for the differential coefficients of 6
with respect to the
find
the
must, therefore,
partial differential coefficients of d with respect to x, y, and z, and then the
partial differenother elements.
tial coefficients
We
of these coordinates with respect to the elements. In
we put 6
a, and in the case of the
the case of the right ascension
declination we put 6
3.
45. If
we
differentiate the equations
f
y f
z J
regarding X, Y, and
Z as
X==
A COS
d COS a,
Y= A cos d sin
Z = A sin
constant,
d,
we
find
a,
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAE.
= cos a cos
dy = sin a cos
dz = sin d d A
dx
From
dA
dA
d
d
\
d dd.
by elimination, we obtain
these equations,
= sin a dx
cos a sin
= A
\
aA dy
sin d
sin
dx
COS a
dy,
,
da
cos d
dd
A cos a sin 8 dd,
A sin a sin d dd,
A sin a cos d da
A cos a cos d da,
A cos
\
119
cos 8
dx
sin a
= 7.
A
da
cosa
da
r~
/j
a and
d with respect
cos a sin
= A
eZfl
j
'
az.
f
Therefore, the partial differential coefficients of
to the heliocentric coordinates are
cos o
(3)
dx
dd
>
sinasind
..
Next, to find the partial differential coefficients of the coordinates
Xy y, z with respect to the elements, if we differentiate the equations
sin c, A, B, C, are functions of &
(100)!, observing that sin a, sin 6,
y
and
iy
we
get
dx
dr
x cot ( A
{
u) du
{
~r=55
{
dQ
j
^^
+ p ^'
ft
7*
^
Ml'
c?i,
co
c?2
To

dr
j
2 cot (
find the expressions for
C f w)
=
du
+ TQ
&c.,
ft^
d 66 p,
,
we have
the equations
a;
rr=
r cos
it
cos S7
y = r cos w sin
= r cos u sin
2
which give, by
dx
7
f sin
it
S^ cos e
{
&7 sin e
f
sin
w
sin w
s in
cos
i,
cos S7 cos
cos e
r sin u sin
sin
e,
cos
sin
e j
r sin
cos
e,
r sin
&
cos
cos
it
sin
differentiation,
r cos
sin
cos
t,
rtS7
7
$
= r cos u cos &
cos
r sin it sin
&
cos
cos
e,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
120
dz

d&
dx
= r cos u cos &
......
&
sm u
= r sm w sm & sin
*,
r sin
cos
&
sin
cos
r sin it cos
&
sin
sin e
=r
sin e
cos
sin
sin
e,
cfi>
dy
i*
at
rv
CM
The
first
dx
and
since
=
=
sin
it
cos i
sm e,
cos
cos
e.
&
dz
sin
&
cos &
^^zsme;
^^ajcose,
cos
cos c
dx
r sin
f
dy
2 sine,
yeoss
cos 6
jr
cfo
sm w
three of these equations immediately reduce to
cos a
we
K,
(5)
i,
sin i cos
sin
sin e
j
cos i sin
e,
cos
e,
cos
have, also,
= r sm u cos
dy =
r sm w cos o,
Further,
c.
di
we have
du
and hence,
dQ
dv\dn
finally,
=  dr + x cot
3T
dx
f (
= r sm u cos
dz
JT
c?i
* cot (A{u)
y
(
?2
f
(5
=  dr +
2 cot ( (7
y cos
= dr\y cot
y cot
(J.
) cfo
2!
c?v
+ w + x cos
e)
f
cot (A
f
2/
c?^
2 cot (
C f w) dv + 2
f M)
j a;
These equations give,
d&
sin e)
w)
(B
sin e)
d&
f
cot
(B
+ w)
r sin
it
cos a
+w ^
\rsmu
cot
G?TT
di,'
,
fi
cos 6 di,
C f w) d;r
+ r sin w cos c
for the partial differential coefficients of the
heliocentric coordinates with respect to the elements,
dx
dx
=
dz
dz
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAE.
T^
tt&6
x cot (A+u)y cose
y
da?
yr
= r sin w cos
dx_
dy
dr
When
z cot ( (7
+ u) +
cos
ai
dz
dr
the direct inclination
is
greater than
90,
= r sin w cos
.
yr
e,
cfe
0,
_y
c; (7)
z
r'
if
we
introduce the
we have
distinction of retrograde motion,
du
sin
i*
ai
_x
dr
"d6
a,
y cot (B+u)+x cos
^=
z sine,
<fy
= r sin
ai
121
= dv
dn
d&,
\
and hence
dx
dx
==w
dx
T^=^dv vcose
d^
dx
mi
Ine expressions
dy
T^r
zsme.
dx
7)
lor
dr
dy
d&
_.
dy
dy
= ~T+ x cos
dv
dy
T
r~ ^nd
dr
'
dz
~
dr
e,
===
dz
dz
rf^
^v
111
remain unchanged: and we
have, also,
dx
rr
It
is
dy
rsmitcosa,
di
ST
rsmwcoso.
dz
?v
,^
rsinwcosc.
(9)
di
di
advisable, in order to avoid the use of two sets of formulae, in
motion as direct and the inclination as susceptible
part, to regard the
of any value from
180.
we take
to
If the elements which are given are
the supplement of i instead of i; and
if we designate the longitude of the perihelion, when the motion is
considered as being retrograde, by (TT), we shall have
for retrograde motion,
If
we
introduce, as one of the elements of the orbit, the distance
of the perihelion from the ascending node,
du
= dv
we have
{ da>,
and, hence,
dx
dx
^
dot
jdv
= x cot /A
(A +1*),
.
dy
/da)
dy = cot
= /(B 4 u),
y
dv
,
,,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
122
The
values of
>
and
must, in this case, be found by means
of the equations (5).
By means of these expressions for the differential coefficients of the
coordinates x, y, z, with respect to the various elements, and those
given by
(4),
we may
derive the differential coefficients of the geo
centric right ascension and declination with respect to the elements
&, i, and TT or o>, and also with respect to r and v t by writing sucin place of x in the
cessively a and d in place of 6, and &, i, &c.,
equation
(2).
The
and v, however, are functions of the
we have
//; and
quantities r
remaining elements
<p t
dr
,
dv
and
dr j
= T
dtp
= jdv
dr
^r
dv
,,,
~dr
\
J1 r dM
dM
dtp f
d(p
r
dv
f =
dfj..
dfj.
Therefore, the partial differential coefficients of x, with respect to
the elements <p,
w and /^, are
dx
_ dx
dr
d<p
dx
dM
dx
~~
== ~j~
dr
dx
dx
dfj.
dr
dr
dx
dv
d<f>
dv
dy
dx
dv
dv
dM
dr
dx
dv
dfj,
dv
dfj.
dr
'
'
dM
~JT/f
The expressions for the partial differential coefficients in the case of
the coordinates y and z are of precisely the same form, and are obtained by writing, successively, y and z in place of x.
The values of
dx
dx
>
dr
r
dv
when
dy
dr
~>
dy
r>
dv
dz
r>
dz
and
dr
dv
dr
the expressions lor
dv
,
d<p
7
d<p
dr
>
by the equations
are given
dr
dv
dM dM
>
,
,
d'j.
and
dv
7
/m
(7),
and
have been
dfj.
found, the partial differential coefficients of the heli<x?entric coordinates with respect to the elements <p,
and p. will be completely
Q
determined, and hence, by means of (2), making the necessary
changes, the differential coefficients of a and d with respect to these
elements.
46. If
we
differentiate the equation
M=E
esmE,
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAE.
we
123
have
shall
dM= dE(l
e cos
E=a
cos
E)
But. since 1
e cos
,
<p
sin
smE=Ta sin
and cos <p
d<p.
v,
this reduces to
fV
/Y>
dM= a dE
 sin v dy,
or
dE =  dM 4T
sin v dy.
If we take the logarithms of both members of the equation
tan v
and
differentiate,
we
f
y),
find
dE
dv
2 sin
tan ji;tan (45
v cos
2 sin
\v
dy
E cos %E
'
2 sin (45
y) cos (45
f
f
JpJ
which reduces to
snv
snv
smE
cosy
Introducing into this equation the value of dE, already found, and
._. ,
sm E by
J
replacing
r sin v
we
sin v
= cos y dM a?
cZv
get
a cosy
,
i*
cos?>\
(Y\
But
since
a cos2 <p
^ __
=p, and c s
^
r2
\

a cos 2 y
r
\l\cUp.
I
= 1 f sin ^ cosv, this becomes
dM f

\cos^
h tan V cos f
sin v dy.
(12)
If we differentiate the equation
r
we
shall
=a
(1
ecos E),
have
M
dr
and substituting
 da\ ae sin
a
for
dE
its
E dE
a cos y cos
value in terms of
E dy
dM and d<p, the result
is
= a da
7*
dr
f
a tan ^ sin v
dM + (e sin
sin v
a cos p cos !) d?>.
(13)
THEOEETICAL ASTRONOMY.
124
[Now, since sin
E= 1
>
j
and cos
e cos v
E= 1cosv\e
cos v
r,
H
sin v
cos1
E = ae1 cos e cos
v
2
<P
a cos ? cos
ae sin J? sin v
,,
have
shall

<p
j
which reduces
we
(cos v
f
f
e)
e cos v
to
ae sin
Esmv
a cos
cos 17
<p
a cos p cos v
Hence, the expression for dr becomes
dr
Further,
T being
= a da
we have
a cos
a tan ^ sin v (ZJf
f
M=M +
the epoch for which the
cos v
<f>
(14)
c?^.
.(tT),
fJ
mean anomaly
Jf and
is
+m
JT
Jfel/1
=
"
we
Differentiating these expressions,
get
dM=
da
substituting these values in the expressions for dr
(2r\
have, finally,
a tan
<p
sin v
T)
(t
and
we
dv,
dp
op. J
a cos
av
a2 cos
;
rl
<p
, ,
aMQ H
a2 cos
;
r*
<p
<f>
_..
cos v
,
dr
7
(<
4
'
'
tan CP cos v
\cos^
we
\
}
sin
y
av.
obtain the following values
a cos y cos y,
= a tan P sin
) a/* +
From these equations for dr and (?v
of the partial differential coefficients
(15)
d(f> f
 T)  ^ 206264.8
dv

=l
*=
j
tan <p cosv Ism v,
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAE.
It will be observed that in the last
125
term of the expression
we
for
d(JL
have supposed
factor 206264.8
/JL
is
to be expressed in seconds of arc, and hence the
introduced in order to render the equation homo
geneous.
47.
The
formulae already derived are sufficient to find the varia
tions of the right ascension and declination corresponding to the
variations of the elements in the case of the elliptic orbit of a
planet;
but in the case of ellipses of great eccentricity, and also in the cases
of parabolic and hyperbolic motion, these formulae for the differential
coefficients
some modification, which we now proceed
require
to
develop.
First, then, in the case of parabolic motion,
of
M and n we
Q
shall introduce the elements
coefficients relating to
;r,
&, and
sin^
T and
1,
g,
and instead
the differential
remaining unchanged from their
form as already derived.
If we differentiate the equation
= 2* (tan fr + i tan' J),
regarding T,
and v
q,
as variable,
kt
kdT
2
or, since r
=q
we
shall
have
T)
sec Jw,
kdT
Jc(t
Multiplying through by ~j and reducing,
we
get
(17)
Instead of
g,
we may
use log*?, and the equation will, therefore,
become
.
log
in
which
is
q,
the modulus of the system of logarithms.
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
126
If we take the logarithms of both members of the equation
r= cosInn
Iv
2
and
we
differentiate,
find
dq{r tan %o
dv.
Introducing into this equation the value of dv from (17),
we
get
Jv,
we have
nfr
_
Now,
since
3k
= q (tan \v
V 2q
T)' tan iv

(t
\
^tan
= 1 (1 + tan
Jt?),
= r cos
and q
sm 2 %o
3 sin 2 %o
tan 2 Jv)
cosjy
We also
have
tan ^v
Therefore, equation (19) reduces to
T.
If
we
introduce
d log g
instead of dq, this equation becomes
V 2q
From
the equations (17), (18), (20), and (21),
dr
Jcsinv
V~Zq
=C
SV
Tq
_
_dr_ ~~
/r..
(21)
we
kl/ 2q
r2
dv
~dq
dv
derive
dv
>
q cos v
"dT
d*T
dr
(20)
'
3k(tF)
^75=^
3&
(t
T)
'
and then we have, for the
T and q or log q,
dlogq~
differential coefficients of
x with respect
to
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULA.
dx
_ dx
dx
dr
dT~~dr~'dT +
dx
dv
~dv~'dT'
dx
dr
dx
dr
dv
'dr'"d^^~~dv"df
~d^
dx
dx
_ dx
=
127
dv
'
d log q
and similarly
efficients
d log q
dv
d log q
y and z with respect
for
the
expressions
partial differential co
for the differential coefficients of
to these elements.
same
dr
The
of x, y, and
z,
respectively, with respect to r
and v are the
We
found in the case of
shall thus
elliptic motion.
obtain the equations which express the relation between the variations
of the geocentric places of a comet and the variation of the parabolic
as already
elements of
its
orbit,
and which may be employed
either to correct
the approximate elements by means of equations of condition furnished by comparison of the computed place with the observed place,
or to determine the change in the geocentric right ascension and
declination corresponding to given increments assigned to the ele
ments.
48.
and
We may
the case of an elliptic orbit, introduce I , q,
instead of the elements <p,
w and //. If we differentiate the
also, in
expression
q
we
shall
= a (1
= a dq
,
da
We
in
have, also,
which
e),
have
T is
a2
de.
f
M= kVT+^n, at
T),
(t
the time of perihelion passage, and
dM =
fcl/l
+ w a~f dT
f M/l
f
m a~f (t
T)
da.
Hence we derive
Substituting this value of
and reducing, we get
dM
in equation (12), replacing sin
<p
by
ey
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
128
In a similar manner, by substituting the values of da and
equation (14), and reducing, we find
= ^
dr
Vp
Ir
f
\q
.

T)
1/2
2
\f~
^1 +
\,
esmv]dq
/
L^e.
These equations, (23) and
(24)
(24), will furnish the expressions for the
dv dv
jvo*
Li
j*j
partial differential coefficients r^.,
j.'
in
m
dT
e sin v
,l+m(*
7Aj
dM
dT
dr
dv
dr
7, 7^, z,
dT
de
and
dr
r,
, .
which are
de
dq
dq
required in finding the differential coefficients of the heliocentric coordinates with respect to the elements T, q, and e, these quantities
being substituted for
49.
and
H,
When
<p,
Mw
the orbit
/*,
q,
<p,
respectively, in the equations (11).
a hyperbola,
is
the elements
and
we
introduce, in place of
Mw
and
If we differentiate the equation
N=
we
shall
which
is
tan
loge tan (45
cos
cos
+ F\
have
easily transformed into
,
dF
,T
Q
cos
_,
tan &
cos
or
dF
Let us now take the logarithms of both members of the equation
tan IF
and
differentiate,
and we
,
dv
shall
= tan ^v tan
*,
have
= sm v sindFF= sm
siny
4/
Introducing into this equation the value of
get
cos^
already found,
we
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAS.
But, since r sin v
129
= a tan ^ tan F, and p = a tan
^, this reduces to
(25)
If
we
we
differentiate the equation
get
j
dr
&F
j
= ra da
+ ae tan _F smF=
ET
tan 4
.
^
cosF
Substituting in this equation the value of
which
=,
d&.
cos
we
obtain
cosJP
easily reduced to
is
dr
sinv
j
= arda}a
sm
p I
dN
Q j
'
cos
ae
F^
cos
ae
Fn
4
\
I
d^
^.
*
sin
But, since
cos
cos
cos
this reduces to
,
rfr
= ra da
,
a sin v
\
dN
7
or
,
dr
Q \
.
sm 4/
 dN
s'mv
= ra da f a sin
,
/
I
cos
,r
1
e
cosv
4
pr
d*
sin 4/
d*.
(26)
4,
Now,
since q
= a(e
1),
,
rrz
df^
we have
a tan
+
q
I
cZa
4/
d*
cos4/
or
,
We
a
at T/o
= dq
d^.
,
da
qcos^
have, also,
N = ka$(tT),
a
and hence
dZV
By
far
substituting the value of
dT
c?a,
jferf (<
this
becomes
ag cos
4*
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
130
Substituting this value of
obtain
dN
in equation (25),
and reducing, we
qr
In a similar manner, substituting in equation (26) the values of
da and dN , and reducing, we get
dr
=
Vp
The
cos 4
equations (27) and (28) will furnish the expressions for the
and v with respect to the elements
partial differential coefficients of r
T, g, and ^, required in forming the equations for cos d da and dd.
It will be observed that these equations are analogous to the equations (23) and (24), and that by introducing the relation between e
and neglecting the mass, they become identical with them.
might, indeed, have derived the equations (27) and (28) directly
from (23) and (24) by substituting for e its value in terms of ^; but
the differential formula which have resulted in deriving them directly
and
oj/,
We
from the equations
for hyperbolic motion, will not be superfluous.
50. It is evident,
(24), (27),
and
(28)
from an inspection of the terms of equations (23),
which contain de and d^>, that when the value of
very nearly equal to unity, the coefficients for these differentials
become indeterminate. It becomes necessary, therefore, to develop
e is
the corresponding expressions for the case in which these equations
are insufficient.
For this purpose, let us resume the equation

in
T)
(1
which u
+ 6)1
= tan
Jw,
and
= JI _ Q
(
we
shall
have
Then, since
DIFFERENTIAL FOKMTJXJE.
+ (Aw  /2 u + 2X)
If
it
is
(1
*)
131
+ Ac.
(29)
required to find the expression for 7 in the case of the
variation of the elements of parabolic motion, or when 1
e as constant,
we may regard the coefficient of 1
small,
e is
very
and neglect
terms multiplied by the square and higher powers of 1
e.
By
the
to
these
equation (29) according
conditions, and
differentiating
regarding
u and
e as variable,
= (1 + w
and, since
du
= J(l + u
2
)
dv
we
get
>
>
du
(\u
dv, this gives
_
~
lu*
de
(1
lu*
+ u^
The values of the second member, corresponding
of
is
v,
may
de;
to different values
be tabulated with the argument v; but a table of this kind
by no means indispensable, since the expression
for 7
may be
changed to another form which furnishes a direct solution with the
same facility. Thus, by division, we have
de~
and
since, in the case
of parabolic motion,
'=9* d
T^r="+^'
this
becomes
(31)
If
we
differentiate the equation
1 fecosv'
regarding
r, v,
and
e as variables,
we
shall
have
dr
2
e)~
g (1
+ e)
'
~de
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
132
In the
case of parabolic motion, e
l,
and
this equation is easily
transformed into
(33)
Substituting for =CtC
we
value from (31), and reducing,
its
get
= 2 n * ~ r) sin , + Ty tan*
(<
%The
(34)
Jt>.
2q
equations (31) and (34) furnish the values of
and
to be
de
de
used in forming the expressions for the variation of the place of the
body when the parabolic eccentricity is changed to the value 1 j de.
When
the eccentricity to which the increment
from unity, we
little
may compute
A still
equation (30).
is
assigned differs but

the value of
closer approximation
directly
from
would be obtained by
di)
using an additional term of (29) in finding the expression for
but
a more convenient formula
is
may be derived, of which the numerical
the
use of Table IX.
Thus, if we differby
facilitated
application
entiate the equation
v=V+A (1000 + B (lOOi) + O(100i)
2
regarding the coefficients A, B, and
the value of i in terms of e, we have
dv__d_V
de
in
which
de
s
200^
s(l
4005
s7T+
e)>
(7 as constant,
8
,
and introducing
6000
(l+e)'
e)
206264.8, the values of A, B, and C, as derived from
the table, being expressed in seconds.
To
find
dV
we have
O/G
which
gives,
by
differentiation,
k(t
and
T)
de
dV
we
introduce the expression for the value of
used as the
means
of
Table
the
is
result
argument
by
VI.,
if
in finding
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAE.
133
dV
"
de
Hence we have
20(U
s(l
600C
_4005
+ e)^
s(l
e)*
by means of which the value of do
^T+ej*
)}
readily found.
is
When the eccentricity differs so much from that of the parabola
that the terms of the last equation are not sufficiently convergent,
dv
the expression for
which will furnish the required accuracy, may
be derived from the equations (75) 1 and
first of these equations wifch respect to
regarded as constant,
we
we
we
To
may
_9
IV A
members of equation
dw
dC
C """sinw
(1
+ e) (1 + 9)'
with respect to
take
1
~*~1
which gives
The equation
gives
50
,^
(1
f
^ tan
2 i
Aw ae f
9e)
 w
tan
cos
and hence we obtain
dC
O
2002
77
7T(1
+ Oe)
7T
tan 2
sin
Substituting this value in equation (37),
dv
_ ~
de~
(76) w
and
4de
find the differential coefficient of
j A
dA
evidently be
get
dv
sufficient to
since
e,
get
take the logarithms of both
differentiate,
If we differentiate the
(76)j.
20 C
2
2 1
2S1
we
get
"'"
^
sin v
^w
r:
2
^w
(37)
e} it will
be
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
134
and
substituting, finally, the value of
y,
C smv
2
we
obtain
20 O a
cos'JUfl
S1
~
(1
sin?;
+ e) (1 + 9e)'
which, by means of (76) 1? reduces to
cos 2 w
Stanjv
'
'
which is used as the argument in
If we introduce the quantity
this equation becomes
w
Table
means
of
VI.,
finding
by
9e)75tan>
(1
f
e) (1
+ 9e>'
This equation remains unchanged in the case of hyperbolic motion,
the value of C being taken from the column of the table which cord^o
responds to this
all cases in
and
case:
it
will furnish the correct value of
7
in
ae
which the
term of equation (23)
last
is
not conveniently
d/T
applicable.
The value of
is
a/ c>
When
jg
1,
the eccentricity differs very
and
tan
cos
Then we
shall
Jii>
= tan Jv y
w = JO
cos
little
\^
^^
sin v
(\
v.
2k(tT)
= =; cos
equation
?
= (1 + A C
cos 2
= (1 f iJL)
cos* Jw,
gives
= (1 + P)
cos*
Jw
(32).
from unity, we may put
have
75 tan %
The
then given by the equation
= Ccos
Hence we derive
I
'\
iw.
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES.
If we substitute this value in equation
we
135
and put
(39),
(1
+ = 2,
e)
get
_
de
and when
2(li9e)"
We
EXAMPLES.
51.
the formula
(1
+ e) (1 + 9e)'
becomes identical with equation
1, this
r2
now
will
(31).
by numerical examples,
illustrate,
for the calculation of the variations of the geocentric
right ascension and declination arising from small increments assigned
Let it be required to find for the date 1865 Febto the elements.
ruary 24.5 mean time at Washington, the differential coefficients of
the right ascension and declination of the planet Eurynome
with
and
respect to the elements of its orbit, using the data
Thus we have
in Art. 41.
results given
d =
4 42' 21".56, log A = 0.2450054,
29".29,
=
=
v
129
u = 326 41' 40".l,
50".5,
0.428285,
logr
A = 296 39' 5".0, B == 205 55' 27".l,
C= 212 32' 17".7,
= 9.999716, log sin b = 9.974825, log sin = 9.522219,
log sin a
= 9.511920,
= 0.425066
x
log y
log = 8.077315,
log
= 23 27' 24".0,
T= 420.714018.
a =t 181
8'
3'
by means of the equations
First,
values
(4),
we compute
log cos d
log cos d
~=
8.054308,
log
= 9.754919
log
n,
^=
following
Then we
8.668959n
== 6.968348
log
nates,
the
= 9.753529.
dz
find the differential coefficients of the heliocentric coordi
with respect to
TT,
^,
i,
v,
and
r,
from the formulae
(7),
which
give
log
log
dit
= log dv = 9.491991
 = 7.876553,
^d6
log ^log
^j
log
n,
log
^= ^=
ait
log
 = 8.830941,
log
~=
~ = 0.142443
"66
= 8.726364,
log
^
= 9.687577,
log
= 9.996780
log
^
= 9.083635,
log
n,
0.399496
dv
W$g
^~
9.222898.,
n,
= 7.649030.
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
136
In computing the values of
and
jr>
those of cos a, cos b f
yr,
p>
and cos c may generally be obtained with sufficient accuracy from
Their algebraic signs, however, must be
sin a, sin 6, and sine.
The quantities sin a, sin 6, and sin c are always
strictly attended to.
and the algebraic signs of cos a, cos 6, and cos c are indicated
by the equations (101)!, from which, also, their numerical
In the case of the example proposed, it will
values may be derived.
be observed that cos a and cos b are negative, and that cos c is positive.
positive ;
at once
To
and
find the values of cos d y
r>
we
have, according to equa
tion (2),
.
da
COS d
dx
da
= COS d ~dx
dx
\
.da

dv
dy
dit
COS d
dr.
_,_
JL
dx
(41)
21,
dn'
dz
dy'dn:
dit
which give
=+
%dv
= cos
*L
cos
arr
In the
case of
place of
TT
&,
i,
and
cos 8
A
cos d
~=
~=
Next, from (16),
 0.48900.
= *=
dv
write these quantities successively in
and hence we derive
J^
ai
0.08020,
we compute
= 0.179155,
log
= 0.171999,
log
r/7*
dr
09533
>
0.78993,
0.04873.
the following values:
= 9.577453,
log
L ^ 9.911247,
log
^L
fi
=~
~=
~=+
0.27641,
dr
log
we
=  0.03845,
ai
L
r,
dr.
in the equations (41),
cos d
log
*L
1.42345,
^=
2.376581 n
= 2.535234.
"We may now find
&c. by means of the equations
^, ^r,
and thence the values of
cos d y, y, &c.
d<p
to derive these values
directly
but
it is
(11),
most convenient
d(p
from cosd^, cos^
dr
dv
dr
and
dv
in connection with the numerical values last
found, according to the
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES.
137
equations which result from the analytical substitution of the expressions for
and
p.
=, ,
j
in place of
&c., in equation
writing successively
tp y
Mw
Thus, we have
TT.
da
(2),
cos o
= cos
da
dr
dr
d<p
.da
d<p
dv
cos o
\
dv
d<p
d3^_d3_ dr_,dd_ dv^
~^~~fo'~d^~^~dv'~dp'
and similarly
cos d
M and
for
cos
(5
which give
^
= + 1.99400,
^nrr
aiw
= + 113004,
dy
//,
~=
=
4*?
dM
~=~
^ = + 507.264,
Therefore, according to
Aa
A(5
(1),
= f 1.42345A7T
we
shall
have
0.03845A a
0.09533 A ^
0.48900Ar
179.315.
dfi
f
0.38023,
d/JL
cos d
0.65307,
d<p
0.27641 &i
f 1.99400A^
1.13004A^
+ 507.264A/X,
0.78993A^
0.38023Ajf
To prove
 0.65307A^
179.315A/Z.
the calculation of the coefficients in these equations,
we
assign to the elements the increments
M = + 10",
A?
so that they
= 20",
= + 10",
= 10",
= + 0".01,
At
= + 10",
= 1864 Jan. 1.0 Greenwich mean time.
M=
Q
29' 50".21
7t= 44 20 13
^
i
= 206
= 4
?=
log a
/i
11
.09
^
42 30
.13 V
37
.51 J
16
= 0.3881288
= 928.56745
Mean Equinox
1864.0
1 .02
we compute the geocentric place for 1865 Febmean time at Washington and the result is
these elements
ruary 24.5
a
Ajtt
become
Epoch
With
A^
A*
= 181
8'
34".81,
4 42' 30".58,
log A
= 0.2450284,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
138
which are referred to the mean equinox and equator of 1865.0. The
difference between these values of a and d and those already given, as
derived from the unchanged elements, gives
Aa
= f 5".52,
and the
COS d
Aa
= f 5".50,
assumed values of
direct substitution of the
in the equations for cos d AO,
cos d
Aa
and
A<S
A,
=
ATT,
9".02,
A&,
Ai,
&c.
gives
= + 5".46,
A<5
==
9".29.
The agreement of these results is sufficiently close to show that the
computation of the differential coefficients has been correctly performed, the difference being due chiefly to terms of the second order.
When
the differential coefficients are required for several dates, if
their values for successive dates at equal intervals, the
use of differences will serve to check the accuracy of the calculation ;
we compute
but, to provide against the possibility of a systematic error, it may be
advisable to calculate at least one place directly from the changed
elements.
Throughout the calculation of the various differential
coefficients, great care
must be taken
in regard to the algebraic signs
In the example
involved in the successive numerical substitutions.
we have employed logarithms of six decimal places; but it
would have been sufficient if logarithms of five decimals had been
used; and such is generally the case.
given,
It will be observed that the calculation of the coefficients of
A&, and
ATT,
independent of the form of the orbit, depending
on
the
simply
position of the plane of the orbit and on the position
of the orbit in this plane. Hence, in the case of parabolic and
A^
is
hyperbolic orbits, the only deviation from the process already illusis in the
computation of the coefficients of the variations of
trated
the elements which determine the magnitude and form of the orbit
and the position of the body in its orbit at a given epoch. In all

da
da d$
,
dd
r and j are determined as
cases, the values of coso^, cosor>
dv
dv
dr
If we introduce the elements T,
already exemplified.
shall
dr
q,
and
e,
we
have
da
dd
da,
_ dd
dr
dr
dd
.da
dv
dv
dT~d^'dT^~dv"~di'
and similarly
for the differential coefficients
with respect to q and
e.
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES.
139
dr dv dr dv dr
,
,
dv
of calculating the values of 7, r=, =,
and =dT dT dq dq j,
de
de
depends on the nature of the orbit.
In the case of passing from one system of parabolic elements to
,
The mode
another system of parabolic elements, the coefficients of Ae vanish.
To
illustrate the calculation of
7, 7, &c. in the case of parabolic
motion, let us resume the values
T= 75.364
= 9.9650486, from which we have found
v = 79
log r = 0.1961120,
Then, by means of the equations
log
~=
rAji
log
If,
log
fo
= 7.976397
7^d
log q
we
introduce d log
also used
when
we
q,
j
= 0.064602
shall
log
& d
log q
(43),
we
n.
have
~ =
= 9.569812,
From these, by means of
a and d with respect
of
= 9.242547,
r/7?
log
M,
55' 57".26.
find
log
8.095802,,,
jj
instead of dq,
we
(22),
days, and log q
0.391867
obtain the differential coefficients
T and
The same values are
q or log q.
the variation of the parabolic eccentricity is taken
to
/y/y
into account.
But
in this case
we compute
also
j
from equation
/7w
(31)
and
^ from (33) or (34), which give, for v = 79 55' 57".3,
~ = 8.147367
log
log ^ == 9.726869.
U6
U6
n,
In the case of very eccentric
orbits, the values
of
T~,
7, &c. are
found from
dv
kV
dr
dq
dr
dq
the mass being neglected.
r2 e sin v
dv
dq
....
qi/p
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
140
To
illustrate the application
*T=
values,
68.25 days,
of these formulae,
= 0.9675212,
let
us resume the
and log q
= 9.7668134,
from which we have found (Art. 41)
v
= 102
log r
20' 52".20,
Hence we derive
= 0.1614052.
= 0.0607328,
and
log^=7.943137n
log
^=
log
0.186517.,
If
we wish
0.186517..
to obtain the differential coefficients of v
of g,
respect to log q instead
dv
is
q
fl
and r with
we have
dv
dr
dq
d logq
'
dlogq
in which ^
~=
uq
aq
_q
dr
dq
the modulus of the system of logarithms.
Then we compute
(35), (39), or (40).
the value of
The
7d/6
by means of the equation
correct value as derived
=
^
de
from (39)
(30).
is
0.24289.
from
values derived from (35), omitting the last term, from (40) and
0.23531.
0.24291, and
0.24440,
(30), are, respectively,
The
close
The
value
is
is
agreement of the value derived from (40) with the correct
accidental, and arises from the particular value of v, which
make the assumptions, according to which equation
derived from (39), almost exact.
here such as to
(40)
is
Finally, the value of
diT
7CLG
may be found by means
of (32), which
gives
de
When,
= + 0.70855.
in addition to the differential coefficients
and
which depend on
those which depend on the position of the
orbit in space have been found, the expressions for the variation of
the geocentric right ascension and declination become
the elements T,
q,
e,
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES.
COS d Act
= COS ^da
d
ATT
f
da
A&
COS 3
agg
ofTT
R
f
COS
141
da
+ cos S^da
T^ Al + cos ^ T7^ A *
cu
aj[
da
dfa
COS
A*/ ~
7 A<?,
dd
d3
d<?
A1
+ AT+A2 +
,
dT
at
If
we
introduce logg instead of
respectively
cos d
observed that
if ATT,
that these equations
g,
d<5
at?
Ae.
de
the terms containing q become
 A
log q and
=.
j=
A log q.
It
should
be
A&, and A* are expressed in seconds, in order
may be homogeneous, the terms containing AT,
multiplied by 206264.8; but if ATT, A&, and At
A#, and Ae must be
are expressed in parts of the radius as unity, the resulting values of
cos d Aa and A must be multiplied by 206264.8 in order to express
them in seconds of arc.
general application of the equations for cos d AOC and A$
in terms of the variations of the elements is for the cases in which
The most
and of A are already known by comparison
of the computed place of the body with the observed place, and in
which it is required to find the values of ATI, A&, M, &c., which,
the values of cos d AOC
being applied to the elements, will make the computed and the
observed places agree. When the variations of all the elements of
the orbit are taken into account, at least six equations thus derived
are necessary, and, if more than six equations are employed, they
must
be reduced to six final equations, from which, by eliminathe
of the unknown quantities ATT, A&, &c. may be
values
tion,
found.
In all such cases, the values of AOC and A#, as derived from
first
the comparison of the computed with the observed place, are expressed in seconds of arc; and if the elements involved are expressed
in seconds of arc, the coefficients of the several
But
terms of the equations
some of the elements are not
in
in
of T, q, and 6, the equations
as
the
case
expressed
seconds,
formed must be rendered homogeneous. For this purpose we multiply the coefficients of the variations of those elements which are
must be abstract numbers.
if
not expressed in seconds of arc by 206264.8.
Further, it is geneinconvenient
to
the
variations
rally
AT, A^, and Ae in parts
express
of the units of T, g, and <?, respectively ; and, to avoid this inconvenience, we may express these variations in terms of certain parts
of the actual units.
Thus, in the case of T, we may adopt as the
unit of AT the nth part of a mean solar day, and the coefficients
of the terms of the
equations for cos d AOC and A
which involve
AT
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
142
must evidently be divided by
n.
In the same manner,
it
appears
Ag the unit of the mth decimal
its value expressed in parts of the unit of g, we must divide
of
place
its coefficient by 1CT, and similarly in the case of Ae, so that the
equations become
that if
we adopt
as the unit of

f
an
d&&
8
.da
^C?a
dd
dd
COS d  At f  COS 8 n
aJ.
ai
dd
Ae
SAC\
'
dd
*," + da* a+ Ti" + nd
,
in
which
= 206264.8.
When
dS
log q
is
introduced in place of
q,
the
A log q are multiplied by the same factor as in the case
of &q, the unit of A log q being the unit of the mth decimal place
of the logarithms. The equations are thus rendered homogeneous,
coefficients of
and
also convenient for the numerical solution in finding the values
unknown quantities ATT, A&, At, AT, &c. When AT, Ag, and
Ae have been found by means of the equations thus formed, the
of the
coirections to be applied to the corresponding elements are
,
lit
^,
_L
\j
A />
and
^,>
In the same manner, we may adopt
as the
unknown
quantity, instead of the actual variation of any one of the elements
of the orbit, n times that variation, in which case its coefficient in
the equations must be divided by n.
The value of
ACC,
derived by taking the difference between the
place, is affected by the uncertainty
computed and the observed
necessarily incident to the determination of
oc
by observation.
The
unavoidable error of observation being supposed the same in the case
of a as in the case of d, when expressed in parts of the same unit,
evident that an error of a given magnitude will produce a
greater apparent error in a than in S, since in the case of a it is
it
is
measured on a small circle, of which the radius is cos d ; and hence,
in order that the difference between computation and observation in
a and d may have the same influence in the determination of the
corrections to be applied to the elements, we introduce cos d AOC
The same principle is applied in the case of the
instead of AOC.
longitude and of
all
corresponding spherical coordinates.
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULA.
143
52. The formulae already given will determine also the variations
of the geocentric longitude and latitude corresponding to small increments assigned to the elements of the orbit of a heavenly body.
In this case we put e
0, and compute the values of A, B, sin a,
the
of
We have also (7=0,
means
and sin 6 by
equations (94) r
a
and
sin i, and, in place of
sin c
d, respectively, we write A and ft.
But when the elements are referred to the same fundamental plane
as the geocentric places of the body, the formulae which depend on
the position of the plane of the orbit may be put in a form which is
more convenient
If
we
for numerical application.
differentiate the equations
y'
= r cos u cos &
= r cos u sin &
z'
rrrrsmwsini,
x'
we
cos i,
cost*>
obtain
= r dr
x'
dx'
r (cos
{
cos
r (cos
which
sin
dy'
dz
in
smw cos &
r sin u sin
j
j
sin
dr
&
cos
r (sin
sin
sin
cos
&
j
cos i)
sin
&
&
&
',
2'
cos
d&
cos
cos i)
=dr }r cos w sin i du
1
x',
&
r (sin
sin
cos i)
f r sin u sin
cos
d&
j
&
&
r sin
r sin
it
cos i)
cos
cos
du
&
sin i di,
du
&
sin i di, (46)
i di,
are the heliocentric coordinates of the body in
x being directed to the
reference to the ecliptic, the positive axis of
Let us now suppose the place of the body to be
vernal equinox.
referred to a system of coordinates in which the ecliptic remains as
the plane of xy, but in
point whose longitude
which the positive axis of x
then we shall have
is Q>
= dx cos & dy' sin &
=
dx' sin & f dy' cos
dy
dz = dz
dx
is
directed to the
f
Q>
and the preceding equations give
= dr
T
OC
dx
r sin
u du
r sin
cos i
d&
dy
= y dr + r cos u cos
dz
=  dr + r cos u sin idu\r smu cos
du
j
r cos
u dQ
i di.
r sin u sin i di,
(47)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
144
This transformation, it will be observed, is equivalent to diminishing
the longitudes in the equations (46) by the angle ft through which
the axis of x has been moved.
Let
Xn
F,, Z,
referred to the
denote the heliocentric coordinates of the earth
same system of coordinates, and we have
+ X, = A cos cos (A
y+ F, = Jcos/5sin(A
x
= A sin
z\ Z,
which
in
In
ft),
/?
I is the geocentric
ft),
/?,
longitude and
ft
the geocentric latitude.
between
differentiating these equations so as to find the relation
the variations of the heliocentric coordinates and the geocentric longitude and latitude, we must regard ft as constant, since it indicates
here the position of the axis of x in reference to the vernal equinox,
this position is supposed to be fixed.
Therefore, we shall have
and
s(A
=sin /9 dJ
J sin cos (A
J sin /9 sin (A
ft)d/J
= cos/9sin(A
ft)dJ
A cos /9 sin (A
A
cos ft cos (A
ft)d/9f
ft)d/5
ft ) <W,
f J cos
from which, by elimination, we find
=
a)
__sin(A
A
sin /3 cos (A
7 _
*=
& + eo ga)
J
s
ft)
O)
sin/? sin (A
j
*+
j
These equations give
sin (A
^A ~
=
c?A
cos(A
ft)
we introduce
^_~
^
sin /9 cos (A
dft_
sin/5 sin (A
ft)
J
ft)
.
dy
If
ft)
da
dy
the distance
co
(48)
between the ascending node and the
we have
place of the perihelion as one of the elements of the orbit,
and the equations (47) give
_=
dx
dx
7
dv
x
_
= cosi,
dx
= du
=
7
dy
^^^sm^cost,
.
rsinw,
dy
ydv
dy
= ~=rcosucosi,
doj
dz
sr
dz
7
dv
=  = Bint* sin
z
z;
dz
= ==!
cos wsmi;
d<o
DIFFEEENTIAL FORMULAE.
145

dx

=A
dy
T^
0,
dz
rsmusmi,
If we introduce
TT,
the longitude of the perihelion,
(49)
smu
^di
cfo
cfo
= 0;
cos^.
we have
and hence the expressions for the partial differential coefficients of
the heliocentric coordinates with respect to n and
become
&
dx
=
7
ax
=
T7T
dQ
sm w sm
2?
= r cos u cos
dy
r sin u,
,
2
dz

i,
I
dy =
2r cos u sm*
."L
"2!
*t.
dQ>
When
we
i ;
<
r cos
50 >
sin
i.
<xg
and the motion
the direct inclination exceeds 90
as being retrograde,
= r cos u sm
=
'
51.
find,
by making
is
regarded
the necessary distinctions in
regard to the algebraic signs in the general equations,
dx
 r
T
di
dy =
~
r
_
t
sin
dz
sin
di
dx
dx
and the expressions for
dx
=, =,
from (49) by writing 180
longitude of the perihelion,
TT
di
i,
dy
rsm
wcos^;
(51)
&C. are derived directly
TQ> j~,
in place of i.
If
in this case,
we
introduce the
rcosusim;
we have,
du
dn f
dv
d&
and hence
dx
dx
?7^
dy
~=r
rsmu
2r sin
dy
sin At, y~
a^
cos
dz
cos
= 2r cos u sm
.
i,
,
2
ii,
dz
y
= r cos u sin
rt^
But, to prevent confusion and the necessity of using so
it is best to
regard i as admitting any value from
mulae,
and
(52)
^.
to transform the elements
which are given with the
many forto 180,
distinction
of retrograde motion into those of the general case
by taking
180
i instead of i, and 2&
TT instead of
TT, the other elements
remaining the same in both
53.
The
cases.
equations already derived enable us to form those for the
of ^ and /? with respect to r, v,
and at or
, z,
&
differential coefficients
TT,
by writing successively
and
ft
10
in place of d,
and &,
i,
&c. in
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
146
place of
The
in equation (2).
TT
expressions for the differential coeffi
with respect to the elements which determine the
form of the orbit and the position of the body in its orbit, being
cients of r
and
v,
independent of the position of the plane of the orbit, are the same as
those already given ; and hence, according to (42) and (43), we may
derive the values of the partial differential coefficients of A and /9
The numerical
with respect to these elements.
is
facilitated
Thus,
if
we
by
application, however,
introduction of certain
the
auxiliary
quantities.
by (48) and (49) in the
substitute the values given
equations
.
cos
/5
dk
= cos
dv
dx
j
ctt
^
dx
/? ^
df^_dp_
dx_
dx
dv
dv
and put
cos
sin (A
&)
in
which
and n are always
r
8
d/3
7
av
(A
sin (JV
cos (A
dv
dy_
dft
dz
dy
dv
dz
dv
sin
A,
cos
^,
= n sin
= n cos
'
JV,
JV,
become
O ) sin u
Let us also put
y?
dy
J
d/3
== 7 (sin /? cos (A
i
A
au)
sin
dA
dy
positive, they
'
cos
=
/?=
d{3
sin i
sin (A
cos
&) = A
&) = 4
cos (A
\
dv
/?)
=5
^) = ^
4
sin
5,
cos
B,
n cos w sin
,^
and we have
c?A
The
expressions for
dk
cos/9^
and
^
give,
by means of the same
auxiliary quantities,
fjl
cos/35
*
In the same manner,
if
we put
2*L cos
(A
+ u),
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULA.
&)=
cos (A
cos
cos
sin
&)
sin (A
we
O) =
sin (A
147
<7 sin C,
(7.
=D
=D
cos
(7;
(57)
sin Z),
cos
D;
obtain
dft
d&
cos
,.
/?
cw
we
j
7
sin i sin
= AD
^/3
If
sin
sin
ft
w
a^>
f
& ),
cos (A
sin (jD
f /5).
7*
and
substitute the expressions (55)
^A
cos ( J.
dk
= cos p =^r
(56) in the equations
dr
dv
dk
f
cos
d<?
/5
7,
=
dv
d<f>
~
dr
d<p
dv
df
d<?'
and put
dr
7
/
7* j
== o cos
ass/ sin JP
(59)
^^ jf cos JT
'
T
Cfcp
we
^ cos v,
tan
COS
<p
cos v
r sin
v.
get
S
m(A
+ F+u),
P^^
In a similar manner,
dr
~dW
cZv
~ ^ Sm
==
if
we put
^
a 2 cos
n ^ Sm V>
$0
tan
(61)
2r
<p
sin v(<
206264.8
T)
3/i
\
),
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
148
we
obtain
u),
cos/y^==i
dM
cos/S
(62)

sin (J.
+ IT+ u),
The quadrants in which the auxiliary angles must be taken are
determined by the condition that A OJ J3Q) 0? /, g, and h are always
positive.
54. If the elements T, q,
and
^,
and
e are
introduced in place of
Mw
p,
we must put
dr
dv
dr
(63)
dT
h sin
H= 
dr
7.
TT
hcosH=rj,
dq
and the equations become
~=
dl
sin
(A
+ F+ u),
(64)
dT
<W
In the numerical application of these formulae, the values of the
second members of the equations (63) are found as already exemplified for the cases of parabolic orbits and of elliptic and hyperbolic
orbits in which the eccentricity differs but little from unity.
In the
same manner, the differential coefficients of A and /9 with respect to
any other elements which determine the form of the orbit may be
computed.
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES.
In the case of a parabolic
149
if the parabolic eccentricity is
orbit,
supposed to be invariable, the terms involving
in the case of parabolic elements, we have
G=: r
vanish.
ksinv
dr
g COS
dv
dv
^,
which give
tan
G=
tan
^v.
and g
/2
= k\,
expression for the linear velocity of a comet
moving
Hence
there results
(r
Further,
= 180
\v,
which
is
the
in a parabola.
Therefore,
sm
For the
case in which the motion is considered as being retrograde,
must be used instead of i in computing the values of A
N, C and (7, and the equations (55), (56), and the first two
180
Ay
n,
of (58), remain unchanged.
respect to i, the values of
But, for the differential coefficients with
and
must be found from the last two
of equations (57), using the given value of
directly
and then we
have
shall
cos
ft
JT
7 sin i sin
= ~ Z>
jr
55.
EXAMPLES.
coefficients
of ^ and
u cos
(A
& ),
(66)
sin
u sin (D
+ 0).
The
ft
equations thus derived for the differential
with respect to the elements of the orbit,
referred to the ecliptic as the fundamental plane, are applicable
when
any other plane is taken as the fundamental plane, if we consider A
and ft as having the same signification in reference to the new plane
that they have in reference to the ecliptic, the longitudes, however,
being measured from the place of the descending node of this plane
on the ecliptic. To illustrate their numerical application, let it be
required to find the differential coefficients of the geocentric right
ascension and declination of Eurynome
with respect to the ele
ments of
24.5
its
orbit referred to the equator, for the date 1865 February
at Washington, using the data given in Art. 41.
mean time
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY
150
In the first place, the elements which are referred to the ecliptic
must be referred to the equator as the fundamental plane and, by
means of the equations (109) D we obtain
;
&'
= 353
45' 35".87,
t'
and
a>'
= 19
26' 25".76,
= w f w = 50
= 212
32' 17".71,
10' 7".29,
which are the elements which determine the position of the orbit in
These
space when the equator is taken as the fundamental plane.
elements are referred to the mean equinox and equator of 1865.0.
f
Writing a and d in place of A and /9, and &', i w in place of &, i,
1
',
and
a),
respectively,
A = cos (a
sin
smN=smi
we have
&') cos i't
smJB
Q
<7 sin
sin
(N +
n sin
(7= cos (a
D = cos i
<0,
&'),
sin
.F= a cos
/ cos F=
gsiuG=
<p
cos

