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Latin America

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Latin American" redirects here. For Latin American people, see Latin Americans.

Latin America

Area

19,197,000 km2(7,412,000 sq mi)[1]

Population

588,019,503

Pop. density

31/km2 (80/sq mi)

Demonym

Latin American

Countries

20[citation needed]

Dependencies 13[citation needed]

Languages

Mainly: Spanish andPortuguese.


Others: Quechua,Mayan
languages, Guaran,French, Aymara, Nahuatl,Italian.

Time zones

UTC-2 to UTC-8

Largest cities

(Metro areas)[2][3]

1.

Mexico City

2.

So Paulo

3.

Buenos Aires

4.

Rio de Janeiro

5.

Lima

6.

Bogot

7.

Santiago

8.

Belo Horizonte

9.

Caracas

10.

Guadalajara

Latin America is a region of the Americas, that comprises countries where Romance languages are
spoken; primarily Spanish andPortuguese, but also French. It consists of twenty sovereign states
which cover an area that stretches from the southern border of the United States to the southern tip
of South America, including the Caribbean. Latin America has an area of approximately
19,197,000 km2 (7,412,000 sq mi),[1] almost 13% of the earth's land surface area.
As of 2013, its population was estimated at more than 604 million[4][not in citation given] and in 2014, Latin
America has a combinednominal GDP of 5,573,397 million USD[5] and a GDP PPP of 7,531,585
million USD.[5][6] The term "Latin America" was first used in 1861 in La revue des races Latines, a
magazine "dedicated to the cause of Pan-Latinism".[7]
Contents
[hide]

1 Etymology and definitions


o

1.1 Subdivisions

2 History
o

2.1 Pre-Columbian history

2.2 European colonization

2.3 Independence (18041825)

3 Consolidation and liberalconservative conflicts (18181990)


o

3.1 Conservative and liberal conflicts in Latin America in the 19th


Century

3.2 British influence in Latin America during 19th century

3.3 French involvement in Latin America during the 19th century

3.4 United States involvement in Latin America during the 19th


Century

3.4.1 Monroe Doctrine

3.4.2 MexicanAmerican War (184648)

3.5 World wars (191445)

3.6 World War I and the Zimmermann Telegram

3.6.1 Brazil's participation in World War II

3.6.2 Involvement in World War II

3.7 Cold War (194690)

3.7.1 Economy

3.7.2 Reforms

3.7.3 Bureaucratic authoritarianism

3.7.4 US relations

3.7.5 Cuban Revolution

3.7.6 Bay of Pigs Invasion

3.7.7 Alliance for Progress

3.7.8 Nicaraguan Revolution

3.8 Washington Consensus

3.9 Turn to the left

3.10 The return of social movements

3.11 Commodity boom and increasing relations with China

4 Demographics
o

4.1 Largest cities

4.2 Ethnic groups

4.3 Language

4.4 Religion

4.5 Migration

4.6 Education

4.7 Crime and violence

5 Economy
o

5.1 Size

5.2 Standard of living

5.3 Environment

6 Inequality

7 Trade blocs

8 Tourism

9 Culture
o

9.1 Art

9.2 Film

9.3 Literature

9.4 Music and dance

10 Bibliography

11 See also

12 References

13 External links

14 Further reading

Etymology and definitions[edit]

The Parc de l'Amrique-Latine inQuebec City, the capital of a French-speaking province in Canada, celebrates
the cultural ties between Quebec and the other people who speak a Romance language in the Americas.

The idea that a part of the Americas has a linguistic affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole
can be traced back to the 1830s, in the writing of the French Saint-Simonian Michel Chevalier, who
postulated that this part of the Americas was inhabited by people of a "Latin race", and that it could,
therefore, ally itself with "Latin Europe" in a struggle with "Teutonic Europe", "Anglo-Saxon America"
and "Slavic Europe".[8] The idea was later taken up by Latin American intellectuals and political
leaders of the mid- and late-nineteenth century, who no longer looked to Spain or Portugal as
cultural models, but rather to France.[9] The term was first used in Paris in an 1856 conference by the
Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao[10] and the same year by the Colombian writer Jos Mara Torres
Caicedo in his poem "Two Americas".[11] The term Latin America was supported by the French Empire
of Napoleon III during the French invasion of Mexico as a way to include France among countries
with influence in the Americas and to exclude Anglophone countries and played a role in his
campaign to imply cultural kinship of the region with France, transform France into a cultural and
political leader of the area, and install Maximilian of Habsburg as emperor of the Second Mexican
Empire.[12] This term was also used in 1861 by French scholars in La revue des races Latines, a
magazine dedicated to the Pan-Latinism movement.[13]
In contemporary usage:

In one sense, Latin America refers to territories in the Americas


where the Spanish or Portuguese languages prevail: Mexico, most

of Central and South America, and in the Caribbean; Cuba,


the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico in summary, Hispanic
Americaand Brazil. Latin America is, therefore, defined as all those
parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish and
Portuguese Empires.[14] By this definition, Latin America is
coterminous with Ibero-America ("Iberian America").[15]

Particularly in the United States, the term more broadly refers to all
of the Americas south of the United States,[citation needed] thus
including the Guianas, the Anglophone Caribbean (and Belize);
the Francophone Caribbean; and the Dutch-speaking Caribbean.
(In Curaao and Aruba, Papiamento a predominantly Iberianderived creole language is spoken by the majority of the
population.) This definition emphasizes a
similar socioeconomic history of the region, which was
characterized by formal orinformal colonialism, rather than cultural
aspects (see, for example, dependency theory).[16] As such, some
sources avoid this oversimplification by using the phrase "Latin
America and the Caribbean" instead, as in the United Nations
geoscheme for the Americas.[17][18][19]

In a more literal definition, which remains faithful to the semantic


origin, Latin America designates countries in the Americas where
a Romance language (languages derived from Latin) predominates:
Spanish, Portuguese, and French and the creole languages based
upon these. Cf. Languages of South America and Languages of
North America.

If entities at the sub-national level are included, Francophone


Canada would also be considered part of Latin America, while
conversely Anglophone Colombia would be excluded, as would
the many regions where Amerindian languages predominate.
By the same logic, parts of the United States where Spanishspeaking or French-speaking populations form the majority
would be considered Latin American. However, in practice,
Francophone Canada is rarely considered part of Latin America

due to the fact that its history, distinctive culture, economy,


geographical location, and British-inspired political institutions
are generally deemed too closely intertwined with therest of
Canada.[20]
The distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America is a convention based on the predominant
languages in the Americas by which Romance-language and English-speaking cultures are
distinguished. Neither area is culturally or linguistically homogeneous; in substantial portions of Latin
America (e.g., highland Peru, Bolivia, Guatemala, andParaguay), Native American cultures and, to a
lesser extent, Amerindian languages, are predominant, and in other areas, the influence of African
cultures is strong (e.g., the Caribbean basin including parts of Colombia and Venezuela).

Subdivisions[edit]

The 4 common subregions in Latin America

Latin America can be subdivided into several subregions based on geography, politics,
demographics and culture. If defined as all of the Americas south of the United States, the basic
geographical subregions are North America, Central America, the Caribbean and South America;
[21]
the latter contains further politico-geographical subdivisions such as the Southern Cone, the
Guianas and the Andean states. It may be subdivided on linguistic grounds into Hispanic
America, Portuguese America and French America.

Fla
g

Arm
s

Name

Area
(km)

Populatio
n

Argentina

2,780,400

41,660,417

Bolivia

1,098,581

10,461,053

Population
density
(per km)

Capital

14.4

Buenos
Aires

9 Sucre and L

Name(s) in
official
language(s)

Argentina

Bolivia

Fla
g

Arm
s

Name

Area
(km)

Populatio
n

Population
density
(per km)

Capital

Name(s) in
official
language(s)

a Paz

Brazil

8,515,767

201,032,714

Chile

756,096

17,556,815

1,141,748

47,387,109

41.5 Bogot

Colombia

51,100

4,667,096

91.3 San Jos

Costa Rica

109,884

11,061,886

100.6 Havana

48,442

10,219,630

210.9

283,560

15,439,429

El Salvador

21,040

6,108,590

French
Guiana*

83,534

250,109

3 Cayenne

1,628

405,739

250 Basse-Terre

108,889

15,438,384

Colombia

Costa Rica

Cuba

Dominican
Republic

Ecuador

Guadeloupe*

Guatemala

23.6 Braslia

23 Santiago

Santo
Domingo

54.4 Quito

290.3

129

San
Salvador

Guatemala
City

Brasil

Chile

Cuba

Repblica
Dominicana

Ecuador

El Salvador

Guyane
franaise

Guadeloupe

Guatemala

Fla
g

Arm
s

Name

Haiti

Area
(km)

Populatio
n

Population
density
(per km)

Capital

Name(s) in
official
language(s)

Port-auPrince

Hati, Ayiti

76 Tegucigalpa

Honduras

Fort-deFrance

Martinique

27,750

9,996,731

112,492

8,555,072

1,128

386,486

1,972,550

118,395,054

130,375

5,788,531

44.3 Managua

Nicaragua

Panama

75,517

3,661,868

54.2 Panama City

Panam

Paraguay

406,752

6,800,284

14.2 Asuncin

Paraguay

1,285,216

30,475,144

Puerto Rico*

9,104

3,615,086

397 San