1
a tan
cos
cosN=
&')
B cos
B == sm ^ cos
cos
C= sin (a
cos
D = sin
&');
cosi'sin(a
i'
(a
&')
&')
cosi';
sin (a
')
v,
tan
<p
A = sin (a
<p
sin
cos v
r sin v;
v,
a2 cos p
The
smH=
values of
Q,
n, B
a tan
(7 ,
<p
sin v (t
/, ^,
T)
^
206264.8
j,
and h must always be
thus determining the quadrants in which the angles A,
be taken ; and these equations give
= 9.97497,
= 9.52100,
=
O
9.99961,
log
log D = 9.97497,
A = 262
log B
B= 75 48 35
C = 263 26,
D= 92 3547,
log/ =0.62946,
log? =0.34593,
.F
log 4,
log h
G^
= 339
= 350
= 2.97759,
H= 14
= v + = 179
58".
'
tt'
10' 40",
13'
14
0,
11 16,
30 48
J5,
positive,
&c. must
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES.
151
Substituting these values in the equations (55), (58), (60), and (62),
f
o instead of X and ft and u in place of u, we find
and writing a and
cos d
=
~^V
ao>
+ 1.4235,
=
~rr
aw
4890
>
=+0.0178,
rfft
= + 0.0193,
^ = + 0.0067,
cos d ^~ = + 1.9940,
^r
^=+1.1300,
^r
cos d
cos d
=
^qp
f
507.25,
~ =
4 =
0.6530,
8802
179.34
'
d[j.
and hence
cos
(5
Aa
A
= + 1.4235 A^' + 1.5098 Aft' + 0.0067
=
we put
+ 1.9940 A?
AA*,
0.3802 A^f
If
At*
+ 1.1300 *M + 507.25
0.4890 AO/ + 0.0176 Aft' + 0.0193 At*
179.34
AA*.
0.6530
A?
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
152
from which the values of ft, i, and co may be found from those of
'
If we differentiate the first of these equations, regarding
ft and V
.
e as
constant,
and reduce by means of the other given
get
= cos
di
Interchanging
and 180
di'
di' j sin a>Q sin
a>
and
i',
= cos
<t>
di
i'
and
also ft
% sin
sin
d ft
dft
relations,
we
(68)
'.
ft',
we
obtain
Eliminating di from these equations, and introducing the value
sin i
_ sin
sini
the result
If
we
ft
sin &''
is
differentiate the expression for cos
spherical triangle,
and reduce, we
= cos
da>
derived from the same
<w
find
cos
i c?ft
i'
dQ,'.
Substituting for dft its value given by the preceding equation, and
reducing by means of
sin ft' cos
we
i'
= sin ft cos % cos
cos ft sin
<y
fl ,
get
The
equations (68), (69), and (70) give the partial differential co'
of & , i, and w with respect to
and i r , and if we sup
&
efficients
pose the variations of the elements, expressed in parts of the radius
as unity, to be so small that their squares may be
neglected, we shall
have
cos ^ A ^
A% = sin
^^
&
sin
w
rf
cos
sin
sin t
*i
f
,
= sin
Aw =
Ai
a>
Ao>'
sin
i'
A &'
cos w
fl
Ai',
^^o
If we apply these formulae to the case of Eurynome, the result
AO O
=
=
=
en)
4.420A^'
+ 6.665
3.488A
f 6.686Ai',
ft'
0.179A&'
Ai',
0.843Ai
is
DIFFERENTIAL, FORMULA.
and
if
we
'
153
assign the values
Ai'
14".12,
we
get
AW O
= f 3".36,
A&
The element^
&
W=
8".86,
6".64,
10".0,
which determine the position of the
orbit in
and, hence, the elements
reference to the ecliptic.
and
= + 10".0,
A^
10".0,
A 10
may also be changed into those for
which the ecliptic is the fundamental plane, by means of equations
which may be derived from (109)! by interchanging & and &' and
i' audi.
a/,
',
56. If we refer the geocentric places of the body to a plane whose
inclination to the plane of the ecliptic is i, and the longitude of whose
ascending node on the ecliptic is &, which is equivalent to taking
the plane of the orbit corresponding to the unchanged elements as
the equations are still further simplified.
the fundamental plane,
Let x' 9 y' , z' be the heliocentric coordinates of the body referred to
a system of coordinates for which the plane of the unchanged orbit
the plane of xy, the positive axis of x being directed to the as
is
cending node of this plane on the ecliptic; and let x, y, z be the
heliocentric coordinates referred to a system in which the plane of
xy is the plane of the ecliptic, the positive axis of x being directed
to the point
whose longitude
dx'
dtf
dz'
Substituting for dx, dy,
(47),
we
is Q>
Then we
= dx,
= dy cos
= dy sin
i f
and dz
dz sin
i j
shall
have
i,
dz cos
i.
their values given
by the equations
get
dx
dy'
dz'
=  dr
x'
dr
dr
j
It will be observed that
r sin
u du
r sin
cos
d&,
r cos
u du
f r cos
cos
d&
di.
r cos u sin
we
dQ,
f
r sin
have, so long as the elements remain
unchanged,
af
==r
cos u,
y'
= r sin
u,
z'
0,
THEOEETICAL ASTKONOMY.
154
and hence, omitting the
of the unchanged orbit
give
accents, so that x, y, z will refer to the plane
as the plane of xy, the preceding equations
= cos u dr r sin u du
=
r cos u du
sin u dr
dy
dz =
r cos u sin dQ,
dx
~\
j
r sin
j
r cos
r sin
u
u
cos
dR>,
cos
dQ,
di.
The value of
<
is subject to two distinct changes, the one
arising
the
from
variation of the position of the orbit in its own plane, and
the other, from the variation of the position of the plane of the orbit.
Let us take a fixed
plane of the orbit and directed from
line in the
the centre of the sun to a point the angular distance of which, back
from the place of the ascending node on the ecliptic, we shall designate by a; and let the angle between this fixed line
Then we have
transverse axis be designated by
and the semi
The
fixed line thus taken
is
a)
f
ff .
supposed to be so situated
that, so
as the position of the plane of the orbit remains unchanged,
But
if the
long
we have
elements which fix the position of the plane of the orbit
we have the relations
are supposed to vary,
da
d<o
Now,
since
=
= d%
=v +
cos
co,
dQ
du
(72)
= d% f 2 sw*%id&.
we have
u
and
= dv f dx
= v f /
= dv f d%
ff,
dff
cos
id&.
Substituting this value of du in the equations for dx, dy,
reduce to
dx
r sin u dv
cos u dr
r sin u d%,
u
sin
dr
r
u
cos
dv
fdy
f f cos u d%,
dz,
they
dz
The
r cos
sin i
d&
f r sin
(73)
di.
here supposed to be susceptible of any value from
elements are given with the distinction of
motion
we
must
use 180
i instead of i.
retrograde
Let us now denote by d the geocentric longitude of the body meainclination
to
is
180, and
if the
sured in the plane of the unchanged orbit
(which
is
here taken as the
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAE.
155
fundamental plane) from the ascending node of
and
ecliptic,
let
be denoted by
this plane on the
the geocentric latitude in reference to the same plane
Then we
37.
f

z f
in
have
shall
X = A cos
Y= A cos
Z = A sin
f\
cos
TI
sin 0,
0,
??,
which y Y, Z are the geocentric coordinates of the sun referred
same system of coordinates as x9 y, and z. These equations
to the
by
give,
differentiation,
= cos
dy = cos
dx
dz
sin
we
ind hence
cos
T)
cos
TI
sin
fj
dA
A cos iy d^
= sin
dx
T]
sin

i?
sin0
sin
dx~
sin
A cos
df\
cfy
f\
sin
^ cos 7 cos
d0,
^
^>
cos
\
cos
dy,
dx ,
sin ^ sin
d0
cos 6
COS7)j= Ti
dx
rr=
COS
1*.
dx
dy
dr
dr
dx
=
dv
dx
dx
d&
r = 0,
r sin u,
do
cos
TI
jaz
_
;
(74)
cos
t]
from (73) we get
dx
>?
give
de
id
\
sin ^ cos
sin
obtain
=
lese
J
A
dA
dA
THEOKETICAL ASTRONOMY.
156
we
get
dd
do
COS
7}
r == COS
J
Tf)
dx
= rJ COS (0  U),
,.
r
(76)
dv
d%
In a similar manner, we derive
cos
>y
do
=
N
it),
sm (0a
.
(77)
dO
cos
r)
JT
dr)
JT
0,
If we introduce the elements
we
<p,
fa
j
sm w
cos ^
which determine r and
v,
have, from
dO
= cos y jdr
dy _
dr
rf^
cos
iy
dtp
we
j
d(p
dr)
dr^
dr^
dv_
dr
d<p
dv
d<p'
d<?
(59),
F\ ~=
cos (0
==4
A
a<p
dO
i)
we
{sin^sin(^
A
d<f>
Finally, using the auxiliaries #, h,
tions (61),
cos
^v
dv
introduce also the auxiliary quantities / and F, as determined
by means of the equations
cos
c?^
,
h cos ^
d<p
if
and
Q)
6r,
and H, according
F}.
(78)
to the equa
get
= h cos
(0
dt\
~
H),
sm
j
TJ
sm(0
JET).
If we express r and v in terms of the elements T, q, and e, the
values of the auxiliaries /, g, Tiy F, &c. must be found by means of
(64); and, in the same manner, any other elements which determine
the form of the orbit and the position of the body in
its orbit,
may
be introduced.
The
partial differential coefficients with respect to the elements
having been found, we have
COS
1?
A0
= COS
d")
do
dO
A/
TJ
{
COS
?)
,
d6
&<p
\
COS
T?
Q f
dd
COS
f]
A/*,
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAE.
157
from which it appears that, by the introduction of # as one of the
elements of the orbit, when the geocentric places are referred directly
to the plane of the unchanged orbit as the fundamental plane, the
variation of the geocentric longitude in reference to this plane depends
on only four elements.
57. It remains
of
rj
now
to derive the formulae for finding the values
X and
body referred
and 6 from those of
ordinates of the
Let x
/9.
yw
be the geocentric co
ZQ
which the
to a system in
ecliptic is
the plane of xy, the positive axis of x being directed to the point
and let o? ', y ', zQ f be the geocentric coordiwhose longitude is
;
&
which the axis of x remains
body
which the plane of the unchanged orbit is the plane
of xy; then we shall have
referred to a system in
nates of the
the same, but in
XQ
yQ
ZQ
= A cos
= A cos
= A sin
/?
/?
& ),
cos (A
xQ
'
sin (A
ft),
2/
f
,9,
= A cos ^ cos
=J
=A
6,
c sV
sin
i?,
and also
cos
i.
Hence we obtain
COS
r\
COS
cos
f\
sin
sin
= COS COS
= cos sin
= cos sin
(A
ft
>?
ft )>
(A
(3
& ) cos i sin sin
& ) sin i + sin cos
(A
/?
j
(80)
i,
/5
i.
These equations correspond to the relations between the parts of a
and 90
spherical triangle of which the sides are i, 90
/9,
27,
to 90
and
90
6.
a)
denoted by p, and we have
the
angles
90
f (;
opposite
cos
*)
sin Y
cos
>?
cos
7
= sin
= sin
fj
and 90
cos (A
sin (A
& ),
& ) sin
The equations thus obtained enable us
A
and
/9.
/5
f
n
n
sin
respectively
Thus,
N=
if
we put
sin/?,
cos^= cos
cos i cos
/?.
to determine y, d, and 7 from
is facilitated
by the intro
Their numerical application
duction of auxiliary angles.
being
Let the other angle of the triangle be
sin (A
ft),
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
158
which n
in
is
always positive,
cos
f]
cos
cos
77
sin
sin
7}
from which y and
may be
n' sin
shall
have
cot
get
cos
ft
cos (A
ft),
= n cos (N
i),
If we also put
readily found.
N'
N'
= cos
= sin
N = tan
f
(83)
i),
=n sin (N
n' cos
we
we
i,
sin (A
sin (A
ft ),
ft ),
;a).
cot (
If Y
is
small,
it
may
(85)
be found from the equation
sintcosO^
The quadrants
in which the angles sought must be taken, are easily
determined by the relations of the quantities involved ; and the
accuracy of the numerical calculation may be checked as already
illustrated for similar cases.
If we apply Gauss's analogies to the same spherical triangle, we get
sin (45
 J,) sin (45 
+ r)) =
+ i (A  ft)) sin (45 + 0),
=
~ (0 +
siu (45 + 4 (A  ft)) sin (45  J Q9 (0
cos (45
sin (45
&)
cos (45
cos (45
ii?)
sin (45
(/?
7))
i)),
J (0
r))
^)
cos (45
=f
_ ft )) cos (45  J +
r }} =
\ (9
 ft )) cos (45  (0 sin (45 +
(A
cos (45
cos (45
(87)
(A
i)),
1)),
from which we may derive ^, 0, and f.
When the problem is to determine the corrections to be applied to
the elements of the orbit of a heavenly body, in order to satisfy
given observed places, it is necessary to find the expressions for
cos 5? A# and A^ in terms of cos ft AA and A/9.
If we differentiate the
first and second of equations
(80), regarding ft and i (which here
determine the position of the fundamental plane adopted) as constant, eliminate the terms containing dy from the resulting equations,
and reduce by means of the
triangle,
we
get
relations of the parts of the spherical
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
cos
V]
dd
cos Y cos
/?
oU
f
Diiferentiating the last of equations (80),
dy
sin Y cos
ft
cW
j
159
sin y
c?/3.
and reducing, we
find
cos
The
equations thus derived give the values of the differential coand 57 with respect to A and /5 ; and if the differences
of
A^ and A/3 are small, we shall have
efficients
cos
TI
= cos Y cos AA f sin p
=
AA f cos y
sin Y cos
A^
A0
A/9,
/?
/?
The value of
A/5.
required in the application of numbers to these
generally be derived with sufficient accuracy from
7
equations may
(86), the algebraic sign of cos Y being indicated by the second of
equations (81) ; and the values of 37 and d required in the calculation
of the differential coefficients of these quantities with respect to the
elements of the orbit, need not be determined with extreme accuracy.
EXAMPLE.
58.
Since the spherical coordinates which are fur
nished directly by observation are the right ascension and declination, the formulae will be most frequently required in the form for
For this purpose, it is only necessary
finding y and 6 from a and 3.
f
i ,
to write a and d in place of A and /9, respectively, and also
',
u' in place of &, i, a), , and u, in the equations which
ft/, /', and
&
have been derived for the determination of y and 6, and for the
with respect to the elements
differential coefficients of these quantities
of the orbit.
To
illustrate this clearly, let it
for cos
rj
A# and
case of the
aj'
= 5Q
be required to find the expressions
in terms of the variations of the elements in the
A/?
example already given
10' 7".29,
'
= 353
for
which we have
45' 35".87,
i'
= 19
26' 25".76.
These are the elements which determine the position of the orbit of
Eurynome
We
(79),
referred to the
mean equinox and equator of
1865.0.
have, further,
log/= 0.62946,
F= 339
log#
u'
In the
first place,
= 0.34593,
G = 350
14' 0",
= 179
we compute
11' 16",
log ft
= 2.97759,
H= 14
30' 48",
13' 58".
/, 6,
and Y by means of the formulae
THEORETICAL ASTKONOMY.
160
and
(83)
of
Aj ft)
(85), or
and
Q>,
= 188
i,
by means of
(87), writing a, d,
respectively.
Hence we obtain
31' 9",
&', and
159'28",
19
instead
i'
17'
Since the equator is here considered as the fundamental plane, the
longitude 6 is measured on the equator from the place of the ascending node of the orbit on this plane. The values of the differential
coefficients are
then found by means of the formula?
COB "
dri
,
do
do
COS
IT
d%
cos
77
y
dtp
= LA cos (0
u'F"),
cos
"n
do
J^T
= q cos (0
u'
dO
:
= hcos(0
which give
dB
do
COST;
cos
=+
~dy
= rA COS (0fa
Ti
yj
sin i cos
>
cos ^
sm u
,,
I,
G\
=
T^T
aM
dr)
,
dv.
sin y sin (O
4
A
u'
F),
^ sin 7 sin (0
G\
h
A
f
sm sm (0
~n
H).
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAE.
=
=
AW'
A?
A a'
A Jf g
6".64,
10",
f
we have
A/ ==
AO/
161
Ai'
14".12,
+ 10",
A/<
+ cos A' =
v
19".96
= _ 8".86,
= + 0".01,
and the preceding equations give
cos
7?
A0
= + 8".24
With the same values of
cos d
Aa
AT?
AO/, A &
&c.,
',
= f 5".47,
==
we have
A<5
which, by means of the equations (88), writing
A
and
6".96.
already found
9".29,
a and
d in place of
give
/?,
cos
7?
A0
= + 8".23,
i)
6".96.
In special cases, in which the differences between the calcuand the observed values of two spherical coordinates are given,
and the corrections to be applied to the assumed elements are sought,
it
may become necessary, on account of difficulties to be encountered
59.
lated
in the solution of the equations of condition, to introduce other ele
The
ments of the orbit of the body.
relation of the elements chosen
will serve, without presenting any difficulty,
of the equations into a form adapted, to the
Thus, in the case of the elements which determine the
special case.
form of the orbit, we may use a or log a instead of /*, and the
to those
commonly used
for the transformation
equation
jfei/l
+m
gives
=
in
which
is
3  da
"a
^d log a,
(89)
/
the modulus of the system of logarithms.
Therefore,
is transformed into that of A log a by multiply
the coefficient of A//
ing
it
by
y
and
mth decimal
if the unit of the
place of the loga
^0
ritlmis is taken as the unit of
A log
a,
the coefficient must be also
multiplied by 10~ . The homogeneity of the equation
since fj. is here supposed to be expressed in seconds.
If
we
is
not disturbed,
introduce logp as one of the elements, from the equation
p=a
cos 3
11
<p
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
162
we
get
lose
I3
dfj.
2L tan y
d<p,
30 tan
d<p.
or
dp.
y
d logp
<p
(90)
appears that the coefficients of A logp are the same as those
of A log a, but since p is also a function of ^>, the coefficients of A^>
Hence
it
and
are changed ;
if
we denote by
cos d
=
and
j
the values of
the partial differential coefficients when the element fj. is used in connection with <p, we shall have, for the case under consideration,
da
cos 8 y
= cos
dy
dd
which
= 206264".
with respect to
//
and
3  tan y cos d
\d^
dp.
dd
fi
3  tan
da
<p
r ,
c?0
If the values of the differential
8.
(p
tdd\
5
j=
d?>
in
da
j
\d<f>
have not already been found,
dr
vantageous to compute the values or
coefficients
will be ad
it
dr
dv
n
d
dv
and
by
d logp
iogp
means of the expressions which may be derived by substituting in
the equations (15) the value of dp. given by (90), and then we may
r
>
d<f>
,.,,,,
directly the values of cos o
da
compute
Mw
In place of
when ^
=1
dd
dd
 3,
and 71d logp
da
cos o ^=
d logp
d<p
Q,
the
mean
and since
i =jf +r,
we have
and,
often convenient to introduce
is
longitude for the epoch
d<p
..
dy
it
7?
dLQ = dM +d* = dMQ + d>
is
used,
dx
Instead of the elements
plane of the orbit,
b
+ d&,
we may
= sin
ft
and
+ (1
i
COST
which indicate the position of the
use
sin ft,
= sin
cos ft,
and the expressions for the relations between the differentials of b
and c and those of i and ft are easily derived. The cosines of the
angles which the line of apsides or any other line in the orbit makes
with the three coordinate axes,
may
also be taken as elements of the
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAE.
163
orbit in the formation of the equations for the variation of the geocentric place.
The
equations (48), by writing I and 6 in place of X and ft,
respectively, will give the values of the differential coefficients of
60.
the heliocentric longitude and latitude with respect to x, y, and z.
Combining these with the expressions for the differential coefficients
of the heliocentric coordinates with respect to the elements of the
we
orbit,
obtain the values of cos b &l and A& in terms of the varia
tions of the elements.
The
equations for dx, dy, and dz in terms of du,
dQ, and
di,
may
also be used to determine the corrections to be applied to the coor
them from the
dinates in order to reduce
ecliptic
and mean equinox
of one epoch to those of another, or to the apparent equinox of the
In
date.
this case,
we have
= dx
du
When
dQ
the auxiliary constants A, B, a, 6, &c. are introduced, to
from the variations assigned to
find the variations of these arising
the elements,
we
have, from the equations (99)^
tan
&
cos
B = cot
&
cos
sin i cosec
cot
&
cos
i }
sin
cot
in
which
A=
cot
cot
i,
value from
may have any
&
cosec
2 cot
180.
to
tan
e,
,
If we differentiate
the quantities involved as variable, and reduce
these, regarding
by means of the values of sin a, sin 6, and sin c, we get
all
sin A
sm &
d& 
cos^
dA
sm
T,
=
dB
7
COS
(cos i cos e
sin o
sin
j
~
dC=
7
sin
.
sin
:
sin o
and
these,
&
sm e
sm i cos e
j
cos
^ di,
cos
.
^N
& ) dl
,
sm t) di

sin i sin
rjr
j
&
de,
(cosi sine f sin
sin o
 C
H
.
7 (cos
sin i
sin
(.cos
&
cos
cos
&)d&
,
sini sin
cos
cos 9) di
by means of (101) D reduce to
\

 as
sin i sin
2
sin c
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
164
= sm
dA
d&
cose cose
sin
sine cos &
cot a di,
r,
cos a
cosa
,.
smc
smc
Let us now differentiate the equations (101 ) 1? using only the upper
is
sign, and the result
=
=
dc =
If
da
sin i sin
db
sin i sin
A d&
B dQ>
sin i sin
C dQ
we multiply
the
first
and the third by
cot b,
system of logarithms,
(Hog
sin a
d log
sin b
a log sine
=
=
cos
j
cos
B di
f~
cos
C di
di,
{
cos c cosec b ds,
cos b cosec c ds.
of these equations by cot a, the second by
the modulus of the
c, and denote by ^
cot
we
get
a sin
A dl
j
A sin i cot 6 sin
B dQ
f
A sin i cot
f
/ sin % cot c sin
~ ,^
G aQ
f
A cot
a cos
A di,
co * & cos Bdi\kQ
cote cos
.^ ,.
Udi
ryy
sin o
cos b cos c
r
Sill
ds,
ds.
(92)
The
equations (91)
By
C, log sin a, &c.
differential coefficients of
with respect to &, i, and e; and if the variaare so small that their squares may be
and
tions assigned to
neglected, the
and (92) furnish the
&, i,
same equations, writing
A^.,
A&,
A*,
&c. instead of
In
the differentials, give the variations of the auxiliary constants.
the case of equations (92), if the variations of &, *, and s are expressed in seconds, each term of the second member must be divided
by 206264.8, and if the variations of log sin a, log sin 6, and log sine
are required in units of the mth decimal place of the logarithms, each
term of the second member must also be divided by 10.
If we differentiate the equations (81) D and reduce by means of the
same equations, we easily find
cos b dl
db
= cos
= sin
sec b
cos (I
du
cos b d &
sin b cos (I
& ) du + sin (I Q> ) di,
\
& ) di,
which determine the relations between the variations of the elements
of the orbit and those of the heliocentric longitude and latitude.
By
differentiating the equations (88)^ neglecting the latitude of
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULJE.
the sun, and considering
reduction,
J,
^, /?,
and
165
as variables,
we
derive, after
T)
cos
/?
ctt
= r cos
d{3
= B sin
j
O ) dQ
(A
ft
sin (A
O ) d)
which determine tlie variation of the geocentric latitude and longitude
It
arising from an increment assigned to the longitude of the sun.
that
an
error
in
the
of
the
sun
will
appears, therefore,
longitude
produce the greatest error in the computed geocentric longitude of a
heavenly body when the body
is
in opposition.
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
166
CHAPTER
III.
INVESTIGATION OF FOBMULJE FOB COMPUTING THE ORBIT OF A COMET MOVING IN
A PABABOLA, AND FOB COEBECTING APPEOXIMATE ELEMENTS BY THE VABIATION
OF THE GEOCENTBIC DISTANCE.
THE observed spherical coordinates of the place of a heavenly
furnish
each one equation of condition for the correction of the
body
elements of its orbit approximately known, and similarly for the
61.
determination of the elements in the case of an orbit wholly unknown ;
and since there are six elements, neglecting the mass, which must
always be done in the
first
approximation, the perturbations not
three complete observations will furnish the six
Hence,
equations necessary for finding these unknown quantities.
the data required for the determination of the orbit of a heavenly
being considered,
body are three complete observations, namely, three observed longitudes and the corresponding latitudes, or any other spherical coordinates which completely determine three places of the body as
seen from the earth.
some point or
Since these observations are given as made at
on the earth's surface, it becomes
at different points
In
necessary in the first place to apply the corrections for parallax.
the case of a body whose orbit is wholly unknown, it is impossible
to apply the correction for parallax directly to the place of the body;
but an equivalent correction
may be applied to the places of the
to
the
formula?
which will be given in the next
earth, according
However, in the first determination of approximate elechapter.
ments of the orbit of a comet, it will be sufficient to neglect entirely
the correction for parallax.
The uncertainty of the observed places
of these bodies is so much greater than in the case of welldefined
objects like the planets,
which will be generally
and the intervals between the observations
employed
in the first determination of the
orbit will be so small, that an attempt to represent the observed places
with extreme accuracy will be superfluous.
When approximate elements have been derived, we may find th<
distances of the comet from the earth corresponding to the thi
observed places, and hence determine the parallax in right ascensioi
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
and
in declination for each observation
167
by means of the usual
formulae.
Thus, we have
cos
Ttp
sin (a
<p'
0)
"
COS (a
TT/>
sin
0)'
sin (y
<p'
<5)
sin?'
which a is the right ascension, d the declination, A the distance
of the comet from the earth, <p' the geocentric latitude of the place
the sidereal time corresponding to the time of
of observation,
in
observation, p the radius of the earth expressed in parts of the
TC the
equatorial horizontal parallax of the
equatorial radius, and
sun.
In order to obtain the most accurate representation of the observed
place by means of the elements computed, the correction for aberraWhen the distance A is known, the
tion must also be applied.
time of observation
but
if
is
be corrected for the time of aberration;
may be neglected
may
not approximately known, this correction
in the first approximation.
The transformation of the observed
right ascension and declination
effected by means of the equations
and longitude is
which may be derived from (92) x by interchanging a and
e instead of e.
and writing
Thus, we have
into latitude
N= tan
sm
= cos N
tan
tan p = tan (N
,
tan
d and
ft,
and
/",
tan
=r=
s )
sin
(1)
a,
A,
also
cos (JV
cos
.2V"
e)
cos p sin A
cos S sin a'
which will serve to check the numerical calculation of X and /9.
Since cos /9 and cos d are always positive, cos A and cos a must have
the same sign, thus determining the quadrant in which A
taken.
is
to be
As
soon as these preliminary corrections and transformations
have been effected, and the times of observation have been reduced
62.
to the
same meridian, the longitudes having been reduced
to the
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
168
same equinox, we are prepared to proceed with the determination of
For this purpose, let t, t t" be the times
the elements of the orbit.
of observation, r, r r" the radii vectores of the body, and u, u u"
f
the corresponding arguments of the latitude, R, R', R" the distances
the longitudes of the sun
of the earth from the sun, and O, 0',
O"
corresponding to these times.
Let
[>?'] denote
the radiivectores
r,
double the area of the triangle formed between
r f and the chord of the orbit between the corre
sponding places of the body, and similarly for the other triangles
thus formed. The angle at the sun in this triangle is the difference
between the corresponding arguments of the latitude, and we shall
have
[rr'~\
= rr
[r/'J
=rr"sm(M"tO,
sin (u'
If we designate by x } y } z } x f , y f ,
ordinates of the body at the times
u),
x", y", z" the heliocentric co
z',
and
t,
(2)
',
t",
we
shall
have
= r sin a sin
w),
= sin a sin A
x" = r" sin a sin (A +
x'
'(A
x'
r'
f
f
u'),
"),
which a and A are auxiliary constants which are functions of the
elements & and i, and these elements may refer to any fundamental
in
If we multiply the first of these equations by
plane whatever.
ff
lf
u r ) 9 the second by
sin (u
u), and the third by
f
sin (u
u), and add the products, we find, after reduction,
sin (u
 sin (u"
x"
x'

u'}
sin (u"
u)
\
Tl
sin (u
u)
0,
r
which, by introducing the values of [rr ], [Vr"], and [V r"], becomes
[r'r"~\
[r/'] x'
f [rr'~\
x"
0.
If we put
" ;=
tt
=&?T
we
get
In
precisely the
[i^r
same manner, we
find
2l'^n"l" = 0.
<
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
169
Since the coefficients in these equations are independent of the positions of the coordinate planes, except that the origin is at the centre
evident that the three equations are identical, and
express simply the condition that the plane of the orbit passes through
the centre of the sun ; and the last two might have been derived
of the sun,
it is
by writing successively y and z in place of x.
A" be the three observed longitudes, /9, /?', ft" the corresponding latitudes, and J, //', A" the distances of the body from the
earth ; and let
from the
Let A,
first
A',
cos
/?
which are called
R cos Q
R sin
A
A
A"cQ8p'
/o',
Then we
curtate distances.
= p cos
y = p sin
= p tan
x
J'cos^
,,,
x'
y'
z'
/5,
=
=
=
=P
",
have
shall
R' cos 0',
R' sin
',
p'
cos
A'
p'
sin
A'
p'
tan
{?,
jR"cos0",
0",
12" sin
in
which the latitude of the sun
is
The
neglected.
transformed that the latitude of the sun becomes
data
may
0, as will
be so
be ex
plained in the next chapter ; but in the computation of the orbit of
a comet, in which this preliminary reduction has not been made, it
will be unnecessary to consider this latitude which never exceeds 1",
while its introduction into the formulae would unnecessarily complicate
some of those which
= n (p cos
R cos
+ n"(p"cosl"
= n (p sin
= np tan
E sin
+ n" (p" sin A"
/?
p'
If
will be derived.
f
values of x, x , &c. in the equations (4) and
tan
f
(//
(5),
cos
12" cos
ri'p"
substitute these
they become
A'
cos
')
0"),
(// sin A'
12" sin
we
R' sin 0')
(6)
0"),
tan 0".
These equations simply
satisfy the condition that the plane of the
centre
of the sun, and they only become
the
through
distinct or independent of each other when n and n" are expressed
in functions of the time, so as to satisfy the conditions of undisturbed
orbit passes
motion in accordance with the law of gravitation. Further, they
involve five unknown quantities in the case of an orbit wholly
unknown, namely, n, n", p, //, and p" and if the values of n and
n" are first found, they will be sufficient to determine p, p , and p".
f
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
170
determination, however, of n and n" to a sufficient degree of
accuracy, by means of the intervals of time between the observations,
The
will
general,
it
and
after
(6)
p'
should be approximately known, and hence, in
become necessary to derive first the values of n, n",
which those of p and p" may be found from equations
that p'
requires
But
elimination.
by
number of equations will then
quantities, we may combine them in
since the
unknown
exceed the number of
such a manner as will diminish, in the greatest degree possible, the
In special cases in which
effect of the errors of the observations.
the conditions of the problem are such that when the ratio of two
curtate distances is known, the distances themselves may be deter
mined, the elimination must be so performed as to give this ratio
with the greatest accuracy practicable.
and second of equations (6), we change the
x from the vernal equinox to the place of the
sun at the time ', and again in the second, from the equinox to the
second place of the body, we must diminish the longitudes in these
63. If, in the first
direction of the axis of
equations by the angle through which the axis of x has been moved,
and we
have
shall
= n(p cos(A
+
= n (p sin
=n
00
(A
f
GO
R sin
A)
(A'
R sin
f
 n" (p" sin (A"
== np tan
If
ft
we multiply
fourth
by
p'
tan
jf f
/?'
p'
sin
R' sin
/))
R" sin
AO
ri'p" tan /?".
'\
(A'
0),
(7)
'
AO
"
AO),
equations by tan/9
7
,
and the
and add the products, we get
0,
ri'p" (tan
n"E"sin("
))
R' sin(0"
the second of these
sin (A'
'
+ ^" GO" sin (A"(p sin
GO' cos (A'
Q))
00120
R" cos("
0),
jRcos('
n"(p" cos (A"
tan /5" sin (A'
sin (A"
0)
Otan/5 f n/>(tan/5'sin(A
tan/?sin(A'
O;
)tan/S
>'
Let us now denote double the area of the triangle formed by the
sun and two places of the earth corresponding to
and f by [RR'~
and we shall have
\_RR]
'
sin
('),
and similarly
[RR" J
']
= RR" sin " Q
= R'R" sin(O" 00(
),
ORBIT OF A
if
Then,
HEAVENLY BODY.
171
we put
"
we
obtain
Substituting this in the equation
of p", the result is
_~ P ^_
tan
tan
fi'
ft"
sin (A
sin
')
tan
/?
')
tan
p sin (A"
(A'
and dividing by the
(8),
JL
~ _j^\
"
A^' /tan
sin
sin
ft"
(A'
')
tan
ft sin (A
Q)tan/3'
(/'
tan/5' sin (A"
')
tan
/9
tan
p sin (A"
/5"
sin (/
tan
ft"
sin
0')
(A'
and the preceding equation reduces
sin (/
0')
tan /?' sin (A"
')'
'
')
to
"R.
We
may
0')'
')
tan
Jgsin('
Let us also put
,
')
coefficient
transform the values of
'
and M. " so as
(11)
to be better
with the ordinary tables. Thus,
if w' denotes the inclination to the ecliptic of a great circle
passing
through the second place of the comet and the second place of the
;
sun, the longitude of its ascending node will be O , and we shall
adapted to logarithmic calculation
have
sin
Let
/r
/?
/9
0') tan w'
(A'
= tan
(12)
/?'.
be the latitudes of the points of this circle corresponding
to the longitudes A
and
/r
tan/3
and we have,
=sin(A
also,
')tanw',
7
;
and sin(A r/
Substituting these values for tan/9 , sin (A
)
'
in the expressions for
and M", and reducing, they become
"
M'=
fln
sin (p>
cos
'
_ ft")
cos
'
'
C o S ft cos
/5
,_
')
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
172
When
the value of
??
has been found, equation (11) will give the
and p" in terms of known quantities. It is evifrom
equations (14), that when the apparent path of
dent, however,
the comet is in a plane passing through the second place of the
relation between p
sun, since, in this case,
ft
ftQ
and ft"=ftQ ", we
shall
have
M =^
f
and
=00. In this case, therefore, and also when /9
ft
" are
must
recourse
to
some
other
have
we
ftQ
very nearly 0,
ft"
equation which may be derived from the equations (7), and which
and
rf
does not involve this indetermination.
It will be observed, also, that if, at the time of the middle observation, the comet is in opposition or conjunction with the sun, the
values of
and
M"
as given
by equation (14) will be indeter
minate in form, but that the original equations (10) will give the
values of these quantities provided that the apparent path of the
not in a great circle passing through the second place of the
comet
is
sun.
These values are
QQ
sin (A
sm (A"_G')'
Hence
it
sin(Q'
Q)
'
sin
(A"
GO
appears that whenever the apparent path of the body
is
nearly in a plane passing through the place of the sun at the time of
the middle observation, the errors of observation will have great
influence in vitiating the resulting values of
obviate the difficulties thus encountered, we obtain
equations (7) the following value of
^sin(O
A')
p"
sin
(A'
"^'sinCA"
^7#'sm(G'
sin (A"
and Jf"; and to
from the third of
A)
A')
A')
+" sin(G"
A')
A')
We may also
tions (7).
cos (A'
eliminate p between the first and fourth of eqw
If we multiply the first by tan/9', and the second
G')i an d add tne products, we obtain
= n"p" (tan p cos (A"
?i"E"tan,S'cos(O"
nR
from which we derive
tan P" cos (A'
0')
0'))
tan /5 cos (A'
G') +^(tan/5'cos(A
0')
tan p cos (G'
R' tan p,
G)
0')]
DEBIT OF A
tan
tan
j3
0')
tan
/3'
ff cos (A
osO*'
HEAVENLY BODY.
tan /S" cos (/
0')
cos
0Q
(A'
cos (/'
tan
0')
I? cos (A"
Let us now denote by I' the inclination
173
(16)
0')
to the ecliptic of a great
through the second place of the comet and that point
of the ecliptic whose longitude is 0'
90, which will therefore be
circle passing
the longitude of
its
ascending node, and
cos
= tan f
have
(17)
designate by /9, and $ the latitudes of the points of this
corresponding to the longitudes A and A", we shall also have
tan
/5,
tan
ft,
= cos
= cos (A"
(A
_~ p
n
^T
sin
it
reduces to
'
'
sin 09"
sin
cos $' cos /?
/?)
(/3,
tan /',
0') tan/'.
Introducing these values into equation (16),
shall
we
and, if
circle
0') tan I'
(A'
we
(/?"
from which
it
/?)
cos
/5
cos
(19)
/?,
/?)
appears that this equation becomes indeterminate
when
the apparent path of the body is in a plane passing through that
point of the ecliptic whose longitude is equal to the longitude of the
second place of the sun diminished by 90. In this case we may use
equation (11) provided that the path of the comet is not nearly in
the ecliptic.
When the comet, at the time of the second observation,
is
in quadrature
in form,
with the sun, equation (19) becomes indeterminate
and we must have recourse
which does not necessarily
to the original equation (16),
fail in this case.
When
both equations (11) and (16) are simultaneously nearly indeterminate, so as to be greatly affected by errors of observation, the
between p and p" must be determined by means of equation
which fails only when the motion of the comet in longitude is
relation
(15),
very small.
(15),
and
It will rarely happen that all three equations, (14),
(16), are inapplicable, and when such a case does occur it
will indicate that the data are not sufficient for the determination of
the elements of the orbit.
In general, equation (16) or (19)
is
to
be
when the motion of the comet in latitude is considerable, and
equation (15) when the motion in longitude is greater than in latitude.
used
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
174
The
formulae already derived are sufficient to determine the
relation between //' and p when the values of n and n" are known,
64.
and
remains, therefore, to derive the expressions for these quan
it
tities.
If we put
k(tf)
t')
and express the values of x, y,
expansion into series, we have
z,
=
=
*',
(20)
r,
x", y",
z'
in terms of
= X'~~^'i; + 13'W'l?~T33''~d?'~W + &C
x"
= +^'J + ^'W'^ + l^'W'^ + &C
xr
y', z
by
''
'>
We
and similar expressions for y, y", z, and z".
shall, however, take
the plane of the orbit as the fundamental plane, in which case z, 2',
and z" vanish.
The fundamental
relative to the
sun
equations for the motion of a heavenly body
a*re,
we
if
neglect
mass in comparison with
its
that of the sun,
If
we
differentiate the first of these equations,
we
find
Differentiating again,
r'
Writing y instead of
we
get
'
~r*~ '~dt~r' 3
~di'
#,
we
shall
have the expressions
for
^ and
d*ii'
Substituting these values of the differential coefficients in equations (21),
putting
and the corresponding expressions
for
y and y", and
ORBIT OF
i
 ^
ff
we
Jr
r" 3
r"
I_
r "3
T
j'i
a __
r"*
A HEAVENLY BODY.
__i_
__
/I
_
j_
__
r
ar
/ /7
'
\2
_ir_(
//V
CT r
__
r" 4
. .
r4
dr'
T
.1
10
__
175
Jl
_.i_
J
_i_
""
"*""
..
'
.
obtain
From
these equations
we
easily derive
(23)
he
first
members of
these equations are double the areas of the
iangles formed by the radiivectores and the chords of the orbit
tween the places of the comet or planet. Thus,
 x'y = [r/],
and x'dy'
f
y dx
f
y"x'
 x"y'  [//'],
 x"y =
y"x
[r/'J,
(24)
double the area described by the radiusvector
X '^J
y'ftx:
ia
during the element of time dt, and, consequently,
is
double the areal velocity.
mass of the body,
in
Therefore
we
which p is the semiparameter of the
become
shall have, neglecting the
The
orbit.
equations (23),
therefore,
[r/]
= bk t/>,
Substituting for a,
[rV]
6,
a /r
= b"k i/p,
6 /r their values
[rr"]
= (ab" + a"6)
from
(22),
we
find, since
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
176
r" 3
r" 2
dr'
.....
i^ifes*
)'
(25)
From
these equations the values of
= [//']
^
and n ff
LTT J
be derived
and the
= [r/]
rr ^
^
may
results are
(26)
which values are exact to the third powers of the time, inclusive.
In the case of the orbit of the earth, the term of the third order,
being multiplied by the very small quantity
7, is
reduced to a
superior order, and, therefore, it may be neglected, so that in this
case we shall have, to the same degree of approximation as in (26),
(27)
From
n
the equations (26)
*"
n
o*r
from
(25), since
+ r"
"\ 1 (
kr"
= [//']
TT.
we
find
dr^
"dt
dr'
Since this equation involves
of
in the case of
r'
and
j,
it is
evident that the value
an orbit wholly unknown, can be determined
In the first approximation to
only by successive approximations.
the elements of the orbit of a heavenly body, the intervals between
the observations will usually be small, and the series of terms of (28)
will converge rapidly, so that
we may
n'
take
A HEAVENLY BODY.
CEBIT OF
177
and similarly
*L ~~
1
N"
Hence the equation
T"'
(11) reduces to
(29)
It will be observed, further, that if the intervals between the observations are equal, the term of the second order in equation (28)
7?
vanishes,
and the supposition that
,
r
f\j
= TT
is
correct to terms of the
It will be advantageous, therefore, to select observa
third order.
whose intervals approach nearest to equality. But if the
observations available do not admit of the selection of those which
give nearly equal intervals, and these intervals are necessarily very
unequal, it will be more accurate to assume
tions
n_
n"
N^
~ N'"
and compute the values of
and N" by means of equations
f
since, according to (27) and (28), if r does not differ much from
(9),
_R',
the error of this assumption will only involve terms of the third
order, even when the values of r and r" differ very much.
Whenever
the values of p and p" can be found when that of their
we may at once derive the corresponding values of r
ratio is given,
h
and r
The
',
as will be subsequently explained.
values of r and T" may also be expressed in terms of
means of
series,
r'
by
and we have
^' M
dy
r"
*
r" 2
from which we derive
f'
dl>
  T + T" _
'
rf
dV
k
neglecting terms of the third order.
Therefore
12
(30)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
178
and when the
intervals are equal, this value is exact to terms of the
We
fourth order.
have, also,
which gives
(31)
Therefore,
when
and r ff have been determined by a
mation, the approximate values of r
equations,
and
first
= are obtained
approxi
from these
^ may be recomputed
by means of which the value of ft
from equation
(28).
We also
compute
_
N"~~ JR#Bin(0'
and
0)'
substitute in equation (11) the values of
If we designate by
we have
M the
77
and
^
thus found.
ratio of the curtate distances
p and p",
(33)
In the numerical application of this, the approximate value of p will
be used in computing the last term of the second member.
In the case of the determination of an orbit when the approximate
^7
elements are already known, the value of
n"
and that of
N
^
rr' sin (v
be computed from
'
v)
from (32) ; and the value of
these from (33) will not require
may
77
any further
M derived by means of
correction.
65. When the apparent path of the body is such that the value
of M', as derived from the first of equations
(10), is either indeterminate or greatly affected by errors of observation, the equations (15)
and (16) must be employed. The last terms of these equations may
be changed to a form which is more convenient in the approximations
to the value of the ratio of p" to p.
f
Let
Y" be the ordinates of the sun when the axis of
y
,
Y Y
ORBIT OF
A HEAVENLY BODY.
whose longitude
abscissas is directed to that point in the ecliptic
A',
and we have
=R
=R
Y
Y'
sin(Q
is
A'),
sin(O'A'),
r"=JB"sin(0"
Now,
179
in the last term of equation (15),
A').
it
will be sufficient to put
_N_
n_
n"~ N "
r
and, introducing Y,
f
,
Y",
it
becomes
oosec
It
now remains
tions (26)
We
we
~ /}
From
to find the value of
find, to
(r
(35)
the second of equa
terms of the second order inclusive,
have, also,
and hence
Therefore, the expression (35) becomes
But, according to equations
(5),
NY
Y'+N"Y"=0,
and the foregoing expression reduces to
since
F'
= E' sin(0'
n sin (A A)
~^^" sin(rA'
).
Hence the equation
5^C^
/I
;^
1
(15) becomes
sn'
sin A"
A'
THEOKETICAL ASTKCXNOMY.
180
If we put
n
M = ^"
"
,.,
sin
sin
n"
(A'
A)
(jf'xy
rJ_,
,,s
sin
R'
0')
(A'
'
sin
A)
(A'
we have
o"
r
= =
Tl/T
IrJL
/'Q7^
H/T 7?
"*o^
Let us now consider the equation
(16),
and
let
'
us designate by X,
X X" the abscissas of the earth, the axis of abscissas being directed
f
which the longitude
to that point of the ecliptic for
is
0', then
X =R cos (000,
=R,
X"=R" cos("
X'
0').
It will be sufficient, in the last term of (16), to put
n_ ~~
n"
and
for
this
term reduces to
and
its
'
T"
if
value in terms of
r75
R' z
_N_
N"
tf
'
as already found.
tan ft" cos (A
Then, since
'
tan /S' cos (A"
')
0')
we put
n
tan/3'cos (A
/3" cos (*/
~~n"' tan
Hl rr j^
F = 1 _i^l
*
r"
n
,
'
0')
Q')
T ,,x/_L
;
\r' 3
tan/? cos (A'
tan p' cos (X"
0')
0')'
(38)
tan/3^
E' 3 /tan/3'cos(A
0')
Ef_'
tan/3cos(A'
0')
the equation (16) becomes
n
(39)
In the numerical application of these formulae,
we first assume
not approximately known,
Wf= 7
when
the intervals are nearly equal, and
if
the elements are
A HEAVENLY BODY.
ORBIT OF
JL ""
n"
as given by (32),
and
the factors
when
N
N
181
'
the intervals are very unequal, and neglect
values of p and p tf which are thus ob
The
f
.
an approximate value of
tained, enable us to find
r'',
and with
77
more exact value of ^ may be found, and
also the value of
this a
F or F
f
.
Tif
Whenever equation
(11) is not materially affected by errors of
the value of
furnish
will
with more accuracy than
observation,
the equations (37) and (39), since the neglected terms will not be so
In general, therefore, it is to
great as in the case of these equations.
it
be preferred, and, in the case in which it fails, the very circumstance
that the geocentric path of the body is nearly in a great circle, makes
the values of
F and
F'
differ
but
66.
When
the value of
M has
determine, by means of other
from unity,
little
that the apparent path of the body
r' must differ very little from R'.
may
since, in order
be nearly in a great
circle,
been found, we may proceed to
between p and p ff y the values
relations
of the quantities themselves.
The coordinates of the first place of the earth referred to the third,
are
x,
y,
we
= R" cos Q" R cos O,
= .R"sin0" .RsinO.
(AK\
by g the chord of the earth's orbit between the places
and third observations, and by G the longitude of the first place of the earth as seen from the third, we shall
If
represent
corresponding to the first
have
x,
= g cos G,
y,
= g sin G,
and, consequently,
O)
O)
.#"cos(O"
"si n (O"
R = gcos(G
sin
O),
(00).
an
If
represents the angle at the earth between the sun and comet
the inclination to
at the first observation, and if we designate by
the ecliptic of a plane passing through the places of the earth, sun,
and comet or planet for the first observation, the longitude of the
ascending node of this plane on the ecliptic will be O, and we shall
have, in accordance with equations (81) D
cos
sin
4/
sin
4*
4/
= cos
/?
w cos
sin w = sin p
cos
ft
f
cos (A
sin (A
O),
Q),
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
182
from which
tan w
tan 4
= tan cosw O)
tan/9
r
(42)
(A
Since cos/9 is always positive, cos^ and cos (A
Q) must have the
same sign; and, further, fy cannot exceed 180.
In the same manner, if w" and oj/' represent analogous quantities
for the time of the third observation,
v=
ta
we
obtain
^"
sin (A"
Q")'
"0")
cos4"=cos/3"cos(A"
We also have
";
2J.Rcos4,
which may be transformed into
r2
and
= GO sec
manner we
in a similar
r" 2
= (p" sec
R cos 4)
/9
f
R*
sin
(44)
find
JT
/9"
cos 4/') 2
+ ^'
sin 4".
Let K designate the chord of the orbit of the body between the
and third places, and we have
x2
But
 (*"  *) + <y  + o" x = p cos
R cos O,
jR sin O,
y = p sin
= p tan
2
2/)
*)
/?,
= Mp,
and, since j0"
= M/> cos A"
=
f Mp sin ^'
x"
.#" cos
from which we derive, introducing g and
= Mp cos A"
= Mp sin A"
z" ~z = Mp tan/5"
Gr,
a?"
p cos A
y"
p sin A
Let us now put
O",
R" sin O",
^ tan
/?.
y cos G,
g sin (2,
(45)
first
ORBIT OF A
Mp
cos A"
HEAVENLY BODY.
p cos A
JKf/3
sin A"
/>
sin A
J^f/9
tan /5"
/o
tan /?
ph cos
183
C cos J?,
= ph cos C sin
= ph sin
(46)
17",
C.
Then we have
x"
y"
/>/i
z= ph sin
z"
IT
cos C cos
and
if
= pW
2g ph cos
cos C cos
x
cos
jH")
^ cos ^)
(/>&
by
get,
we put
we have
6r,
6r,
C.
Squaring these values, and adding, we
2
# cos
g sin
= ph cos C sin H
reduction,
JET )
= cos
# sin
f
(47)
(48)
?>,
+g
(49)
<p.
If we multiply the first of equations (46) by cos A", and the
second by sin /", and add the products ; then multiply the first by
ff
sin X , and the second by cos A", and subtract, we obtain
= M cos (A"
A") = sin (A"
h cos C cos (H
h cos C sin (H
A")
=M tan p"
h sin C
by means of which we may determine
Let us now put
g sin p
4
^ cos ^
h cos
and the equations
/?
(44), (45),
and
(49)
6,
(51)
6",
6"J2" cos 4"
c",
become
+ A\
+ V,
The
=

g cos ^
d,
^ cos y
c,
oA
/9,
V' =7 5",
6J? cos
(50)
tan
f and H.
^4,
J2 sin
J?" sin
h,
A),
A),
(52 )
equations thus derived are independent of the form of the
and are applicable to the case of any heavenly body revolving
around the sun. They will serve to determine r and r" in all cases
in which the unknown quantity d can be determined. If p is known,
orbit,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
184
d becomes known
an unknown
directly; but in the case of
orbit,
d may be determined
these equations are applicable
furnished
by observation.
directly or indirectly from the data
only when p
or
67. Since the equations (52) involve two radiivectores r and r"
their extremities, it is evident that an addi
and the chord x joining
tional equation involving these and known quantities will enable us
to derive d, if not directly, at least by successive approximations.
indeed, a remarkable relation existing between two radiichord joining their extremities, and the time of describing
the
vectores,
In general,
the part of the orbit included by these radiivectores.
There
is,
the equation which expresses this relation involves also the semitransverse axis of the orbit; and hence, in the case of an unknown
not be sufficient, in connection with the equations (52),
orbit, it will
some assumption is made in regard
For the special case of
the
semitransverse axis is infinite, and the resultparabolic motion,
ing equation involves only the time, the two radiivectores, and the
for the determination of
unless
c?,
to the value of the semitransverse axis.
chord of the part of the orbit included by these. It is, therefore,
adapted to the determination of the elements when the orbit is supposed to be a parabola, and, though it is transcendental in form, it
may be easily solved by trial. To determine this expression, let us
resume the equations
s^
= tan J
i
j
tan3
1/20
and, for the time t" }
Subtracting the former from the latter, and reducing,
Q=
~ Bin^y
"
3fcy
cos
1/2 q?
and, since r
3&(*"
= q sec
Q
y=
= sinK^
*0/^
cos 2^
jv, this
1/2
But we have,
v
iz
coajy
we
*0
r\
'
cos X' cos 2 V
gives
t;)!/^/
1
/=
q
,,
rjr"+cos(v
.
./
vJVrr
\
}
,_
(53)
from the triangle formed by the chord K and the
and r",
also,
radiivectores r
obtain
x*=r* +
(r+
r" 2
fr
r'O
2rr" cos (v
4rr" cos 2 J
v)
r
(if
v).
PAJRABOLIC ORBIT.
Therefore,
185
Let us now put
r
__
"
=m
_j_
m and n being positive quantities.
'
__
"
Then we
_x=^
shall
have
+ ''=*("*+*),
2 cos
(i;"
i;)
1/rr"
mn
and ?i are always positive, it follows that the upper sign
and, since
v is less than 180, and the lower sign when
must be used when v"
v
ff
 =
(m
V2q
Now we
last
'
equation with (53),
mn).
(55)
have
sin
Squaring
sin
Combining the
is
'
or,
180.
v is greater than
the result
this,
(i/
= sin ^v" cos ^v
cos ^v" sin ^v.
and reducing, we get
v)
(j/'
v)
= cos
introducing r and
Jv
+ cos
^v"
2 cos
f/
^v
cos ^v cos ^ (v"
v) t
q,
Therefore,
sn
"
Introducing this value into equation (55),
we
find
Replacing m and n by their values expressed in terms of
x, this becomes
6& (*"
 = (r + r" + x)i T (r + r"  x)f
r,
r",
and
(56)
v is less than 180.
This
being used when v"
equation expresses the relation between the time of describing any
parabolic arc and the rectilinear distances of its extremities from each
the upper sign
other and from the sun, and enables us at once, when three of these
quantities are given, to find the fourth, independent of either the
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
186
perihelion distance or the position of the perihelion with respect to
the arc described.
The transcendental form of the equation (56) indicates that,
either of the quantities in the second member is to be found,
must be solved by successive trials ; and, to facilitate these approxi68.
when
it
mations, it may be transformed as follows
Since the chord x can never exceed r
r",
:
and, since #,
r,
The value of
From
we
the last equation
positive, sin
obtain
+ /')*
COSY=
and substituting
for x
x2
O+r")
value given by
its
4rr" cos 2
(r f r")
(v"
Therefore,
4rr" cos 2 ^(i/'
v),
y)
we have
COS
/=
2i/Vr"
COS 2
v)
(t/
(58)
77,
also
^n /  ^^
Hence
it
appears that
when
*
.
v"v
is
less
(59)
than 180,
belongs to
v is greater than 180, cosf'
quadrant, and that when v"
and
to
the
second
negative,
f belongs
quadrant.
the
is
becomes
this
and
(57)
f must always be positive.
the limits
and 180.
be
within
must, therefore,
and r" are
m/,
+ r"
we may put
first
If
we
introduce
into the expressions for
and
7i
they become
0(1+ sin/),
m*=(r +
^ = (r + r")(lsin/),
which give
m *= ( r f r") (cos i/ + sin i/)
2
rc,
and, since
is
(r
greater
f r")
than 90
cos
J/
2
,
IF sin
when v"
v exceeds
180,
equation (56) becomes
6r'
(^cos
^f
\
sin
tff )*
(cos
\Y
sm jif).
th<
PARABOLIC DEBIT.
From
this equation
we
187
get
= 6 cos
fir'
sin
2 sin3
or
and
may
this, again,
be transformed into
fr
o/sinir'\
Iwr
2t(r+o*
Let us now put
(61)
p
or
sin
/
= V 2 sin
#,
and we have
'
1/2 (r
When
v"
is
= 3 sin x
+
less
than 180,
= sin 3x.
sin x
must be
less
(62)
than
90, and
hence, in this case, sin x cannot exceed the value , or x must be
within the limits
and 30. When v"
v is greater than 180,
the angle
is within the limits 90
and 180, and corresponding to
these limits, the values of sin# are, respectively,  and >/2
Hence,
in the case that v
the limits 30
ff
v exceeds
180,
it
follows that x must be within
and 45.
The equation
=
1/2 (r
= sin 3x
3x ; but when the first gives
there
can
3x
be but one solution, the value 180
15,
being in this case excluded by the condition that 3x cannot exceed
135. When x is greater than 15, the required condition will be
is satisfied
less
by the values 3# and 180
than
satisfied
by 3x or by 180
3#,
and there
will be
corresponding respectively to the cases in which v"
two
v
solutions,
is less
than
ff
v is greater than 180.
180, and in which v
Consequently,
when it is not known whether the heliocentric motion during the
interval t"
than
45,
solutions.
t is
greater or less than 180, and we find 3x greater
the same data will be satisfied by these two different
In
practice,
however,
it
is
readily
known which
of the
THEOEETICAL ASTEONOMY.
188
t is not
two solutions must be adopted, since, when the interval t"
very large, the heliocentric motion cannot exceed 180, unless the
and the known circumstances will
perihelion distance is very small
;
an assumption
generally show whether such
We shall
now put
admissible.
is
aj
(63)
and we obtain
sin 3s
(64)
v 8
We have,
also,
sin
and hence
cos
j/
^/
= i/l
= 1/2 sin
2 sin 2 x
x,
= I/ cos
1x.
Therefore
sin
and, since K
(r
/ =P= 2^ sin x V cos 2#,
+ r") sin
= 2^
p',
(r
we have
f
^") sin
a;
cos
2a;.
If we put
3^^^^
(65)
sm3a;
the preceding equation reduces to
*
From
=
(66)
appears that ^ must be within the limits (
may, therefore, construct a table which, with 37 a
the argument, will give the corresponding value of /*, since, with
given value of 37, 3# may be derived from equation (64), and thei
and
equation (64)
\ /g.
the value of
//
from
69.
Table XI. gives the values of
from 0.0 to 0.9.
(65).
sponding to values of
to
it
We
r]
In determining an
make some assumption
/JL
corre
orbit wholly unknown, it will be necessary
in regard to the approximate distance oi
the comet from the sun.
In this case the interval t"
t will
gene
be
x
will
be
small
rally
small, and, consequently,
compared with r
and r ff
As a first assumption we may take r
2,
1, or r f r"
and
fi.
1,
and then
find K
from the formula
PAEABOLIC ORBIT.
189
we compute d, r, and r" by means of the
Having thus found approximate values of r and r",
equations (52).
we compute y by means of (63), and with this value we enter Table
"With this value of K
XI. and take out the corresponding value of //. A second value
is then found from
(66), with which we recompute r and r", and
for K
proceed as before, until the values of these quantities remain unThe final values will exactly satisfy the equation (56),
changed.
and will enable us to complete the determination of the orbit.
trials the value of r f r" may be found very nearly
from the numbers already derived. Thus, let y be the true
A# be the difference between any
value of log (r f r") an(i
assumed or approximate value of y and the true value, or
After three
correct
Then
if
we denote by yQ
2/
the value which results by direct calculation
we
from the assumed value yQ)
Expanding
=y+ A
have
shall
we have
this function,
But, since the equations (52) and (66) will be exactly satisfied
the true value of # is used, it follows that
and hence, when
the second order,
Let us
b7
2/o>
then
now denote
and
2A/> 2/o">
we
shall
is
&y
we
very small, so that we
have
three successive approximate values of log (r f r")
let
have
neglect terms of
shall
Eliminating
may
when
= A (y
y\
from these equations, we get
y
(a'
a)
ay
a'y
',
trom which
f
ttft
ft
ffi7^
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
190
Unless the assumed values are considerably in error, the value of
r") thus found will be sufficiently exact ; but should
y or of log (r
it
be
still
in error,
we may, from
the three values which approximate
still greater
In the
accuracy.
nearest to the truth, derive y with
numerical application of this equation, a and a' may be expressed in
units of the last decimal place of the logarithms employed.
t when K is
The solution of equation (56), to find t"
known, is
readily effected
by means of Table VIII.
Thus we have
= sin 3#.
1/2
and,
when
is less
than
if
90,
we put
_
si
/v
iT
we
get
.
'
sm /
J = i 1/2 N sin / (r +
r") f ,
(68)
or
When
r
f exceeds
90, we put
N'
= sin
3a?,
and we have
in which log $ i/%
9.6733937. 'With the argument f we take
from Table VIII. the corresponding value of
or N', and by
means of these equations r'
k (t rr
at
is
once
derived.
t)
The
inverse problem, in which T' is known and K is required,
by means of the same table. Thus, we may for a
also be solved
may
first
approximation put
and with
this value of
% compute
d, r,
The value of
and r".
is
then found from
and the
table gives the
corresponding value of
to
x
will
be given by the
approximation
N or N A second
equation
vT
T>
PARABOLIC ORBIT.
or
191
by
3
r'sin/
^Ti'^TF^
= 0.3266063.
which log
in
Then we recompute
and proceed as before until u remains unchanged.
tions are facilitated by means of equation (67).
It will be observed that d is computed from
d
and
it
should be
be used.
It
is
i/x'
known whether
and r",
d, r,
The approxima
JL',
the positive or negative sign must
evident from the equation
= ph
g cos
<f>,
and g are positive quantities, that so long as <p (which
and 180) exceeds 90, the value of d
must be within the limits
must be positive and therefore <p must be less than 90, and g cos <p
The equation (47)
greater than ph, in order that d may be negative.
shows that when K is greater than g, we have
since p, h,
and hence d must in this case be positive. But when K is less than
g, either the positive or the negative value of d will answer to the
given value of <p, and the sign to be adopted must be determined
from the physical conditions of the problem.
If we suppose the chords g and K to be proportional to the linear
and comet at the middle observation,
the eccentricity of the earth's orbit being neglected,
velocities of the earth
which shows that x
'*
T' is less
vfte
than
earth which
2.
we
have,
greater than g, and that d is positive, so long
The comets are rarely visible at a distance from
is
much
exceeds the distance of the earth from the sun,
is 2 must be nearly in opposition in
and a comet whose radiusvector
order to satisfy this condition of visibility.
Hence cases will rarely
occur in which d can be negative, and for those which do occur it
will
generally be easy to determine which sign
is
to be used.
How
very small,
may be impossible to decide which of the
two solutions is correct without comparing the resulting elements
with other and more distant observations.
ever, if
is
it
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
192
When
and r" have been finally determined, as
of d may be computed, and then we
just explained, the exact value
have
70.
the values of r
_d
f
p and p".
the
equations (90) D
According to
from which
O)
O)
r cos b sin (I
r sin b
and also
and Z" are the
we have
= p cos
= p sin
(A
=p tan
/5,
/>"
r"sin6"
Z
(70)
Q)
(A
= cos
= ?" sin
=
0")
Q")
r" cos 6" cos (/"
r" cos 6" sin (/"
which
<p
to find
r cos b cos (I
in
g cos
h
R,
(71)
),
(A"
0")
(A"
0"),
heliocentric longitudes
#',
(72)
and
6,
6" the corre
sponding heliocentric latitudes of the comet. From these equations
we find T y r ff , I, I", 6, and b" ; and the values of r and r" thus found,
should agree with the final values already obtained. When I" is less
the motion of the comet is retrograde, or, rather, when the
I,
than
motion
is
such that the heliocentric longitude
of increasing.
From the equations (82) 1?
tan
diminishing instead
is
we have
sin (I
tanisin(r
&)
= tan
/Q\
6,
ft)="
which may be written
tani(sin(Z
tan i (sin (I"
+ sin (a
x ) cos (a;
&)
x) cos (re
& ) + sin
cos(Z
*&)
cos
Multiplying the
by
first of these
equations by sin(Z"
x\ and adding the products, we get
sin(
tan
and
& ) sin (t'
sin (x
in a similar
tan i cos (x
Now,
have
since
is
1)
= tan 6 sin (r
manner we
find
Q ) sin (I"
l)= tan 6" cos (J
entirely arbitrary,
a;))
;/
(Z
))
a;),
= tan
= tan
5,
b".
and the second
x)
tan 6" sin (I
x)
a)
tan 6 cos (r
a).
we may put
it
equal to
I,
and we
PARABOLIC ORBIT.
tan
tan
i sin (I
i
ft )
cos (7
ft )
=
=
tan
b,
tan b"
tan 6 cos (I"
(74)
I)
sin(r
when
the lower sign being used
193
it is
desired to introduce the distinc
tion of retrograde motion.
The formulae will be better adapted to
we put x = \(l" } I), whence I" x=\(l ff
and we obtain
tan
tan
sin (
cos
(J
These equations
and subtraction.
ft )
(I" j /)
(Z"
may
ft )
logarithmic calculation if
Z)
and
= =h 2~ cos b Sm
cos b" cos
,
lff
/ 7
,
7
r
\,,
2 cos b cos 6
also be derived directly
x=$(l
,,
^,
(I
I)
I");
.__,
'
Oy
TV
,,,
sm  (I"
I)
from (73) by addition
Thus we have
= tan 6" f tan
=
tan &"
tan 6;
ft))
& ) + sin (J
tan i (sin (I"
tan t (sin (Z"
ft ))
sin(Z
ft)
6,
and, since
sin(r
ft) f sin
siiiC/'
ft)
these
(/
sin (I
ft)
ft)
= 2 siny"+ ^ 2ft) cosi(^ 0,
= 2cos(J"+ 2Q) sin J(^~ 0,
^
become
= i^(tan 6" + tan 6)
which may be readily transformed into (75).
6" will be found by means of their tangents
How ever,
r
since 6
and
in the numerical appli
cation of equations (71) and (72), if addition and subtraction logarithms are used, the equations last derived will be more convenient
than in the form (75).
As soon as ft and i have been computed from the preceding equations, we have, for the determination of the arguments of the latitude
u and u",
cos
Now we
cos
have
u
in
which
to
TT
ft in
=v
f
>
the case of direct motion, and
13
co
= ft
TT
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
194
the distinction of retrograde motion
when
have
"U =
adopted; and
is
we
shall
"
V}
and, consequently,
=r
x2
x2
= (r"
j
r" 2
r cos
We have,
u),
r2 sin 2
(78)
(79)
w).
(it"
should agree with that
this equation
(66).
further,
= q sec
))"+
(t/'
The value of K derived from
already found from
2rr" cos (u"
(u
r"
to),
= q sec
(u"
w),
or
= COS l(u
Vr
addition and subtraction,
By
(cos
7=
30*"
o)
(COS J
7= COS 4
T^>
>)
Vq
(lt'
to)
Vq
we
from these equations,
get,
+ cos J(
COS J
Vi"
))
o))
(l*
= /==
Vr
/=,
Vr
from which we easily derive
?= cos J (J
But
("
+))
cos
^T^v^
if
 = 7= + 4^'
f.)
sin
and
("
(7r
/T"\
V \'
::
we put
tan (45
"
since
we
if?
^
will not diifer
much from
shall have, since tan
(45
</r"~
+ 6'}
~T
1, 0' will
cot (45
\/r =
4
be a small angle; and
+ 6') = 2 tan 20',
PARABOLIC ORBIT.
195
Therefore, the equations (80) become

r
Vq
sin
r
sin  (M"
4/
i/rr"
)) =  ^=>
V
spp20'
1
*
tt)
cosHJ("+
cos  (w
from which the values of q and
o>
may
w)
be found.
r/'
Then we
shall
have, for the longitude of the perihelion
= +
when
when
the motion
motion
and the
distinction of retrograde
adopted.
It remains
now to
V
With
and
is direct,
unrestricted exceeds 90
is
find T, the time of perihelion passage.
=U
tf'=u"
>,
U>.
and v" we may
the resulting values of v
We have
find,
by means of
Table VI., the corresponding values of
(which must be distinthe
from
used
to
denote the ratio of the
symbol
guished
already
and
curtate distances),
we shall have
if these
M and M"
values are designated by
rr=
tT=~,
m
'
'
or
m
in
which
m=
f and log
,
9*
= 9.9601277.
When v is
negative, the
is negative.
The agreement between the
corresponding value of
two values of T will be a final proof of the accuracy of the numerical
calculation.
The value of T when the true anomaly is small, is most readily
and accurately found by means of Table VIII., from which we
derive the two values of ^V and compute the corresponding values
of T from the equation
T=t
2
in
which
logjr,
= 1.5883273.
2
TN
When
is
greater than
90, we
de
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
196
rive the values of
values of
from the
table,
and compute the corresponding
T from
The elements q and may be derived directly from the values
r", and x, as derived from the equations (52), without first
finding the position of the plane of the orbit and the position of the
71.
of
r,
orbit in its
by
own
Thus, the equations
plane.
their values v
CD
sin J
and v
0"
Vq
2
7= cosi
(i,"
Vq
{
CD",
(80), replacing
u and u"
become
+ v) sini (I/'*) =4= 1,,
11
Vr
Vr"
+ v cos ("   4= + 7=Vr Vr"
;
tM)
1;)
Adding together the squares of
and reducing, we get
these,
sin2 J (v"
v)
or
_
~r" +
Combining
this equation
2l/^
77
with
vj
cos^(v'
(59), the result is
f
y)
V_rr"sm^(v'
r + /'
xcoty"
and hence, since X
(r
We have,
further,
x
= ~ sin
from
2
+ r") sin^',
2
(v"
v) cot
(78),
= (/'
r) 2
+ 4rr" sin
(v'
v)
from which, putting
smv=
we
r"
=^>
derive
2l/rr"~
(85)
Therefore, the equation (83) becomes
PARABOLIC ORBIT.
197
g^Kr + r'Ocos'i/cos'v,
(86)
by means of which q is derived directly from r, r", and x the value
of v being found by means of the formula (84), so that cos v is
y
positive.
When
f
f cannot be found with sufficient accuracy from the equa
tion
we may
which
*r
give,
by
Thus, we have
use another form.
+ /' + x
r + /
lsm/,
+ r"
; + /
x
,
division,
tan (45
+ ir
"
*=
')
Jx rr + r"r + x*
(87)
f
In a similar manner, we derive
tan (45
In order
+ v) =
f
* x
^r
ty.
(/'
r)
(88)
to find the time of perihelion passage,
to derive the values of v
by multiplication,
tan
from which v"
may
v)
(v"
it is
necessary first
equations (59) and (85) give,
The
and v".
= tan f cos
From
be computed.
tan i (v" f v) tan j (v"
v)
(89)
v,
(82)
we
= XL
get
L//
If we put
tan/
= Apl',
(90)
this equation reduces to
tan i (v"
and the equations
+v)=* tan (/
cot  (v"
(81) give, also,
tan I (v" f v)
either of
45)
which may be used
= cot 
"
1
(t
ff
to find v
v) sin 2^,
+ v.
v),
(91)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
198
From
the equations
cos v
~~Vr
V~q
cos %v" __
V7
'
Vq
tne second by
by multiplying the first by sinjv" and
we
easily find
ing the products and reducing,
ff
cos \ (v"
v) sin
sin \ (v
v)
sin Jv,
add
Hence we have
= sin \v
1
= COS %V
Vq
which may be used
to
1
;=,
Vr
compute
q, v,
and v" when v"
is
known.
ff
and hence v" and v, have been
0),
(v"
v) and \ (v
determined, the time of perihelion passage must be found, as already
explained, by means of Table VI. or Table VIII.
When
It
is
evident, therefore, that in the determination of an orbit, as
soon as the numerical values of
r,
r" and x have been derived from
,
the equations (52), instead of completing the calculation of the elements of the orbit, we may find q and T, and then, by means of
f
f
When this
these, the values of r and v may be computed directly.
has been effected, the values of
that of
from
(34).
n and n" may be found from
Then we compute p by means of
the
(3),
or
first
of
from (33), or, in the
equations (70), and the corrected value of
In
cases
from
the
special
already examined,
equations (37) and (39).
this
way, by successive approximations, the determination of parafrom given data may be carried to the limit of accuracy
bolic elements
which
case,
may
it
is consistent with the
assumption of parabolic motion. In the
however, of the equations (37) and (39), the neglected terms
be of the second order, and, consequently, for the final results
will be necessary, in order to attain the greatest
possible accuracy,
to derive
from (15) and
(16).
W^hen the
determination of the elements
already given.
is
value of If has been found, the
completed by means of the formulae
final
PARABOLIC CEBIT.
199
To illustrate the application of the formulae for
72. EXAMPLE.
the calculation of the parabolic elements of the orbit of a comet by
a numerical example, let us take the following observations of the
Fifth
Comet of 1863, made
Ann Arbor M.
1864 Jan. 10
These
Ann
Arbor:
T.
6* 57 m 20'.5
19* 14" 4 8 .92
+ 34
6'
27".4,
11
54
.7
19 25
2 .84
36
36 52
.8,
16 6 35
11
.6
19 41
4 .54
+ 39
41 26
.9.
13 6
are
at
apparent equinox of the date and
parallax and aberration by means of
.places are referred to the
already
corrected
for
approximate values of the geocentric distances of the comet.
But
approximate values of these distances are not already known, the
corrections for parallax and aberration may be neglected in the first
determination of the approximate elements of the unknown orbit of
if
we
convert the observed right ascensions and declinations into the corresponding longitudes and latitudes by means of
a comet.
If
equations (1), and reduce the times of observation to the meridian
of Washington, we get
Washington M. T.
3'
1864 Jan. 10 7 h 24
13 6 38 37
16 7
1
54
13
297
302
53'
57 51
.3
57
39 35
.9,
310
31 52
.3
+ 59
38 18
.7.
7".6
}
55
46' 58".4,
Next, we reduce these places by applying the corrections for preand nutation to the mean equinox of 1864.0, and reduce the
cession
we have
times of observation to decimals of a day, and
t
t'
"
= 10.30837,
= 13.27682,
= 16.29299,
= 297
= 302
A" = 310
I
52' 51".l,
/?
A'
57 34
For the same times we
Q =290
O'
293
find,
6'
27".4,
7 57 .1,
to the
/5"=j59
46' 58".4,
39 35
.9,
38 18.7.
from the American Nautical Almanac,
Q" = 296 1215.7,
which are referred
.4,
31 35.0,
= + 55
= 57
log.R =9.992763,
f
logE =9.992830,
log
#'
mean equinox of
= 9.992916,
1864.0.
It will gene
rally be sufficient, in a first approximation, to use logarithms of five
decimals ; but, in order to exhibit the calculation in a more complete
form, we shall retain six places of decimals.
Since the intervals are very nearly equal, we
may assume
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
200
L *L
JL
ri~'~~r"~ N"'
Then we have
tan i? sin
lf_t'
~
and
sin
0)
Q)
^ cos(
h cos C cos (IT
h cos C sin
(#
A")
from which to find
Jf,
G, g,
H,
and
h.
(;/
it
777
/9"
')'
R;
A),
tan
/5;
Thus we
94
obtain
24'
= 40 28
log h = 9.688532.
')
A),
= 9.019613,
=
= 0.752,
Ar
cos
J!f
(A"
#=
58' 1".7,
log^
Since
tan p sin (A"
= M tan/5"
M= 9.829827,
== 22
tan ft sin
== sin
')
')
= R" sin (" 0),
= R" cos(Q" O)
cos (A"
A") = Jf
h sin C
log
(A
t' tan/S"sin(A'
t'
1".8,
21
.9,
appears that the comet, at the time
The
observations, was rapidly approaching the earth.
deterbe
are
in
A"
must
which
and
taken,
quadrants
mined by the condition that g and h cos must always be positive.
of
these
The value of
M should be checked
by duplicate calculation, since an
and $' are
r
error in this will not be exhibited until the values of A
computed from the resulting elements.
Next, from
cos
= cos
/?
cos (A
O),
cos
we compute
cos ^, cos ty',
g sin
obtain
find
<p
= cos C cos
and cos
<p
= cos
h cos
/?
g cosy
b,
b"R"
cos 4"
v
,
B, B", &c. It will generally be sufficiently exact to
/r
but if more accurate
sinij/' from cosoj/ and cos^
and fy' are required, they may be obtained by means of
A = 9.006485,
log b
"),
J.,
the equations (42) and (43).
log
cos (A"
H),
sin^ and
values of
ft"
and then from
= A,
R" sin 4" = 5",
bR cos 4
e,
g cosy
we
<p
cos *"
= 9.438524,
= 0.125067,
log
Thus we derive
log B" = 9.933366,
= 9.562387,
= 0.150562.
B ='9.912052,
log b"
c"
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
201
Then we have
r '=k(t"
t\
TI
=
(r
r,
_}_/')!'
2r'
from which to
by successive trials, tjie values of >, r", and x,
found
from Table XI. with the argument y. First,
being
assume
we
that of
find,
/.
log x
and with
log r
this
we
= log r'i/2 = 9.163132,
obtain
= 9.913895,
log r"
= 9.938040,
log (r f r")
=*=
0.227165.
This value of log(V
0.094, and from Table XI. we
r"} gives ^
find log/Jt
0.000160. Hence we derive
=
log x = 9.200220,
log r == 9.912097,
log r"
0.224825.
r")
log (r
Repeating the operation, using the
log x
= 9.201396,
log r
log (r
The
correct value of log(r
Thus,
equation (67).
the logarithms,
a
= 224825
we
= 9.912083,
r r/ )
may now
2340,
log (r
?y, //,
= 9.201419,
>c,
9.935117,
be found by means of the
a'
= 224783
to the last value of log(r
and, recomputing
log r"
+ r"), we get
have, in units of the sixth decimal place of
Therefore,
log x
value of log(r
+ /') = 0.224783.
}
227165 ==
and the correction
last
= 9.935187,
r,
224825
42,
+ r"} becomes
+ r") = 0.224782,
and r", we
logr
get, finally,
= 9.912083, logr" = 9.935116,
= 0.224782.
log (r f r")
The agreement of
the last value of log(r
"") with the preceding
one shows that the results are correct. Further, it appears from the
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
202
values of r and r" that the comet had passed
receding from the sun.
By means of the values of r and r"
dr'
f
mate values of r and
rr
its
we might compute approxi
from the equations (30) and
a more approximate value of
from
7l
(28), that
(32).
^
and then
being found
iV
f
But, since r differs but
from
little
f
y
the difference
?V
77
^ and
between
(31),
of
/I/
from
and was
perihelion
YL
is
^77
very small, so that
it is
not necessary to con
A.V
member of the equation (33);
intervals
are
the
very nearly equal, the error of the asand, since
sider the second term of the second
sumption
is
of the third order.
in the value of
It should be observed, however, that an error
/r
H, , 7i, and hence also 9 b, b", c, and c ,
affects
and the resulting value of p may be
affected
by an error which con
It is advantageous, therefore, to select
siderably exceeds that of M.
observations which furnish intervals as nearly equal as possible in
M may be
M and repeat the
order that the error of
necessary to correct
We
small, otherwise it
calculation of
to
may become
r,
r r/ ,
and
x.
may
compute the perihelion distance and the time of perihelion passage from r, r", and K by means of the equations (86), (89),
also
Then
and
(91) in connection with Tables
may
be computed directly, and the complete expression for
VI. and VIII.
r'
and v
M may
be employed.
In the
first
determination of the elements, and especially when the
and aberration have been neglected, it is un
corrections for parallax
necessary to attempt to arrive at the limit of accuracy attainable,
since, when approximate elements have been found, the observations
may
be more conveniently reduced, and those which include a longer
may be used in a more complete calculation. Hence, as soon
interval
and K have been found, the curtate distances are next deterand
then the elements of the orbit. To find p and p", we
mined,
have
as
r,
r",
= + 0.122395,
the positive sign being used since x
_d
Pgive
log p
+ gcosy
^
= 9.480952,
is
greater than g,
log p"
and the formulae
= Mp,
= 9.310779.
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
203
From these values of p and //', it appears that the comet was very
near the earth at the time of the observations.
The
by means of the equations
heliocentric places are then found
and
(71)
Thus we
(72).
= 106
r=112
obtain
= + 33
40' 50".5,
31
6"=
9.9,
The agreement of
1'
23
log r
10".6,
55
log r"
5.8,
= 9.912082,
= 9.935116.
and r rr with those previously
these values of r
found, checks the accuracy of the calculation.
Further, since the
heliocentric longitudes are increasing, the motion is direct.
The
longitude of the ascending node and the inclination of the
may now be found by means of the equations (74), (75), or (76);
orbit
and we get
= 304
&
The
43' 11".5,
u and u"
values of
are given
COS
u and I
& being
Thus we obtain
31' 21".7.
by the formulae
COS
same quadrant
in the
u == 142
in the case of direct motion.
u"= 153
52' 12".4,
18' 49".4.
the equation
= (r"
x2
log x
and the agreement of
j
0')
(i (u f u)
w)
+ u)
w)
tan (45
,
,=
Vq
sin
i
with that previously found,
u,
i,
^(
'.
,,.
r>
(u"
u)
= 9.201423,
and u"
&,
u))' f r sin (u"
this value of x
proves the calculation of
From the equations
Vq
r cos (u"
gives
we
= 64
tan
Then
tan 20'
get
d'
22' 47".4,
Hence we have
TT
u>
= 115
f
40' 6".3,
= 60
log q
23' 17".8,
9.887378.
THEOKETICAL ASTEONOMY.
204
and
v
=u
Then we
= 27
v"
12' 6".l,
= u"w = 37
38' 43".l.
obtain
log
m = 9.9601277
f log q
= 0.129061,
and, corresponding to the values of v and v", Table
log
M = 1.267163,
log
gives
M" = 1.424152.
Therefore, for the time of perihelion passage,
T=t
VI.
we have
13.74364,
=f
19.72836.
and
T = t"
The
first
value gives
T= Dec. 27.56463.
T= 1863 Dec. 27.56473, and
The agreement between
the second gives
is the final
these results
proof of the calculation of the elements from the adopted value of
M= .
p
If
we
find
T by
log
means of Table VIII., we have
N = 0.021616,
log N"
= 0.018210,
and the equation
T=
in
which log
Nr*
sin v
^ = 1.5883273, gives
t"
for
JVV't
sin v",
the values Dec. 27.56473
and Dec. 27.56469.
Collecting together the several results obtained,
lowing elements
T
*
we have
the fol
= 1863 Dec. 27.56471 Washington mean time.
= 6023'17".8) ^
qru
43
3
1 1
K V
f=6431 217/
log q = 9.887378.
^ cll P tlc
E
an d Mean
^x
1864 .0,
Motion Direct.
73. The elements thus derived will, in all
cases, exactly represent
the extreme places of the comet, since these
only have been used in
finding the elements after p and p" have been found.
If, by means
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES.
205
of these elements, we compute n and n" and correct the value of M,
the elements which will then be obtained will approximate nearer
',
the true values
and each successive correction
will furnish
When
more
the adopted value of
is exact, the resultelements
must
calculation
this
value, and since the
ing
reproduce
by
of
values
and
will
be
the
same
as the observed
A, A", /9,
computed
ft"
accurate results.
must be such that when
substituted in the equation for M, the same result will be obtained
as when the observed values of A' and ft' are used.
But, according
to the equations (13) and (14), the value of
depends only on the
computed values of
values, the
and
/9'
inclination to the ecliptic of a great circle passing through the places
of the sun and comet for the time t r , and is independent of the angle
between the sun and comet. Hence, the spherical coordinates of any point of the great circle joining these places of the
sun and comet will, in connection with those of the extreme places,
at the earth
and when the exact value of
has been
t
give the same value of
used in deriving the elements, the computed values of X and /9 r must
give the same value for w' as that which is obtained from observation.
But
if
we
ij/ the angle at the earth between the
the values of i// derived by observation
by
represent
sun and comet at the time
and by computation from the elements will differ, unless the middle
In general, this difference will be small,
place is exactly represented.
and since w' is constant, the equations
cos 4/
give,
by
cos ft cos
(A'
0'),
sin 4/ cos w'
ft sin (A'
0'),
sin 4'
ft,
= cos
sin w' = sin
(93)
differentiation,
%i
cos ft
From
these
we
= cos w' sec
dft = sin w' cos
dX
ft c?4/>
(A'
Q')
d*'.
get
tan
dp
(A'
0')
sin ft
which expresses the ratio of the residual errors in longitude and
latitude, for the middle place, when the correct value of M. has been
used.
Whenever
these
conditions are
satisfied,
the
elements will be
correct on the hypothesis of parabolic motion, and the magnitude
of the final residuals in the middle place will depend on the deviation
of the actual orbit of the comet from the parabolic form.
Further,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
206
which has not
when elements have been derived from a value of
been finally corrected, if we compute X and /9' by means of these
elements, and then
tan
tan
/ncr\
/5'
(&&)
rVY
YTr
the comparison of this value of tan w' with that given by observais necessary, and
tion will show whether any further correction of
if the difference is not greater than what may be due to unavoidable
as exact.
we may regard
the elements obtained in the case of the example
errors of calculation,
To compare
given with the middle place,
v'
= 32
u'
31' 13".5,
Then from
= 148
log /
11' 19".8,
= 9.922836.
& ) = cos i tan u',
(l
tan
derive
= 109
By means
find
the equations
tan
we
we
= tan
= 302
& ),
sin (V
V ==
46' 48".3,
of these and the values of
A'
28
O' and
p = 57
57' 41".l,
24' 56".0.
f
,
we
obtain
39' 37".0
f
and, comparing these results with the observed values of X and
the residuals for the middle place are found to be
Comp.
cos
p AA' ==
Obs.
f 3".6,
/?',
= + I'M.
A/5
The
ratio of these remaining errors, after making due allowance for
unavoidable errors of calculation, shows that the adopted value of
is not exact, since the error of the
longitude should be less than
that of the latitude.
The value of w given by
r
observation
is
= 0.966314,
log tan w'
and that given by the computed values of
difference being greater than
calculation,
it
and
/9'
is
= 0.966247.
log tan w'
The
X'
what can be attributed
appears that the value of
to errors of
requires further cor
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES.
Since the difference
rection.
M by using
value of
the value of tan
much from
is
small,
207
we may
derive the correct
the same assumed value of
,,
Ti
and, instead of
derived from observation, a value differing as
computed value differs.
this in a contrary direction as the
Thus, in the present example, the computed value of log tan w is
0.000067 less than the observed value, and, in finding the new value
f
M we must use
of
log tan w'
in
computing
/9
and
/9
= 0.966381
" involved
in the first of equations (14).
If
we must use, instead of tan/3'
of equations (10) is employed,
as derived from observation,
the
first
tan
or
log tan
{?
= tan w' sin
p = 0.966381
the observed value of
X'
and
if the
+ log sin
0')
(A'
being retained.
log
Q')>
(A'
= 0.198559,
Thus we derive
M= 9.829586,
elements of the orbit are computed by means of this
value, they will represent the middle place in accordance with the
condition that the difference between the computed and the observed
value of tan
shall be zero.
system of elements computed with the same data
9.822906 gives for the error of the middle place,
from
=
log M
cos
p A;/ =
a
V
o.
26".2,
A/3'
40".l.
If we interpolate by means of the residuals thus found for two values
of M, it appears that a system of elements computed from
log
^=9.829586
will almost exactly represent the middle place, so that the data are
completely satisfied by the hypothesis of parabolic motion.
The
equations (34) and (32) give
log
and from
^
Yl
= 0.006955,
(10)
we
get
log
M'
= 9.822906,
log jt
J\
log
= 0.006831,
M" = 9,663729n
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
208
Then by means of the equation
value of M.
log
which
differs
(33)
we
derive, for the corrected
M= 9.829582,
only in the sixth decimal place from the result obtained
by varying tanw' and retaining the approximate values
^ = ^' =
When
the approximate elements of the orbit of a comet are
known, they may be corrected by using observations which include
The most convenient method of effecting
a longer interval of time.
74.
by the variation of the geocentric distance for the
time of one of the extreme observations, and the formula? which
this correction is
may
be derived for this purpose are applicable, without modification,
any case in which it is possible to determine the elements of the
Since
orbit of a comet on the supposition of motion in a parabola.
there are only five elements to be determined in the case of parabolic
to
motion, if the distance of the comet from the earth corresponding to
the time of one complete observation is known, one additional complete observation will enable us to find the elements of the orbit.
Therefore, if the elements are computed which result from two or
more assumed values of J
differing but little
from the correct value,
by comparison of intermediate observations with these different systems of elements, we may derive that value of the geocentric distance
of the comet for which the resulting elements will best represent the
observations.
In order that the formulae may be applicable to the case of any
fundamental plane,
let us consider the equator as this plane, and,
supposing the data to be three complete observations, let A, A', A"
be the right ascensions, and Z>, D', D" the declinations of the sun
for the times
t',
t".
The
coordinates of the
first
place of the earth
referred to the third are
x
y
= R" cos D" cos A" R cos D cos A,
= R" cos D" sin A" RcosD sin A,
z=R"smD"
If
we
RsmD.
by g the chord of the earth's orbit between the places
and third observations, and by G and K, respectively,
the right ascension and declination of the first
place of the earth as
seen from the third, we shall have
represent
for the first
= g cos K cos G,
y = gcosK sin G,
= g sin K,
x
z
VARIATION OF THE GEOCENTRIC DISTANCE.
209
and, consequently,
g cos
g cos
# sin
K cos
K sin
K
G
G
= R" cos D" cos (A"
= R" cos D" sin J."
= R" sin D" R sin
A)
A)
R cos D,
A)
A\
(96)
Z),
from which g, K, and 6r may be found.
If we designate by xn yn z, the coordinates of the first place of
the comet referred to the third place of the earth, we shall have
x,
z,
Let us now put
= A cos cos a
= A cos sin a
= A sin
= cos
<7
g cos _T sin
\
g sin .fiT.
'
A'
cos
C'
/*/
sin
C',
6r,
cos if',
Ji'
K cos Oy
Jf
x,
2,
cos
sin if',
and we get
A'
cos:' cos (If'
#)
A'
cos
JT
(?)
C'
sin
= J cos<5cos(
= J cos sin (a
= ^ sin ^ sin
d
A' sin C'
from which to determine
If
we
represent by
between the actual
6?)
<5
and h f
f
,
j
+ $rcos.K;
(97)
),
jfiT,
the angle at the third place of the earth
<p'
and third places of the comet
first
in space,
we
obtain
cos <p'= cos
C'
cos
or
cos
and
this
if
<p'
H' cos <5" cos a"f
= cos
cos
sin H' cos
cos d" cos (a"
C'
we put
= sin
sin/
cos/=
<$"
if') f sin
sin a"f sin
C'
sin
<5"
C'
sin d",
(98)
<S",
cos 5" cos (a"
JT)
becomes
cos^'^e
Then we
shall
x2
x'
which A"
is
cos
C'/).
(99)
have
or
in
C'
A'
( J"
2
f J"
h'
2tf J" cos ?'
cos ?') f
A'
sin
?',
(100)
the distance of the comet from the earth correspond
ing to the last observation.
We
have, also, from equations (44) and
(45),
=(J
r2
r"
= (A"
J5COS4)
R"
cos 4/')
14
fffsin
2
+ ^"
*,
2
sin 4",
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
210
in
which
the time
values,
the angle at the earth between the sun and comet at
and i//' the same angle at the time t". To find their
4> is
t,
we have
cos
cos
= cos D cos 8 cos (a
^
4,"=
which may be
cos Z>" cos
A)
cos (a"
<*"
further reduced
still
sin
f
4")
D sin
5,
+ sin D" sin
d",
by the introduction of auxiliary
angles as in the case of equation (98).
Let us now put
= C,
=
Rsm) B,
R" sin *" = B",
h sin
and we
shall
h cos
<p'
e,
(103)
b,
R" cos 4" = V,
= l/( J
These equations, together with
successive trials
We may,
have
r
by
<f
R cos * =
when A
is
6)
(104)
(56), will enable us to
determine
A"
given.
assume an approximate value of A" by means
of the approximate elements known, and find r" from the last of
these equations, the value of r having been already found from the
therefore,
assumed value of
A.
Then K
is
Vi
fj.
obtained from the equation
2r^_
fJ,
being found by means of Table XI., and a second approximation
to the value of
A" from
A"
T/x 2
C\
(105)
The approximate elements will give A" near enough to show whether
the upper or lower sign must be used.
With the value of A" thus
found we recompute T" and K as before, and in a similar manner find
a
still
closer
approximation to the correct value of A".
few
trials
will generally give the correct result.
When A" has thus been determined, the heliocentric places are
found by means of the formulae
r cos b cos
(I
r cos b sin (I
r sinb
A)
A)
= A cos S cos (a A) R cos D,
= A cos sin (a A),
=A
R sinZ);
d
sin<5
(106)
VARIATION OF THE GEOCENTRIC DISTANCE.
r" cos
= A" cos d" cos (a"  A")
A") = A" cos 8" sin (a"
4"),
= J" sin
J" sin
W cos (Z"
r" cos 6" sin
A"')
(r
r" sin 6"
<5"
R"
211
cos D",
(107)
IX',
which 6, 6", , J" are the heliocentric spherical coordinates reThe values of r and
ferred to the equator as the fundamental plane.
r" found from these equations must agree with those obtained from
in
(104).
The elements of
the orbit
may now be determined by means
of the
equations (75), (77), and (81), in connection with Tables VI. and
VIII., as already explained. The elements thus derived will be referred to the equator, or to a plane passing through the centre of the
sun and parallel to the earth's equator, and they may be transformed
into those for the ecliptic as the
fundamental plane by means of the
equations (109)^
we compute the place of the comet
and compare it with the corresponding observed place,
and if we denote the computed right ascension and declination by a '
and d respectively, we shall have
75.
With
for the time
the resulting elements
r
and d denote the differences between computation and
Next we assume a second value of J, which we repreobservation.
sent by A
dAj and compute the corresponding system of elements.
Then we have
in
which
a!
a'
"=*',
+f=8
t',
ff
a and d" denoting the differences between computation and observation for the second system of elements.
also compute a third
We
d J, and denote the differsystem of elements with the distance J
ences between computation and observation by a and d; then we shall
have
*J),
and similarly for d d and d
represented by the expression
f
a'=/(J),
rf
.
a"
If these three numbers are exactly
x is the general value of the argument, since the values
which A
and
a"
will be such that the third differences may be nega/,
this
formula
lected,
may be assumed to express exactly any value of
in
of a,
the function corresponding to a value of the argument not differing
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
212
much from
sumed
and J
= dA and
+ d A,
the as
+ &4
being so taken that the correct
dA, J,
limits or very nearly so.
these
within
either
be
shall
value of
To
J, or within the limits
values
and
find the coefficients m, n,
f
o,
we have
m = a',
a,
f
f o
= a",
whence
may be
middle place
have
right ascension, we must
Now,
in order that the
from which we
exactly represented in
find
l.
^=
or
In the same manner, the condition that the middle place
shall be
exactly represented in declination, gives
In order that the orbit shall exactly represent the middle place, both
conditions must be satisfied simultaneously; but it will rarely happen
that this can be effected, and the correct value of x must be found
from those obtained by the separate conditions. The arithmetical
mean of the two values of x will not make the sum of the squares
of the residuals a minimum, and, therefore, give the most probable
f
value, unless the variation of cos d AO/, for a given increment asf
But if we denote the value
signed to J, is the same as that of &d
.
which AO'
in
= 0,
which n
reduced to zero by x', and that* for
by x", the most probable value of x will be
of x for which the error in
\(a"
a)
and n
is
= \(d"
It should be observed
d).
that, in order that the differences in right ascension
shall have equal influence in
the value
determining
of a,
a',
and a" must be multiplied by cos 8
most conveniently expressed in units of the
logarithms employed.
'.
last
and declination
of
x,
the values
The value of d A
is
decimal place of the
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
If the elements are already
known
so approximately that the first
from the true value that the
of the residuals may be neglected, two assumptions
assumed value of A
second differences
213
differs so little
in regard to the value of
and hence
m=a
will suffice.
= a"
Then we
shall
have o
= 0,
a'.
The
condition that the middle place shall be exactly represented,
gives the two equations
(a"')s
+ a'aj = o,
'
(d"
d'}x
The combination of
these equations according to the method of least
squares will give the most probable value of x, namely, that for
which the sum of the squares of the residuals will be a minimum.
Having thus determined the most probable value of x, a final
system of elements computed with the geocentric distance A \ x,
corresponding to the time t, will represent the extreme places exactly,
and will give the
least residuals in the middle place consistent with
the supposition of parabolic motion.
It is further evident that we
number
of
use
intermediate
may
any
places to correct the assumed
value of J, each of which will furnish two equations of condition
for the determination of x, and thus the elements may be found
which will represent a
76.
EXAMPLE.
series of observations.
The
formulae thus derived for the correction of
approximate parabolic elements by varying the geocentric distance,
are applicable to the case of any fundamental plane, provided that
a, d, A, D, &c. have the same signification with respect to this plane
that they have in reference to the equator.
To illustrate their
numerical application, let us take the following normal places of
Comet of 1858, which were derived by comparing an
with
several observations made during a few days before
ephemeris
and after the date of each normal, and finding the mean difference
the Great
between computation and observation
Washington M. T.
1858 June 11.0
July 13.0
Aug. 14.0
THEOKETICAL ASTRONOMY.
214
We
fundamental plane, and condeclinations
into longitudes and
and
ascensions
these
right
verting
and
mean
the
to
and
equinox of 1858.0,
ecliptic
latitudes,
reducing
shall take the ecliptic for the
the times of observation being expressed in days from the beginning
of the year, we get
t
if
t"
= 162.0,
= 194.0,
= 226.0,
From
= 135
A"
=+ 9
= 12
p" = f 18
51' 44".2,
137
39 41
= 142
.2.,
51 31
.8,
A'
the American Nautical
6'
/9
Almanac we
57". 8,
55
.0,
36 28
.7.
/?'
obtain, for the true places
of the sun,
0'
=110
80
24' 32".4,
55 51
0" = 141
33
.2,
2.0,
logR =0.006774,
logE' =0.007101,
log
= 0.005405,
#'
the longitudes being referred to the mean equinox 1858.0.
When the ecliptic is the fundamental plane, we have, neglecting
the sun's latitude,
0, and we must write \ and ft in place of a
and d, and
in place of A, in the equations which have been derived
D=
fundamental plane.
for the equator as the
g cos
^ sin
cos
O) = R" cos (0"
0) = R" sin (0"
= cos p cos
cos 4"
0),
(A
we have
Therefore,
Q)
Q)
R,
;
= cos p" cos (A"
from which to find G,
unchanged
we
g, b, B, b"', and B", all of which
in the successive trials with assumed values of J.
remain
Thus
obtain
G = 201 T
= 9.925092,
log B" = 9.510309,
57".4,
log
log? = 0.013500,
b"
= + 0.568719,
= f 0.959342.
Then we assume, by means of approximate elements
known,
= 0.397800,
G) = J cos cos
G} = A cos sin
h'
cos
C'
cos
(H'
# cos C' sin (H'
find
J' =
H',
153
already
log J
and from
we
0")
',
and
li'.
46' 20".5,
ft
(A
G) f
ft
(A
G),
#,
These give
}
24' 16".4,
log
tf
= 0.487484.
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
Next, from
cos
f
Ji
we
cos
<p'
= cos
log
cos (A"
/3"
H') f
h' sin
c,
59'
get
cos
C'
C= 9.912519,
sin
C'
sin/5",
=
= 4 2.961673
$p'
215
(7,
and from
r
we
= i/
(J
find
log r
by
2
,
= 0.323446.
Then we have
A"
=c
T/x 2
<7
2
,
(r
from which to find J /r , r /r and
mate elements, we assume
x.
log J"
which gives log r"
3
With
1/r
log p.
= 0.310000,
we have
= 0.002706,
log x
= 0.090511.
K we obtain from the expression
lower sign being used, since
A"
log J"
+ r"
by means of the approxi
First,
0.053000, and hence
= 0.3783,
this value of
+ *")*'
is less
than
for J", the
c,
= 0.309717.
s
Repeating the calculation of r", p, and
the result
is
log A"
= 309717
and
and then finding J" again,
= 0.309647.
Then, by means of the formula
Thus we have,
Jt,
(67),
we may
310000
283,
a'
= 309647
for the correction to the last result for log
Therefore,
log J"
By means
find the correct value.
in units of the sixth decimal place,
of this value
log r"
we
309717
A" we have
= 0.309624.
get
= 0.052350,
log *
= 0.090628,
 70,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
216
and
K gives,
this value of
= 0.309623,
log J"
The
and
= 159
=
144:
(72), writing
= 0.052348.
comet are now found from the equaand A" cos/9" for p and p",
cos/3
Thus we obtain
respectively.
I"
log r"
heliocentric places of the
tions (71)
finally,
43' 14".2,
17 47
b"
.8,
The agreement of
= + 10
= + 35
50' 14".0,
logr
14 28
logr"
.7,
= 0.323447,
= 0.052347.
and r" with those already
these results for r
Since the helioobtained, proves the accuracy of the calculation.
centric longitudes are diminishing, the motion is retrograde.
Then from
(74)
we
get
= 165
17' 30".3,
= 63
6'
32".5
and from
tan(J
tan u
ft)
we
obtain
= 12
the values of
motion
is
tan u"
cos
tan<7"
u"
ft
= 40
18' 51".2,
being in the same quadrant when the
0.090630,
(79) gives log K
The equation
retrograde.
ft)
r^4
cos
10' 12".6,
w and
which agrees with the value already found.
The
formulae (81) give
= 129
6'
46".3,
log q
= 9.760326,
and hence we have
v
=u
at
116
56' 33".7,
from which we get
From
log
these elements
/ = 0.212844,
we
v'
tan (?
I'
= 154
88
47' 55".l,
u'
= 21
59' 12".3,
find
=
Q) =
tan
get
<o
T= 1858 Sept. 29.4274.
and from
we
= u"
v"
107
V=
56' 33".4,
7'
cos
34".0,
tan
tan
u',
sin (f
V=
+ 19
ft),
30' 22".l.
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
By means
O' and R' we
of these and the values of
A'
= 137
',
f= + 12
39' 13".3,
and comparing these
results
217
obtain
54' 45".3,
with observation, we have, for the error
of the middle place,
cos
/?'
A/'
O.
C.
27".2,
A/5'
23".7.
From
the relative positions of the sun, earth, and comet at the
easily seen that, in order to diminish these residuals, the
distance
must be increased, and therefore we assume, for
geocentric
time t"
it is
a second value of J,
log J
==?
0.398500,
from which we derive
H' = 153
= f 7 24' 26".l,
= 0.472115,
logr" = 0.054824,
44' 57".6,
:'
C= 9.912587,
log
log J"
= 0.311054,
Then we
= 159
40' 33".8,
= + 10
17 12.1,
6"
=+35
and from
h'
find the heliocentric places
r =144
= 0.488026,
=
0.324207,
logr
log x = 0.089922.
log
logc
50'
logr
8".6,
log r"
837.8,
= 0.324207,
= 0.054825,
these,
&
165
M=
a*
T=
v
15' 41".l,
12
10 30
= 128
.8,
54 44
.4,
1858 Sept. 29.8245,
106 55' 43".8,
ff=
A'=
= 63
49".2,
= 4Q 13 26
log q = 9.763620,
log = 0.214116,
= 21 59'
= + 19 2931.9,
^ = + 12 55 2.9.
i
2'
u"
154
5332.3,
137 3939.7,
.0,
r'
u'
0".6,
6'
Therefore, for the second assumed value of J,
C.
cos
ft AA'
==
O.
we have
^=
1".5,
6".l.
Since these residuals are very small, it will not be necessary to
a third assumption in regard to J, but we may at once derive
make
the correction to be applied to the last assumed value by means of
the equations (109).
Thus we have
a!
=_
1.5,
a"
=
d
27.2,
log J
d'
6.1,
0.000700,
d"
23.7,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
218
and, expressing d log
in units of the sixth decimal place, these
equations give
1050
4270
25.7z
17.6a;
Combining these according
105
to the
2.57
2
(2.57)
== 0.398500
log A
With
this value of log
illustrated,
0.
0.
method of
least squares,
+ 0.000106 = 0.398606.
the final elements are computed as already
is obtained
Sept. 29.88617
29' QA" Q
OO
8=165
i= 63
get
is
and the following system
T== 1858
we
+ 427 X 1.76
+ (176)'
corrected value of log
Hence the
=
=
Washington mean
time.
")
15 24
.8
Mean Equinox
1858.0.
2 14.2
= 9.764142
log q
Motion Retrograde.
If the distinction of retrograde motion is not adopted, and we regard
to 180, we shall have
i as susceptible of any value from
7T
= 294
= 116
8'12".7,
57 45
.8,
the other elements remaining the same.
The comparison of the middle place with these
gives the following residuals
C.
cos
A/I
final
elements
= f 0".2,
O.
A/9
4".3.
These errors are so small that the orbit indicated by the observed
places on which the elements are based differs very little from a
parabola.
When,
employed
instead of a single place, a series of intermediate places is
to correct the assumed value of J, it is best to adopt the
equator as the fundamental plane, since an error in
both A and /3; and, besides, incomplete observations
or d will affect
may
also be used
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
219
when
the fundamental plane is that to which the observations are
Further, the entire group of equations of condirectly referred.
dition for the determination of x, according to the formula3 (109),
must be combined by multiplying each equation by the coefficient of
x in that equation and taking the sum of all the equations thus
formed as the final equation from which to find x the observations
}
being supposed equally good.
THEOKETICAL ASTEONOMY.
220
CHAPTER
IV.
DETERMINATION, FROM THREE COMPLETE OBSERVATIONS, OF THE ELEMENTS OF
THE ORBIT OF A HEAVENLY BODY, INCLUDING THE ECCENTRICITY OR FORM OF
THE CONIC
77.
THE
SECTION.
formulae which have thus far been derived for the deter
mination of the elements of the orbit of a heavenly body by means
of observed places, do not suffice, in the form in which they have
been given, to determine an orbit entirely unknown, except in the
particular case of parabolic motion, for
becomes known. In the general case,
which one of the elements
it
is
necessary to derive at
one of the curtate distances without making any assumption as
to the form of the orbit, after which the others may be found.
But,
least
preliminary to a complete investigation of the elements of an unknown orbit by means of three complete observations of the body,
it is
necessary to provide for the corrections due to parallax and abermay be applied in as advantageous a manner as
ration, so that they
possible.
When
the elements are entirely
unknown, we cannot
correct the
observed places directly for parallax and aberration, since both of
these corrections require a knowledge of the distance of the body
from the
earth.
But
in the case of the aberration
correct the time of observation for the time in
we may
either
which the light from
the body reaches the earth, or we may consider the observed place
corrected for the actual aberration due to the combined motion of the
earth and of light as the true place at the instant when the
light left
the planet or comet, but as seen from the
place which the earth occuWhen the distance is unknown,
pies at the time of the observation.
the latter method must evidently be
adopted, according to which we
apply to the observed apparent longitude and latitude the actual
aberration of the fixed stars, and
regard this place as corresponding
to the time of observation corrected for the time of
aberration, to be
effected when the distances shall have been
but
found,
using for the
It
place of the earth that corresponding to the time of observation.
will appear, therefore, that
that
of
the
of
the
calculation
only
part
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
221
elements which involves the times of observation will have to be repeated after the corresponding distances of the body from the earth
have been found. First, then, by means of the apparent obliquity of
and declination
Let A and
denote
the
observed
and
latitude;
/9
respectively,
apparent longitude
and let O be the true longitude of the sun, 2' its latitude, and jR
its distance from the earth,
corresponding to the time of observation.
Then, if A and ft denote the longitude and latitude of the planet or
comet corrected for the actual aberration of the fixed stars, we shall
have
the ecliptic, the observed apparent right ascension
must be converted
into apparent longitude
and
latitude.
/?
/?
= + 20".445 cos
= 20".445 sin
(A
(A
sec/5
sin
ft
+ 0".343 cos (A
0".343 sin
281)
281)
(A
sec/9,
m
^
sin
/5.
In computing the numerical values of these corrections, it will be
and /? instead of A and ft in the second
members of these equations, and the last terms may, in most cases,
be neglected.
The values of A and ft thus derived give the true place
of the body at the time t
497 78^/, but as seen from the place of
sufficiently accurate to use X
the earth at the time
t.
When
the distance of the planet or comet is unknown, it is impossible to reduce the observed place to the centre of the earth ; but if
we
conceive a line to be
drawn from the body through the
true place
of observation, it is evident that were an observer at the point of
intersection of this line with the plane of the ecliptic, or at any point
in the line, the body would be seen in the same direction as from the
actual place of observation.
Hence, instead of applying any correction for parallax directly to the observed apparent place, we may
conceive the place of the observer to be changed from the actual place
to this point of intersection
with the
ecliptic,
and, therefore,
it
be
comes necessary to determine the position of this point by means of
the data furnished by observation.
Let d be the sidereal time corresponding to the time
of obser
vation, <p the geocentric latitude of the place of observation, and ,o
the radius of the earth at the place of observation, expressed in parts
of the equatorial radius as unity.
Then $ is the right ascension and
f
<f>
the declination of the zenith at the time
t .
Q
Let
1
Q
and b Q denote
these quantities converted into longitude and latitude, or the longitude
and latitude of the geocentric zenith at the time t
The rectangular
coordinates of the place of observation referred to the centre of the
.
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
222
and expressed
earth
in parts of the
mean
distance of the earth from
the sun as the unit, will be
XQ
y
= p sin = sin
= PQ sin
/>
TT
cos b cos lw
cos b Q sin
sin b Q ,
TT
8".57116.
which nQ
Let J be the distance of the planet or comet from the true place
of the observer, and J, its distance from the point in the ecliptic to
in
which the observation
is
Then
to be reduced.
will the coordinates
of the place of observation, referred to this point in the ecliptic, be
= (J,
= (A
s,
y,
s,=
(J,
/5
cos
A,
/?
sin
A,
cos
cos
) sin/*,
the axis of x being directed to the vernal equinox.
Let us now
the
of
the
sun
as
seen
from
the
designate by
longitude
point of
reference in the ecliptic, and by
its distance from this
point. Then
will the heliocentric coordinates of this point be
X=
The
It cos
Q,
heliocentric coordinates of the centre of the earth are
X=
But the
cos
T
cos
heliocentric coordinates of the true place of observation
will be
X+xn
X + xm
or
and, consequently,
R cos O
It sin O
If
is
 (J
J
^
( J,
,
we suppose
tude
( A,
we
shall
Y+yn
Z+z,,
F+y
+Z
have
cos
/5
cos A
cos
/3
sin A
sin
/3
= R cos S cos O
= R cos 2 sin O
= ^ sin
Q
/o sin ^o cos b cos
P sin
2'
 Po sin
TT
TT
cos b sin 4,
sin b
.
the axis of x to be directed to the
point whose longi
these
become
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
(Q
J? cos
( J,
E sin (O
(4
o)
4)
cos (A
cos
Z9
cos
cos
f>
Q
^ sin
(4
R and O may
from which
)
TT
= ^o sin 2
4>) sin
sin  cos b Q cos (7
sin (A
/9
223
),
)>
(2)
cos 6 sin (J
Po sin ^o sin *
==
>
Let us now put
be determined.
D;
then, since
TT
reduced to
Jf
O,
and
R = D cos (A
GO) = D sin (A
= D tan
R (O
are small, these equations
O
O
^oft cos 6 cos (7
TO JO cos 6 sin
/S
Hence we
shall have, if
TT
and
(3)
2"
TT
Po sin 6
O ) + R
Q
(7
+ .R
may be
>
8 ),
2V
are expressed in seconds of arc,
000
206264.8
^+
p = p
_i_
n nna
Z><
W T
/^ >
(AQ
)206264.8 D sin (A
r;
KQ p Q w$b Q cQ$(lQ
"
Q

'
206264.8
TT
O ,0,
cos b sin (^
T>
)
>
from which we may derive the values of Q and
which are to be
used throughout the calculation of the elements as the longitude and
distance of the sun, instead of the corresponding places referred to
the centre of the earth.
The point of reference being in the plane
of the ecliptic, the latitude of the sun as seen from this point is zero,
simplifies some of the equations of the problem, since, if the
observations had been reduced to the centre of the earth, the sun's
which
would be retained.
may remark that the body would not be
latitude
We
seen, at the instant
of observation, from the point of reference in the direction actually
to be determined by the
observed, but at a time different from
,
interval
which
required for the light to pass over the distance
Consequently we ought to add to the time of observation
is
the quantity
( J,
which
the
497'.78
= 497'.78 D sec
ft
(5;
called the reduction of the time ; but unless the latitude of
body should be very small, this correction will be insensible.
is
The value of
A derived
from equations
(1)
and the longitude
THEOKETICAL ASTEONOMY.
224
derived from (4) should be reduced by applying the correction for
nutation to the mean equinox of the date, and then both these and
should be reduced by applying the correction for prethe latitude
/9
cession to the ecliptic
and mean equinox of a fixed epoch,
for
which
usually chosen.
the beginning of the year is
In this way each observed apparent longitude and latitude is to be
corrected for the aberration of the fixed stars, and the corresponding
to the point in which the line drawn from
places of the sun, referred
the body through the place of observation on the earth's surface intersects the plane of the ecliptic, are derived from the equations (4).
Then
the places of the sun and of the planet or comet are reduced
and mean equinox of a fixed date, and the results thus
to the ecliptic
obtained, together with the times of observation, furnish the data for
the determination of the elements of the orbit.
When
the
distance of the
body corresponding
to
each of the
observations shall have been determined, the times of observation
may be corrected for the time of aberration. This correction is
necessary, since the adopted places of the
body are the true places
when
the light was emitted, corresponding respectively
to the times of observation diminished by the time of aberration,
for the instant
but as seen from the places of the earth at the actual times of
observation, respectively.
When [3 0, the equations (4) cannot be applied, and when the
latitude is so small that the reduction of the time and the correction
to be applied to the place of the sun are of considerable magnitude,
it will be advisable, if more suitable observations are not available,
to neglect the correction for parallax and derive the elements, using
the unconnected places.
The distances of the body from the earth
which may then be derived, will enable us to apply the correction
for
parallax directly to the observed places of the body.
When the approximate distances of the body from the earth are
already known, and
orbit
it
is
required to derive
new elements of
the
from given observed places or from normal places derived from
observations, the observations may be corrected directly for
parallax, and the times corrected for the time of aberration.
shall then have the true
places of the body as seen from the centre
of the earth, and if these places are
adopted, it will be necessary, for
the most accurate solution
to
retain the latitude of the sun
possible,
many
We
which may be required. But since some of these
formulae acquire greater
simplicity when the sun's latitude is not
in
this
introduced, if,
case, we reduce the geocentric places to the
in the formula?
DETERMINATION OF AN OKBIT.
225
from the centre of the earth
sun
the
latitude
be
and
the
will
distance
will remain unchanged,
zero,
point in which a perpendicular let
fall
to the plane of the ecliptic cuts that plane, the longitude of the
will also be unchanged, since the greatest geocentric latitude of the
f
Then the longitude of the planet or comet
sun does not exceed
as seen
from
be the same as seen from
this point in the ecliptic will
the centre of the earth, and if J, is the distance of the body from
this point of reference, and /9, its latitude as seen from this point, we
have
shall
A cos
/?,
J, sin
ft,
from which we
= A cos
= A sin
ft,
ft
easily derive the correction
sin
/?,
2Q
/9,
or
A/9,
to be applied
Thus, we find
to the geocentric latitude.
(6)
This correction having been applied
sun becomes
being expressed in seconds.
to the geocentric latitude, the latitude of the
2=0.
The
correction to be applied to the time of observation (already
diminished by the time of aberration) due to the distance J,
J
will be absolutely insensible, its maximum value not exceeding
It should be
.002.
remarked
also that before applying the equa
tion (6), the latitude
should be reduced to the fixed ecliptic which
Q
it is desired to
for
the definition of the elements which deteradopt
mine the position of the plane of the
When
78.
orbit.
these preliminary corrections have been applied to the
we
are prepared to proceed with the calculation of the elements
of the orbit, the necessary formulae for which we shall now investidata,
this purpose, let us resume the equations (6) 3 ; and, if we
the
first of these equations by tan /9 sin A"
tan ft" sin A,
multiply
the second by tan/3" cos A
and
the
third
cos
A",
tan/9
by sin (X
A"),
and add the products, we shall have
gate.
For
= nR (tan
 p' (tan
 R'
ft
ft"
0)
sin (X
sin (A"
(tan ft" sin (A
f ri'R" (tan ft" sin (A
tan
tan
A')
ft'
tan
')
0")
It should be observed that
when
ft
sin (A"
sin (A"
ft
0))
A) f
sin (A"
tan
ft
sin (A"
tan
ft"
sin
(A'
0")).
the correction for parallax
15
A))
Q'))
is
applied
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
226
is the projection, on the plane of the
of
the
of
the
distance
body from the point of reference to
ecliptic,
been
reduced.
has
the
observation
which
to the place of the .sun,
the longitude of the ascending node,
Let us now designate by
and by I the inclination to the ecliptic, of a great circle passing
through the first and third observed places of the body, and we have
tan p
= sin
= sin (A"
K) tan J,
(A
tan 0"
Introducing these values of tan
ft
JT)tanJ.
and tan ft" into the equation
(7),
since
sin (A
O)
K)
sin (A"
Q)
sin (A"
K)
sin (A
sin
sin
(A'
X) sin (A"
K)
+ sin (X"
A')
sin (A
=
A)sin(O
(A"
JT)
+ sin (A"
sin (A
O') sin
sin (A
O")
(A"
sin (A"
K)
sin (A"
Q')
K)
sin (A"
Q")
JT) =
sin (A
 sin (A"
K)
sin (A
sin (A"
we
obtain,
by dividing through by
sin (X"
X)
A) sin
A) sin
A) sin
tan
(X
K\
K)
('
7T),
(Q"
K\
7,
= nR sin (Q K} f P (sin
K) tan p cot J)
 R sin (Q'
JT) + n"R" sin (O"
#>
'
(A'
Let
denote the latitude of that point of the
great circle passing
through the first and third places which corresponds to the longitude
A', then
ft
= sin
tan ft
and the
(A'
coefficient of p' in
equation (9)
sin (ft
cos ft cos p'
Therefore, if
shall
_Z,
becomes
/?)
tan/
we put
a
we
JT) tan
have
sin
(f ft)
'^tanT'
,
This formula will
give the value of p', or of A', when the values of
?i" have been
determined, since a and ./Tare derived from the
n and
data furnished
by observation.
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
To
find
K and
7,
we
obtain from equations (8) by a transformation
by which the equations (75) 3 were derived,
precisely similar to that
tan/sin (
K r +  g) =
A)
+ A)  JT) =
tan 7cos (i (A"
227
+^,
sec

(/'.),
cosec J (A"
A).
We
and / from the equations which may be
may also compute
derived from (74) 3 and (76) 3 by making the necessary changes in the
notation, and using only the upper sign, since / is to be taken always
less
than 90.
Before proceeding further with the discussion of equation (11), let
us derive expressions for p and p" in terms of //, the signification of
p and p", when the corrections
for parallax are applied to the places
of the sun, being as already noticed in the case of p'.
79. If we multiply the first of equations (6) 3 by sin
the second by
cos
tan/3", and the third by sin(/"
add the products, we get
0"
0"
Q=nP (tan ft' sin ("
(tan &' sin
p'
tan /? sin
X)
(O"
tan/9",
0"), and
(0" A")) wtan/8"sin (0" 0)
(0" *"))+# tan/5" sin (Q" 00,
tan p sin
A')
(13)
which may be written
0=n^(tan/9sin(r
+P
(tan
/5"
sin
0")
tan/3" sin (A
")
(A'
j/Oan/S'
tan
0")
ft) sin (A"
Introducing into this the values of tan
of I and K, and reducing, the result is
==
npsm (A"
A) sin (
/o' sin (A"
+ E'
Therefore
10
^/
n
we
s jn(A"
sin (A"
"))
+ #tan,9"sin(0"
tan
and tan /9
/9",
sin (A"
Q " K) nE sin " Q " K) p'a, sec jf sin (A"
"}
(
A') sin (
"
sin (0
')
sin (A"
0').
in terms
IT)
K).
obtain
A')
A)
sec/S'
+ sin (A"
A)
sin (A"
K)
"
(Q"
wJRsin(0"
JT)
E'sm("O )nJRsin(O"Q)
f
sin (A"
But, by means of the equations (9) 3 ,
0')
sin(^
sin
jR'sin(O"
/9,
0)
wJStan"sin(0"
0"))
tan ft sin (A"
we
0)
A) sin
(Q"
K)
derive
= (N
n*)
K m(Q"
S
0),
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
228
and the preceding equation reduces
_//sin(r
P ~~
n
+ sina^ecF
A)
(A"
AQ
sin (A"
A)
N\ R
+V
sin (^
0=71 Y' (tan/? sin (A"
K) }
(0"
0) sin (A"
K)
7
A) sin (O
K)
sin
p"
in terms of
tan
tan /5" sin
(A
n"#"tan/5sin("
(O' O).
))
(15)
0))jjR'tan /5sin
tan/S'sin (A
and
and tan /9" in terms of
,
and reducing precisely as in the case of the formula already found
Introducing the values of tan
/,
for p,
. .,
'
sin (A"
P (tan /5 sin (A'
if we multiply the
,
second
cos
tan /9,
the
/?,
by
add
shall
have
and
the
we
products,
O),
obtain an expression for
of equations (6) 3 by sin
and the third by
Q")
sin(A"
'
(0"
sin
~n)
To
first
to
_~
we
p'
sin (A'
a sec ft
A)
Q)
sin (A
'
Let us now put,
A)
for brevity,
K)
K'amW
sin(O
K) }
N"\R'sm(&' Q)sin(A
n" ) sin (A"
K}
A)sin(0
~~sin(A"
A)
/9
obtain
^IsinCA"
?t
o
tan
/9,
K)
sec^
^ ~~ sin
(A"
KB" sm(Q"
a sin (A"
A)'
Q)
A)
Q^)
,
_ sin
(A'
A)
/;
"~sm(A
7i
and the equations
sin (A"
/5'
A sin (A
and
Q)
JT)
(11), (14),
p' sec
_ J .RsinCA
A)
(16)
become
+ w6 + ri'd,
(18)
n
If n and
sufficient to
TI" are
known, these equations
and p".
/>, p
determine
will, in
most
cases,
be
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
229
80. It will be apparent, from a consideration of the equations
ff
for p, p', and p , that under certain circumstances they are inapplicable in the form in which they have been
which have been derived
given, and that in
some
become indeterminate.
cases they
When
the
through the first and third observed places of the
also
0, and
body passes
through the second place, we have a
equation (11) reduces to
great circle passing
n"R"
sin
K)
(0"
+ nR sin
J5Q
= K sin (0'
K).
n" to n is known, this equation will determine the
and from these the radiusvector r f for the
themselves,
quantities
middle place may be found. But if the great circle which thus
passes through the three observed places passes also through the
If the ratio of
second place of the sun,
we
shall
have
',
or
K= 180
f O',
and hence
nR sin('
00
n"R" sin(O"
0,
or
tf_
__
Rsm(Q
n ~~S" sin
from which
0)
("
')'
appears that the solution of the problem
it
case impossible.
If the
/9
/9",
in this
is
first and third observed places coincide, we have A
X" and
and each term of equation (7) reduces to zero, so that the
problem becomes
absolutely indeterminate.
Consequently, if the
data are nearly such as to render the solution impossible, according
to the conditions of these two cases of indetermination, the elements
which may be derived will be greatly affected by errors of observation.
however, X
If,
possible to derive
/>',
X/
equal to X" and /9 differs from /9, it will be
and hence p and p" ; but the formulae which
is
have been given require some modification in
Thus, when A
>*", we have
i,
K=X' =
and hence
as determined
by
(9),
and when
r/
,
= sin p cot I
it
cos
,5'
cos j? sin
=90,
Still,
in
original
is
sin
(A'
becomes simply
a
/?
by recurring to the
a sec/?', gives
the coefficient of p', which
aQ
and
equation (10), becomes
this case it is not indeterminate, since,
equation
this particular case.
1= 90,
(A'
K).
K\
(19)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
230
A is very small compared
Whenever, therefore, the difference X"
be
a
should
in
the
motion
with
computed by means of the
latitude,
the
of
means
or
expression which is obtained
by
equation (19)
; = A =
When
coefficient of
from the
directly
;/
in equation (7).
the values of
JBT,
lt
If/',
2,
M"
and
cannot
we
be found by means of the equations (17); but
1
form of the expressions for p and p" in terms of p as given by
equations (13) and (15), without introducing the auxiliary angles,
use the original
if
we
P
have
shall
~_/n
tan jf sin (X'
tan
sin (A"
ft
tan
fL
10
ft
"
sin (X
A"
tan/? sin (A"
0)
jRtan/5"sin(0"
tan
0)
0)
'
n"
Q")
0")
(A'
tan p' sin (A
__N_\
tan ft" sin
Q")
0")
'
tan
/5'
tan
ft"
tan
0")
sin (A"
ft
sin (A
ft"
0")'
0)
0)
sin (A
sin (A
'
J\T"\
__
_
"
f
n"
Hence
tan
_ tan p sin (A"
~~
1
tan
tan
,,
"
tan
/Ll
" "
sin
ft
ft"
sin
tan
ft"
ft
sin (A"
tan
ft"
(A
)'
0")
'
")
0)
sin (A
'
__
sin (A
J?"tan/3sm(0"0)
tan
(A'
tan p" sin (A
tan ft' sin (A
.Rtan/S"sin(0"
tan ft"
")
sin (A"
tan p' sin
tan
0)
0)
(A'
sin (A"
.,
tan
M _
ft
ft
sin (A"
0")
0")
sin (A"
ft
/?
")'
sin (A
'
" which must be used
are the expressions for
and
19 M^',
2,
2
when A A" or when A is very nearly equal to A /r ; and then p and p tf
will be obtained from equations (18).
These expressions will also be
used
when
/r
= 180, this being an analogous case.
When the great circle passing through the first and third observed
places of the body also passes through the first or the third place of
the sun, the last two of the equations (18) become indeterminate, and
other formula? must be derived.
tions (7) 3
If
we multiply
by tan/9" and the fourth by
sin(A'
the second of equa0'), and add the
products, then multiply the second of these equations by tan
r
the fourth by
sin (A
and add, and finally reduce by
),
of the relation
NR sin ('
we
get
= N"R" sin (0"
'),
and
means
/9
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
=
~ PL
ff
tan
ft
sin
tan
ft"
sin (A
(A'
tan ft' sin (A"
')
0')
'
tan
Q')
"
sin (A"
ft
R"
^"\
')
tan 0" sin
tan/3" sin (A
,,__i^_
,
.
231
tan
/5'
tan
/S"
sin (A
Q')
tan
ft
sin
sin (A
tan
/3
sin (A"
"
0')
0')'
Q')
O')
(/'
'
n"
(0"
tan ft sin (A"
0')
'O)
N") tan/5" sin (A
tan/3 sin (A"
')
')
These equations are convenient for determining p and //' from p' ;
but they become indeterminate when the great circle passing through
the extreme places of the body also passes through the second place
Therefore they will generally be inapplicable for the
of the sun.
cases in
If
we
we
get
which the equations (18) fail.
eliminate p" from the first and second of the equations
= np sin (A"
+ B sin (A"
nE sin (A"
A)
OO
(6) 3
Q)
p sin (A"
A')
ri'R sin
0"),
(A"
from which we derive
p
_./ sin(A"AO
n' sin (A" A)
nR sin (A"
Q)
R sin (A"  .0') f n"R" sin
n
sin (A"
Eliminating p between the same equations, the result
P
~/
?7'
A)
"sin (A" A)
nE sin (A
(A"
Q ")
(A
Q")
A)
is
sin (/
0)
0') f n"E" sin
sin (A
n" sin (A"
A)
These formulae will enable us to determine p and p" from p f in the
special cases in which the equations (18) and (21) are inapplicable;
but, since they do not involve the third of equations (6) 3 , they are
not so well adapted to a complete solution of the problem as the
formulae previously given whenever these may be applied.
If we eliminate successively p" and p between the first and fourth
of the equations (7) 3 ,
p
=
~
tan
_
cos
/?"
tan
ft"
(A'
cos (A
we
get
')
tan
? cos (A"
0')
tan
ft
ten^ ^cos(0'
n
tan
tan
/5"
cos (A
cos (A"
0)
QQ
0')
# + n"jR"cos(0"
')
tan
/3
cos (A"
0')
O')
tan ft cos (A'
0')
0')
tan Jcos (A"
')
0')
nE
cos (0"
cos (0'
00
R'+ri'R"
0)
_tan/3
7
"n"
tan ft cos (A"
tan? cos"(A
0')
0')
tan
ft'
cos (A
ft"
cos (A
'
'
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
232
which may also be used to determine p and p" when the equations
When the motion in latitude is
be applied.
(18) and (21) cannot
these equations are to be preferred instead
greater than in longitude,
of (22) and (23.)
would appear
81. It
at
volved in the formula
to find
n and n" by
without examining the quantities in
first,
for p', that the equations (26) 3 will enable us
successive approximations, assuming
= Tr
n"
first
that
r
f
and from the resulting value of p determining r and then carrying
ff
the approximation to the values of n and n one step farther, so as
y
to include terms of the second order
(10),
we
if we consider the equation
a very small quantity depending on the
and therefore on the deviation of the observed
observe that aQ
difference
/9
/?'
with reference to the intervals
Bat
of time between the observations.
is
path of the body from the arc of a great
in the denominator of terms containing
and, as this appears
circle,
n and n" in the equation
it becomes necessary to determine to what degree of approxi(11),
mation these quantities must be known in order that the resulting
value of p' may not be greatly in error.
To determine the relation of a to the intervals of time between
the observations,
aQ sec ft
We
= tan
/9
we
f
have, from the coefficient of p in equation
sin (A"
may put
/?'
sin (A"
A) f tan/S" sin (A'
= tan/S' At" + Br"
=
f AT f Br* f
A).
tan/5
tan
tan
A')
(7),
,5"
tan/S'
....,
. . . .
and hence we have
a sec /?'
(r sin
which
(A'
is
= (sin (A"
A'))
sin (A"
A) f sin (A'
A)) tan /5'
2
2
^j(r sin (A'A)+r" sin (A"A')) J5f
.,
easily transformed into
a sec p
A')
r" sin (A"
A)
= 4 sin J
(^ sin (A'A)
(A'
r" sin (A"
I
A) sin
(A"
A'))^+(^
sin
A')
(A'
If we suppose the intervals to be
small,
sin
(A"
A)+r"
we may
A)
sin
tan
also put
smA(^'A)=:l(A''A),
and
sin (A"
A)
= A"
A,
si
(A'
A)
(25)
(A"A'))+.
A'
A.
DETERMINATION OF AN OEBIT.
Further,
233
we may put
X"
X'
2
4 A'r f jB'r f .....
Substituting these values in the equation (25), neglecting terms of
the fourth order with respect to r, and reducing, we get
TT'T"
*
($A tan ft' f A'B
r
AB')
cos p.
It appears, therefore, that a is at least of the third order with
reference to the intervals of time between the observations, and that
an error of the second order in the assumed values of n and n" may
f
produce an error of the order zero in the value of p as derived from
equation (11) even under the most favorable circumstances.
Hence,
in general,
we cannot adopt
the values
=T
omitting terms of the second order, without affecting the resulting
value of p f to such an extent that it cannot be regarded even as an
approximation to the true value ; and terms of at least the second
order must be included in the
The
first
assumed values of n and n' f
equation (28) 3 gives
n
omitting the term multiplied by
with respect to the times
77,
which term
(26) 3
derive, since r'
=r
f
+
in
of the third order
and hence in
this value of ^ only
r",
"
= l + J.
(27)
which only terms of the fourth order have been neglected.
the
first
of equations (18)
sec
in which, if
(26)
and
we
(27),
may
terms
Again, from the equations
of at least the fourth order are neglected.
we
is
be written
Now
=*
introduce the values of
TL
and n
+n
tf
as given
by
only terms of the fourth order with respect to the
THEOEETICAL ASTEONOMY.
234
times will be neglected, and consequently the resulting value of p'
an error of the second order when a is of
will be affected with only
Further, if the intervals between the observations
r" 2 will be a quantity of an order superior
the third order.
2
are not very unequal, r
to r
2
,
and when these intervals are equal, we have, to terms of the
fourth order.
The equation
(27) gives
2/3 ( w
Hence,
if
__
nn
1) == TT".
we put
P
Q=
we may
adopt, for a
first
(29)
2r'
(n
+ n"
tervals are
affected
unequal
f
approximation to the value of p
P=C
and p r will be
1),
(30)
",
with an error of the
first
order
but of the second order only when
when
the in
the intervals
are equal.
It is evident, therefore, that, in the selection of the
observations for the determination of an unknown orbit, the intervals should be as nearly equal as possible, since the nearer they
approach to equality the nearer the truth will be the first assumed
values of
P and
and when a
is
is
thus facilitating the successive approximations
a very small quantity, the equality of the intervals
of the greatest importance.
From the equations (29) we get
=
P\
n" = nP;
and introducing
P and Q in
2r' /'
(31)
(28), there results
i?*
(32)
This equation involves both
p' and r' as unknown quantities, but
means
of
another
by
equation between these quantities p may be
f
eliminated, thus giving a single equation from
found, after
which p' may also be determined.
which
r'
may
be
DETERMINATION OF AN OEBIT.
235
i// represent the angle at the earth between the sun and
at the second observation, and we shall have, from
or
comet
planet
the equations (93) 3 ,
82.
Let
tan
= sm
O
tan
ft
TT,
(A
TT,
(33 )
cosw
cos 4/
= cos
ft
cos
(/'
by means of which we may determine ij/, which cannot exceed 180.
Since cos /3' is always positive, cos fy and cos (K
O ') must have the
same sign.
We also have
which may be put
r'
in the
= (p
form
K cos V) + R'
2
sec ft
sin *',
sin 4'.
from which we get
p' sec ft
f
Substituting for p sec /?'
For
VV
== R' cos*'
.R'
value given by equation (32),
its
(34)
we have
brevity, let us put
C
and we
shall
^ = R'
When
(35)
*o,
Hft^t
have
kQ
_5JPtf
OTH^P'
cos
1/r'
^sm
^.
(36)
the values of
and Q have been found, this equation will
r' in terms of
the
of
value
give
quantities derived directly from the
data furnished by observation.
shall now represent by z' the
We
angle at the planet
between the sun and earth at the time of the
second observation, and
we
shall
have
/ = ^SUH/_
smz
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
236
Substituting this value of
 R' cos
(k
and
if
r',
sin C
z'
'
n 2
+ R sin 4' cos = ^rj7>
7
4') sin
we put
rj Q
in the preceding equation, there results
oi
(38)
z'
=R
sin 4',
(39)
the condition being imposed that
have, finally,
sin
(z'
qp C)
shall always be positive,
=m
sin*
we
(40)
2'.
In order that m may be positive, the quadrant in which f is taken
f
must be such that y shall have the same sign as 1Q since sin ty is
,
always positive.
From
appears that sin z must always be positive,
and further, in the plane triangle formed by joining
equation (37)
orz'<180;
it
the actual places of the earth, sun, and planet or comet corresponding
to the middle observation, we have
sn
R sin +
f
4')
(z
sin
sin 4/
Therefore,
P=
R sin +
(z'
sin
4')
z'
4')
cos
and, since ^o' is always positive, it follows that sin
positive, or that z' cannot exceed 180
ty.
When
(z' f
must be
the planet or comet at the time of the middle observation
is
both in the node and in opposition or conjunction with the sun, we
shall have /3'
180 when the body is in opposition, and
0, 4^
'vj/
sible to
when
in conjunction.
it is
determine
r'
Consequently, it becomes imposf
z
but in this case the
by means of the angle
equation (36) gives
^=
R' + r',
when
the body is in opposition, the lower sign being excluded by the
condition that the value of the first member of the equation must be
positive,
and
for J/
= 0,
the upper sign being used
when
the sun
is
between the earth and the
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
planet,
237
and the lower sign when the planet is between the earth and
It is hardly necessary to remark that the case of an obser
the sun.
vation at the superior conjunction when /3'
0, is physically imposf
from
these
The value of r may be found
sible.
equations by trial ;
and then we shall have
when
the body
when
it is
is
in opposition,
and
in inferior conjunction with the sum.
case in which the great circle passing
For the
through the extreme
observed places of the body passes also through the middle place,
which gives a
0, let us divide equation (32) through by c, and we
have
d
p sec p
~~
c
'
2r'
The
equations (17) give
and
if
'
J
we put
b
'
we
shall
since c
+p d
l+p
c
have
co
when a
0.
Hence we derive
'^4
(42)
^0
But when the great
through the three observed places
the
second
place of the sun, both c and C bethrough
and
thus
the
solution of the problem, with the
indeterminate,
circle passing
passes also
come
given data, becomes impossible.
83.
The equation
(40)
must give four
roots corresponding to each
sign, respectively; but it may be shown that of these eight roots at
least four will, in every case, be imaginary.
Thus, the equation may
be written
sin
z'
sin
z'
cos
cos
z'
sin
C,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
238
becomes
and, by squaring and reducing, this
m
When
sin
z'
2m
5
cos C sin z
within the limits
is
\
90 and
it
sin
z'
sin C
+ 90, cos
0.
will be positive,
appears from the algebraic signs of
and,
being always positive,
the terms of the equation, according to the theory of equations, that
in this case there cannot be more than four real roots, of which three
will be positive
and f 90, cos
When
and one negative.
will be negative,
f exceeds the limits
and hence, in
90
this case also, there
cannot be more than four real roots, of which one will be positive
and three negative.
must be at least two
it
2
is real and positive, there
Further, since sin
one positive and the other negative
real roots
whether cos
be negative or positive.
We
remark
may
also
that, in finding the roots
of the equation (40),
will only be necessary to solve the equation
=m
sin (z
sin
(43)
z',
since the lower sign in (40) follows directly from this by substituting
z' in
180
place of z' and hence the roots derived from this will
comprise
all
the real roots belonging to the general form of the
equation.
The observed places of the heavenly body only give the direction
in space of right lines passing through the places of the earth and
the corresponding places of the body, and any three points, one in
each of these lines, which are situated in a plane passing through the
centre of the sun, and which are at such distances as to fulfil the
condition that the areal velocity shall be constant, according to the
relation expressed by the equation
(30) 17 must satisfy the analytical
conditions of the problem.
It is evident that the three places of the
earth may satisfy these conditions ; and hence there may be one root
of equation (43) which will correspond to the orbit of the earth, or
give
P'
Further,
it
V.
follows from the equation (37) that this root
must be
and such would be strictly the case if, instead of the assumed values
of P and
their exact values for the orbit of the earth were
adopted,
and if the observations were referred
to the centre of the
,
directly
earth, in the correction for parallax, neglecting also the perturbations
in the motion of the earth.
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
In the case of the
earth,
_'
~
and the complete values of
"
in(0" O)'
sin (0"
O)'
P and Q become
Q)
in(0'
"
239
"
O')'
sin(Q' Q) + #ff' sin(Q"
sn
and
since the
0Q
approximate values
differ but little from these, as will appear from the equations (27) 3 ,
f
there will be one root of equation (43) which gives z nearly equal
This root, however, cannot satisfy the physical conto 180
^/.
which will require that the rays of light in
the
from
planet or comet to the earth shall proceed from
coming
at a considerable distance from the eye of the
are
which
points
ditions of the problem,
f
Further, the negative values of sin z are excluded by the
r
nature of the problem, since r must be positive, or z r
180 ; and
observer.
<
of the three positive roots which may result from equation (43), that
<J/, there
being excluded which gives z' very nearly equal to 180
will remain two, of
which one will be excluded
if it gives z
greater
one
the
will
be
that which belongs
than 180
^', and
remaining
It may happen, however, that
to the orbit of the planet or comet.
neither of these two roots is greater than 180
a//, in which case
both will satisfy the physical conditions of the problem, and hence
the observations will be satisfied by two wholly different systems of
It will then be necessary to compare the elements comelements.
f
puted from each of the two values of z with other observations in
order to decide which actually belongs to the body observed.
case, in which cos f is negative, the negative roots
r
excluded
by the condition that r is positive, the positive root
being
must in most cases belong to the orbit of the earth, and the three
In the other
observations do not then belong to the same body.
However, in the
case of the orbit of a comet, when the eccentricity is large, and the
intervals between the observations are of considerable magnitude, if
THEORETICAL ASTEONOMY.
240
and Q are computed directly, by means
the approximate values of
of approximate elements already known, from the equations
r/
sin (u
u)
rV'sin^'W)'
+ rV' sin (u'  u'}
f
rr' sin
it
may
occur that cos
is
(u' u}
negative,
and the positive root
comet.
belong to the orbit of the
f
z shall be very nearly equal to 180
will actually
condition that one value of
The
requires that the adopted
and Q shall differ but little from those derived directly
values of
from the places of the earth ; and in the case of orbits of small
be fulfilled, unless the intervals
eccentricity this condition will always
i//,
between the observations and the distance of the planet from the sun
But if the eccentricity is large, the difference
are both very great.
will correspond to the orbit of the earth.
root
that
no
such
be
may
may find an expression for the limiting values of m and
within which equation (43) has four real roots, and beyond which
This change in
there are only two, one positive and one negative.
84.
We
number of
when
we proceed under
there are two equal
the supposition that
equation (43) has two equal roots, and find the values of m and f
which will accord with this supposition, we may determine the limits
the
real roots will take place
roots, and, consequently, if
required.
Differentiating equation (43) with respect to
cos (z
C)
= 4m
sin
V cos
z',
z'
we
get
f
and, in the case of equal roots, the value of z as derived from this
must also satisfy the original equation
sin
To
C) =?=
(z'
sin V.
m and f which will fulfil this condition,
between these equations, we have
find the values of
eliminate
sin
cos
(z'
C)
= 4 cos
z'
sin
(z'
if
we
C),
from which we easily find
sin (2z'
This gives the value of
C)
j sin C.
in terms of z r for
(45)
which equation
(43) has
DETERMINATION OF AN OEBIT.
241
To
equal roots, and at which it ceases to have four real roots.
we have
the corresponding expression for
_ sin (z
sin
C)
find
cos (z
sin
C)
V cos
2''
which we must use the value of f given by the preceding equation.
f
1 and f 1, the
Now, since sin (2z
f ) must be within the limits
of
sin
be
and
will
or
must
values
be within the
f
f>
f
limiting
limits f 36 52'.2 and
36 52'.2, or 143 7'.8 and 216 52'.2. If
in
not contained within these limits, the equation cannot have equal
roots, whatever may be the value of m , and hence there can only be
is
two
real roots, of
which one will be positive and one negative.
we compute z f from equation (45), and
for a given value of
this z
',
or
'
sin(2z
we may
C)
 sinC,
find the limits of the values of
(43) has four real roots.
the values
The
If
call
within which equation
f
will be satisfied by
equation for z
2<C,
 (2*; 0;
180
and hence there will be two values of m which we will denote by
and m2 for which, with a given value of
equation (43) will
have equal roots. Thus we shall have
,
4
sin z
'
and, putting in this equation 180
in place of z ',
90
(V
)
f) instead
(2zQ
of 2z
f
,
or
It follows, therefore, that for any given value of , if
is not
within the limits assigned by the values of m^ and m2 equation (43)
will only have two real roots, one positive and one negative, of
,
which the
latter is
excluded by the nature of the problem, and the
But
P and Q differ
former
earth.
so
of the orbit of the earth that
may belong to the orbit of the
much from their values in the case
is not very nearly equal to 180
36 52'.2 and
exceeds the limits
i//,
36
if
the positive root,
52 r .2,
when
may actually satisfy
the conditions of the problem, and belong to the orbit of the body
observed.
16
THEOEETICAL ASTEONOMY.
242
When
7'.8 and 216
three
and
one positive
negative, if
within the limits 143
is
be four real roots,
limits m^
two
and
but, if
52'.2, there will
is
within the
surpasses these limits, there will be only
real roots.
Table XII. contains for values of
the values of
and
2,
and
52'. 2 to
+ 36
52'.2
ml and m2
which equation (43) has three positive roots and
the value of m must be within the limits indicated
corresponding respectively to
In every
36
from
also the values of the four real roots
.
case in
one negative
root,
by m and w2 and the values of z will be within the limits indicated
by the quantities corresponding to m l and m2 for each root, which
we designate respectively by z/, z.2 zB f and /. The table will show,
from the given values of m and 180
tj/, whether the problem
admits of two distinct solutions, since, excluding the value of z ,
which is nearly equal to 180
ij/, and corresponds to the orbit of
the earth, and also that which exceeds 180, it will appear at once
whether one or both of the remaining two values of z' will satisfy
the condition that z shall be less than 180
The table will
^'.
also indicate an approximate value of z
means
of which the
by
f
equation (43) may be solved by a few trials.
For the root of the equation (43) which corresponds to the orbit
of the earth, we have p f
0, and hence from (36) we derive
Substituting this value for kQ in the general equation (32),
we have
and, since p must be positive, the algebraic sign of the numerical
f
value of 1 will indicate whether r f is greater or less than
It is
easily seen, from the formulae for lw 6, c?, &c., that in the actual
application of these formulae, the intervals between the observations
not being very large, 1Q will be positive when
ft'
ft and sin (O'
K)
have contrary signs, and negative when ft'
has
the same sign as
ft
sin
less
(O'
than
K).
Hence, when O'
is
less
than 180,
r'
must be
f
r
if /9
ft'
positive, but greater than
ft is
;
f
When
exceeds
r
than
R'
will be greater
negative.
180,
r
if /?'
is
and
less
than
R' if /9
/9
positive,
ft is negative.
may, therefore, by means of a celestial globe, determine by inspection
whether the distance of a comet from the sun is
greater or less than
if
is
We
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
243
that of the earth from the sun.
Thus, if we pass a great circle
through the two extreme observed places of the comet, r' must be
greater than R' when the place of the comet for the middle observa
on the same side of this great circle as the point of the
which
But when the
ecliptic
corresponds to the place of the sun.
middle place and the point of the ecliptic corresponding to the place
of the sun are on opposite sides of the great circle passing through
f
the first and third places of the comet, r' must be less than
tion
is
85.
P=
From
the values of o' and r f derived from the assumed values
T"
and
Q = TT", we may
evidently derive more approximate
values of these quantities, and thus, by a repetition of the calculaTo
tion, make a still closer approximation to the true value of p'.
derive other expressions for
and Q which are exact, provided that
r f and p f are accurately known, let us denote by s" the ratio of the
f
sector of the orbit included by r and r to the triangle included by
the same radiivectores and the chord joining the first and second
f
r/
places ; by s the same ratio with respect to r and r , and by s this
with respect to r f and r". These ratios s, s', s" must necessarily be greater than 1, since every part of the orbit is concave
ratio
toward the sun.
According
to the equation (30)
areas of the sectors, neglecting the
and
therefore
f
s"[rr
we
we have
for the
mass of the body,
obtain
]=r" /p,
s'
[r/']
r'
yft
[//']
= T j/p.
(46)
Then, since
_=
we
shall
have
r
= T
s'
ff
= r"
.TO
,._
s'
(47)
n)
and, consequently,
P=
Substituting for
s, s',
and s"
their values
from
'
(46),
rr"
we have
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
244
distance between the perihelion and node being denoted
the polar equation of the conic section gives
The angular
by
to,
=1
r
f
4r = 1 +
=1+
(u
e cos
(u
w),
f
(50)
>),
e cos (u"
Ijf
01).
rf
of these equations by sin (u
u'\ the second
1
add
the products
and the third by sin (u
u),
If we multiply the
first
ff
sin (u
u),
by
and reduce, we get
 sin (u"
e cos
+ 4 sin (u
u) + sin (u'
^ sin (u"
u')
sin (u"
= sin (u"
u)
w)
u)
u')
and, since
sin (u"
= 2 sin j (u"
u')
sin (u"
sin (u
u)
the second
member
we
shall
u') sin
sin
u'\
u') cos ^ (u"
+ u'
2w),

u) sin J (u'
(u"
u).
have
4rr'r" sin \ (u"
(u"
reduces to
4 sin ^ (u"
Therefore,
cos
u'')
u) = 2 sin A (u"
u') sin ^ (u"
u'^
tyi
rr
sm ( u"
u) sin J
u^
_[_
rr
u)
(u'
gm (yf
uy
If we multiply both numerator and denominator of this expression
by
2rr'r" cos J (u"
it
w') cos
r/
becomes, introducing [rr
[r'r"]
[ r/']

],
[rr
],
(u"
VL)
cos J (u
u),
and [rV r/ ],
[ rr 'j
1
'
[rV']h[rr']
[rr"]
Substituting this value of
2rrV' cos
_p
(u"tf)
86. If
derive
M)'
r"
f^l^
'
ss"
M) cos J (*'
in equation (49), it reduces to
rr"
f\
cos J (M"
rr" cos J (u"
we compare
u'} cos
(u"
11)
cos J (u
w)'
the equations (47) with the formula (28) 3 ,
we
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
Consequently, in the
first
approximation,
we may
245
take
If the intervals of the times are not very unequal, this assumption
from the truth only in terms of the third order with respect
will differ
to the time,
and in terms of the fourth order
shown.
equal, as has already been
if the intervals are
Hence, we adopt for the
first
approximation,
the values of r and r" being computed from the uncorrected times
of observation, which may be denoted by tw </> and tQ ". With the
and Q thus found, we compute r', and from this p', p,
values of
and p", by means of the formulae already derived.
The heliocentric places for the first and third observations may
now be found from the formulae (71) 3 and (72) s and then the angle
u"
u between the radiivectores r and r" may be obtained in
,
various ways, precisely as the distance between two points on the
celestial sphere is obtained from the spherical coordinates of these
points.
When u"
u has been found, we have
/
tf
sin (u
r
sin (u
from which u 1 '
results the ratios s
and
u)
//
sin (u
tt),
= n'V
sin (u"
r
(53)
u),
sum of u"
r/
u may be computed.
be
computed, and then
may
and Q. The value of u"
From
and u f
approximate values of
taking the
ft i
t~\
u)
u'
and
u'
as derived
these
new and more
from
found by
(53), should
u,
agree with that used in the second members of these equations,
within the limits of the errors which may be attributed to the
logarithmic tables.
The most advantageous method of
the radiivectores
from l n
directly
from
&
I,
and
i,
',
is
6,
obtaining the angles between
to find the position of the plane of the orbit
and b ff and then compute
,
according to the
first
u and u"
f
u,
of equations (82)^
directly
It will be
r
expedient also to compute r', V and b from p', ^', and /?', and the
agreement of the value of r', thus found, with that already obtained
from equation
(37), will
check the accuracy of part of the numerical
THEOKETICAL ASTKONOMY.
246
Further, since the three places of the body must be in
and Q are
a plane passing through the centre of the sun, whether
exact or only approximate, we must also have
calculation.
tan
and the value of
b'
= tan
b'
i sin
Q,
(f
),
derived from this equation must agree with that
computed directly from p', or at least the difference should not exceed
what may be due to the unavoidable errors of logarithmic calculation.
We may now
compute n and n"
_rV'sinytQ
~
rr" sin (u"
but when the values of
directly
rr'
sm(u'u)
7 rr" sin (u'
'
u)
u,
from the equations
u f and u"
,
are those
which
.
'
u)
result
from the
the resulting values of n and n" will
,
only satisfy the condition that the plane of the orbit passes through
If substituted in the equations (29), they will
the centre of the sun.
assumed values of
and
and Q, from which they
only reproduce the assumed values of
have been derived, and hence they cannot be used to correct them.
If, therefore,
the numerical calculation be correct, the values of n
(54) must agree with those derived from equa
and n" obtained from
tions (31), within the limits of accuracy admitted
by the logarithmic
tables.
The differences u"
u' and u'
u will usually be small, and
hence a small error in either of these quantities may considerably
affect the resulting values of n and n"
In order to determine
'.
whether the error of calculation is within the limits to be expected
from the logarithmic tables used, if we take the logarithms of both
members of the equations
n", and u' to vary, we get
d log e n"
(54)
and
~ cot
= f cot
differentiate,
supposing only n,
u')du' t
u) du'.
(it"
<>'
Multiplying these by 0.434294, the modulus of the common system
of logarithms, and
expressing du' in seconds of arc, we find, in units
of the seventh decimal place of common
logarithms,
d log n
d log n"
If
we
=
=
21.055 cot (u"
21.055 cot
(u'
i//)
du',
u) du'.
n and log n" as
and the values already obtained by
substitute in these the differences between
log
found from the equations
(54),
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
means of
(31), the
247
two resulting values of did should
agree,
and the
f
magnitude of du itself will show whether the error of calculation
exceeds the unavoidable errors due to the limited extent of the
When the agreement of the two results for n
logarithmic tables.
is in accordance with these conditions, and no error has been
and n"
made
in
computing n and n" from
P and Q by
means of the equa
tions (31), the accuracy of the entire calculation, both of the
quanand of those
which depend on the assumed values of P and
which are obtained independently from the data furnished by observatities
tion, is
completely proved.
87. Since the values of
n and n" derived from equations (54)
P and Q, from
cannot be used to correct the assumed values of
r f , u, u r , &c. have been computed, it is evidently necessary
to compute the values for a second approximation by means of the
which
series
s".
TJ
given by the equations (26) 3 or by means of the ratios s and
expressions for n and n" arranged in a series with respect
,
The
to the time involve the differential coefficients of r
with respect to
t,
unknown, and cannot be conveniently
determined, it is plain that if the ratios s and s" can be readily found
from r, r', r" u, u' u", and r, r', r", so as to involve the relation
between the times of observation and the places in the orbit, they
may be used to obtain new values of P and Q by means of equations
and, since these are necessarily
(48)
and
',
(51), to
be used in a second approximation.
Let us now resume the equation
M=E
esinE,
or
k(tT}
^
=E
J
esmE,
a*
and
also for the third place
a?
Subtracting,
ll
aa
we
get
= E" E
2e sin i
(E"
E)
cos
(E"
+ E).
(55;
This equation contains three unknown quantities, a, e, and the difE. We can, however, by means of expressions inference E"
2
e ),
a (1
volving r, r", u, and u", eliminate a and e. Thus, since p
we have
& aVl^^ (E" E2esmi (E"
E)
cos
.J
(E" + E)).
(56)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
248
From
the equations
Vr sin
y
= I/a (1 +
e) sin
e) cos ^E ,
i/o (1
v"v = u"
since
7
1/rT sm
and
we
u,
j
1/r" cos X = I/a (1
V~r cos Av
I/a (1
t/r" sin ^v"
%E,
e) sin
e) cos
$E"
1",
easily derive
= al/T^* sin
u)
(u"
(E"
(57)
JE),
also
a cos
ae cos
E}
J (jEJ"
+ JK) = 1/rr
(JE"
77
cos i (w"
w),
or
"
Substituting this value of e
e
cos(^
(E"
r/
+ ^J) in equation
Esm (E"
e sin
and
substituting, in the last
(57), the result is
r'Vp
From
= a vT=7 (E" E
2
(57)
E))
(56),
(58)
we
get
JBJ))
w) T/rr",
(it"
al/1
its
+ rr" sin (u"
value from
u}.
(59)
obtain
or
this, for
sm (E"
we
JE) cos ^
(jB"
term of
^.
rr^sinC^
=
\
21/r?
u)
cos J (*"
w)
1
3
jp
sin J
(^"
Therefore, the equation (59) becomes
Let x' be the chord of the
and we shall have
x'
Now,
= (r
since the chord
and from
this, in
orbit between the first
f
r")
4rr" cos 2
J
x can never exceed r
(u"
\
r ff ,
and third
places,
u).
we may put
combination with the preceding equation, we derive
21/n 7
"'
cos J (u"
 u = (r + r") cos
~)
r'.
(62)
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
249
T'
Substituting this value,
reduces to
ff
and
[rr
E"E*m(E"E)
,
~\
in
Vp,
T"
equation
1_
*
/
sn
(r
\
//\q
')
q
3
cos Y
~75" ~
~f
g^
V^^y
The elements a and e are thus eliminated, but the resulting
ff
still the unknown quantities E
E and s It
f
involves
it
(60),
equation
is
neces
sary, therefore, to derive an additional equation involving the same
unknown quantities in order that
may be eliminated, and
E"
that thus the ratio
From
s',
which
is
the quantity sought,
may
be found.
the equations
= a ae cos E,
r" = a
ae cos E",
r" + r = 2a
2ae cos J (E" + E} cos (E"
r
we
get
E~).
Substituting in this the value of
r"
+ r = 2a sin
and substituting
(E"
e cos
\(E'
for sinj(_E/
r/
f 21/^V cos
E)
its
\
E) from
(58),
we have
(E"E),
u) cos
value from (57), there results
cosi
(u"u) (l2sin
 (E?'
But, since
2
2prr" cos ^ (u"
^>
u)
s'
r
2l/rr' cos i (w^
'
w)
we have
T'2
from which we derive
' 2
<
Jr
(64)
which
as
is
the additional equation required, involving
unknown
E"
E and s
quantities.
Let us now put
E"
sin
(E"
E}'
(05)
THEOKETICAL ASTKONOMY.
250
and the equations
(63)
and (64) become
(66)
When
from the
The
known, the first of these equations will
and hence the value of x or sin2 (^r/ E\
the value of y'
enable us to determine
is
s',
last equation.
f may
calculation of
be facilitated by the introduction of an
additional auxiliary quantity.
Thus,
let
(67)
and from (62) we find
cos
= cos
rr
(u"
u)
or
cos
We
have, also,
%"
which gives
x'
,,
= sin
r'
= 2 cos
2%' cos J
(u"
= T f r'7 4rr" cos
= (r r") + 4rr" sin
(u"
'
by
"
u),
(u"
u),
,}
(u"
u).
= r + /')*
we
(67)
and the preceding one
u)
and adding, we get
From
(68)
Multiplying this equation by cos %(u"
2
/ tan /,
u).
sin J(t&"
2
u) cos
S in
'/
_w + r_r
(
^)2 C0g2
y, __ u^
get
and, therefore,
%'=^,
so that equation
(69)
x'
may
 sin / = sin
2
(r
We
+ //)a
may,
be written
therefore,
_W
) 
cos
2/
2
cos J (w" ~
it).
put
sin
sin
cos
/ cos G' = sin ^ (w
/ sin G' = cos ("
/r
r'
= cos
(^'
M),
M)
cos 2/,
u) sin 2/,
(70)
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
from which
f may
shall be positive.
be derived by means of its tangent, so that sin f f
The auxiliary angle G' will be of subsequent use
in determining the elements of the orbit
P and
88.
251
from the
final
hypothesis for
Q.
We
now
shall
consider the auxiliary quantity y' introduced
For brevity, let us put
into the first of equations (66).
and we
have
shall
sin 2g
2g
This gives, by differentiation,
4
dy'
sin
sin 2g'
2g
y'
or
= 3y
2
The
last
cot g
of equations (65) gives
cosec g.
4?/'
a/'
= sin
J<y,
and hence
dg_
dx'~
Therefore
we have
dy'
dx
It
is
6y' cos
8/
_3
2aQ
(1
ty
y'
sin a
we may expand
evident that
ence to the ascending powers of
a series arranged in refer
y' into
so that
a/,
we
have
shall
&c.
Differentiating,
we
get
Ac.,
and substituting
2IM +
(4r
2/9)
= (3a
dy'
for
f
4r )
(65
) f
(3 5
y
x'
+ (8e
6a
8a/5)
3
6^
(3<5
the value already obtained, there results
4a
+
+ (3:
A
8/S^
8ct<S)
8r 5
6e
a:'
a;'
+ (IOC
+ (3r
+ (3e Qd
+ &c.
8oC)
8/?
4
65) z'
x'
6/5
4/S
4f
8/35
f
Since the coefficients of like powers of x must be equal,
3a
4a
3r
6/3
=0,
3/?
4/3
8a r
6a
= 2 (2r
8a/5
/?),
= 20,
&c.
we have
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
252
and hence we derive
we have
Therefore
all
+ 2 MM??f4o*' + &c6
(71)
If we multiply through by V> an<^ P ut
?'=
we
,V + if !*" +
+ iffliflHf.*" + &c
2
(72)
>
obtain
yythis
Combining
If
we put
we
shall
+*'=?'
with the second of equations (66), the result
(73)
is
have
But from the
first
of equations (66)
we
get
and therefore we have
As
soon as r/
value of
is
known,
this equation will give the corresponding
s'.
'
Since
is
fr
a quantity of the fourth order in reference to the differE), we may evidently, for a first approximation to the
ence \ (E
value of y ', take
1
+/
and with
from the
from (75), and the corresponding value of x'
of equations (66).
With this value of x' we find the
f
corresponding value of ', and recompute 37', s , and x' ; and, if the
this find s'
last
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
253
'
derived from the last value of x' differs from that already
the
used,
operation must be repeated.
It will be observed that the series (72) for ' converges with great
the term containing x' 6 amounts
rapidity, and that for E"
to only one unit of the seventh decimal place in the value of '. Table
value of
^=94
XIV.
'
gives the values of
to 0.3, or from E"
ff
case occur in which
E=0
f
corresponding to values of x from 0.0
E"
to
E=132
50'.6.
Should a
E exceeds this limit, the expression
* ~~
sin
("
3 *
E"
sin
E)
(E"
then be computed accurately by means of the logarithmic tables
An approximate value of x' may be easily found
ordinarily in use.
may
with which
With
(73).
(74),
be computed from this equation, and then ' from
the value of ' thus found, if may be computed from
y'
may
and thus a more approximate value of
x'
is
immediately
obtained.
The
equation (75) is of the third degree, and has, therefore, three
roots.
Since s f is always positive, and cannot be less than 1, it
follows from this equation that if is always a positive quantity.
The
equation
may be
written thus
S'3_ /2
_ 7yV _1 V =
0j
and there being only one variation of sign, there can be only one
positive root, which is the one to be adopted, the negative roots being
excluded by the nature of the problem. Table XIII. gives the
2
values of logs' corresponding to values of if from y'=Q to ?/=0.6.
When if exceeds the value 0.6, the value of s must be found directly
from the equation (75).
f
89.
We
are
now
enabled to determine whether the orbit
In the ellipse x
hyperbola.
In the parabola the eccentric anomaly
ellipse, parabola, or
is positive.
= 0.
In the hyperbola the angle which we
anomaly, in the case of
= sm
{(E"
is zero,
call
an
is
E)
and hence
the eccentric
motion, becomes imaginary, and
elliptic
hence, since sin \ (E"
E) will be imaginary, x must be negative.
f
It follows, therefore, that if the value of x derived from the equation
m
is
positive, the orbit is
parabola
and
an
ellipse
if negative, it is a
'
if
equal to zero, the orbit
hyperbola.
is
THEOKETICAL ASTKONOMY.
254
we have x
case of parabolic motion
For the
= 0, and
the second
of equations (66) gives
s"
(76)
jIf
we
y'
j
eliminate
we
by means of both equations,
s'
since, in this case,
get
Substituting in this the values of
q
^j
(r
= 3 sin
m and
/
cos
given by (65), we obtain
f
4 sin3 ^/,
f
which gives
fi
'
= 6 sin i/ cos
\^
+ 2 sin
^',
or
6r
'
This
may
= (sin I/ + cos I/) + (sin &  cos J/)'.
3
04r">
evidently be written
ft
the upper sign being used when f is less than 90, and the lower
r f/ )%, and
Multiplying through by (r
sign when it exceeds 90.
ff
replacing (r \~ r ) sin f by x, we obtain
which
identical with the equation (56) 3 for the special case of
motion.
parabolic
Since x' is negative in the case of hyperbolic motion, the value of
'
determined by the series (72) will be different from that in the
is
'
case of elliptic motion.
correTable XIV. gives the value of
r
to
both
of
this
limits
table,
sponding
forms; but when x exceeds the
it
will be necessary, in the case of the
hyperbola also, to
value of
'
directly, using additional
modify the expression for
y'
terms of the
in terms of
E"
If we compare equations (44)j and
(56) 1?
tan
we
E =1/^1 tan F
series,
and
applicable.
get
compute the
or
we may
so as to be
DETERMINATION OF AN OEBIT.
and hence, from
255
(58),,
We
have, also, by comparing (65)! with (41 ) w since
the hyperbola,
*2
is
negative in
+l
'
2(7
which gives
.
Now,
since
cos
in
which
e is
E + l/^l sin E = e EV~\
the base of Naperian logarithms,
E l/^~l = log
which reduces
(cos
we have
E + 1/^T sin #),
to
or
By means of these relations between E and the expression for y'
may be transformed so as not to involve imaginary quantities. Thus
<r,
we have
E"E= (log  loge *) l^  l/
sin (^"
E) = sin J&" cos # cos .&" sin E =
e
From
the value of cos
sm
*
U=
</'
E we easily derive

I,
and hence
Therefore the expression for y f becomes
cos
E=
~l.
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
256
Since the auxiliary quantity a in the hyperbola
let us now put
a"
~2
(77)
r
from which y may be derived when
We have,
always positive,
_ j2
and we have
t/==
is
is
known.
further,
and therefore
'
or
J
(79)
These expressions
and
for y'
the limits of the table.
x' enable us to find
Thus, we
by putting
when
#' exceeds
f
obtain an approximate value of x
m
f
and then x from the second of equations
Then we compute A from the formula (79), which gives
from which we
(66).
'
first
find s f
x',
from
and
'
from
(80)
A repetition of the calculation,
using
thus found, will give a still closer approximation to
the correct values of x r and s f ; and this process should be continued
y'
(77),
the value of
until
'
(73).
'
remains unchanged.
The
formulae for the calculation of s f will evidently give the
value of s if we use r, r f , r" 9 u ', and u", the necessary changes in the
90.
/r
notation being indicated at once; and in the same manner using r ,
f
From the values of s and s" thus
r, r , u, and u', we obtain s".
and Q may be computed by means
found, more accurate values of
of the equations (48) and (51).
may remark, however, that if
the times of the observations have not been already corrected for the
We
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
257
time of aberration, as in the case of the determination of an unknown
may now be applied as determined by means of
orbit, this correction
r
"
the values of p, p , and p" already obtained.
Thus, if , </, and tQ
are the uncorrected times of observation, the corrected values will be
=t
t=t
t
Cp sec /9,
t'
'
Cp'aecp,
(81)
"
Q/'sec/3",
which log 0=7.760523, expressed in parts of a day; and from
these values of t, t', t" we recompute r, r', and r", which values will
require no further correction, since p, p', and p", derived from the
in
first approximation, are sufficient for this purpose.
With the new
values of
and Q we recompute r, r f y r", and u, u f , u" as before,
and thence again
and if the last values diifer from the preand
ceding, we proceed in the same manner to a third approximation,
which will usually be sufficient unless the interval of time between
the extreme observations is considerable.
If it be found necessary
to proceed further with the approximations to
and
after the
calculation of these quantities in the third approximation has been
effected, instead
of employing these directly for the next
trial,
we
may derive more accurate values from those already obtained. Thus,
let x and y be the true values of
and Q respectively, with which,
if the calculation be repeated, we should derive the same values again.
Let A# and Ay be the differences between any assumed values of x
and y and the true values, or
denote by a? ', y r the values which result by direct calculation from the assumed values XQ and y , we shall have
Then,
if
we
Expanding
this function,
we
get
A# and Ay are very small, we may neglect terms of the second
Further, since the employment of x and y will reproduce the
same values, we have
and
if
order.
and hence, since A#
=X
x and Ay
ir
=y
y,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
258
In a similar manner, we obtain
yJy
= A'(xtx)+3f(y
y).
Let us now denote the values resulting from the first assumption for
and
2
2
and Q by P^ and Q ly those resulting from
19 ft by
from P Q by P
2
2,
3,
P =
ft e =
ft; and,
P
a,
6,
ft
If
=4(PaO + JB(e
we
a",
 ft =6".
2
# and
for #</
P =
=a',
ft =J',
1
y),
eliminate A, P, A',
further, let
Then, by means of the equations
have
a
we
2/o,
2A>'
= 4'(PaO + JS'(e
and B' from these equations, the
shall
!0
results
are
r
y=
(a'b"
a"b')
j
(a"b
ab")
\
(ab
a'b)
(a'b"
a"b')
+ (a"b
ab")
j
(ab'
a'b)
'
from which we get
'
a"b
(a" f a') (a'b"
(b
4
(a b
\a b
a b
j~
b )
f a" (a"b
\~
ab
(a b
b (a b
) 4
ab")
ab
(82)
)
a b)
(ab
In the numerical application of these formulae it will be more convenient to use, instead of the numbers P,
lt
2
Q, ft, &c., the logarithms of these quantities, so that a
P,b
log l
log
log ft
lg ft
P P
and similarly
for a', b',
a"
',
b ff ,
which may
also be expressed in
units of the last decimal place of the logarithms employed,
and we
shall thus obtain the values of log x and log y.
With these values
of log x and log y for log
and log Q respectively, we proceed with
the final calculation of r, r' y r", and u, u', u".
When the eccentricity is small and the intervals of time between
the observations are not very great, it will not be necessary to employ
the equations (82) ; but if the
eccentricity is considerable, and if, in
addition to this, the intervals are large, they will be required.
It
may
also occur that the values of
and
derived from the last
hypothesis as corrected by means of these formulae, will differ so
DETERMINATION OF AN ORBIT.
much from
259
the values found for x and y, on account of the neglected
terms of the second order, that it will be necessary to recompute these
and Q in connection with the
quantities, using these last values of
three preceding ones in the numerical solution of the equations (82).
91. It remains now to complete the determination of the elements
i9
of the orbit from these final values of
and Q. As soon as
,
and u u
y
u" have been
f
j
rived by means of
or,
which
is
r,
better,
rfy
we
found, the remaining elements may be deand u f u, and also from r f , r n and u" u r ;
',
will obtain
them from the extreme
places, and,
and Q is complete, the results thus found
approximation to
will agree with those resulting from the combination of the middle
if the
place with either extreme.
We
fl
f
fr
must, therefore, determine s and x' from ?, r , and u
u,
means
of
the
formula?
and
the
second
from
by
then,
already. derived,
of equations (46), we have
'""
from which
to obtain p.

If we compute
_ / sr'r" sin (u"
u') \
and s"
s'
rr' sin
also,
we
shall
have
(u
u)\*
\
and the mean of the two values of p obtained from this expression
should agree with that found from (83), thus checking the calculation and showing the degree of accuracy to which the approximation
to P and Q has been carried.
The
last
from which
since e
of equations (65) gives
= sin
ff
<p y
E may be computed.
we have
for the calculation of
cos
tp.
But p
cos p
Then, from equation
=a
= a2
=1
2 sin 2 (45
a cos2 ^, whence
(86)
cos?
which may be used to determine <p when
unity ; and then e may be found from
6
(1
(57),
e is
^).
very nearly equal to
260
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
'
The
equations (50) give
ecos(u
e cos
and from
these,
w)
(u"
w) sin (J
2e sin i (w"
by means of which
and
a)
1,
1,
f7
we
subtraction,
u) cos (4 (w"
(u"
rv\
=
a>')
by addition and
2e cos
(w'
may
+ u)
*>)
+ w)
w)
derive
=
T>
77
2,
(87)
77,
be found.
Since
rr"
we have
__
r^?
r"?
.
21/rr"
_
i/rr"sin2/
^>
and from equations
2pcot2/
(70),
'
cos r
Therefore the formulae (87) reduce to
e sin
(,
4
i*))
=
4 (w" + w))
e cos (o>
from which also
(t*"
"
(88)
sec
cos
and w may be derived.
sin
tan
Then
e,
and the agreement of cos <p as derived from this value of <p with that
given by (86) will serve as a further proof of the calculation. The
longitude of the perihelion will be given
or,
when
adopted, by
exceeds
TT
=&
90, and
co.
by
the distinction of retrograde motion
is
DETERMINATION OF AN OEBIT.
To
find a,
261
we have
(a cos
#>)'
CL
5
COS'
or
it
may
<f>
be computed directly from the equation
r'
4s'
which
results
rr" cos J fa"
from the substitution, in the
term of the preceding
given by (83) and (85).
last
equation, of the expressions for a cos <p and
Then for the mean daily motion we have
1
~af
We
have now only to find the mean anomaly corresponding to any
For the true
epoch, and the elements are completely determined.
we have
anomalies
v
and
if
=u
v'
to,
we compute
=w
r ff from these
r, r',
v"
w,
= u"
ta
by means of the polar equa
tion of the conic section, the results should agree with the values of
the same quantities previously obtained.
According to the equation
(45) D
we have
= tan (45
=
tan ^E'
tan (45
tan ^E" = tan (45
tan
^E
?) tan
v,
J?) tan $tf,
?) tan W',
(90)
to find E, E', and E".
The difference E"
should
from
that
derived
within
the
with
limits
of
equation (84)
agree
afforded
the
tables.
to
find
the
mean
Then,
by
accuracy
logarithmic
anomalies, we have
from which
M =E
M'
and, if
we
denotes the
=E'
esmE,
esmE',
mean anomaly corresponding
(91)
to
any epoch
T,
have, also,
f
in the application of which the values of t, t , and t" must be those
which have been corrected for the time of aberration. The agree
THEOEETICAL ASTRONOMY.
262
ment of the three values of
the entire calculation.
will be a final test of the accuracy of
and
are exact,
final values of
If the
proof will be complete within the limits of accuracy admitted
this
by the logarithmic
tables.
When
the eccentricity is such that the equations (91) cannot be
solved with the requisite degree of accuracy, we must proceed according to the methods already given for finding the time from the perihelion in the case of orbits differing but little from the parabola.
X. will be employed. As soon as
and v have been determined, we may find the auxiliary angle
v, v
V for each observation by means of Table IX. and, with V as the
M" (which are not the mean anomaargument, the quantities Jf,
Then, the perihelion distance
lies) must be obtained from Table VI.
For
this purpose,
Tables IX. and
ff
having been computed from
we
T+~e'
have
shall
C
in which log
= 9.96012771
for the determination of the
time of
The times t y t', t" must be those which have
perihelion passage.
been corrected for the time of aberration, and the agreement of the
three values of
T is
a final proof of the numerical calculation.
used, as soon as the true anomalies have been found,
the corresponding values of log
must be derived from
and log
If Table X.
is
Then w
the table.
and similarly
M, M
f
,
M"
for w'
is
computed from
and w" ; and, with these as arguments, we derive
Finally, we have
from Table VI.
T=t
CIV"
A (1 + 9e)
Ql/ T\> (1
j
9e)
Ql/A (1 + 9e)'
(93)
for the time of perihelion
passage, the value of <7 being the
in (92).
When
Q and
CD
the orbit
is
a parabola,
can be derived from
r,
=1
r",
tt,
same
as
and p
2q, and the elements
and u" by means of the equa
DETERMINATION OF AN OEBIT.
263
tions (76), (83), and (88), or by means of the formulae already given
for the special case of parabolic motion.
92. Since certain quantities which are real in the ellipse and parabola become imaginary in the case of the hyperbola, the formulae
n
already given for determining the elements from r, r ', u, and u"
require some modification
when
applied to a hyperbolic orbit.
and x' have been found, p, e, and w may be derived from
equations (83) and (87) or (88) precisely as in the case of an elliptic
2
fr
Since x
sin J (E
orbit.
E\ we easily find
When
s'
sin i
and equation
(85)
E)=2 V x'
(E"
x'\
becomes
"
)VW
.
(94 )
x'
x n will be
negative, and hence
imaginary ; and, further, comparing the values of p in the ellipse
2
tan ^/, or
and hyperbola, we have cos 2 ^
But
xf
in the hyperbola
is
cos
<f>
=
=V
Therefore the equation for a cos
if
is
(p
1 tan
4/.
becomes
considered as being positive, from which a tan
a tan 2
we have
Then, since p
^
^
tan 4 =
obtained.
^ may
(96)
atan^/
for the determination of
ij/,
be
and the value of
computed from
= sec 4 = 1/1 +tan 4
2
should agree with that derived from equation (88). When e differs
but little from unity, it is conveniently and accurately computed
from
e
=1
2 sin 2
f
^ sec
4.
The value of a may be found from
a
=p cot 4 = (atan4/)
,
Q(97)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
264
or
from
a
16s' rr" cos
(u"
u)
x'J
(a/
derived directly from (89), observing that the elliptic semitransverse axis becomes negative in the case of the hyperbola.
As soon as to has been found, we derive from u, u', and u" the
which
is
and v", and then compute the values
corresponding values of v, v',
the formula (57)! ; after which, by
of
means
F"
and
of
by
9 F'j
f
and
the
,
means of the equation (69) w
corresponding values of N,
N"
Finally, the time of perihelion passage will
will be obtained.
be given by
T= t
lQ k
IJc
IJc
7.87336575.
wherein log^fc
The
*N=tN> = t'N"
cases of hyperbolic orbits are rare,
do occur the eccentricity will not differ
bola, so that the
and
in most of those
much from
most accurate determination of
means of Tables IX. and X.
which
that of the parawill be effected by
as already illustrated.
To illustrate the application of the principal for93. EXAMPLE.
mula which have been derived in this chapter, let us take the following observations of Eurynome
Ann Arbor M.
@o
T.
1863 Sept. 14 15* 53 37.2
21 9 46 18 .0
28
8 49
29
.2
<?
+9
0 44'.91
53' 30".8,
57
3 .57
13
.5,
52
18 .90
+8
22
.7.
The apparent
obliquity of the ecliptic for these dates was, respect//
r
27'
20".75, 23 27 20".71, and 23 27' 20 .65 ; and, by
ively,
means of these, converting the observed right ascensions and declina
23
tions into apparent longitudes
Ann Arbor M.
and
T.
1
dates
we
get
Latitude.
Longitude.
1863 Sept. 14 15* 53" 37'.2
21
9 46 18 .0
28 8 49 29 .2
For the same
latitudes,
we
17
47' 37".60
16
41 36 .20
f 3
2
15
16 56 .35
f 2
8'
.46,
32 42
.98.
obtain from the American Nautical
the following places of the sun
43".19,
52 27
Almanac
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
265
True Longitude.
1' 42".l
172
Latitude.
 0.07
0.0022140,
178
185
+ 0.77
+ 0.67
0.0013857,
0.0005174.
37 17
26 54
.2
.8
log
Since the elements are supposed to be wholly unknown, the places
of the planet must be corrected for the aberration of the fixed stars
Thus we find for the corrections to be
as given by equations (1).
applied to the longitudes, respectively,
18".48,
and
19".49,
20".8,
for the latitudes,
+ 0".14.
+ 0".30,
o".47,
_j_
When
these corrections are applied, we obtain the true places of the
planet for the instants when the light was emitted, but as seen from
the places of the earth at the instants of observation.
Next, each place of the sun must be reduced from the centre of
the earth to the point in which a line drawn from the planet through
For this
the place of the observer cuts the plane of the ecliptic.
purpose
we
have, for
r
Ann
= 42
Arbor,
log PQ
5'.4,
= 9.99935
and the mean time of observation being converted into
sidereal time
gives, for the three observations,
Q
= 3* 29 W 1
'
s
,
21* 48
17 s ,
Of
which are the right ascensions of the geocentric
is
=+
#=
6033'.9,
22 25.0,
AQ
A 0'
18".92,
A log RQ
we
which
<p
derive the longitude
=
" =
we
"
0'.4,
15.8,
&
342
59'.2,
"= + 53
41.6.
obtain
36".94,
A log R
'
A 0"
25".76,
0.0002201,
0.0002796.
time, we have the values f OM5,
which are so small that they may be neglected.
For the reduction of
.34,
(4),
0.0001084,
A log jR
347
50
V= +
Then, by means of equations
these
zenith, of
55 s
latitude of the zenith for each observation, namely,
4,=
j
From
in each case the declination.
and
= 21* 18
+ O'.28, and
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
266
the sun and planet are reduced to
Finally, the longitudes of both
1863.0
of
mean
the
by applying the corrections
equinox
51". 52,
50".95,
and the
52".14;
same
latitudes of the planet are reduced to the ecliptic of the
date by applying the corrections
0".15,
0".14, and
0".14,
respectively.
Collecting together and applying the several corrections thus obtained for the places of the sun and of the planet, reducing the un
and
corrected times of observation to the meridian of Washington,
expressing them in days from the beginning of the year,
following data
we have
the
= 17
= 16
I" = 15
= 257.68079,
= 264.42570,
" =
271.38625,
t;
t
O =172
46' 28".17,
A'
40 25
1544.03,
0'32".23,
=178 35 48 .74,
"=185 2536.90,
'
The numerical
.19,
/3"
=+3
= 2
=+2
8'
43".51,
52 27
.62,
3242.98,
logJ? =0.0021056,
log# =0.0011656,
R" = 0.0002378.
log
values of the several corrections to be applied to
by observation and by the solar tables should be
the data furnished
checked by duplicate calculation, since an error in any of these reductions will not be indicated until after the entire calculation of the
elements has been effected.
By means
of the equations
"
sin
("')
RR" sin (0"
~ .RR'sin(Q'Q)
RR" sin ("
'
0)
tan
tan/3'
we
(A'
)'
0')
obtain
log
N= 9.7087449,
= 161
= 9.4980010,
4/
log CR' sin 4/)
The quadrant
log
N" = 9.6950091,
42' 13".16,
log
(#
cos
40
= 9.9786355
n.
which oj/ must be taken is determined by the conmust
be less than 180, and that cosoj/ and cos (7'
<\J/
O')
must have the same sign. Then from
ditions that
in
NUMEEICAL EXAMPLE.
Q (A" + A)  K) =
tan Jsin
tanlcosQ
267
(*"
BO
/9
j?'
sin
6, c,
c?,
/,
"
sin
(G
o sin(A"
A)'
and
A),
(Q'_ JQ
RR
~sin(A"
+ *)  *")
= jR sin (0
we compute K, I,
than 90, and the
sec J (A"
y/
0)
'
A)
The angle / must be
^.
less
value of /9 must be determined with the greatest
possible accuracy, since on this the accuracy of the resulting elements
principally depends.
Thus we obtain
K=4 47' 29".48,
P == 2
59" jf
log b = 2.5456342
52'
log d == 1.2437914,
The
1= 9.3884640,
log tan
log a
log
iog/=
1.3587437 n
= 6.8013583
M,
= 2.2328550n
log
/i
3.9247691.
formulae
_
MI ~~
_~
sin (A"
A')
sin (A"
A)
sin (A
A)
Z
1
sin (A"
A)
__
~J
K}
\!'
Q")
^"sin(A"
+ J~T~
^sin(A
"
0)
~'
hsm^
,,
give
log
M = 9.8946712,
v
= 1.9404111,
K)
~b~
~d~~
log Jf/'
= 9.6690383,
The
quantities thus far obtained remain unchanged in the sucand Q.
cessive approximations to the values of
For the
first
hypothesis, from
=
=
YJ O
T? O
= R' sin
=
cos C
^
R' cos
sin Z
4',
4/,
2 co
THEOKETICAL ASTRONOMY.
268
we
obtain
= 9.0645575,
= 8.1427824,
log Q
= 0.0704470,
k
log
=
0.3326925,
log
= 9.0782249,
log P = 9.9863326,
log r"
log r
log c == 2.2298567 W ,
1
0.0716091,
=
=
8
C
log
>?
Iogm == 1.2449136.
24' 49".74,
which f must be situated is determined by the condition that J? shall have the same sign as 4,.
The value of z f must now be found by trial from the equation
The quadrant
in
sin (z
C)
=m
sin /.
Table XII. shows that of the four roots of this equation one exceeds
180, and is therefore excluded by the condition that sins' must be
z'
4/,
greater than 180
positive, and that two of these roots give
(
and are excluded by the condition that z must be less than 180
ty.
The remaining root is that which belongs to the orbit of the planet,
and it is shown to be approximately 10 40' but the correct value
;
is
found from the
last
equation by a few trials to be
z'
The
=9
1'
22".96.
which corresponds to the orbit of the earth
and differs very little from 180
ty.
root
is
18
20' 41 ",
Next, from
smz
sin 2
p"
we
M" 4MI
n"^
_
i
n"
derive
= 0.3025672,
= 9.7061229,
log p = 0.0254823,
logr'
log
The
= 0.0123991,
= 9.6924555,
"
log P = 0.0028859.
log/
log n"
values of the curtate distances
having thus been found, the
heliocentric places for the three observations are
now computed from
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
=p cos (A
O)
O)
r cos b cos (I
r cos b sin
(I
= j0sin(A
= p tan
r sin b
/9
/ cos b' cos (V
/ cos V sin (/'
/sin
')
/' cos
Q)
;
(A'
p'
(A'
O')
= sin
= /tan/5';
=
0")
P" cos
0") = p" sin (A"
= ,o"tan/3",
V cos (/"
V sin ("
#',
'),
0")
(A"
/'sin 6"
R,
Q),
=10' cos
O')
6'
/' cos
269
R",
0"),
which give
= 514'39".53,
r = 7 '45 11
I" = 10 21 34
log tan b
log tan b'
log tan b"
.28,
.57,
logr =0.3040994,
log/ =0.3025673,
=8.4615572,
= 8.4107555,
= 8.3497911,
log /'
= 0.3011010.
The agreement of
found,
is
the value of log r f thus obtained with that already
a proof of part of the calculation. Then, from
tan t
nit
sm (J (*
tan
cos (1 (
cos
we
u
get
= 158
The
/i
tan 6"
7\
cos
2'
tan 6
cos
= 160
equation
tan
b'
= tan
38".16,
u'
25".78,
f
= 207
8'
^\ =
+/))
tan 6"
tan 6
+  8) = 2sin (r _
=4
27' 23".84,
u"
39' 18".13,
i sin (l
= 163
16' 4".42.
&)
8.4107514, which differs 0.0000041 from the value
f
This difference, however, amounts
found
already
directly from p
to only 0".05 in the value of the heliocentric latitude, and is due to
gives log tan b'
If we compute n and n" from the equations
errors of calculation.
sin (u"
= //'
rr" sin
n
u'*)
=r>'
r,
u)
(u"
sin
=~ rr" sin
rr'
(u'
u)
(u"
u)
'
the results should agree with the values of these quantities previously
and Q. Using the values of u, u', and
computed directly from
11
just found,
we
log n
obtain
= 9.7061158,
log n"
= 9.6924683,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
270
which
differ in the last
p and p".
According
decimal places from the values used in finding
to the equations
d log n
d log n"
=
=
}
21.055 cot (u"
21.055 cot (u'
u')
du
r
,
u) du',
the differences of logn and logn" being expressed in units of the
seventh decimal place, the correction to u' necessary to make the two
values of logn agree is
0".15; but for the agreement of the two
f
diminished by 0".26, so that it appears
be
must
u
of
values
logn",
not
is
that this proof
complete, although near enough for the first
It should be observed, however, that a great circle
approximation.
the extreme observed places of the planet passes
very nearly through the third place of the sun, and hence the values
of p and p" as determined by means of the last two of equations (18)
passing through
somewhat uncertain. In this case it would be advisable to compute p and p", as soon as p has been found, by means of the equations (22) and (23).
Thus, from these equations we obtain
are
log p
= 0.025491
log p"
8,
= 0.0028874,
and hence
I
514'40".05,
2134.19,
r=10
u
= 207
= 158
8'
2'
32".97,
u'
31".47,
The value of
log tan b
log tan b"
= 160
=8.4615619,
=8.3497919,
i
4
log r
log /'
27' 25".13,
X'
= 163
u"
39' 23".31,
log tan b' derived from
= 0.3041042,
= 0.3011017,
16' 9".22.
and these values of
and
Q,
i,
8.4107555, agreeing exactly with that derived from p' directly.
The values of n and n" given by these last results for u, u' and u n\
is
are
log
and
= 9.7061144,
this proof will
be complete
to the value of u', so that
u"
u'
=2
log n"
if we
= 9.6924640
apply the correction du
O'MS
we have
36' 46".09,
u'
=2
30' 51".66.
The results which have thus been obtained enable us to proceed to
a second approximation to the correct values of
and we
and
may also correct the times of observation for the time of aberration
by means of the formulae
t==tQ
Cp sec
/?,
'
Cft sec p,
C= 7.760523, expressed in parts
== 257.67467,
= 264.41976,
wherein log
t"
of*
"
t
CP " sec /?",
a day. Thus
t"
we
= 271.38044,
get
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
271
and hence
log r
= 9.0782331,
log
r'
= 9.3724848,
to find the ratios denoted
Then,
by
and
log r"
= 9.0645692.
we have
s",
17'
sin f cos
sin Y sin
G = sin J (u"
G = cos \ (u"
w'),
u') cos
= cos 2 (u"
cos Y
it')
sin
tan/' ==
sin /' cos
sin /' sin
G" = sin (it'
G" = cos ^ (it'
= cos J
cos /'
it)
(it'
2y
7
,
sin 2;/'
r2
w),
u) cos
sin
r" 2
from which we obtain
= 44 57' 6".00,
= 1 18 35
log m = 6.3482114,
logy = 6.1163135,
x
From
/"
/'
.90,
44
.69,
m"
m
r!'
using Tables XIII. and
Sj
15 40
= 6.3163548,
log/' = 6.0834230.
log
by means of the equations
these,
case of
56' 57".50,
=1
XIV., we compute
and
First, in the
s".
we assume
7
= 0.0002675,
2
0.0002581.
and, with this as the argument, Table XIII. gives log s
this
as
the
with
Hence we obtain x'
0.000092, and,
argument,
Table
XIV.
gives
=
= 0.00000001
repetition of the calculation
log s
When
is
and, therefore,
unnecessary.
= 6.0001290,
the intervals are small,
logs"
it is
it
appears that a
Thus we obtain
= 0.0001200.
not necessary to use the formula?
THEOKETICAL ASTEONOMY.
272
in the complete form here given, since these ratios
in the sequel.
process, as will appear
by a simpler
pP =
may then
be found
Then, from
~T
r
"
7"'
'
_^_
* ~~ "
'
rr" cos
ss
we
find
log

u') cos
(u"
P = 9.9863451,
u) cos
(u"
J
log
(u
u)'
Q = 8.1431341,
with which the second approximation may be completed. We now
f
compute c Tcw lw z , &c. precisely as in the first approximation but
;
we
shall prefer, for the reason already stated, the values of
p and p"
computed by means of the equations (22) and (23) instead of those
obtained from the last two of the formulae (18).
The results thus
derived are as follows
= 2.2298499
= 0.0714280,
log
= 0.0719540,
log % = 0.3332233,
C = 8 24' 12".48,
log m = 1.2447277,
= 90'30".84,
log / = 0.3032587,
log p = 0.0137621,
=
n
9.7061153,
log
log n"= 9.6924604,
=
0.0269143,
logp
log p" = 0.0041748,
log
log
Jc
n,
z'
= 5
= 7
J" = 10
2,76,
log tan b
log tan V
0.91,
207
0'
15' 57".26,
/'
46
22
= 158
log tan b"
12' 19".54,
The agreement of
logr =0.3048368,
log/ == 0.3032587,
= 8.3504332,
=4
log r"
= 160
u"
42' 45".82,
the two values of log r
is
= 0.3017481,
28' 35".20,
0".72,
u'
=8.4622524,
=8.4114276,
= 163
19' 7".14.
complete, and the value
of log tan b r computed from
tan
is
= tan
= 8.4114279, agreeing
log tan b'
from p f
b'
The
values of
are
log n
sin (I
with the result derived directly
n and n" obtained from the equations
= 9.7061156,
log n"
which agree with the values
already used
the proof of the calculation
u"
u'
=2
From
36' 21".32,
these values of
log
& ),
is
u'~ u
complete.
=2
u"u
= 0.0001284,
in
= 9.6924603,
computing p and p", and
We
have, therefore,
30' 26".28,
and u
u,
log s"
(54)
we
u"
=5
obtain
= 0.0001193,
6'
47".60.
NUMEKICAL EXAMPLE.
and, recomputing
log
P and
we
273
get
P = 9.9863452,
log
Q=
8.1431359,
differ so little from the preceding values of these quantities
that another approximation is unnecessary.
may, therefore, from
the results already derived, complete the determination of the elements
which
We
of the orbit.
The equations
/ cos G' = sin^
sin / sin G' = cos 
cos /
cos
sin
r'
(u
n
u),
(u"
u) cos 2/,
(u"
u} sin 2/,
(rfr")
""
cosV
sin
cos/'
give
/ = 44
log m'
From
/ = 2 33' 52".97,
log tan G' = 8.9011435,
= 6.9332999,
=
6.7001345.
log/
53' 53".25,
by means of the formula
these,
_and Tables XIII. and XIV., we obtain
log s'
= 0.0009908,
log of
= 6.5494116.
Then from
s'rr" sin
we
get
The
w"
= 0.3691818.
values of logp given
by
^)\
/grV'siny
r
~\
_
=
\
s"rr' sin
(u
'>'
u)
/
are 0.3691824 and 0.3691814, the mean of which agrees with the
result obtained from u ff
u, and the differences between the separate
results are so small that the
The
approximation to
equations
sin 4
Hi
J] =
a cos ^
18
P and Q is sufficient.
THEOKETICAL ASTRONOMY.
274
give
i
=l
E)
(E"
4'
42".903,
log cos
<f>
log (a cos ?)
= 9.9921503.
Next, from
e sin
 $ (u" + u)) =
(>
 i (w" +
e cos (
we
f/=
tan (7,
cos/V rr"
~ sec 2 fa" 
t*))
= 0.3770315,
M),
cQg f^x,7
obtain
= 190
P = 10
This value of
15' 39".57,
log e
51 39
TT
<p
.62,
gives log cos^>
= log sin ? = 9.2751434,
40".29.
f ^ = 37
15'
<o
= 9.9921501, agreeing with the result
already found.
To
find
a and
//,
we have
Tc
the value of k expressed in seconds of arc being log k
from which the results are
log a
The
= 0.3848816,
true anomalies are given
V
=U
= 327
= 2.9726842.
by
= U  W,
= U  W,
ff
t/
W,
according to which
v
log ft
= 3.5500066,
I/'
we have
56' 39".97,
v'
= 330
v"
27' 6".25,
= 333
3'
27".57.
If we compute r, r f , and r" from these values by means of the polar
equation of the ellipse, we get
log r
= 0.3048367,
log /
= 0.3032586,
log r"
and the agreement of these results with those derived
f
p, p and p" is a further proof of the calculation.
= 0.3017481,
directly
from
The
equations
= tan (45
= tan (45
E" = tan (45
tan
$E
?) tan %v,
tan
bE
jp) tan jt/,
J ? ) tan Jt/'
tan
give
E = 333
17' 28".18,
E'
= 335
24' 38' .00,
E" = 337
36' 19".78.
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
The value of
thus obtained differs only 0".003 from that
E)
(E"
f
computed directly from x
Finally, for the
M= E
mean anomalies we have
M = E'
'
e sin
275
E,
M" = E"
e sin E',
e sin
E",
from which we get
M = 338
and
if
8'
M' =
36".71,
339
M denotes the mean anomaly
Washington mean
339
T=1863
55' 25".96, the
55' 25".97, 339
mean of which
M = 339
Sept. 21.5
55' 25".96,
and
gives
55' 25".96.
the three results for
is
a final proof of the
accuracy of the entire calculation of the elements.
Collecting together the separate results obtained,
lowing elements
we have
the fol
= 1863 Sept. 21.5 Washington mean time.
M = 339 25".96
n = 37 15 40 .29)
Ecll
and Mean
Epoch
55'
= 207
72 V
= 4 28 35. 20 J
= 10 51 39 .62
=
0.3848816
log a
log = 2.9726842
= 939".04022.
<
P tlc
Equinox
1863.0.
<?
fi
fi
If we compute the geocentric right ascension and declination of
the planet directly from these elements for the dates of the observations, as corrected for the time of aberration, and then reduce the
observations to the centre of the earth
by applying the
corrections
for parallax, the comparison of the results thus obtained will
how
show
closely the elements represent the places on which they are
based.
Thus, we compute first the auxiliary constants for the equator,
using the
mean
fit
obtain the three values 339
The agreement of
for the date
43' 6".97
time, from the formulae
M =M
we
M" = 341
54' 10".61,
obliquity of the ecliptic,
e
= 23
27' 24".96,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
276
and the following expressions
planet are obtained
for the heliocentric coordinates of the
= r [9.9997272] sin (296
55' 46".05 f u),
y =r [9.9744699] sin (206
12 42 .79 f u),
r [9.5249539] sin (212 39 14 .62
u).
enclosed in the brackets are the logarithms of sin a,
and sin c, respectively ; and these equations give the coordinates
The numbers
sin 6,
referred to the
mean equinox and equator of 1863.0.
The
places of the sun for the corrected times of observation,
referred to the mean equinox of 1863.0, are
True Longitude.
172
178
185
.5
25 42
.0
Log R.
Latitude.
0".07
0'29".5
36
+0
+0
and
0.0022146,
.77
0.0013864,
0.0005182.
.67
If we compute from these values, by means of the equations (104)j,
the coordinates of the sun, and combine them with the corresponding
heliocentric coordinates of the planet, we obtain the following geocentric places of the planet
:
= 15
= 14
a" = 13
a
10' 29".06,
a'
15
= + 9 53' 16".72,
= 912 51
V = + 8 21 54
= 0.02726,
= 0.01410,
=
J"
0.00433.
log
log A
d
d
.22,
3 49 .47,
log J'
.29,
.46,
To
reduce these places to the apparent equinox of the date of observation, the corrections
+ 48".14,
must be applied
f
to the right ascensions,
respectively,
18".55,
to the declinations.
Thus we obtain
Washington M. T.
Comp.
1*
.
28.38044
a.
Comp.
O m 45'.15
57
52
and
+ 19".31,
f 18".92,
1863 Sept. 14.67467
21.41976
The
f 48".91,
f 48".54,
+9
3 .25
18.
56
6.
53' 35".3,
13 10
.2,
22 13
.8.
corrections to be applied to the
respective observations, in order
them to the centre of the earth, are f O s .24,
O s .31,
0*.34
to reduce
in right ascension, and f
4".5,
that we have, for the same
dates,
+ 4".8, + 5".l
in declination, so
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
Observed
Observed
a.
045M5
1*
57
52
The comparison of
277
3.
53' 35".3,
3 .26
18 .56
+8
13 10
22 13
these with the
.3,
.8.
computed values shows that the
extreme places are exactly represented, while the difference in the
middle place amounts to only O'.Ol in right ascension, and to 0".l
in declination.
pletely satisfied
It appears, therefore, that the observations are comby the elements obtained, and that the preliminary
corrections for aberration and parallax, as determined by the equations (1) and (4), have been correctly computed.
It cannot be expected that a system of elements derived from ob
servations including an interval of only fourteen days, will be so
exact as the results which are obtained from a series of observations
or from those including a much longer interval of time; and although
the elements which have been derived completely represent the data,
on account of the smallness of ft*
this difference being only
/9 ,
31". 893, the slight errors of observation have considerable influence
in the final results.
yet,
When
approximate elements are already known, so that the cor
rection for parallax may be applied directly to the observations, in
order to take into account the latitude of the sun, the observed places
of the body must be reduced, by means of equation (6), to the point
in
which a perpendicular
let fall
from the centre of the earth
to the
plane of the ecliptic cuts that plane. The times of observation must
also be corrected for the time of aberration, and the corresponding
places of both the planet
and mean equinox of a
and the sun must be reduced to the ecliptic
and further, the reduction to
fixed epoch;
the fixed ecliptic should precede the application of equation (6).
If the intervals between the times of observation are considerable,
it
may become
values of
necessary to
P and
Q, and
make
three or
more approximations
to the
in this case the equations (82) may be applied.
elements are already known, it will be advan
But when approximate
tageous to compute the first assumed values of P and Q directly
from these elements by means of the equations (44) or by means of
(48) and (51) and the ratios s and s" may be found directly from the
In the case of very eccentric orbits this is indispenequations (46).
;
be desired to avoid prolixity in the numerical calculation,
since otherwise the successive approximations to
and Q will slowly
approach the limits required.
sable, if it
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
278
various modifications of the formulae for certain special cases,
must be used in the case of parabolic
The
as well as the formulae which
and hyperbolic
differing but little
and of those
orbits,
from the
such that they require no furparabola, have been given in a form
ther illustration.
94.
In the determination of an unknown
considerably unequal,
it
orbit, if the intervals are
be advantageous to correct the
will
first
assumed value of P before completing the first approximation in the
manner already illustrated. The assumption of
is
correct to terms of the fourth order with respect to the time,
same degree of approximation to
equation (28) 3 use the expression
for the
we must,
and
according to
7}
which becomes equal
first assumed values
furnish, with very
with the values of
to
little
only
labor,
P and
when
the intervals are equal.
an approximate value of
r'
The
and then,
derived from
g = TT,
(98)
the entire calculation should be completed
precisely as in the example
given.
Thus, in this example, the first assumed values give
log/
and, recomputing
= 0.30257,
P by means of the first of
log P = 9.9863404,
these equations,
we
get
log Q = 8.1427822,
with which, if the first approximation to the elements be completed,
the results will differ but little from those
obtained, without this corfrom
the
second
If the times had been already
rection,
hypothesis.
corrected for the time of
the
would be still
aberration,
agreement
closer.
The comparison of
fourth order,
equations (46) with (25) 3 gives, to terms of the
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
T "2
>2
T2
and, if the intervals are equal, this value of
the fifth order.
Since
we
in
279
correct to terms of
s' is
have, neglecting terms of the fourth order,
which log^
We have,
8.8596330.
also, to the
same degree of
approximation,
For the values
log r
= 9.0782331,
= 9.3724848,
log/ = 0.3032587,
log
log r"
r'
= 9.0645692,
these formulae give
log s
= 0.0001277,
log s
= 0.0004953,
"
log
= 0.0001199,
which differ but little from the correct values 0.0001284, 0.0004954,
and 0.0001193 previously obtained.
Since
sec
/=
+ 6 sin
tf
+ Ac.,
the second of equations (65) gives
r'
(
4
6r'
"V
Substituting this value in the
r'
~^~
('
first
L
"\*
sm
I*
"h
& Ct
of equations (66),
6r'
we
get
If we neglect terms of the fourth order with respect to the time, it
will be sufficient in this equation to put y'
f, according to (71), and
hence
we have
f
1 is of the second order with respect to
and, since s
to terms of the fourth order,
r',
we
have,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
280
Therefore,
which, when the intervals are small, may be used to find
and r". In the same manner, we obtain
=i tin*
from r
"=3%7s
lo g s
(102)
For logarithmic calculation, when addition and subtraction logarithms are not used, it is more convenient to introduce the auxiliary
angles
/',
and #", by means of which these formulae become
(103)
in
which log J^
= 9.7627230.
For the
first
approximation these
equations will be sufficient, even when the intervals are considerable,
ff
to determine the values of s and s required in correcting
and Q.
The
values of
log r
r, r',
r",
and r" above given, in connection with
= 0.3048368,
log r" == 0.3017481,
give
log s
These
= 0.0001284,
log s'
= 0.0004951,
and log s" are
log s"
= 0.0001193.
correct, and that for log s' differs
only 3 in the seventh decimal place from the correct value.
results for log 8
CEBIT FKOM FOUR OBSERVATIONS.
CHAPTER
281
V.
DETERMINATION OF THE ORBIT OF A HEAVENLY BODY FROM FOUR OBSERVATIONS,
OF WHICH THE SECOND AND THIRD MUST BE COMPLETE.
95.
THE
formulae given in the preceding chapter are not sufficient
to determine the elements of the orbit of a heavenly body when its
apparent path is in the plane of the ecliptic. In this case, however,
the position of the plane of the orbit being known, only four elements remain to be determined, and four observed longitudes will
furnish the necessary equations.
There is no instance of an orbit
whose inclination is zero ; but, although no such case may occur, it may
happen that the inclination is very small, and that the elements
derived from three observations will on this account be uncertain,
and especially so, if the observations are not very exact. The difficulty thus encountered may be remedied by using for the data in the
determination of the elements one or more additional observations,
and neglecting those latitudes which are regarded as most uncertain.
The formulae, however, are most convenient, and lead most expeditiously to a knowledge of the elements of an orbit wholly unknown,
when they are made to depend on four observations, the second and
third of which must be complete ; but of the extreme observations
only the longitudes are absolutely required.
The preliminary
reductions to be applied to the data are derived
precisely as explained in the preceding chapter, preparatory to a determination of the elements of the orbit from three observations.
Let t, t', t", t'" be the times of observation, r, r', r" , r"' the radiivectores of the body, u, u', u"', u fff the corresponding arguments of
the latitude, R, R, R",
the distances of the earth from the sun,
R"
and O, O', O", O'" the longitudes of the sun corresponding
these times.
Let us also put
= rV" sin (um
[rV"] = rV"
[//"]
ito.
to
'),
u"),
and
(1)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
282
Then, according to the equations
nx
x'
we
(5) 3 ,
shall
have
+ n"x" = 0,
+n'Y = 0,
y"''"'"
f
ny
'
Let ;, A', X", X'" be the observed longitudes, ft /?', /9", /3'" the obfr
ln
served latitudes corresponding to the times t, t', t , t
respectively,
and J, A', A", A'" the distances of the body from the earth. Further,
',
let
^008^=^
and
for the last place
we have
of"
</"
= p" cos
= /" sin X"
r
R" cos 0'",
A'"
R"
sin O'".
f/f
Introducing these values of x'" and y , and the corresponding values
f
of x, x , x", y, y', y" into the equations (2), they become
= n (p cos
E cos Q)
(j>
sin A
^ sin Q)
(/>'
cos
# cos O')
A'
'
0>'
= ri
cos
A'
(/>"
cos A"
J?'
sin
R"
cos
V
R"
+ n'"
(/>'
sin
'
A'
sin
(?" sin A"
O')
sin
If we nfultiply the
cos
^,
first
JB" sin
0")
cos
")
of these equations by sin
^,
0"),
(3)
/"
G/" sin
n'"
jR"cosO"),
Q')
+ n"0>"sinA"
^ cos O')
sin
+
by
"0>"cosA"
f
=n
=
JR"' cos
O'"),
12"' sin
Q ").
r
and the second
and add the products, we get
= nR sin
(A
n
P
+ K sin
 + R" sin  "))
1
Q)
H n" 0>" sin (A"
si
(X
X)
A)
Q'))
(A
(A
(4)
and in a similar manner, from the third and fourth
equations, we
find
n'
O/
sin (A'"
A')
 0>" sin (A'"
Whenever
R
A")
s i n (A'"
Q '))
U" S i n (A'"
0"))
(5)
W'".R"'
sin (/'"
'").
the values of w, n', TI /; , and n" f are
known, or may be
determined in functions of the time so as to
satisfy the conditions of
motion in a conic section, these
become
distinct or indeequations
pendent of each other ; and, since
two
unknown
only
quantities p'
OEBIT FROM FOUR OBSERVATIONS.
and p ff are involved
283
in them, they will enable us to determine these
curtate distances.
Let us now put
cos
sin (/
=A,
X)
A") = C,
cos /5" sin (A'"
cos ?' sin (A"
A)
cos jf sin (X"
A')
=
= D,
J5,
and the preceding equations give
Ap' sec p
Bn"p"
sec 0"
= nR sin
Q)
(A
R'
sin (A
0')
+ w"U" sin (A
J>&y
Cp" sec 0"= n'R' sin
sec ft'
(A'"
R" sin (A'"
')
+ n'"jR"'sm(;i'"
If
we assume
for
n and n"
0"),
0")
(7)
0'").
their values in the case of the orbit of
the earth, which is equivalent to neglecting terms of the second order
in the equations (26) 3 , the second member of the first of these equations reduces rigorously to zero ; and in the same manner it can be
shown
when
that
similar terms of the second order in the corre
f
sponding expressions for n and n" are neglected, the second member
of the last equation reduces to zero. Hence the second member of
each of these equations will generally differ from zero by a quantity
which is of at least the second order with respect to the intervals of
time between the observations. The coefficients of p f and p" are of
the first order, and it is easily seen that if we eliminate p" from
these equations, the resulting equation for p' is such that an error of
the second order in the values of n and n" may produce an error of
1
the order zero in the result for p , so that it will not be even an
approximation to the correct value ; and the same is true in the case
of p".
It
in the
first
is
necessary, therefore, to retain terms of the second order
f//
for n, n', n", and n
;
and, since the
assumed values
and r ff we thus introduce two
Hence two additional equations inadditional unknown quantities.
rf
and
volving r', r", p'j p
quantities derived from observation, must
terms of the second order involve
r'
be obtained, so that by elimination the values of the quantities sought
may be found.
From
equation (34) 4
p' sec
which
is
we have
p = R' cos *'
Vr' 2
one of the equations required
J^'sin 1 *',
;
and similarly we
(8)
find, for
the other equation,
p" sec 0"
= R" cos
4/'
d=
V rm
R"
sin 4".
(9)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
284
Introducing these values into the equations
= =b vV'
x'
and putting
jff'Bin'V,
"2
a^zfcvV"
we
(7),
sin
4/',
get
Ax'
Bn"x"
D*V 
= nR sin

Cx"
= n'R' sin
# sin
0')
AK cos V + n"BR" cos V,
0")
 Q')  R" sin  0")
Q)
(A
n"R"
(A'"
(A
sin (A
(A'"
+ ri"R'" sin (A'"
n'DR' cos 4*'
0'")
CR"
cos V'.
Let us now put
=K
C =r>
'
or
i,
cos
/3"
cos
sin (A"
A)
(A'
cos
'
sin
cos
A)
fi'
sin (A'"
A')
ft"
sin (A'"
A")'
_
and we have
= Kn"x" + nd  + nV,
r
x'
"
==
A"wV
+ w'"d"
a!
a"
+ ^c'
r
.
These equations will serve to determine x and x n and hence r r and
f
',
^ ;/ , as soon as the values of n,
96.
In order
n and n /r we
,
',
n'',
and
7i
r//
are
known.
to include terms of the second order in the values of
have, from the equations (26) 3 ,
and, putting
~
these give
e = (w + n"l)r,
(13)
ORBIT FKOM FOUR OBSERVATIONS.
285
Let us now put
and, making the necessary changes in the notation in equations (26) 3,
we obtain
,*"'W + T)
'"_^/1
~
f5 ~
"*
rrr
rr
*
From
these
we
get, including
terms of the second order,
^^d r
"
and hence,
if
we put
P
we
= 5,
7&"
shall have, since
Q'= (' +
r
r/
+r
.'"2
2

fff
/v,"3
/'
(18)
,,_1T
When
the intervals are equal,
P'
*
and
The
we have
/^ >
P"
*
///
be used, in the case of an unknown orbit,
approximation to the values of these quantities.
these expressions
for the first
(17)
I
'
!)/",
;//
Pit
'
may
equations (13) and (17) give
(19)
and, introducing these values, the equations (12) become
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
286
(20)
Let us now put
P'd'+c'
P'
_
I
and we
shall
__
P"
'r
J
^
>
have
(22)
We
have, further, from equations (10),
and r //3 in equations (22), the two
resulting equations will contain only two unknown quantities x and
r
/r
r/
and
are known, and hence they will be
a/', when P', P
sufficient to solve the problem.
But if we effect the elimination of
If
we
substitute these values of r
/3
either of the
unknown
becomes of a high order.
quantities directly, the resulting equation
It is necessary, therefore, in the numerical
application, to solve the equations (22)
may
be readily
by
successive trials,
which
effected.
represents the angle at the planet between the sun and the
earth at the time of the second observation, and z" the same angle at
If
the time of the third observation,
we
shall
have
r
Substituting these values of r and r" in equations (10),
we
get
(25)
and hence
CEBIT FKOM FOUR OBSERVATIONS.
287
j,V
""
R' sin
(26)
f
by means of which we may find z and z" as soon as x and x" shall
have been determined and then r and r rr are obtained from (24) or
The last equations show that when x f is negative, z must be
(25).
f
f
greater than 90, and hence that in this case r is less than R
In the numerical application of equations (22), for a first approximation to the values of x and x rf since Q f arid Qf r are quantities of
r
the second order with respect to r or r ;// ,
# = 0,
e"
we may
generally put
= 0;
and we have
>
+<a',
*"=/'V+c "a",
x =f'x"
or,
by
elimination,
v_
i//"
I/'/"
the approximate values of x and x" derived from these equaf
tions, we compute first r and r" from the equations (26) and (24),
and then new values of x f and x" from (22), the operation being
f
With
repeated until the true values are obtained.
proximations, the equations (22) give
To
facilitate these
ap
(27)
Let an approximate value of x f be designated by #</, and let the
value of x" derived from this by means of the first of equations (27)
be designated by a;/ 7
With the value of x^ for x" we derive a
new value of x f from the second of these equations, which we denote
.
f
Then, recomputing x" and x , we obtain a third approximate
value of the latter quantity, which may be designated by x2 f ; and,
by #/.
if
we put
xi
xd
<*o>
xt
xi
ao'>
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
288
we
shall have, according to the equation (67) 3 , the necessary changes
being made in the notation,
,__jC_.
,__^^
^,
(28)
The value of x thus obtained will give, by means of the first of
equations (27), a new value of x", and the substitution of this in the
last of these equations will show whether the correct result has been
r
If a repetition of the calculation be found necessary, the
found.
f
three values of x which approximate nearest to the true value will,
In the same manner, if
x fr the value derived by putting Q'
and Q"
0,
and compute x', three successive approximate results for x" will
by means of
we assume
(28), give the correct result.
for
enable us to interpolate the correct value.
When the elements of the orbit are already approximately
the first assumed value of x f should be derived from
instead of
by putting
'
and
Q"
97. It should be observed that
known,
equal to zero.
when
A'
= X or
)J
rr
n
',
the equa
tions (22) are inapplicable, but that the
original equations (7) give,
1
in this case, either p ff or
p directly in terms of n and n" or of n'
and n" f and the data furnished by observation.
first of
equations (22) by /*/, we have
The
If we divide the
equations (21) give
h'~
and from
(11)
we
get
rf
__R cosV
h'~
~hT
'
R'sm(X
Q)
if
0')
~W
+ X'^W
,
h'~
Then,
+ P'
we put
c
'
' Pp'd' + W
n>
C
h'
(29)
ORBIT FROM FOUR OBSERVATIONS.
c'
value
its
be found from the results for
may
means of these equations, and we
and
289
$
,
derived by
have
shall
na')r,
When
A'
A,
the value of
we have
A/
oo,
and
this
being given by the
(30)
formula becomes
first
of equations (29)
This
equation and the second of equations (22) are sufficient to determine
and x" in the special case under consideration.
x'
The second of equations
manner, so that when X'"
(22)
= A",
may
be treated in precisely the same
becomes
it
iD<xf en
o=(i+r
\
??!
and
this
must be solved in connection with the
x and x n
As
(26)
of these equations
'.
soon as the numerical values of x' and x" have been
and r" may be found by means of the equations
Then, according to (41) 4 we have
derived, those of
and
first
in order to find
98.
(1+ p").
fl
(24).
r'
The
from p f and p" by means of
and the values of r and r" thus obtained should
heliocentric places are then found
the equations (71) 3
agree with those already derived.
,
From these places we compute
the position of the plane of the orbit, and thence the arguments of
the latitude for the times t f and t"
.
The
values of r f , r fl', u', u", n, n", n', and
mine r, r f "j u y and u //f
Thus, we have
.
and, from the equations (1) and (3) 3 ,
19
n" r
enable us to deter
THEOEETICAL A STEONOMY.
v
290
[""]
Therefore,
r sin
<y
=  r" sin (u"
u)
r sin (w"
=  / sin (u"
w)
w'),
u'},
(32)
/"
sin
(u'"~ u")
r" sin (u'"
From
the
traction,
first
we
1')
=^r'
sin (u"
r" sin
777
(it"
i*'),
tt').
and second of these equations, by addition and sub
get
r sin (<X
r cos ((i*'
 u) + i ("
'))
+ 2 (w"
w)
u'})
sin J (u"
w'),
 cos J (u"
= /^V
M'),
(33)
f
from which we may find r, w'
uf
u, and u
(u
u).
In a similar manner, from the third and fourth of equations
we
(32),
obtain
r'" sin
/"
(K'  u")
w
cos ((u
from which to
u")
(u"
'))
"/
r
rn>r>
r
cos
+ i (w"  W =
'))
(w"
(34)
w'),
find r " and u"'.
r
the approximate values of r, r f , r", r'", and u, u', u n', it'"
have been found, by means of the preceding equations, from the
assumed values of P', P", Q f , and ", the second approximation to
the elements may be commenced.
But, in the case of an unknown
f
values of r
orbit, it will be expedient to derive, first,
When
approximate
and r", using
and then recompute P' and
P"
by means of the equations (14) and
ORBIT FROM FOUR OBSERVATIONS.
(18), before finding u'
and u n
The terms of
'.
thus be completely taken into account in the
99. If the times of observation
291
the second order will
first
approximation.
have not been corrected for the
time of aberration, as in the case of an orbit wholly unknown, this
correction may be applied before the second approximation to the
elements is effected, or at least before the final approximation is com
For
menced.
must be determined
be found.
~P
and, since the curtate
and p fr are already given, there remain only p and p r " to
If we eliminate p f from the first two of equations (3), the
distances p'
result
body from the earth
this purpose, the distances of the
for the four observations
is
n" sin
TI
sin
(A"
A')
A)
nR sin
(A'
Q)
(A'
R' sin (X
Q')
+ n" R" sin (X
0")
'
p" from
and, by eliminating
obtain
f'r
p'^^~^
n'
R' sin
R"
sin (X"
")
n'" sin (A'"
*
cos
(A'
?UL
A)
nR cos
(A
also
+ n'" R'" sin (A"
cos (A"
0)
'")
A")
rff
by means of which p and p
may be found.
the first and second of equations (3) gives
we
(36)
0Q
(A"
the last two of these equations,
The combination of
(37)
A)
R cos
0') f
(A
?i"
#' cos
(A
")
1
_j
and from the third and fourth we get
P'"
r=
^n
cos (A'"
n'
R' cos
A")
(A'"
^ cos
(A'"
(38)
A')
0Q R" cos (A'"
0")
+ n"' R"' cos (A'"
"')
n'"
Further, instead of these, any of the various formulae which have
been given for finding the ratio of two curtate distances, may be
employed ; but, if the latitudes /9, /9', &c. are very small, the values
of p and p" r which depend on the differences of the observed longitudes of the body must be preferred.
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
292
f"
f
values of p and p
may also be derived by computing the
the
of
heliocentric places
body for the times t and t'" by means of
The
the equations (82) 1? and then finding the geocentric places, or those
which belong to the points to which the observations have been
reduced, by
means of (90) 1? writing p
in
place of
A cos /5.
This
of the numerical calculation, namely,
process affords a verification
the values of I and X" thus found should agree with those furnished
and
observation, and the agreement of the computed latitudes ft
by
with those observed, in case the latter are given, will show how
as derived from the
nearly the position of the plane of the orbit
If
second and third observations represents the extreme latitudes.
it were not desirable to compute ^ and X" in order to check the
ft'"
calculation, even
derive p and
when
ft
and
ft"'
are given
by observation, we might
p" from the equations
p
/*"'
= r sin u sin cot
= /" sin sin toot/?",
i
/?,
M'"
when
the latitudes are not very small.
In the final approximation to the elements, and especially when
the position of the plane of the orbit cannot be obtained with the
required precision from the second and third observations, it will be
advantageous, provided that the data furnish the extreme latitudes
compute p and p"'
found, and then find I, I"
6, and
/?
and
ft'" , to
',
"
p and p" have been
directly from these by means
as soon as
&
of the formulae (71) 3
The values of
and i may thus be obtained
from the extreme places, or, the heliocentric places for the times t'
.
and t"' being also computed directly from p f and p", from those
which are best suited to this purpose. But, since the data will be
more than sufficient for the solution of the problem, when the extreme
latitudes are used, if
we compute
ff
the heliocentric latitudes b' and b'
from the equations
tan
V =iani sin
tan b"
= tan
(If
sin (I"
& ),
&),
r
they will not agree exactly with the results obtained directly from p
and p", unless the four observations are completely satisfied by the
The values of r' and ?", however, computed
from p' and p" by means of (71) 3 , must agree with those
derived from x f and x".
elements obtained.
directly
The
corrections to be applied to the times of observation on account
ORBIT FROM FOUR OBSERVATIONS.
of aberration
may now
be found.
Thus,
if
t
Q
293
ff
,
and
f//
are
the uncorrected times of observation, the corrected values will be
C= 7.760523, and
wherein log
values of
T, r',
/r/
r", r ,
and
from these we derive the corrected
r/.
To
when
f
find the values of P', P' ',
and Q", which will be
,
f
f/f
ft
exact
r
u>
r
r
and
u'"
are
r,
,
',
,
u,
', u",
accurately known, we
/
the
and
to
have, according
equations (47) 4
(51) 4 , since
100.
= i>
/V _ "
"
2 177"
1
r
'
rr" cos
fa"
t*')
cos
w) cos j fa'
fa"
u)'
In a similar manner, if we designate by s " the ratio of the sector
formed by the radii vectores r" and T'" to the triangle formed by
the same radiivectores and the chord joining their extremities, we
f
find
(42)
ss"'
r'r'"
cos j (u'"
u") cos J (u"
u') cos J (u"
u'}'
f"
are obtained from those for
formulse for finding the value of s
rf
r//
s by writing j
,
G'", &c. in place of , fy G, &c., and using
, f
r
u" instead of r f t r" and u"
r f/ , r fff , u"
it', respectively.
The
',
By means
of the results obtained from the
first
approximation to
r/
f
the values of P',
,
Q and Q", we may, from equations (41) and
(42), derive new and more nearly accurate values of these quantities,
y
and, by repeating the calculation, the approximations to the exact
values may be carried to any extent which may be desirable.
When
r
r
and
and of P' 1 and Q", have
three approximate values of
been derived, the next approximation will be facilitated by the use
,
of the formulae (82) 4 as already explained.
When the values of P', P", ', and Q" have been derived with
,
we proceed from these to find the elements of the
After &, *, r, r', r' r'", u, v/, u n and u'" have been found,
the remaining elements may be derived from any two radiivectores
sufficient accuracy,
orbit.
',
',
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
294
and the corresponding arguments of the
It will be
latitude.
most
/ff
derive the elements from r, r'", u, and u
accurate, however, to
and Q" have been obtained with great
If the values of P', P",
',
.
from
any
accuracy, the results derived
those obtained from the extreme places.
In the
first
place,
from
sin^ cos
6r
sin YQ sin 6ra
cos r
we
find
and
Gr.
two places will agree with
= sin (u'"
= cos (um
= cos  (u"
(43)
u),
 u)
cos 2/
u) sin 2/
Then we have
from which, by means of Tables XIII. and XIV., to find
We
SQ
and
a?
have, further,
s
rr'"sm(u'"
and the agreement of the value of p thus found with the separate
same quantity obtained from the combination of any
two of the four places, will show the extent to which the approximaThe elements are now
tion to P', P", Q', and Q" has been carried.
to be computed from the extreme places precisely as explained in the
rff
in the place of r" in the formulae there
preceding chapter, using r
given and introducing the necessary modifications in the notation,
which have been already suggested and which will be indicated at
results for the
once.
101. EXAMPLE.
For the purpose of illustrating the application
of the formulae for the calculation of an orbit from four observations,
let us take the
derived by
following normal places of Eurynome
comparing a series of observations with an ephemeris computed from
approximate elements.
Greenwich M. T.
1863 Sept. 20.0
Dec.
9.0
1864 Feb.
2.0
April 30.0
14
54 17
28 41 34
74 29 58
9
30' 35".6
.0
.1
.9
f
23' 49".7,
53 41
.8,
962
.8,
35 41
.5.
f 19
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
295
These normals give the geocentric places of the planet referred to the
mean equinox and equator of 1864.0, and free from aberration. For
the mean obliquity of the ecliptic of 1864.0, the American Nautical
Almanac
gives
e
= 23
27' 24".49,
and, by means of this, converting the observed right ascensions and
declinations, as given by the normal places, into longitudes and latitudes,
we
get
Greenwich M. T.
1863 Sept. 20.0
Dec.
9.0
1864 Feb.
2.0
April 30.0
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
296
From
the equations
tan
= sin
tan
tan/3'
(A'
07
'
cost!/
tan(A"0")
tan/5"
we
(/QO
obtain
4,'
= 113
== 9.5896777.,
log OR' cos V)
15' 20".10,
*"
=9.9564624,
log (E sin 4/)
= 9.3478848,
=
99823904.
log (12" sin V')
log (J2" cos 4,")
5617.75,
76
which tj/ must be taken, is indicated by the condiThe
tion that cos i// and cos(A'
0') must have the same sign.
same condition exists in the case of $". Then, the formula
The quadrant
in
A = cos
sin
/?'
B = cos
D = cos
D
A),
(A'
== cos /?" sin (A"'
A"),
"
c"
dn
<r=
(A
log
h'
log
a!
log
c'
log
d'
log
log
Q".
n.
first hypothesis in regard to the
If the elements were entirely un
the
would be necessary, in the first instance,
quantities the values given by the expressions
known,
it
n,
n,
n,
= 9.8528803,
= 0.1048468,
= 9.9752915
= 9.7267348
c"
log
= 9.9096469
d"
log
n,
make
D = 9.9577271,
log h"
log a"
n,
= 0.2785685
= 0.8834880
= 0.9012910
= 0.4650841,
We are now prepared to
P Q P", and
values of
A'),
A = 9.0699254n
B = 9.3484939,
log
A),
sin (A'"
O)
give the following results
log
sin (A"
/?'
0")
sin (A
= h"R' cos V
/5"
to
assume
for these
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
297
then approximate values of r r and r" are readily obtained by means
of the equations (27), (26), and (24) or (25). The first assumed
member of
value of x f to be used in the second
from the expression which
and Q"
0, namely,
(27), is obtained
'
putting
the
first
of equations
from (22) by
results
after
which the values of
(27).
of an
x'
/'/"
and x"
will be obtained
trial
by
from
It should be remarked, further, that in the first determination
orbit entirely unknown, the intervals of time between the ob
f
servations will generally be small, and hence the value of x derived
and Q"
from the assumption of Q f
will be sufficiently ap
proximate to facilitate the solution of equations (27).
As soon as the approximate values of r f and r" have thus been
found, those of
With
and
P"
must be recomputed from the expressions
the results thus derived for
Q and Q" already obtained, the
must be completed.
When
and P", and with the values of
first
approximation to the elements
the elements are already approximately known, the
assumed values of P', P", Q', and
of these elements.
Thus, from
r'r" sin
0"
Q"
tO
'
rr" sin (v"
v}
m
r"r sin(v"'v")
>
r'r'" sin (v'"
we
find n,
n n", and n
f
rr' sin (v
t;)
'
rr" sin (y"
,
_~
v)
rV'sinQ/'
r'r"' sin (v"
v')'
v'}
f
v'
=322
=353
v"=
14
55'
9".3,
19 26
45
i/
The approximate elements of Eurynome
".
give
v
first
should be computed by means
.3,
8.5,
t/"= 47 23 32
.8,
=0.308327,
log/ =0.294225,
log/' =0.296088,
0.317278,
log /"
logr
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
298
and hence we obtain
= 9.806836,
= 9.633171.
log n'"
= 9.653052,
log n
log n"
log n'= 9.825408,
Then, from
"
we
get
= 9.846216,
= 9.807763,
log P"
log
The
= (n'+ n'"
P'
values of these quantities
equations (41)
and
log
"
log
may
3
1) r" ,
= 9.840771,
== 9.882480.
computed by means of the
also be
(42).
Next, from
C
'
we
find
log
log
'
\
~
i
f = FT?
+ P''
ft
pti
= 0.541344
= 9.807665
i
p//'
= 0.047658
log/" = 9.889385.
log/
n,
;/
'
~~
'
I
n,
Then we have
if.r^ rf
,
tan 2'
tan z"
=
sin
=~ cos
=
2/'
from which to find r r and r".
of
we
In the
= 1r'
Then the
first
J^Bin1 *',
= 0.242737.
of the preceding equations
gives
log a"
sin4/;
sin 2"
first place,
obtain the approximate value
log x'
= 0.237687.
=~
from
^
cos 3'"
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
From
this
we
299
get
z"
= 29
3'
and then the equation
11" .7,
for
log r"
= 0.296092
= 0.294249
x gives
log
x'
==0.242768.
Hence we have
z'
= 27
log /
20' 59".6,
f
f
and, repeating the operation, using these results for x and r ,
log x"
= 0.237678,
log x
we
get
= 0.242757.
correct value of log x may now be found by means of equation
Thus, in units of the sixth decimal place, we have
(28).
f
The
= 242768
and
242737
~ f 31,
for the correction to
= 242757
be applied to the
last
242768
11,
value of log x f , in
units of the sixth decimal place,
Therefore, the corrected value
and from
These
this
log x'
= 0.242760,
log s"
= 0.237681.
derive
results satisfy the equations for x'
2'
z"
To
we
is
=27
= 29
21'
1".2,
312
.9,
and x rf and give
,
log/ =0.294242,
log r" == 0.296087.
find the curtate distances for the first
and second observations,
the formulae are
which give
r
log p
= 0.133474,
Then, by means of the equations
log p"
= 0.289918.
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
300
= cos
=
p sin
0')
= tan
r" cos V cos (^  0") = p" cos
r" cos b" sin
") = p" sin
/ cos V cos (J
r' cos V sin (f
/ sin 6'
0')
(A'
p'
find the following heliocentric places
= 37
r = 58
I'
'),
/S',
(/"
we
R,
0')
(A'
p'
(A"
 0")  R',
(A"
"),
8.182861 n
35' 26".4,
log tan
5815.3,
logtan&":=8.634209 n
6' ===
log r'
log r"
= 0.294243,
= 0.296087.
The agreement of these values of log r and log r" with those obtained
directly from x and x" is a partial proof of the numerical calculaf
tion.
From
the equations
+
(^ +
tan
sin ( J (I"
tan
cos (
ft )
/')
ft )
COS
we
= % (tan 6" f tan
= i (tan b" tan
&')
6')
sec
COS
(I"
cosec J
Z'),
("
O,
obtain
= 206
= 190
^
w'
42' 24".0,
55
u"
.6
= 4
= 212
36' 47".2,
20 53
.5.
Then, from
we
get
log n"
log w'
= 9.806832,
= 9.825408,
=9.653048,
log w'"
= 9.633171,
and the equations
f
r sin ((u
r cos ((u
sin
u)
tt)
(("'
w
cos ((w
+ % (u"  u'))
+
")
J
gn
(u"
+ (" _
'
1*) f i
(^ _ w
'
'
 ~
cos i (u"
sn
cos \ (u"
 u'\
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
give
= 160
u'" = 24
u
=0.308379,
logr
301
log/" = 0.317273,
30' 57".6,
5932.5.
Next, by means of the formulae
tan
tan
&)
(I
SI )
(/'"
= cos
= cos
/>cos(A
Q)
p sin (A
p tan /?
O)
sin (X"
//"tan/3"'
we
tan u,
tan w'",
tan b
tan V"
= rcos&cos(J
=r cos 6 sin (7
= tan
= tan
sin (
sin (l"
&),
r
& ),
0)+^,
0),
= r sin 6
m cos
cos
0'") =
(r
=
cos
sin (r
0'")
= r"'8in&'",
;
,'" C os (A'"
/>'"
i
i
r'"
r'"
&'"
0'")
+ #",
'"),
obtain
=
=
b
+
I
*==
16' 51".8,
32 14
.4,
6'"
=
=
59
.0,
A'"
==
j3'"
= 3 443.4,
= 0.449258.
16
= + 2 5640.1,
log p = 0.025707,
/9
The value of
log ?"'
91
37' 40".0,
4 10 47
75 23 46
.4,
.9,
rrr
thus obtained agrees exactly with that given by
/r
.4 from the observed value.
This differobservation, but / differs
ence does not exceed what may be attributed to the unavoidable
X
errors of calculation with logarithms of six decimal
places.
The
between the computed and the observed values of /9 and
show that the position of the plane of the orbit, as determined
differences
r/
/9
by means of the second and third places, will not completely satisfy
the extreme places.
The four curtate distances which are thus obtained enable us, in
the case of an orbit entirely unknown, to complete the correction for
aberration according to the equations (40).
The
r/
,
;
calculation of the quantities which are independent of
,
and
and
are
which
therefore
the
same
in
the
successive
,
Q",
hypotheses, should
be performed as accurately as possible.
The
'
value of
>
required
in
finding
x" from x
may be computed
directly from
SL
f
d
the values of
P>
^
h'
4"*"
h''
and
jj
being found by means of the equations (29)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
302
c"
and a similar method may be adopted in the case of ~.
Further,
in the computation of x' and x", it may in some cases be advisable
employ one or both of the equations (22) for the final trial. Thus,
to
in the present case, x" is found from the first of equations (27) by
difference of two larger numbers, and an error in the
last decimal place of the logarithm of either of these numbers affects
means of the
But
in a greater degree the result obtained.
as soon as
r"
is
known
Q"
so nearly that the logarithm of the factor 1
remains unchanged,
^
f
the second of equations (22) gives the value of x" by means of the
sum of two smaller numbers. In general, when two or more formula for finding the same quantity are given, of those which are
otherwise equally accurate and convenient for logarithmic calculation,
which the number sought is obtained from the sum of smaller
numbers should be preferred instead of that in which it is obtained
that in
difference of larger numbers.
values of r, r f , r f>', r f ", and u, u', u n ,
by taking the
The
first
Q',
and Q".
=
r
l~7
tan* = X p
Jc
sin r cos
(t"
r"
tan/'
O,
G = sin ^ (un
G = cos i (u"
= cos J (u"
cos r
sin
sin
from
result
=~
\~r'
1,
G"
sin /' cos
u'} cos 2/,
sin /' sin (r"
u') sin 2/,
cos /'
/" cos
/" sin
T 2 COS6 /
=
tan/" =
T'"
0,
Jc(t'
u'\
G" = sin J (u"
G" = cos i (u"
P'
Jc
= sin J (u
= cos ('
= cos ^
(H"
w"),
f
w") cos 2/"
tt ")
sin
2/"
^"
r" COS /'
=r
T'"
'"'
77^
3
;/
lf^Ff
"
+/'f^
==
COS 6 /"
cos 3^77>
/"
sin iy'
7'
cos/"'
'?'"
m
in connection with Tables
XIII. and XIV. we
find
*,
*"),
w) sin 2/",
(w'
results are
u\
The
P"
w) cos 2/',
= cos A (V "
cos r"'
which
Thus, from
sin r sin
hypothesis, suffice to correct the assumed values of
the
u"
s",
and
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
= 9.9759441,
=
45
39".l,
x
= 10 42 55
logm = 8.186217,
= 7.948097,
log r
log
32'
/"'= 45
1".4,
13 45
41' 55".2,
r'"= 16 22 48
.0,
.5,
logm"'= 8.590596,
log/"= 8.325365,
log s"= 0.0174621,
== 0.0085248,
r'"= 0.1800641,
log
log/'= 8.260013,
log,/
log
44
15
y"=
logm"= 8.516727,
.9,
?
T"= 0.1386714,
/"=
3'
303
log
"'== 0.0204063.
Then, by means of the formulae
~
__
r"
= * rr" rr" cos
^
PL
~
r'
77
(%"
ti')
cos
J
w) cos J
(M"
(w'
w)'
'
T'"
'
r'r'" cos
we
u") cos
(it'"
O'
"
u)
cos J
(it"
uj
obtain
log P'
= 9.8462100,
log P"
'
9.8077615,
with which the next approximation
We
now recompute
and the
illustrated ;
'
log
',
CQ",/',/
=s 0.5413485 n
Then we
V ==
r/
^ r,
oj
completed.
&c. precisely as already
= 9.8076649
= 9.8893851,
= 0.2376752,
log
= 29 14".09,
log r" = 0.2960826,
log/' =0.2899124,
log n" = 9.8068345,
= 9.6331707.
log n'"
e
"
n,
af'
4'
z'
'
may be
log/"
a/
log n
log n
log
log
n,
'
== 9.8407536,
" =i
9.8824728,
results are
log/' = 0.0476614
= 0.2427528,
log
= 27 21' 2".71,
=
/
0.2942369,
log
log P
log
=0.1334635,
= 9.6530445,
= 9.8254092,
3'
obtain
= 8.1828572
37
35' 27".88,
log tan
r=58
5816.48,
logtan6"=8.6342073 H
These
from
w,
,
log /
log
= 0.2942369,
/'= 0.2960827.
f
results for log r
and
and log r" agree with those obtained directly
r
thus
z",
checking the calculation of ty and ty and of
the heliocentric places.
Next, we derive
ft
u'
= 206
= 190
42' 25".89,
55
6 .27,
u"
= 4
= 212
36' 47".20,
20 52
.96,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
304
and from
n and
we
u"u',
r',
r", n, n",
n'",
',
=0.3083734,
log/" =0.3172674,
logr
obtain
= 160
it'"
=244 5931.98.
30' 55".45,
For the purpose of proving the accuracy of the numerical
we compute
also, as in
the
first
1=
716'51".54,
=+
A=
/?=
log p
32 14
16
59
.07,
9 .38,
56 39
= 0.0256960,
results,
approximation,
.54,
l'"=
b'"=
*'"=
91
fi'"=
log p'"
37' 41".20,
10 47
75
23 46
.99,
4 43
.33,
= 0.4492539.
.36,
//r
thus found differ, respectively, only 0".04
values of A and A
and 0".09 from those given by the normal places, and hence the
The
accuracy of the entire calculation, both of the quantities which are
and Q ff , and of those which depend on
',
independent of P', P",
This condition,
the successive hypotheses, is completely proved.
however, must always be satisfied whatever may be the assumed
f
values of P', P", Q , and Q".
f
r
From r, r , u, u , &c., we derive
log
= 0.0085254,
= 0.0174637,
log s"
and hence the corrected values of P', P",
logP'
= 9.8462110,
differ so little
Q',
log Q'
log P" = 9.8077622,
These values
log
"
log
from those
s'"
= 0.0204076,
and Q" become
= 9.8407524,
= 9.8824726.
for the second approximation,
the intervals of time between the observations being very large, that
a further repetition of the calculation is unnecessary, since the results
which would thus be obtained can differ but slightly from those
which have been derived. We shall, therefore, complete the determination of the elements of the orbit, using the extreme places.
Thus, from
r
=k(1f
ff
sin YQ cos Cr
sin YQ sin
cos YQ
(f
_I_
tan/ =
^t') )
= sin (u
= cos (u"
= cos J (um
w'"\* r*c\<v
J
^
'
u),
u) cos 2/
u) sin 2/
?0
NUMEKICAL EXAMPLE.
we
get
.
log r
ro
log
sQ
= 0.5838863,
= 42
30".17,
= 0.2917731,
=
(
gives
= 8.0521953
= 9.7179026,
= 8.9608397.
G
log m
log tan
14'
The formula
305
n,
log x
^
=
)
0.3712401;
and
if
we compute
sr'r" sin
the
arise
s"rr' sin (u'
u)
s"
r'
m sin
(u"
 u") V
results
separate
0.3712414.
(u"
by means of
the same quantity
are, respectively, 0.3712397, 0.3712418,
differences between these results are very small,
The
and
and
both from the unavoidable errors of calculation and from the
and Q" from the
deviation of the adopted values of P', P",
',
limit of accuracy attainable with logarithms of seven decimal places.
r/
f
u and
variation of only O .2 in the values of u
accordance
of
the
an
entire
results.
particular
produce
From
u"
will
the equations
sin
cos
we
u rrf
<f>
\(E'"E}
= l/x
obtain
I (E'"
E)
= 17
35' 42".12,
log cos
The
<p
log (a cos ?)
= 9.9915518.
= 0.3796883,
formulae
e sin (a*
A (>'"
i
e cos (a,
give
197
? s 11
ai
(u"
+ w)) = COS
+ M)) = cos
38' 8".48,
<p
^
y Vvf"
sec 1
Mw
u),
= log sin ? = 9.2907881,
= + ^ = 44 20' 34".37.
= 9.9915521, which differs only 3
TT
gives log cos
in the last decimal place
tan
Yffftt
log e
15' 52".22,
This result for
^
ft
<p
01
from the value found from
Then, from
20
and a cos
<p.
THEOKETICAL ASTKONOMY.
306
= cos^p
P
>
r>
al
<?
the value of k being expressed in seconds of arc, or log&
we
get
log a
For the
= 0.3881359,
log fi
IE =ta,n(u
=tan(w'
tan IE'
tan JjE" == tan J (u"
tan J (M'"
tan lE"
f
= 2.9678027.
we have
eccentric anomalies
tan
= 3.5500066,
w) tan (45
^),
w) tan(45
) tan (45
4$0,
") tan (45
^),
J?>,
from which the results are
E = 329
E'
The value of
E"
ll 46".01,
29 11 .84,
354:
/;/
J (J&
= 12
^ " = 39
r
5'
J&) thus derived differs only
obtained directly from a?
For the mean anomalies,
33".63,
34 34
.65.
0".03 from that
=E
we have
Jtf"
,
f
e sin J5',
Jf'
"
=E"
= E'"
e sin E'",
which give
M = 334
M = 355
r
55' 39".32,
M"
33 42
M'"
.97,
= 9
= 32
44' 52".82,
26 44
.74.
denotes the mean anomaly for the epoch
Finally, if
Jan. 1.0 mean time at Greenwich, from
M =M
= M"
Q
we
(Ji.(t
[i.
(t"
T)
T}
=M'
= M'"
1864
v.(t'T)
v (f"
T),
obtain the four values
M = 129'39".40
39 .49
39 .40
39
.40,
the agreement of which
completely proves the entire calculation of
the elements from the data.
Collecting together the several results,
we have the following elements
:
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
Epoch
= 1864 Jan. 1.0 Greenwich mean time.
M=
=
29' 39".42
44
20 34 .37
?=
log a
log fi
At
307
11
Ecliptio
and
Mean
15 52 .22
= 0.3881359
= 2.9678027
= 928".54447.
102. The elements thus derived completely represent the four observed longitudes and the latitudes for the second and third places,
which are the actual data of the problem ; but for the extreme lati
tudes the residuals are, computation minus observation,
These remaining errors
arise chiefly
from the circumstance that the
position of the plane of the orbit cannot be determined from the
second and third places with the same degree of precision as from
It would be advisable, therefore, in the final
the extreme places.
f
f
ff
f/
approximation, as soon as p' } p , n, n , n , and n" are obtained, to
compute from these and the data furnished directly by observation
The corresponding
the curtate distances for the extreme places.
heliocentric places may then be found, and hence the position of the
plane of the orbit as determined by the first and fourth observations.
Thus, by means of the equations (37) and
log p
With
these values of p
obtained
I
= 0.0256953,
r = 91
we
(38),
log />'"
obtain
= 0.4492542.
and p" f the following
,
heliocentric places are
16' 51". 54,
log tan b
3740.96,
logtan&'"
=8.4289064,
= 8.8638549
logr
log/"
M,
=0.3083732,
= 0.3172678.
Then from
we
Q (l"
tan
sin
tan
cos (I
get
(I'"
= 206
42' 45".23,
For the arguments of the
u
= 160
= (tan V" f tan
= $ (tan V" tan
1
f
30'
6) sec J (f"
6) cosec J (f"
=4
36' 49".76.
latitude the results are
35".99,
u'"
= 244
59' 12".53.
Q,
I),
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
308
The
equations
tan
= tan
b'
give
log tan
b'
sin
tan i sin
tan b"
= 8.1827129
(I'
(I"
& ),
&
),
log tan b"
n,
= 8,6342104
n,
and the comparison of these results with those derived directly from
/r
l .04 in b
and of
0".06 in
p' and p" exhibits a difference of f
b".
Hence, the position of the plane of the orbit as determined from
r
the extreme places very nearly satisfies the intermediate latitudes.
If we compute the remaining elements by means of these values
of
r,
r'" , and u, u' n', the separate results are
= 8.0522282
=
0.2917731,
log
logjp = 0.3712405,
log (a cos ?) = 0.3796884,
w = 197 37' 47".72,
V = 11 15 52
log a = 0.3881365,
log tan
Q
s
= 9.7179026,
= 8.9608397,
=
17 35' 42".12,
E)
\ (E"
=
cos
9.9915521,
log
log = 9.2907906,
= 9:9915520,
log cos
log
n,
log x
<p
.46,
=329
<p
log 11 == 2.9678019,
= 39
= 32
=
M
11' 47".24,
E'"
34' 35".70,
M=3Z4
55 40
.46,
M'"
26 45
.49,
29 40
.36,
29 40
.37.
M=
Q
Hence, the elements are as follows
Epoch
= 1864 Jan. 1.0 Greenwich mean time.
M=
*=
Oi=
29' 40".36
44 20 32 .95^
,..!,
AT
Ecll
P tlc and Mean
206 42 45
I
36 49:S/
= 11 15 52
= 0.3881365
P = 928".5427.
,
E ^x
1864.0.
.46
log a
It appears,
therefore, that the principal effect of neglecting the
extreme latitudes in the determination of an orbit from four observations is on the inclination of the orbit and on the
of the
longitude
The
ascending node, the other elements being very slightly changed.
elements thus derived
represent the extreme places exactly, and if
we compute the second and third places
directly from these elements,
we obtain
M = 355
E' ^=354
= 353
v
33' 43".88,
M" =
29 12
.93,
E"
16 59
.07,
<y"
= 12
^ 14
44' 53".73,
5 34
42 45
.81,
.96,
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
log r
u'
35 27
.75,
52 21
.25,
= 0.2960826,
= 212 20' 33".68,
= 58 58 16
2 27 59
b" = 
17
.35,
A"=
47
.67,
= 0.2942366,
= 190 54' 46".79,
l'=
V=
37
309
= 10 14
15
P== 0.1334634,
log
A'
log r"
u"
I"
.50,
.06,
29
53 21
.99,
57
.62,
=  2 29
=
0.2899122.
log p"
P'
p'
Hence, the residuals for the second and third places of the planet
are
Obs.
Comp.
=
AA" =
AA'
*P
0".22,
= + 1".53,
.06;
A/5"
.00,
and the elements very nearly represent the four normal places. Since
the interval between the extreme places is 223 days, these elements
must
represent, within the limits of the errors of observation, the
It
entire series of observations on which the normals are based.
may
be observed,
case of intervals
also, that the successive
which are very
same degree of rapidity
as
approximations, in the
do not converge with the
when the intervals are small, and that in
large,
much abbreviated by the
assumed values of P', P",
f
Q and Q" by means of approximate elements already known. For
the first determination of an unknown orbit, the intervals will gene
such cases the numerical calculation
is
very
determination, in the first instance, of the
,
rally be so small that the first
assumed values of these
quantities, as
determined by the equations
P"
_
I
ff
ff
I
S
"
0" ~ Ir'"
^
'
T "*
}'
'
much from the correct values, and two or three
or
even
But when the intervals
less, will be sufficient.
hypotheses,
are large, and especially if the eccentricity is also considerable, several
hypotheses may be required, the last of which will be facilitated by
will not differ
using the equations (82) 4
The application of the formula? for the determination of an orbit
.
from four observations, is not confined to orbits whose inclination to
the ecliptic is very small, corresponding to the cases in which the
method of finding the elements by means of three observations fails,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
310
On the contrary, these formulas
or at least becomes very uncertain.
orbits
of any inclination whatever,
of
in
case
the
well
apply equally
and
since the labor of
computing an orbit from four observations
when only three observed places
are used, while the results must evidently be more approximate, it
will be expedient, in very many cases, to use the formulae given in
does not
much exceed
this chapter
that required
both for the
first
approximation to an unknown orbit
and for the subsequent determination from more complete data.
CIRCULAR ORBIT.
CHAPTER
311
VI.
INVESTIGATION OF VARIOUS FORMULAE FOR THE CORRECTION OF THE APPROXIMATE
ELEMENTS OF THE ORBIT OF A HEAVENLY BODY.
103.
IN
the case of the discovery of a planet, it is often convehave been obtained for the determination
nient, before sufficient data
elliptic elements, to compute a system of circular elements, an
ephemeris computed from these being sufficient to follow the planet
for a brief period, and to identify the comparison stars used in dif
of
For this purpose, only two observed places
are required, there being but four elements to be determined, namely,
As soon as
2, i, a, and, for any instant, the longitude in the orbit.
a has been found, the geocentric distances of the planet for the
ferential observations.
instants of observation
may
be obtained by means of the formulae
= R cos 4 + I/a
A" = E" cos 4" + I/a
J
the values of
(43) 3
and
ff
R' sin 2 4",
and ty r being computed from the equations (42) 3 and
For convenient logarithmic
<$/
jR sin 4,
calculation,
we may
first
find z
from
sin z
sin z
(2)
since the formulae will generally be required for cases such that these
angles may be obtained with sufficient accuracy by means of their
sines.
Then we have
from which
to find p
These having been found, we have
and p".
~\
//
p sin (A
O)
^/r^oro)*
sin b
for the determination of
and
6,
(4)
and similarly
for
I" and b".
The
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
312
and the longitude of the ascending node are
then found by means of the formula? (75) 3 and the arguments of the
f
u is the distance on the celesSince u '
latitude by means of (77) 3
tial sphere between two points of which the heliocentric spherical
coordinates are I, b, and I", 6", we have, also, the equations
inclination of the orbit
O"
u) sin
sin (u"
u) cos
sin
cos
B = cos b" sin (I"
B = cos b sin b"
I),
sin b cos b" cos (I"
= sin b sin b" f cos b cos b" cos
u)
for the determination of
u"
I),
Q,
(I"
u, the angle opposite the side
The
b"
90
of the spherical triangle being denoted by B.
of auxiliary angles, as
equations is facilitated by the introduction
solution of these
already illustrated for similar cases.
In a circular orbit, the eccentricity being equal to zero, u"
t"
expresses the mean motion of the planet during the interval
and we must
u
t,
have
also
"
("),
(5)
3.5500066.
the value of k being expressed in seconds of arc, or log k
t is
These formulae will be applied only when the interval t"
small,
and
for the case of the asteroid planets
we may
first
2.7,
which is about the average mean distance of the group.
we compute p and p rf by means of the equations (2) and
corresponding heliocentric places by means of
is
small,
u"
assume
will differ very little
from
(4).
(3),
this
and the
If the inclination
l'
With
Therefore, in the
I.
approximation, when
the heliocentric longitudes have been found,
the corresponding value of t"
t
may be obtained from equation (5),
n
r
l
I in
of
u'
If this comes out less than the
u.
writing
place
first
actual interval between the times of observation,
we
infer that the
assumed value of a is too small but if it comes out greater, the
assumed value of a is too large. The value to be used in a repetition
;
of the calculation
log a
may
be computed from the expression
(log
(p
+ log k
log (u"
u}),
u"
u being expressed in seconds of arc. With this
and I", and find also 6, 6 r/ &, i, u, and u".
/?, //', /,
if
the
value
of
a computed from the last result' for
Then,
differs from the last assumed
value, a further repetition of the calcu
the difference
we recompute
u"u
CIRCULAR ORBIT.
313
becomes necessary. But when three successive approximate
values of a have been found, the correct value may be readily interlation
polated according to the process already illustrated for similar cases.
As soon as the value of a has been obtained which completely
equation (5), this result and the corresponding values of &
the
and
i,
argument of the latitude for a fixed epoch, complete the
of
circular
elements which will exactly satisfy the two observed
system
satisfies
places.
T,
fj.
we
If
we denote by UQ the argument of the
shall have, for
any
instant
latitude for the epoch
t.
being the mean or actual daily motion computed from
lc
a?
The value of u thus found, and
a, substituted in the
formula
for
computing the places of a heavenly body, will furnish the approxi
mate ephemeris required.
The
first
corrections for parallax and aberration are neglected in the
determination of circular elements ; but as soon as these approxi
mate elements have been derived, the geocentric distances may be
computed to a degree of accuracy sufficient for applying these corrections directly to the observed places, preparatory to the determination of elliptic elements.
The assumption of r f
a will also be
sufficient to take into
account the term of the second order in the
assumed value of P, according
to the first of equations (98) 4
first
104. When approximate elements of the orbit of a heavenly body
have been determined, and it is desired to correct them so as to satisfy
as nearly as possible a series of observations including a much longer
interval of time than in the case of the observations used in finding
these approximate elements, a variety of methods may be applied.
For a very long series of observations, the approximate elements
being such that the squares of the corrections which must be applied
to them may be neglected, the most complete method is to form the
equations for the variations of any two spherical coordinates which
fix the place of the body in terms of the variations of the six ele
ments of the orbit; and the differences between the computed places
for different dates and the corresponding observed places thus furnish
equations of condition, the solution of which gives the corrections to
be applied to the elements. But when the observations do not in
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
314
elude a very long interval of time, instead of forming the equations
for the variations of the geocentric places in terms of the variations
of the elements of the orbit, it will be more convenient to form the
in terms of quantities, less in number,
equations for these variations
from which the elements themselves are readily obtained. If no asis made in regard to the form of the orbit, the quantities
sumption
which present the
least difficulties in the
numerical calculation are
the geocentric distances of the body for the dates of the extreme
which are best adapted
observations, or at least for the dates of those
As soon as these distances are
to the determination of the elements.
accurately
known, the two corresponding complete observations are
sufficient to determine all the elements of the orbit.
The approximate elements enable us to assume, for the dates
and the elements computed from
t", the values of A and A"
;
and
these
by means of the data furnished by observation, will exactly represent
the two observed places employed.
Further, the elements may be
known to such a degree of approximation that
the squares and products of the corrections to be applied to the
assumed values of A and A" may be neglected, so that we shall have,
supposed to be already
for
any
date,
COS d
Aa
= COS
da
AA
aJ
..
da
f COS 8 j^
AA
rfJ
we compare the elements computed from A and A" with
number
of
additional or intermediate observed places, each obany
If, therefore,
served spherical coordinate will furnish an equation of condition for
the correction of the assumed distances.
But in order that the equations (6) may be applied, the numerical values of the partial differen
of a and d with respect to A and A" must be found.
Ordinarily, the best method of effecting the determination of these is
n the
to compute three systems of elements, the first from A and A
tial coefficients
',
D and
+D D
n
A", and the third from A and J"
and D" being small increments assigned to A and A" respectively.
If now, for any date t', we compute a/ and 8' from each system of
elements thus obtained, we may find the values of the differential
second from
f
',
Thus, let the spherical coordinates for the time
from
the
those
first system be denoted by a' and d'
computed
f
from
the
d'
a
and
second
of
sec
a
fcomputed
elements, by
system
d' \ d; and those from the third
d'
and
sec
a"
d'\ d".
system, by a'+
coefficients sought.
t'
Then we
shall
have
VAKIATION OF TWO GEOCENTKIC DISTANCES.
..
cos s
(6)
d$
TV
D
T~A
~fV
dA
,_,
'
* 8
and the equations
do!
TT
dA
315
dY'^lT'
dl^^W''
give
(8)
In the same manner, computing the places for various dates, for
which observed places are given, by means of each of the three systems
of elements, the equations for the correction of A and A" as determined by each of the additional observations employed, may be
,
formed.
For the purpose of illustrating the application of this method,
us suppose that three observed places are given, referred to the
ecliptic as the fundamental plane, and that the corrections for parallax,
aberration, precession, and nutation have all been duly applied.
By
105.
let
means of the approximate elements already known, we compute the
values of A and A" for the extreme places, and from these the heliocentric places are obtained by means of the equations (71) 8 and (72) 3
n
The values of
writing A cos/9 and A" cos/9" in place of p and p
and
u"
be
obtained
means
the
formula
will
of
& i, u,
by
(76) 3 and
r"
and
u"
u
elements
of the
and
from
the
r,
remaining
(77) 3
,
'
orbit are determined as already illustrated.
The first system of elements is thus obtained. Then we assign an increment to A, which
and A"
we denote by D, and with the geocentric distances A f
we compute
same manner a second system of elen
and from A and
ments. Next, we assign to A" an increment D
A" J D" a third system of elements is derived. Let the geocentric
longitude and latitude for the date of the middle observation computed from the first system of elements be designated, respectively,
'
by ^/ and /9/ from the second system of elements, by X2 and /92
'
and from the third system, by ^ 3 and /33 '. Then from
in precisely the
',
a"
we compute
of
'
(A 3
 A/) cos
f/
a,
D and D"
/?/,
d"
= ft'
ft',
a", d, and d , and by means of these and the values
the equations
we form
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
316
^AJ + ~A/I"
(10)
for the determination of the corrections to be applied to the first
assumed values of A and J", by means of the differences between
The observed longitude and latitude
observation and computation.
A' and /9', respectively, we shall have
denoted
by
being
CMp*X = (l
A/5'
A/) cos/?,
= /5'_/3/,
for finding the values of the second
members of the equations
(10),
and then by elimination we obtain the values of the corrections A J
and A//" to be applied to' the assumed values of the distances.
Finally, we compute a fourth system of elements corresponding to
the geocentric distances A f AZ/ and A" j A A" either directly from
these values, or by interpolation from the three systems of elements
already obtained ; and, if the first assumption is not considerably in
It
error, these elements will exactly represent the middle place.
should be observed, however, that if the second system of elements
'
'
represents the middle place better than the first system, ^ 2 and /32
should be used instead of ^/ and /9/ in the equations (11), and, in
this case, the final system of elements must be computed with the
+D
distances A
f A A and A" f A A".
Similarly, if the middle
place is best represented by the third system of elements, the corrections will be obtained for the distances used in the third hypothesis.
If the computation of the middle place by means of the final elestill exhibits residuals, on account of the
neglected terms of
ments
the second order, a repetition of the calculation of the corrections
AJ and AJ", using these residuals for the values of the second
members of the equations (10), will furnish the values of the distances for the extreme places with all the
The
precision desired.
increments _D and
to be assigned successively to the first assumed
D"
A and A" may, without
values of
true elements shall differ but
computed
and
little
in all the formulae
difficulty,
be so taken that the
from one of the three systems
it
will be convenient to use, in
stead of the geocentric distances
themselves, the logarithms of these
distances, and to express the variations of these quantities in units
of the last decimal place of the
logarithms.
These formulae will generally be
applied for the correction of
VARIATION OF TWO GEOCENTRIC DISTANCES.
317
approximate elements by means of several observed places, which
be either single observations or normal places, each derived from
may
several observations,
and the two places selected for the computation
A and A" should not only be the most accurate
of the elements from
possible, but they should also be such that the resulting elements are
not too much affected by small errors in these geocentric places.
They should moreover be
as distant
from each other as possible, the
other considerations not being overlooked.
When the three systems
of elements have been computed, each of the remaining observed
places will furnish two equations of condition, according to equations
(10), for the
determination of the corrections to be applied to the
;
and, since the number
assumed values of the geocentric distances
of equations will thus exceed the number of unknown quantities,
the entire group must be combined according to the method of least
Thus, we multiply each equation by the coefficient of AJ
squares.
its proper algebraic sign, and the sum
the equations thus formed gives one of the final equations
Then we multiply each equation by the coefficient of A A"
required.
in that equation, taken also with its proper algebraic sign, and the
in that equation, taken with
of
all
sum
of
all these gives
the second equation required.
From
these
two final equations, by elimination, the most probable values of A J
and A A" will be obtained and a system of elements computed with
the distances thus corrected will exactly represent the two funda;
mental places selected, while the sum of the squares of the residuals
The observations are thus
for the other places will be a minimum.
supposed to be equally good; but if certain observed places are
entitled to greater influence than the others, the relative precision
of these places must be taken into account in the combination of the
equations of condition, the process for which will be fully explained
in the next chapter.
W hen a number of observed places are to be used for the correction
of the approximate elements of the orbit of a planet or comet, it will
be most convenient to adopt the equator as the fundamental plane.
In this case the heliocentric places will be computed from the assumed
values of A and A", and the corresponding geocentric right ascensions
and declinations by means of the formulae (106) 3 and (107) 3 and the
position of the plane of the orb' 5 as determined from these by means
;
of the equations (76) 3 will be referred to the equator as the fundamental plane. The formation of the equations of condition for the
corrections A A and A A" to be applied to the assumed values of the
distances will then be effected precisely as in the case of ^
and
/9,
the
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
318
In a similar manner,
necessary changes being made in the notation.
the calculation may be effected for any other fundamental plane which
may be
adopted.
It should be observed, further, that
when
the ecliptic
is
taken as
the fundamental plane, the geocentric latitudes should be corrected
by means of the equation (6) 4 , in order that the latitudes of the sun
shall vanish, otherwise, for
the heliocentric places
strict accuracy,
must be determined from A and A" in accordance with the equations
(89),
106.
The
means of
two spherical co
partial differential coefficients of the
A and A" may be computed
ordinates with respect to
differential
numerical calculation
is
directly
by
special cases, the
less expeditious than in the case of the indi
formulae;
but, except
for
method, while the liability of error is much greater. If we
adopt the plane of the orbit as determined by the approximate values
rect
of A and
A"
as the
fundamental plane, and introduce ^ as one of the
elements of the orbit, as in the equations (72) 2 the variation of the
geocentric longitude d measured in this plane, neglecting terms of the
second order, depends on only four elements; and in this case the
,
may be applied with facility. Thus, if we exr
v
and
in
terms
of the elements <p,
and //, we shall have
press
Q,
differential formulae
dr
dr
dr
d(p
dM
dr
dM
dv
dfj
and
dv
J
dv
*
~J~T
dv
dy
J
'
J Hf
~dJL
"!"
~dA
dfj.
'
T J
J A
J A
~dT
^fa'dA'
'
..
or
d (v
f
/)
dA
In
like
dv
d<p
dv
dM
dv
djj.
d<p
dA
dM
dA
dn
dA'
d%
dA
manner, we have
'
dA
dA
d<p
'
dA
As
d<f>
'
dM
'
dM
dr
~djl
dA
d(v
,
'
'
'
'
TT
dA
dr"
~
dA
_ ~
dA
soon as the values of
dM
dr"
dr^_dr^ d^
+ y)
~~^,
dA
dp
^A'
'
dn
dA
dr"
jj,
dA
and
,,
dA
are
known, the equations necessary for finding the differential coefficients
of the elements ^,
and p with respect to A are thus provided.
0)
In the case under consideration, when an increment is
to
<f>,
assigned
J,
VARIATION OF TWO GEOCENTRIC DISTANCES.
the value of
A" remaining unchanged, r" and v" +
319
are not changed,
and hence
.
dA
To
find
77
and
from the equations
A cos f] cos B
J cos sin
>?
in
which
orbit
dA
=x
=y
f 3T,
\
Y,
the geocentric latitude in reference to the plane of the
computed from A and A" as the fundamental plane, and y Y
57
is
the geocentric coordinates of the sun referred to the same plane,
get
we
= cos y cos d dA,
dx
dA,
or, substituting for
dx and dy their values given by
cos
?)
cos
cos
fj
sin 6
= cos u dr
= sin udr
dA
dA
Eliminating, successively, d (v
dr
f
f)
= i cos
Therefore,
dy
we
shall
dv
j
d<p
c?r,
COS (0
T?
u d (v
r cos u
and
^)
= COS
r sin
\
d (v
we
(73),,
f
/),
f
/).
get
U) t
sm (0
it).
have
dM
dv
dv
TT
dA
TT^J
d<p
dr
d<p
dr
dy.
~rTdp dA
^7
dA
dM
dM dr = coss cos
7
(^
TT
,
dfj.
^j^T H
~j
w )>
'
,
j__
"
'
dr"
'
dip
and
if
.A.
'
'
we compute
'
dA
d^,dr^_
dM^
+
dM
dA
'
~dl~
'
dfi
dr"
'
'
dp
''
'
dA
^_
'dA~
the numerical values of the differential coefficients
these
and
v, and v" with respect to the elements <p,
equations will furnish, by elimination, the values of the four un
of
TJ r'
known
/Ji,
1
and jrJT> rr
dJ c?J
dJ
dJ
In precisely the same manner we derive the following equations
quantities yp
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
320
for the determination of the partial differential coefficients of these
A"
elements with respect to
dv
d%
'dA"
^
dx
dM
dv
d<p
dA"
~dv
~"
dv
dMl dA"
~*~
dr
d<p
dr
dM
dr
dp.
dA"
dM
dA"
d/j.
dA"
dv"
d<p
dv"
dM
dv"
d/j.
+ ^'^ + lMr^ +
'
dM^
_d^.dr^_
+
'
dM
dA"
dA"
'
dA"
~dp.
d<p
df_
~d^
dp.
'
'
'
"*
_
,
^ ^"^
dr^
'
fa
fa
dA"
Since the geocentric latitude y is affected chiefly by a change of the
position of the plane of the orbit, while the variation of the longitude
6 is independent of Q> and i when the squares and products of the
variations of the elements are neglected, if
we determine
the elements
which exactly represent the places to which A and A" belong, as well
as the longitudes for two additional places, or, if we determine those
which satisfy the two fundamental places and the longitudes for any
number of
additional observed places, so that the sum of the squares
minimum, the results thus obtained will
of their residuals shall be a
very nearly satisfy the several latitudes.
Let 6 f denote the geocentric longitude of the body, referred to the
plane of the orbit computed from A and A" as the fundamental plane,
for the date
of any one of the observed places to be used for corThen, to find the partial differential
recting these assumed distances.
coefficients of 6' with respect to
,
dtf
j A
dA
COS^
,dO'
fj
dx
7
d/
A and 4", we have
dA
r~
COS
dp.
dO'
dO'
dy
COS
if
d<p
dA
dO'
COS
fl
dM
dtf
dMr
.
.
'
dA
dp.
dA
(15)
dO'
d<p
dp.
results thus derived,
A0'
r~
,:
dO'
and by means of the
,dO'
d<p
+ CQ ^,dO'
/
fl
we form
= COS r!^AJ + COS
ad
if
dA
fourth observed place will furnish, in the same
tional equation required for
finding A J and A A".
the equation
AzT.
(16)
manner, the addiIf more than two
VARIATION OP TWO GEOCENTRIC DISTANCES.
321
observations are used in addition to the fundamental places on which
the assumed elements as derived from A and A" are based, the several
longitudes will furnish each an equation of condition, and the most
probable values of A// and A A" will be obtained by combining the
entire group of equations of condition according to the method of
least squares.
107. In the actual application of these formula? to the correction
of the approximate elements, after all the preliminary corrections
have been applied to the data, we select the proper observed places
from the corresponding assumed
for determining the elements
tances
A and
stated,
and
dis
A' f j according to the conditions which have already been
from these we derive the six elements of the orbit. Since
the data furnished directly by observation are the right ascensions
and the declinations of the body, the elements will be derived in
reference to the equator as the plane to
which the
inclination
and the
longitude of the ascending node belong. These elements will exactly
represent the two fundamental places, and, if the assumed distances
A and A" are not much in error, they will also very nearly satisfy
the remaining places.
now adopt as the fundamental plane the plane of the approximate orbit thus determined, and by means of the equations (83) 2 and
We
(85) 2 or
,
&
and
by means of
(87) 2 , writing a, d, &',
we compute
i,
the values of
respectively,
dates of the several places to be employed.
,
and
in place of
#,
Then
37,
and f
^, ft,
for the
the residuals for
each of the observed places are found from the formula?
cos
if)
= sin f A
= cos Y
A0
}~
cos?' cos d Aa,
sin f cos d Aa,
A<5
AT?
Aa and A for each place being found by subtracting
from the observed right ascension and declination, respectively, the
right ascension and declination computed by means of the elements
the values of
derived from
A and A".
The
0, y, and f being required
only for finding cos r] A#, A"^, and the differential coefficients of d and
with respect to the elements of the orbit, need not be determined
*y,
values of
with great accuracy.
Next, we compute
,+
r>\
i
(16) 2 the values of
r
dr
dr"
,
dtp
and :
dy>
'
from equations
dv
dr
dv"
d<f>
d(f>
dM
&c,,
(12),
and from
/
by means of which,
using the value of u in reference to the equator, we form the equaThe accent is added to % to indicate that it refers to the
tions (13).
21
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
322
elements.
Thus we obtain four
equator as the plane for defining the
the
values
of the differential
from
elimination,
which, by
equations,
coefficients
of
#',
the
first,
Tj,
and
/z
with respect to
is
quantity rj
be obtained.
immediately eliminated, so that
three equations to find the three
These having been found,
JT.
A may
solution, by subtracting the third equation from
unknown
the
we have
3/ and
<p,
In the numerical
j
first or from the third equation.
In the same manner we form the equations
unknown
may
quantities
be obtained from
the
the values of
mula
to be
anc
Then, by means of the forrp ~jW>
Jj 77
and (79) 2 we compute for the date of each place
'
cos j/,, cos r/
and thence derive
Tp
,
(76) 2 , (78) 2 ,
employed in correcting the
and cos if
(14),
,,
and hence from
&c.,
The
assumed distances the values of
(15) the values of COST/J
results thus obtained, together
with the residuals
Cfr^J
computed by means of the equations
(17), enable us to form, accordto
the
of
condition
for finding the values of the
ing
(16),
equations
corrections AZ/ and &A"
The solution of all the equations thus
.
method of
least squares, will give the most
values
of
these quantities, and the system of elements which
probable
corresponds to the distances thus corrected will very nearly satisfy
formed, according to the
the entire series of observations.
Since the values of cos rf A#' are
expressed in seconds of arc, the resulting values of A J and A A" will
also be expressed in seconds of arc in a circle whose radius is
equal
to the
mean
To express them in
divide their values in seconds of
distance of the earth from the sun.
parts of the unit of space,
arc by 206264.8.
we must
The corrections to be applied to the elements computed from A and
A", in order to satisfy the corrected values A \ A A and A" 4 A A",
may be computed by means of the partial differential coefficients
already derived.
Thus, in the case of
from which to find
may be
obtained.
we compute
AJ('
If,
',
we have
and in a similar manner
from the values of
^.t*
dA
tup,
Alfc and
and
VARIATION OF TWO GEOCENTRIC DISTANCES.
323
and apply these corrections to the values of v and v" found from A
and A" we obtain the true anomalies corresponding to the distances
A f A A and A" \ A J". The corrections to be applied to the values
of r and r" derived from A and A" are given by
^
dr
ar"
If AJ and A A" are expressed in seconds of arc, the corresponding
The corrected
values of Ar and Ar /r must be divided by 206264.8.
with the values of r and r" comfrom
corrected
the
values
of V, v ff p, and e by means
puted directly
of the polar equation of the conic section. Finally, we have
results thus obtained should agree
dz
and similarly
dz"
for
T sin
and the
r cos
Ai'
V
to find A^
last
sin
r" cos
i'
from which
= sin
and A
i'
it"
',
TJ
dA,
of equations (73) 2 gives
'
it
i'
Aw'
ATT'
A &'
and
the latitude in reference to the equator.
(?2) 2 ,
= sin A
= sin V
17
sin
it"
J,
being the arguments of
We have also,
according to
= A/ COS A&',
= A/ + 2 Sin ^' A &',
i'
from which to find the corrections to be applied to co f and TT'. The
elements which refer to the equator may then be converted into those
for the ecliptic by means of the formula which may be derived from
V and i.
(109)! by interchanging & and &' and 180
The
final residuals of the longitudes may be obtained by substithe
adopted values of A A and A A" in the several equations of
tuting
condition, or, which affords a complete proof of the accuracy of the
by direct calculation from the corrected elements
and the determination of the remaining errors in the values of y will
show IIOAV nearly the position of the plane of the orbit corresponding
entire calculation,
to the corrected distances satisfies the intermediate latitudes.
Instead of (p,
w and //, we may introduce any other elements
which determine the form and magnitude of the orbit, the necessary
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
324
changes being made in the formulae. Thus, if we use the elements
T, q, and e, these must be written in place of Jf //, and <p, respectively, in the equations (13), (14), and (15), and the partial differential
,
r, r", v, and v" with respect to these elements must be
of the various differential formulae which have
means
computed by
coefficients
of
Further, in all these cases, the
already been investigated.
must
be carefully attended to.
the
formulae
of
geneity
108.
The approximate elements of the
homo
orbit of a heavenly
body
by varying the elements which fix the position
may
of the plane of the orbit. Thus, if the observed longitude and latitude and the values of
and i are given, the three equations (91) t
also be corrected
&
will contain only three unknown quantities, namely, J,
the values of these may be found by elimination.
r,
and
u,
and
When the observed
latitude
/9
is
by means of the formula
corrected
(6) 4 , the latitudes
of
the sun disappear from these equations, and if we multiply the first
by sin (O
Q) sin ft the second (using only the upper sign) by
cos
the products,
&) sin ft and
we get
the third by
__
cos
sin
sin
sin
/5
cos
(0
&)
(O
sin (A
O)
cos ft
and add
ft)
sin i cos
/?
sin (A
O)'
from which u may be found. If we multiply the second of these
cos ft sin (A
equations by sin ft and the third by
a), and add the
products,
we
find
The
= sin u
(sin
cot
ft
sin (A
expression for r in terms of the
found by combining the
and
Rsin(Qft)
.
first
third, of equations (91) x .
n sin
the formula for
The
same
N=
^)
known
cos i)
quantities
may
also be
and second, or by combining the
If we put
sin/3cos(O
cos
/?
sin (A
first
&
Q),
u becomes
of equations (91) t shows that sin u and
sin/9 must have the
sign, and thus the quadrant in which u must be taken is deter
last
mined.
Putting, also,
mcos 3f
= sinw,
m sin M = sin u cot
/5
sin (A
&),
VARIATION OF THE NODE AND INCLINATION.
325
we have
__
cos
cos
When
any other plane
Jf
Jt?sin(Q
(M + i)
is
'
sin
taken as the fundamental plane, the
latitude of the sun (which will then refer to this plane) will be retained in the equations (91)! and in the resulting expressions for u
and
r.
also be obtained by first computing w and ^
of
the
means
equations (42) 3 and then, if z denotes the angle at
by
the planet or comet between the earth and sun, the values of u and
will be determined by means of the relaz, as may be readily seen,
tions of the parts of a spherical triangle of which the sides are
180
180
O &, and u^ the angle opposite to the
(z + oj/),
side u being that which we designate by w and the side 180 + O
SI
(z + \^),
being included by this and the inclination i. Let 8= 180
The value of u may
and, according to Napier's analogies, this spherical triangle gives
(23)
from which
8 and u
are readily found.
z
= 180
=
fl
Then we have
tS,
C 2 *)
B in4,
sing
to find r.
If we assume approximate values of & and *, as given by a system
of elements already known, the equations here given enable us to find
rf
and u" from ^, /? and A" /9 /; , corresponding to the dates t
r, u, r
',
and
two
t" of the
fundamental places
radii vectores
elements
body may
may
selected,
and arguments of the
be derived.
From
be found for the date
and from these
results for
latitude, the
remaining
these the geocentric place of the
of any intermediate or additional
observed place, and the difference between the computed and the
observed place will indicate the degree of precision of the assumed
Then we assign to & the increment $&, i
values of & and i.
remaining unchanged, and compute a second system of elements, and
r
We also compute a
from these the geocentric place for the time t
third system from & and i f di, and by a process entirely analogous
.
to that already indicated in the case of the variation of
two geocentric
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
326
we
distances,
cients of A
obtain the numerical values of the differential coeffi
and
$' with respect to
COS
A/ ==
/?'
COS
&
and
p ^ A
i.
f
COS
Thus
the equations
Al,
(25)
'
for finding the corrections A& and A^ to be applied to the assumed
values of these elements, will be formed ; and each additional observation or normal place will furnish two equations of condition for
the determination of these corrections.
If the observed right ascensions and declinations are used directly
instead of the longitudes and latitudes, the elements
and i must
be referred to the equator as the fundamental plane, and the declinations of the sun will appear in the formula for u and r obtained from
the equations (91)^ thus rendering them more complex.
Their derivation offers no difficulty, being 'similar in all respects to that of the
equations (19) and (20), and since they will be rarely, if ever, reit is not
In
necessary to give the process here in detail.
general, the equations (23) and (24) will be most convenient for
quired,
u from the
finding r and
elements
&
and
it
geocentric spherical coordinates and the
w fr , and o/ r remain unchanged for the
since w, ^,
three hypotheses.
When the equator
is taken as the fundamental plane, ^ is the
two points on the celestial sphere for which the
and a, d, those of the sun
geocentric spherical coordinates are A,
denoted
A
and
D.
Hence
we
shall
have
being
by
distance between
sin
4>
sin
sin
cos
cos
4
B = cos d sin (a
B = cos D sin d
= sin D sin
A),
sin
j
cos
D cos 8 cos (a
D cos d cos (a
A),
(26)
A),
from which to find $ and J5, the angle opposite to the side 90
d
of the spherical triangle being denoted
Let
denote
the
B.
by
right ascension of the ascending node on the equator of a great circle
passing through the places of the sun and comet or planet for the
time t, and let w denote its inclination to the
equator; then we shall
have
WQ cos (A
WQ sin (A
cos w
sin
sin
from which to find
IV
and K.
K)
K)
= cos B,
= sin B sin
= sin B cos D,
Z>,
(27)
In a similar manner, we may com
VARIATION OF THE NODE AND INCLINATION.
pute the values of u"
coordinates
From
I,
and
&, and
u,
327
from the heliocentric spherical
I", b".
the equations
the accents being added to distinguish the elements in reference to
the equator from those with respect to the ecliptic, the values of 8
and u (in reference to the equator) may be found. Let s denote the
angular distance between the place of the sun and that point of the
equator for which the right ascension
= cos W
cot s
is
K, and the equation
cot (JBT
A)
(29)
gives the value of s09 the quadrant in which it is situated being determined by the condition that coss and cos(K
A) shall have the
same
sign.
Then we have 8
z
=8
= 180
SQ ,
4,
E sin
and
&+8
0)
^30)
4,
sin z
from which to find
r.
method of the variation of two geocentric distances and that of the variation of & and i, instead of using the
109. In both the
geocentric spherical coordinates given by an intermediate observation, in forming the equations for the corrections to be applied to the
assumed
quantities,
we may
use any other
two quantities which may
be readily found from the data furnished by observation. Thus, if
we compute r r and u f for the date of a third observation directly
from each of the three systems of elements, the differences between
the successive results will furnish the numerical values of the partial
r
differential coefficients of r and u' with respect to A and A" , or with
and i, as the case may be. Then, computing the values
from the observed geocentric spherical coordinates by
means of the values of Q, and i for the system of elements to be
corrected, the differences between the results thus derived and those
respect to Q,
of r f and u'
obtained directly from the elements enable us to form the equations
du'
du'
dA
dA
mt
(31)
THEORETICAL ASTEONOMY.
328
&
or the corresponding expressions in the case of the variation of
and i, by means of which the corrections to be applied to the assumed values will be determined. In the numerical application of
these equations, AM' being expressed in seconds of arc, A?' should also
in seconds, and the resulting values of A A and A A" will
be
expressed
be converted into those expressed in parts of the unit of space by
dividing them by 206264.8.
only three observed places are to be used for correcting an
r' r" and u, u u" obtained
approximate orbit, from the values of r, 9
means of the formulae which have been given, we may find p and
When
',
by
from the first
the latter in the case of very eccentric orbits
a
and second places, and also from the first and third places. If these
a or
results agree, the elements do not require any correction ; but if a
difference is found to exist, by computing the differences, in the case
of each of these two elements, for three hypotheses in regard to A
and A" or in regard to & and i, the equations may be formed by
means of which the corrections to be applied to the assumed values
of the two geocentric distances, or to those of & and i, will be
obtained.
The
formulae which have thus far been given for the correction of an approximate orbit by varying the geocentric distances,
110.
depend on two of these distances when no assumption
is
made
in
regard to the form of the orbit, and these formula apply with equal
facility whether three or more than three observed places are used.
But when
a series of places can be
made
available, the
problem may
be successfully treated in a manner such that it will only be necessary
to vary one geocentric distance.
Thus, let x, y, z be the rectangular
heliocentric coordinates,
time
t,
and
let Jf,
the same instant.
and r the radiusvector of the body
at the
Y Z be
the geocentric coordinates of the sun at
9
Let the geocentric coordinates of the body be
designated by xw yw z , and let the plane of the equator be taken as
the fundamental plane, the positive axis of x being directed to the
vernal equinox.
Further, let p denote the projection of the radiusvector of the body on the plane of the
equator, or the curtate distance with respect to the equator; then we shall have
If
we
tion
= p cos
a,
yQ
= p sin
a,
represent the right ascension of the sun
by D, we
also
have
= p tan
(32)
d.
by A, and
its
declina
VARIATION OF ONE GEOCENTRIC DISTANCE.
Z=EsmD.
Y=RcosDsmA,
sA,
329
(33)
The fundamental
equations for the undisturbed motion of the planet
or comet, neglecting its mass in comparison with that of the sun, are
but since
X
XQ
y^y^Y,
X,
and, neglecting also the mass of the earth,
dP
+ ^
~~
'
K*
d?
~'
dt*
these become
(8*)
Substituting for
ic
2/
and
their values in terms of
a and
(?,
and
putting
^ ^) =
3
we
C,
(35)
get
2/0
Jj, >
^
3
DAJJ. **
rt/m
Differentiating the equations (32) with respect to
dxn
dp
x*"'
t,
we
find
da
<!'
dzn
f'Qfi^
^^
(87)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
330
to t, and substituting in the equaDifferentiating again with respect
tions (36) the values thus found, the results are
If we multiply the
cos a,
by
first of these equations by
and add the products, we obtain
dt
~~ 3
and the second
sin a,
da
dt
Now, from
(35)
we
sin a
TI
get
cos a
=P
K cos
D sin (a
J.),
and the preceding equation becomes
da
dt
dt
The value
of
77
thus found
at
is
coindependent of the differential
7
To
efficients
of d with respect to
all three
of equations (38), we multiply the first of these equations
tan d, the second by
cos
tan d, and the third by
by
sin
sin (a
the result
find another value of
A).
Then, adding the products, since
is
from which we get
*~
t.
(.^5
sin
p
A=y
using
cos
A,
VARIATION OF ONE GEOCENTRIC DISTANCE.
When
331
taken as the fundamental plane, the last term
member of this equation vanishes,
and the epuation may be written
the ecliptic
is
of the numerator of the second
C being
the coefficient
111.
When
independent of
the value of p
p.
given, that of
is
will be determined
j(Mi
by observation and of the
t from
equation
being preferred when the motion of the
in terms of the data furnished directly
a and
differential coefficients of
from
(39), or
body
(40), the latter
we may compute
^
Ctv
having been
the velocities of the body in directions
parallel to the coordinate axes.
The value of
very slow.
in right ascension is
found,
d with respect to
= x + X,
yQ
Thus, since
= y+Y,
= + Z,
z
the equations (37) give
do
dx
dX
da
dY
dy =
_
_ + cosa ____,
smo dp
dZ
dz
dp
,^dS
_
= tan ^
+ , ^,
da,
(42 )
sec
by means of which
To
>
J, CLL
ell/
and
may
=a/L
find the values of 37
r>
>
and
77,
at
at
at
be determined.
the equations
X=RcosO,
Y=Rsin O cose,
Z = R sin O sin
e,
give,
by
differentiation,
dX
___
^dR
___ jRsm0
cos0
dY
 =
sin
at
dZ
JT
at
O cos s
= sm Q sin
.
dR
=7
at
dR

+ R cos O cos
.
j
dQ
j,
at
RD cos O sin e dO
jr
at
.
at
dO
_,
.
, A0
(43)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
332
Now, according
to equation (52) w
we have
and e the eccentricity of
denoting the mass of the earth,
section
conic
gives
The polar equation of the
dr
2
r e sin v
dv
"dt'
~di~
Let
F denote
its orbit.
the longitude of the sun's perigee, arid this equation
gives
dR
J? e
^
_
we
T)
.
dt
If
sin(Q
dQ _kV l
tW
Vl
"" ~
+m
~
\
Or* &i.ui v
\i/
j*
.,
y
the eccentricity of the earth's orbit,
neglect the square of
we
have simply
~
R*
dt
dt
having been found by means of these
fj JT d Y
and
the equations (43) give the required results for
formula?,
COv
Civ
f7
The
values of
^7
and
^r
T,
and hence, by means of
(42),
we
obtain the velocities of the
comet or planet in directions parallel to the coordinate axes.
112.
The
values of x, y y and z
equations
= A cos
y = A COS
and from
these, in connection
may
be derived by means of the
cos a
X,
d sin a
<5
with the corresponding
velocities, the
The
may
equations (32)j give imthe
values
of
the
the
inclination,
mediately
semiparameter, and the
ascension
of
the
node
on the equator. Then, the
ascending
right
position of the plane of the orbit being known, we may compute r
elements of the orbit
be found.
and u directly from the geocentric right ascension and declination by
means of the equations (28) and (30). But if we use the values of
the heliocentric coordinates directly, multiplying the first of equations (93)! by cos &, and the second by sin &, and adding the products,
we have
VARIATION OF ONE GEOCENTRIC DISTANCE.
r sin
r cos u
= cosec
= x cos &
z
333
i,
J
sin
?/
&
from which r and w may be found, the argument of the latitude u
being referred to the plane of xy as the fundamental plane. The
equation
gives
==
r'di~^^'di~^r"di'
~di
and, since
dr
we
shall
dv
r*e sin v
di~
dt
~^p
dv
di~
Vp
'
r3
have
Vp
"
dr
F '*
>
(49)
from which to find
and
Then
v.
helion and the ascending node
(it
The
semitransverse axis
is
is
the distance between the peri
given by
=11
V.
obtained from
p and
by means of the
relation
Finally, from the value of v the eccentric anomaly and thence the
mean anomaly may be found, and the latter may then be referred to
any epoch by means of the mean motion determined from a.
In the case of very eccentric orbits, the perihelion distance will be
given by
and the time of perihelion passage may be found from
means of Table IX. or Table X., as already illustrated.
and
by
The equation (2l\ gives, if we substitute for / its value in terms
of p, denote by
the linear velocity of the planet or comet, and neglect the mass,
denote the angle which the tangent to the orbit at the extremity of the radiusvector makes with the prolongation of this
Let
o//
radiusvector,
and we
shall
have
THEOEETICAL ASTRONOMY.
334
dx
dr
dz
dy
so that the preceding equation gives
Vp= FV
Hence we derive the equations
dx
^ may
from which Fr and
dz
dy
Then, since
be found.
'p=
we
have
shall
(51)
by means of which a may be determined, and then
by means of this and the value of p.
The equations (49) and (50) give
(o)
=F
(u
a*)
=F
e cos (i*
e sin
r sin
75
4/
cos
2
r sin 4
may
be found
1,
A/
and, since
F_2_l
~~ ~
r
a
"F
these are easily transformed into
2ae sin (u
2ae cos (u
o)
to)
= (2a r) sin 24
= (2a
cos
r)
24/
r.
cos u and the second
first of these equations by
and add the products then multiply the first by sin u and
the second by cos u, and add, we obtain
If we multiply the
by
sin u,
2ae sin
to
2ae cosw
=
=
(2a
r) sin
(2^
f
u)
(2a
r) cos (24/
f
w)
These equations give the values of
01
and
r sin u,
r cost*,
/^
e.
We
113.
have thus derived all the formulae necessary for finding
the elements of the orbit of a heavenly body from one geocentric
distance, provided that the first and second differential coefficients of
a and
d with respect to the time are accurately known.
It remains,
VARIATION OF ONE GEOCENTRIC DISTANCE.
therefore, to devise the
means by which these
335
differential coefficients
be determined with accuracy from the data furnished by obserThe approximate elements derived from three or from a
vation.
may
small
number of observations
will enable us to correct the entire
and aberration, and to form the
normal places which shall represent the series of observed places.
We may now assume that the deviation of the spherical coordinates
series of observations for parallax
computed by means of the approximate elements from those which
would be obtained if the true elements were used, may be exactly
represented by the formula
A0
= A + Bh +
Ch\
(53)
h denoting the interval between the time at which the deviation is
The
expressed by A and the time for which this difference is A#.
differences between the normal places and those computed with the
approximate elements
to be corrected, will
then suffice to form equameans
of
which
the
values of the coefficients
by
be
determined. The epoch for which h
may
may
tions of condition
A, B, and
be chosen arbitrarily, but it will generally be advantageous to fix it
at or near the date of the middle observed place.
If three observed
places are given, the difference between the observed and the computed value of each right ascension will give an equation of condition,
according to (53), and the three equations thus formed will furnish
the numerical values of A, J5, and (7.
These having been deterthe
the
will
correction
to be applied to the
mined,
equation (53)
give
ascension
for
date
within
the limits of the
computed right
any
extreme observations of the
series.
When more
than three normal
places are determined, the resulting equations of condition may be
reduced by the method of least squares to three final equations, from
and
will
which, by elimination, the most probable values of
} I>,
be derived.
In
manner, the corrections to be applied to the
computed latitudes may be determined. These corrections being
applied, the ephemeris thus obtained may be assumed to represent
like
the apparent path of the body with great precision, and may be employed as an auxiliary in determining the values of the differential
a and 3 with respect to t.
Let f(a) denote the right ascension of the body at the middle
Q, and let /(a
epoch or that for which h
nco) denote the value of
coefficients of
any other date separated by the interval rwo, in which at is the
interval between the successive dates of the ephemeris.
Then, if we
for
put n successively equal to
1, 2, 3,
&c.,
we
shall
have
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
336
Function.
V.
IV. Diff
III. Diff.
II. Diff.
I. Diff.
Diff.
P^SPsfciS^i
g^li^lisii^*f
The
series of functions
manner
the result
differences
be extended in the same
may
we expand f(a
If
+ not) into a
series,
is
'"
V^ 4 nut}
J
^f(ct
=a
z
VHD 4 4
Ji
" I
or,
and
in either direction.
putting for brevity
j( a
^2
?i
_j_
An
w2
4
 ?i3 o>3 4rr7 7i a>* 4Tf^r
iJ4 ,7M
a Jtf
I
A==^ra)
=a
nw )
__
^
f
B = ^~rp
?i
w2
3
(7?i
now put % successively equal to
4,
we obtain the values of f(a
4(o),f(a
differences
B,
(7,
&c.
&c.,
+ D?i + &c.
If we
&c.,
in terms of
&c..
3,
1,
2,
0, f1,
...... f(a
4w)
Then, taking the successive orders of
3<w),
and symbolizing them as indicated above, we obtain a
by means of which A, JB, C, &c. will be deter
series of equations
mined
in terms of the successive orders of differences.
placing
J.,
putting
B,
C, &G.
by the
quantities which they
Finally, re
represent,
and
J/'(i) + J/'(a + i) =/'(),
 J) + i/'( + 4") =/'"(), &c,
if" (a
we
obtain
W V
==
'
(/ (a)
~ ^'" (a) +
'
W  Tlo/'"() +
"
(a)
,
J 5/
ri "
()
Ac.),
+ &c.),
(54)
==
(/
w if"() +
&c.),
= 5r (/"()*/"() + &c.),
J = i (/'"() 
4*.),
=
(/(a)
 4o.),
VARIATION OF ONE GEOCENTRIC DISTANCE.
by means of which the successive
respect to
may
differential coefficients of
The
be determined.
337
<x
with
derivation of these coefficients
in the case of d is entirely analogous to the process here indicated for
Since the successive differences will be expressed in seconds of
the
arc,
resulting values of the differential coefficients of a and d with
t will also be
to
respect
expressed in seconds, and must be divided by
in
206264.8
order to express them abstractly.
a.
We may
adopt directly the values of
by means of the corrected ephemeris,
not include a very long interval,
d3 d d*n
f
~75~>
dr
TS~
&c
at'
3,
jrp
37,
and
determined
^
observed places do
determine only the values
or, if the
we may
da
by means of the ephemeris, and then
find
7
at
Thus, let a, a/,
directly from the normal places or observations.
be three observed right ascensions corresponding to the times ty t f ,
and we
shall
a,
and ^
dr
a"
t
ff
9
have
which give
These equations, being solved numerically, will give the values of
77
f/^rt
and
ctz
and we may thus by
triple
combinations of the observed
places, using always the same middle place, form equations of condition for the determination of the most probable values of these
differential coefficients
by the solution of the equations according
to
the method of least squares.
In a similar manner the values of
,
at
and
3at
may
be derived.
114. In applying these formulae to the calculation of an orbit,
normal places have been derived, an ephemeris should be
computed at intervals of four or eight days, arranging it so that one
after the
of the dates shall correspond to that of the middle observation or
normal place. This ephemeris should be computed with the utmost
22
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
338
be employed as an auxiliary in determining quanThe comtities on which depends the accuracy of the final results.
with the observed places will furnish, by
parison of the ephemeris
means of equations of the form
care, since it is to
A + Bh +
Ch?
A' f B'h
C'K
=
=
AC/,
A<5',
f
h being the interval between the middle date t and that of the place
f
<fec.; and the corrections to be
used, the values of A, JB, C, A
determined
be
will
to
the
by
ephemeris
applied
,
A + Bna>
A'
The
unit of h
f
= Aa,
CnW
j
be ten days, or any other convenient interval,
nco in the last equations must be expressed
that
observing, however,
With the ephemeris thus corrected, we
in parts of the same unit.
may
compute the values of =,
Ctv
and
These
as already explained.
j
CLu
should be determined with great care, since
differential coefficients
is
37,
^,
(A/L
CLv
it
on their accuracy that the subsequent calculation principally de
pends.
We
compute,
of the formula? (43),
also,
the velocities
and
37,
^,
and
3
by means
being computed from (46).
The
quantities thus far derived remain unchanged in the two hypotheses
with regard to J.
Then we assume an approximate value of J, and compute
= A cos
and by means of the equation (40) or
3j
It will be observed that if
d/>_P
the coefficient
(39)
we put
we compute
the value of
the equation (40) in the form
p
^
equations (38)
will not contain
remains the same in the two hypotheses.
may be
^.
so
The
three
combined that the resulting value of
This transformation
is
easily effected, and
"
be advantageous in
special cases for which the value of
is
may
very
uncertain.
The
heliocentric spherical coordinates will be obtained
from the
RELATION BETWEEN TWO PLACES IN THE ORBIT.
assumed value of A by means of the equations (106) 3 and the
tangular coordinates from
,
= r cos b cos
=
r cos sin
y
= r sin
The
velocities
^
~, and
339
rec
I,
/,
b.
~ will
be given by
(42),
and from these
and the coordinates x, y, z the elements of the orbit will be computed by means of the equations (32) w (47), (49), &c. "With the
elements thus derived
we compute
the geocentric places for the dates
of the normals, and find the differences between computation and
observation.
Then a second system of elements is computed from
A f dJf and compared with the observed places. Let the difference
between computation and observation for either of the two spherical
coordinates be denoted by n for the first system of elements, and by
n f for the second system. The final correction to be applied to J, in
order that the observed place
may
be exactly represented, will be
determined by
^(n'n)
Each observed
right ascension
+ n = 0.
(56)
and each observed declination
will
thus furnish an equation of condition for the determination of A J,
observing that the residuals in right ascension should in each case be
multiplied by cos d.
Finally, the elements which correspond to the
geocentric distance J f A// will be determined either directly or by
interpolation, and these must represent the entire series of observed
places.
115. The equations (52) 3 enable us to find two radii vectores when
the ratio of the corresponding curtate distances is known, provided
that an additional equation involving r, r fl x, and known quantities
',
For the
special case of parabolic motion, this additional
equation involves only the interval of time, the two radiivectores,
is
given.
and the chord joining
their extremities.
The corresponding
equation
for the general conic section involves also the semitransverse axis
of the orbit, and hence, if the ratio
of the curtate distances is
this equation will, in connection with the equations (52) 3 ,
enable us to find the values of r and r" corresponding to a given
known,
value of
a.
To
derive this expression, let us resume the equations
THEOKETICAL ASTRONOMY.
340
4 = E"  E  2e sin.i (E"  E) cos
J
+ E\
(E"
,_
a^
+ /' = 2a
E}
(E"
2ae cos
cos 
(E"
+ #)
For the chord K we have
= + r")
4rr" cos 2 j (u"
(r
u),
which, by means of (58) 4 , gives
K2
= + r")
 4a (cos i (&'E)to cos J (^/
2
(r
and, substituting for r
(57),
we
\
r ff
its
E)
cos
(^^+^J)+e
cos2
value given by the last of equations
get
x2
= 4a
sin
("
2
J
E)
e cos i(JE"
(1
Let us now introduce an auxiliary angle
h,
+ ^)).
(58)
such that
the condition being imposed that h shall be less than
180, and put
then the equations (57) and (58) become
=
2 sin g cos
r" = 2a(l
cos ? cos A),
x = 2a sin sin
2<7
/&,
A.
</
Further,
and the
us put
let
last
two of equations
(59) give
(60)
'"""A
Introducing 8 and
e into
the
first
~ = (e
of equations (59),
sin e)
sin
(d
it
becomes
d\
(61)
a?
The
and
(61).
a,
formulae (60) enable us to determine e and 8 from r f r", x,
and then the time
r'
= k (t"
t)
may
be determined from
Since, according to (58) 4 ,
Vrr"
cos J (u"
u)
= a (cos g
cos
ft)
= 2 sin
sin
<5,
RELATION BETWEEN TWO PLACES IN THE ORBIT.
341
u
sin Je is necessarily positive, it appears that when u"
180, the value of sin \d must be negative, and when
u
and thus the quadrant in which
180, we have d =
and since
exceeds
u ff
d must be taken
is
determined.
It will be observed that the value
Je,
by the first of equations (60), may be either in the
first or the second quadrant; but, in the actual application of the
of
as given
formulae, the ambiguity
is
easily
removed by means of the known
circumstances in regard to the motion of the body during the interval t"
t.
In the application of the equations (52) 3 by means of an approxiff
Then we comc, and thence r and r
to the given value of ^, and from (61)
,
mate value of x we compute
and d corresponding
pute
we
derive the value of
'
If this agrees with the observed interval t"
the assumed value
,
of K is correct; but if a difference exists, by varying x we may
readily find, by a few trials, the value which will exactly satisfy the
The formulae (70) s will then enable us to determine the
equations.
curtate distances p and p rf } and from these and the observed spherical
coordinates the elements of the orbit
As
e
soon as the values of u and
=E
rf
j&,
we
<p
sin A (u"
u)
^77
asm(e
which may be used to determine
To find p and g, we have
and the value of
a cos 2
o>
be found.
since
have, according to equation (85) 4 ,
cos
may
u" have been computed,
(p,
may
(p
/r,
K Vrr",
when
the orbit
2a sin 2 (45
is
^)
very eccentric.
be found by means of the equations (87) 4 or
(88),
116. The process here indicated will be applied chiefly in the determination of the orbits of comets, and generally for cases in which
a is large. In such cases the angles e and d will be small, so that
the slightest errors will have considerable influence in vitiating the
t as determined
value of t"
by equation (61); but if we transform
this equation so as to eliminate the divisor a% in the first member, the
sine
uncertainty of the solution may be overcome. The difference e
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
342
may be expressed by a
Thus,
let
series
which converges rapidly when
e is small.
us put
sin e
= y sin
^e,
= sm
\s,
and we have
 y COt
2 COS6C ^
rJL
e,
_
cfe
Therefore
dfy
_8
6ycos^e_4
sin
cfo
If
we suppose y
to be
we
get,
by
3y(l
2# (1
expanded into a
2aQ
x)
series of the
form
= a + fa + r& + **+ &c.,
differentiation,
and substituting
2,3* f (4r
for
2/5)

^+
the value already obtained, the result
is
x
+ &c. = 4 3a + (60
^
&c.
f (6/3
3r)
+ (6r 3d) +
4r ) a 8
(6<5
3/3)
ic
Therefore
we have
4
6/3
3r
6a
3a:=0,
= 4r
3/3=2/3,
35
65
6r
2/3,
4r,
from which we get
4.6
4.6.8
35'
4.6.8.10,
3.5.7.9
Hence we obtain
and, in like manner,
^BWs*^B^^
which, for brevity,
may
be written
sind
= JC' sin
i,
>&C
'
RELATION BETWEEN TWO PLACES IN THE ORBIT.
Combining
343
and substituting for sin^s and
by the equations (60), there results
these expressions with (61),
sin ^3 their values given
6r'
= Q (r + r" + x)* + q (r + r" 
(65)
x)t,
the upper sign being used when the heliocentric motion of the body
is less than 180, and the lower sign when it is greater than 180.
The coefficients Q and Q f represent, respectively, the series of terms
enclosed in the parentheses in the second members of the equations
(62) and (63), and it is evident that their values may be tabulated
with the argument
however, that the
or
as the case
d,
may
be.
two terms of the value of
first
It will be observed,
are identical with
first two terms of the expansion of
(cosje)"^ into a series of
ascending powers of sin Je, while the difference is very small between
the coefficients of the third terms.
Thus, we have
the
(cosle)V
= (1 _ sin'ie)* = 1 + f sm'le + ^ sin^e
6
11
16
+ 5.10.15 Sm
+ &C "
and
if
we put
Q=
we
shall
(66)
*\...
(cos Je) *
have
JS
= 1 + Tf
In a similar manner,
if
sm* ie
f
6
3
2 2 5 sin Je f Ac.
(67)
we put
g=
*'i..
(68)
(cos<5)s
we
find
Bo'
Table
to
XV.
= 1 f T?5 sin
+ 3V& sin ^ + Ac.
6
i*
gives the values of J5 or JB
'
corresponding to
(69)
e
or d from
60.
For the
case of parabolic motion
we have
and the equation (65) becomes identical with (56) 3
In the application of these formulae, we first compute and 3 by
means of the equations (60), and then, having found ^ and BJ by
means of Table XV., we compute the values of Q and Q from (66)
and (68). Finally, the time T '=k(t"t) will be obtained from (65),
and the difference between this result and the observed interval will
.
THEOEETICAL ASTRONOMY.
344
indicate whether the
assumed value of x must be increased or di
A few trials will give the correct result.
minished.
117. Since the interval of time t"
sufficient
cannot be determined with
JC
is
accuracy from (65) when
very small, it
effect a further transformation of this
equation.
us put
the chord
becomes necessary to
Thus,
let
q = 6P,
Q
and we
shall
= sin
ie,
= sin
\d,
have
Now, when K
is
very small, we
may put
COS \d,
COS^e
and hence
/
x'
= sin
...2
 4e sin ^d
= sn
4 COS
a
4e
sm
,
2
4<J
,
which, by means of equations (60), becomes
Therefore
If
we
have,
when x
is
very small,
we put
4 r"
V= PO^r'
x")t
(7r>
the equation (65) becomes,
using only the upper sign,
(r
which
is
+ r" + x)i  (r + r"  x)t = 6r
of the same form as
(56) 3
tions (63) 3
and
(66) 3 ,
we
shall
the value of
p.
',
(72)
Hence, according to the equa
have
=vl^>
< 73 >
being found from Table XI. with the argument
1
= .
2T
,
a
(74)
RELATION BETWEEN TWO PLACES IN THE ORBIT.
345
It remains, therefore, simply to find a convenient expression for r/,
and the determination of K is effected by a process precisely the same
as in the special case of parabolic motion.
Let us now put
P_~ _x_
~Q
and we
shall
have
.
2.8
or, substituting for
N= + A
3.8.10
its
4.8.10.12
value in terms of sin Je,
Therefore^ if
N
'
40a costs'
sin e
4
sin ^e
+ gj^\ sin
Je f &c.
(75)
we put
the expression for r
'
becomes
V = ^Ar
T
Table
XV.
from
If
the.
N corresponding
gives the value of log
to e
= 60.
chord K
is
given, and the interval of time t"
we compute AT/ by means of
T
(76),
to values of e
r</
is
required,
from
+ r"
*T*
as in the case of parabolic motion,
f,
and, having found
xl/r
(77)
'.
we have
+A
~~
eOo'
It should be observed that although equation (76) is derived for the
case of a small value of x, yet it is applicable whenever the difference e
S is very small, whatever may be the value of x.
For
which
from the parabolic form, it will in all
Ar/; and for cases in
which the difference between e and d is such that the assumption of
xf
cos <5, x
cos Je
2x, &c., made in deriving equation (70), does
orbits
differ
but
little
cases be sufficient to use this expression for
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
346
not afford the required accuracy,
directly, and then we have
we may compute both Q and Q'
+
The
values of the factor J

"x)l.
(78)
be tabulated directly with
may
x
r4r"
argument and
as the vertical
as the horizontal
j
but for the few cases in which the value of
argument;
given by the equation
r
it
be
will
not
easy to compute Q and Q
sufficiently accurate,
(75)
'
by means of the formula? (66) and (68), and then find Ar from (78).
is
when
as to the accuracy of the result
given by (76), for the final trial in finding x from r f r" and r by
means of the equations (73) and (74), it will be advisable to compute
Further,
Ar
'
from
there
any doubt
is
(78).
It appears, therefore, that for nearly all the cases which actually
occur the determination of the value of x, corresponding to given
M=
values of a and
the method which
The
>
is
reduced by means of the equation (72) to
adopted in the case of parabolic orbits.
r"\ x and r f r"
is
calculation of the numerical values of r
will be
most conveniently
traction logarithms.
we may
first
by the aid of addition and subIf the tables of common logarithms are used,
effected
compute
and then we have
r
+ r" f x = 2 (r + r") sin (45 +
x = 2 (r + r") cos (45 +
2
/),
r f r"
/).
118. In the case of
hyperbolic motion, the semitransverse axis is
and
the
values
of sin e and sin J# given by the equations
negative,
become
so
that it is no longer possible to compute
(60)
imaginary,
the interval of time from r f r" and x
by means of the auxiliary
Let us, therefore, put
angles e and 3.
sin
then,
when a
s
and
is
negative,
= sn
2
,
m and n will
m*
sin 2
be
id
^ ==
real.
= sin ~
ri*
Now we
have
RELATION BETWEEN TWO PLACES IN THE ORBIT.
347
Hence we derive
e
= 2 sin V
= 2 sin ~
log e (l/l
+m
sin e
shall
f m),
l^tf =
and writing
Substituting these values in the equation (61),
stead of a, since
we
==
2m 1/^T
l/l
in
+ m*,
have
= 2m i/l + m  2 log (l/I+^ f m)
+7?  2
*
(79)
lo ge
(1r+TT
the upper sign being used when the heliocentric motion
180, and the lower sign when it is greater than 180.
we compute
if
+ n)),
is less
than
Therefore,
m and n from
regarding the hyperbolic semitransverse axis a as positive, the forff
mula (79) will determine the interval of time T'
Jc
(t
t).
The
two terms of the second member of equation (79) may
be expressed in a series of ascending powers of m, and the last two
terms in a series of ascending powers of n. Thus, if we put
first
loge
we
get,
by
(/I
+ m + m) = am f /?m + ?m + (5m
2
f
&c.,
differentiation,
3/m
s
f 4<?m
+ 5em* + &c.
246
we have
Hence we obtain
2 loge (1/1
+m
f
m)
= 2m
>+
3
m
^m + Ac.
T
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
348
We have,
also,
= 2m + m
2m l/r+m
\m
^m
&c.
Therefore,
2m i/l
4
2 loge (l/l
+ m + m) =
2
A.'m'
(l
+*
m*&C
^)
and similarly
1/1
+ n*
2 loge (1/1
+ n* + n) =
the
Substituting these values in the equation (79), and denoting
f
and Q , respectively,
series of terms enclosed in the parentheses by
we
get
6r'
= Q + r" + x)i +
'
(r
(r
+ r"  x)f
(83)
2
2
sin ^e
which is identical with equation (65). If we replace m by
2
2
as given by (81)
and n by
sin ^5 in the expressions for Q and
',
and (82), we shall have the expressions for these quantities in terms
of sin e and sin <J, respectively, instead of sin \e and sin \d as given
by the equations
= 1 + f 'i sin
and
(62)
2
je
(63),
namely,
+
For the
case of an elliptic orbit
equations (66) and (68) in finding
hyperbolic motion are
rare,
+i
sin $e
it
while for
6
sin ie
+ &c.,
is most convenient to use the
and Q ; but, since the cases of
those which do occur the eccenf
greater than that of the parabola, it will be sufficient to tabulate Q
The same table,
directly with the argument m.
tricity is
using
very
little
as the argument, will give the value of Q'.
Table
from
corresponding to values of
gives the values of
m = 0.2.
When
is
% from
r',
the values of r
required,
+r
ff
,
r',
XVI.
m=
to
and a are given, and the chord Jt
from (77), and finally
(78), r
we may compute Ar/ from
(73).
It
may
+ r",
be remarked, also, that the formulae for the relation between
r"
x, and a suffice to find by trial the value of a when r
and x are given.
Hence, in the computation of an orbit from assumed
RELATION BETWEEN TWO PLACES IN THE ORBIT.
349
J and J", the value of x may be computed from r, r", and
then a may be found in the manner here indicated.
and
u,
If we substitute in the equations (84) the values of sin Je and sin
r" i x> and a, and then substitute the resulting values
in terms of r
values of
u"
of
and Q' in the equation
(65),
we
obtain
+ sis , ((? + r" + x)* =p (r + r"  x)*) + &c.,
1
the lower sign being used
when u"
u exceeds 180.
eccentricity is very nearly equal to unity, this series
In the
great rapidity.
(85)
When
the
converges with
case of hyperbolic motion, the sign of
a must
be changed.
119.
The
formulae thus derived for the determination of the chord K
for the cases of elliptic
and hyperbolic
orbits, enable us to correct
an
approximate orbit by varying the semitransverse axis a and the
of two curtate distances. But since the formula? will generatio
rally be applied for the correction of
or those which are nearly parabolic,
/=;
first place,
will be expedient to use
and
be determined.
as the quantities to
In the
approximate parabolic elements,
it
we compute
a system of elements from
M and
and, for the determination of the auxiliary quantities pre
liminary to the calculation of the values of r, r", and x, the equations (41) 3 (50) 3 , and (51) 3 will be employed when the ecliptic is the
fundamental plane. But when the equator is taken as the funda,
mental plane, we must first compute g, K, and G by means of the
Then, by a process entirely analogous to that by
equations (96) 3
which the equations (47) 3 and (50) 3 were derived, we obtain
.
h COS C COS
h cos C sin
(H
(H
a")
cos
<p
COS (a"
a") =? sin (a"
h sin C
from which to find
=M
= M tan 8"
and h ; and
= cos C cos K cos
a),
(86)
a),
tan
8,
also
H)
f sin C sin
K,
(87)
will be referred to the
and
from which to find tp. In this case,
The angles ^ and ty f will be
equator as the fundamental plane.
obtained from the equations (102) 3 or from equations of the form
,
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
350
of (26), and finally the auxiliary quantities A, 5, J5", &c. will be
obtained from (51) 3 , writing d and d" in place of /9 and /?", respectively.
As soon as these auxiliary quantities have been determined, by
the value of K must be found which will exactly
means of
3
(52)
satisfy equation (65).
and, if
it
To
effect this,
we
first
from
compute
be required, we also find d from
using approximate values of r
+ r"
and
x.
Then we
find
from
or from (78), the logarithms of the auxiliary
(66), and Ar/ from (76)
found by means of Table XV. with the
and
B
being
Q
quantities
r ' having been found from (77), the
of
The
value
e.
argument
equations (73) and (74), in connection with Table XI., enable us to
With this
obtain a closer approximation to the correct value of K.
we compute new
trials
values of r and r", and repeat the determination
generally give the correct result, and these
A few trials will
of K.
may be
facilitated
by the use of the formula
(67) 3
It will be
'
are very slightly changed by a small
observed, also, that Q and Ar
r
r" and tf, so that a repetition of the
change in the values of
calculation of these quantities only becomes necessary for the final
trial in finding the value of Jf which completely satisfies the equaWhen the value of a is such that the values
tions (52) 3 and (65).
Q and exceed the limits of Table XV., the equation (61) may
be employed, and, in the case of hyperbolic motion, when Q and Q f
exceed the limits of Table XVI., we may employ the complete exand n as given by (79).
pression for the time r' in terms of
of
The
values of
r,
r ff ,
and x having thus been found, the equations
will determine the curtate distances
the fundamental plane,
P
p and p".
When
the equator
is
we have
= A cos
"
<S,
= A" cos
3".
From /?, p", and the corresponding geocentric spherical coordinates,
the radiivectores and the heliocentric spherical coordinates I, I", b,
and b" will be obtained, and thence &,
i,
u, u",
and the remaining
VARIATION OF THE SEMITRANSVERSE AXIS.
351
In the case of elliptic
elements of the orbit, as already illustrated.
if
we compute the auxiliary quantities e and d by means of
motion,
the equations (60), we shall have
(E" + E)
e cos
from which
\(E"
may
and \(E ff \
E} = i(e
3),
we
= cos J +
(e
d),
be found, and hence, since
and E". The values of q and
from these and quantities already
E} may
derive
then be found directly
obtained.
Thus, the last of equations (43)! gives
cos
_ cos \E
Jv
v"
cos
'
V~r
V~q
_ cos &E"
1/7
V~q
first of these expressions by sin Ju", and the second
adding the products, and reducing, we obtain
Multiplying the
by
sin Jv,
sin J
v) sin \v
(i/'
_ cos
j
(i/'
V~q
Therefore,
we
shall
cos  J?
E"
1/7
cos
have
cos
cos Av =
Vq
i;)
Vv
1/r tan
cos iE
E
(u"
cos
u)
Vr" sin
E"
(it"
w)
1/ r
from which q and v may be found as soon as cos \E and cos \~E" are
known. In the case of parabolic motion the eccentric anomaly is
The
equal to zero, and these equations become identical with (92) 3
from
the
node
be
the
will
of
distance
perihelion
ascending
angular
.
obtained from
=u
ae cos E, and q = a(1
to
Since r = a
v.
11
e),
we have
11
and hence
(89)
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
352
is nearly equal to unity, the value of q given
will be sufficient to compute cos^E and
elements
by approximate
these
of
means
equations, and the results thus derived
cos^E" by
When
the eccentricity
from which a new value of
considerably from that used in com
will be substituted in the equations (88),
If this should
q results.
differ
puting cos \E and cos \E", a repetition of the calculation will give
the correct result.
and E" are imagiIn the case of hyperbolic motion, although
numerical
of
the
values
we
cos^E and cos^E"
may compute
nary,
from the equations (89), regarding a as negative, and the results will
be used for the corresponding quantities in (88) in the computation
of q and v for the hyperbolic orbit.
Next, we compute a second system of elements from
and /, df and
and a third system from
M + 8M
'
M and/f
dM
8f,
denoting the
The comrespectively.
arbitrary increments assigned to / and
parison of these three systems of elements with additional observed
places of the comet, will enable us to form the equations of condition
for the determination of the most probable values of the corrections
&M and
A/ to be applied
to
M and /respectively.
The formation of
these equations is effected in precisely the same manner as in the case
of the variation of the geocentric distances or of Q, and i, and it does
not require any further illustration.
The
final
elements will be ob
tained from M\ Ajf,
We
may
and/H A/, either directly or by interpolation.
as
remark, further, that it will be convenient to use log
the quantity to be corrected, and to express the variations of log
in units of the last decimal place of the logarithms.
When the orbit differs very little from the parabolic form, it will
be most expeditious to
in each case
make two hypotheses
in regard to
M,
putting
= 0, and only compute elliptic or hyperbolic elements
which we use
and f=8f.
and second systems of elements will thus be parabolic.
in the third hypothesis, for
120. Instead of
M and  we
may
use
A and 
The
first
as the quantities to
In this case we assume an approximate value of A by
means of elements already known, and by means of (96) 3 (98) 3 (102) 3
and (103) 3 we compute the auxiliary quantities C, J5, B", &c., re
be corrected.
We
quired in the solution of the equations (104) 3
assume, also, an
approximate value of A" and compute the corresponding value of r" 9
.
the value of r having been already found from the assumed value of
A.
Then, by trial, we find the value of K which, in connection with
EQUATIONS OF CONDITION.
the assumed value of
,
and
will satisfy the equations (104) 3
A"
The corresponding value of
(61).
353
= cVx
A"
is
(65) or
given by
C\
When A" has thus been determined, the heliocentric places will be
obtained by means of the equations (106) 3 and (107) 3 and, finally,
If the
the corresponding elements of the orbit will be computed.
,
taken as the fundamental plane, we put
and write A and /9 in place of a and d respectively.
ecliptic is
If
we now compute
f=,
D = 0, A = O,
a second system of elements from
and a third system from A
and/+
<?/",
f
d A and
the comparison of the
three systems of elements with additional observed places will furnish
the equations of condition for the determination of the corrections
A A and A/ to be applied to A and
respectively.
When the eccentricity is very nearly equal to unity, we may asfor the first and second hypotheses, and only compute
sume / =
elliptic or
121.
hyperbolic elements for the third hypothesis.
The comparison of
the several observed places of a heavenly
body with one of the three systems of elements obtained by varying
the two quantities selected for correction, or, when the required dif
known, with any other system of elements
such that the squares and products of the corrections may be neglected, gives a series of equations of the form
ferential coefficients are
mx
f ny
p,
m'x f n'y =p', &c.,
which x and y denote the final corrections to be applied to the two
assumed quantities respectively. The combination of these equations
which gives the most probable values of the unknown quantities, is
in
eifected according to the
Thus, we multiply
of x in that equation, and the sum
method of
least squares.
each equation by the coefficient
of all the equations thus formed gives the first normal equation.
Then we multiply each equation of condition by the coefficient of y
in that equation, and the sum of all the products gives the second
normal equation.
Let these equations be expressed thus
[mm] x
\_mn~]
j}
= [mp],
=
[nn\ y
[mri] y
[lip},
23
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
354
m2 +ra' fm' f&c., [mn]=mn+m'n +m"n"\&G.,
which [mra]
and similarly for the other terms. These two final equations give,
by elimination, the most probable values of x and y, namely, those
in
for
It
/2
which the sum of the squares of the residuals will be a minimum.
often convenient to determine x in terms of y, or y
is, however,
we may find the influence of a variation of one
unknown quantities on the differences between computation
and observation when the most probable value of the other unknown
in terms of x, so that
of the
is used.
Thus, if it be desired to find x in terms of
most probable value of x will be
quantity
we
substitute this value of
the
__
[mm]
If
y,
[mm]
x in the original equations of condition,
the remaining differences between computation and observation willbe expressed in terms of the unknown quantity y, or in the form
*0
= m +n
(90)
y.
Then, by assigning different values to yy we may find the corresponding residuals, and thus determine to what extent the correction y may
be varied without causing these residuals to surpass the limits of the
probable errors of observation.
In the determination of the orbit of a comet there must be more
or less uncertainty in the value of a,
to be applied to the
and
assumed value of
,
CL
if
y denotes the correction
we may thus determine
the
probable limits within which the true value of the periodic time
must be found. In the case of a comet which is identified, by the
which has previously appeared, if
the system of elements which will best satisfy the series
of observations, the supposition being made that the comet has per*brmed but one revolution around the sun during the intervening
similarity of elements, with one
we compute
interval, it will be easy to determine whether the observations are
better satisfied by
assuming that two or more revolutions have been
completed during this interval. Thus, let T denote the periodic
time assumed, and the relation between T and a is
expressed by
in
which n denotes the semicircumference of a
circle
whose radius
A COMET.
ORBIT OF
355
Let the periodic time corresponding to &
then we shall have
unity.
is
by
J
+ y be
denoted
and the equations
= a1
33
_,
form
for the residuals are transformed into the
*0
= (m
nJ)+nJz*.
(91)
If we now assign to z, successively, the values 1, 2, 3, &c., the residuals thus obtained will indicate the value of z which best satisfies
the series of observations, and hence how many revolutions of the
comet have taken place during the interval denoted by T.
122. In the determination of the orbit of a comet from three ob
served places, a hypothesis in regard to the semitransverse axis may
with facility be introduced simultaneously with the computation of
The numerical calculation as far as the formthe parabolic elements.
ation of the equations (52) 3 will be precisely the
parabolic and the elliptic or hyperbolic elements.
case
we
find the values of r, r ff ,
and K which
we find those which
(56) 3 , and in the other case
tion (65), as already explained.
two systems of elements
From
for both the
Then
in the one
will satisfy equation
will satisfy the equa
the results thus obtained, the
will be computed.
case of the system of parabolic elements
parison of the middle place with these
same
Let
/=
then in the
we have/=0, and
and
also
with the
the com
elliptic or
hyperbolic elements will give the value of
dO
which 6 l denotes the geocentric spherical coordinate computed
from the parabolic elements, and 2 that computed from the other
system of elements. Further, let A# denote the difference between
computation and observation for the middle place, and the correction
to be applied to /, in order that the computed and the observed
in
values of 6
may
agree, will be given
by
r/+^=oHence, the two observed spherical coordinates for the middle place
will give two equations of condition from which A/ may be found,
THEORETICAL, ASTRONOMY.
356
and the corresponding elements will be those which best represent
to be correct.
the observations, assuming the adopted value of
123.
The
orbit of a
first
comet
determination of the approximate elements of the
most readily effected by adopting the ecliptic as
is
In the subsequent correction of these
the fundamental plane.
 and
ments, by varying
or J,
it
ele
will often be convenient to use
and the first .assumption in
made by means of the values of the distances
approximate elements already known. But if it be
the equator as the fundamental plane,
regard to
will be
given by the
desired to compute
directly from three observed places in reference
to the equator, without converting the right ascensions and declinations into longitudes and latitudes, the requisite formulae may be
derived by a process entirely analogous to that
curtate distances refer to the ecliptic.
The case
employed when the
may occur in which
only the right ascension for the middle place is given, so that the
It will then be necessary
corresponding longitude cannot be found.
fundamental plane in determining a
of
elements
system
parabolic
by means of two complete observations
and this incomplete middle place. If we substitute the expressions
to adopt the equator as the
for the heliocentric coordinates in reference to the
equator in the
equations (4)3 and (5) 3 ,
= n (p cos a
we
shall
RcosD cos A)
have
(//
cos
a'
f n"
0"
cos
sin a"
D' cos A'}
R"
cos
D" cos A"\
= n (p sin a R cos D sin A) (p sin R' cos D' sin A')
(92)
R" cos D" sin A"),
f n" (p" sin a"
= n(ptsmd~R sin D) (p tan R' sin D')
r
a'
+ n" (p" tan
which
in
/>,
p' t
p" denote
A"
<5"
R" sin D"),
the curtate distances with respect to the
and D, D', D"
These equations correspond to (6) 3 and may be
treated in a similar manner.
From the first and second of equations (92) we get
equator,
its
A, A',
the. right ascensions of the sun,
declinations.
= n (p sin
(a'
a)
R cos D sin (of
and hence
nR cos D sin (a'
+ R' cos D' sin
A*)
a') + R" cosD" sin
4")),
R' cos D' sin (a!A'}\n"R" cos D" sin (a!
~
A")
A))
 n" (p" sin (a!'
A)
pn" sin (a"
(a'
(a'
a')
VARIATION OF TWO RADIIVECTORES.
357
This formula, being independent of the declination S f , may be used
when only the right ascension for the middle place is
compute
to
For the
given.
first
assumption in the case of an unknown
orbit,
we take
"
M=
sin (a'
if
a)
'
sin (a"
if
a')'
and, by means of the results obtained from this hypothesis, the complete expression (93) may be computed.
By a process identical with
that employed in deriving the equation
the expression
_i ^_(
*?TV*
(36) 3 ,
^x/ 1
we
derive,
1 \ R' cos
;\/3
D'
from
sin (a'
sin (a"
jpjj
(93),
A')
a')
and, putting
..
sin (a'
a)
'
77
~~^
__
Sin (a"
a')'
_ ^ 'T"
IlV
1
cos
'
")
D'
sin (a/
A')
'
sin(a'
a)
R_l^
p \r'
1_\
K'*}'
we have
M= P~==M F.
The
calculation of the auxiliary quantities in the equations (52) 3
by means of the formula (96) 3
and
, (86), (87), (102) 3 ,
heliocentric places for the times t and t" will be given
and (107) 3? and from these the elements of the orbit will
will be effected
(51) 3 .
(95)
The
by (106) 3
be found according to the process already
illustrated.
124. The methods already given for the correction of the approximate elements of the orbit of a heavenly body by means of additional
observations or normal places, are those which will generally be
applied.
There
are,
however, modifications of these which
and
may be
special cases, and which will readily suggest
if
it
be
desired to correct approximate elements
themselves.
Thus,
two
r and r fr we may assume an approxiradiivectores
by varying
mate value of each of these, and the three equations (88)! will contain only the three unknown quantities J, 6, and I.
By elimination,
these unknown quantities may be found, and in like manner the
advantageous in rare
THEORETICAL ASTRONOMY.
It will be most convenient to compute
values of J", b", and I".
and $", and then find z and z" from
the angles
sin 2
putting a?
or,
The
r*
tan
$
= E sin
r
sin
2
^, and x"
*
= R sin
x
sin z
,,
4"
= R" sin
T
Tt
= r"
curtate distances will be given
sin 4/',
from
R" sin 4"
tan z"
R"
by the equations
(3),
and the
heliocentric spherical coordinates by means of (4), writing r in place
u may be found, and by means of the values
of a. From these u"
of
r,
r ff y and
u"
u the determination of the elements of the
orbit
may be completed. Then, assigning to r an increment dr, we compute a second system of elements, and from r and r" f dr" a third
The comparison of these three systems of elements with an
system.
additional or intermediate observed place will furnish the equations
for the determination of the corrections Ar and Ar" to be applied to
The comparison of the middle place may be
r and r", respectively.
made with the observed geocentric spherical coordinates directly, or
with the radiusvector and argument of the latitude computed directly
from the observed coordinates; and in the same manner any number
of additional observed places may be employed in forming the equations of condition for the determination of
Instead of r and r r/ ,
Ar and Ar".
we may
take the projections of these radiivectores on the plane of the ecliptic as the quantities to be corrected.
Let these projected distances of the body from the sun be denoted
by r and r
we
", respectively
then,
riri.Q =
from which
I".
by means of the equations (88)^
obtain
If
I
may be found
we put
we have
Brin <' g
(96)
and in a similar manner we may find
=r
^sm'(A0),
tan(;A)
= * sin X (A
).
(97)
Let S denote the angle at the sun between the earth and the
place
of the planet or comet projected on the
plane of the ecliptic ; then
we
shall
have
VARIATION OF TWO RADIIVECTORES.
=180}P
359
I,
0)
*(l
(98)
sin (I
and
tenb^^Z,
r
(99)
by means of which the heliocentric latitudes b and b" may be found.
" are
calculation of the elements and the correction of rQ and r
then effected as in the case of the variatioVi of r and r".
The
In the case of parabolic motion, the eccentricity being known, we
may take q and T as the quantities to be corrected. If we assume
/r
and #, v v" will be
approximate values of these elements, r, r r
ff
r
and
the
observed spherical
Then
from
r, r',
given immediately.
1'
u and
coordinates of the body we may compute the values of u
the
means
of
observed
u
In the same manner, by
u.
places, we
compute the angles u" u and u' u corresponding to q\dq and T,
r
to q and T \ STy dq and dT denoting the arbitrary increments
The comparison of the helioassigned to q and T, respectively.
f
t
and t'
thus obtained,
centric motion, during the intervals t"
t,
in the case of each of the three systems of elements, from the ob
and
served geocentric places with the corresponding results given by
enables us to form the equations
by which we may
AT to
find the cor
be applied to the assumed values of q and T,
ff
u r and u f
u computed
in
order
that
the values of u
respectively,
with
those
shall
means
of
the observed places
agree
given by the
by
rections
Ag and
true anomalies computed directly from q and T.
THEOEETICAL ASTRONOMY.
360
CHAPTER VIL
METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES, THEORY OF THE COMBINATION OF OBSERVATIONS, AND
DETERMINATION OF THE MOST PROBABLE SYSTEM OF ELEMENTS FROM A SERIES
OF OBSERVATIONS.
125.
WHEN the elements of the orbit of a heavenly body are known
to such a degree of approximation that the squares and products of
the corrections which should be applied to them may be neglected,
by computing the
partial differential coefficients of these elements
with respect to each of the observed spherical coordinates, we may
form, by means of the differences between computation and observation, the equations for the
determination of these corrections.
Three
complete observations will furnish the six equations required for the
determination of the corrections to be applied to the six elements of
the orbit; but, if more than three complete places are given, the
number of equations
will exceed the
number of unknown
and the problem will be more than determinate.
quantities,
If the observed
places were absolutely exact, the combination of the equations of
condition in any manner whatever would furnish the values of these
corrections, such that each of these equations
would be completely
The
conditions, however, which present themselves in the
actual correction of the elements of the orbit of a
heavenly body by
satisfied.
means of given observed places, are entirely different. When the
observations have been corrected for all known instrumental errors,
and when all other known corrections have been duly applied, there
remain those accidental errors which arise from various causes,
such as the abnormal condition of the
atmosphere, the imperfections
of vision, and the imperfections in the
performance of the instrument
employed. These accidental and irregular errors of observation cannot
be eliminated from the observed data, and the
equations of condition
for the determination of the corrections to be
applied to the elements
of an approximate orbit cannot be
completely satisfied by any system
of values assigned to the unknown
quantities unless the number of
equations is the same as the number of these unknown
still
quantities.
becomes an important problem, therefore, to determine the
particular combination of these
equations of condition, by means of which
It
METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES.
361
the resulting values of the unknown quantities will be those which,
while they do not completely satisfy the several equations, will afford
the highest degree of probability in favor of their accuracy.
It will
be of interest also to determine, as far as it may be possible, the
degree of accuracy which may be attributed to the separate results.
But, in order to simplify the more general problem, in which the
quantities sought are determined indirectly by observation, it will be
expedient to consider first the simpler case, in which a single quantity
is
obtained directly by observation.
126. If the accidental errors of observation could be obviated, the
magnitude directly by observation would
different determinations of a
be identical
precision
is
but since this
sought,
is
we adopt
impossible when an extreme limit of
mean or average value to be derived
from the separate results obtained. The adopted value may or may
not agree with any individual result, since it is only necessary that
the residuals obtained by comparing the adopted value with the
observed values shall be such as to make this adopted value the most
It is evident, from the very nature of the case, that
probable value.
here the confines of the unknown, and, before we proceed further, something additional must be assumed.
we approach
However
and uncertain the law of the accidental errors
may be, we may at least assume that small errors are
more probable than large errors, and that errors surpassing a certain
We may also assume that in the case of a large
limit will not occur.
irregular
of observation
number of
observations, errors in excess will occur as frequently as
errors in defect, so that, in general, positive and negative residuals
It appears, therefore,
of equal absolute value are equally probable.
that the relative frequency of the occurrence of an accidental error J
depend on the magnitude of this error,
This function will also express the
<p ( J).
in the observed value will
and may
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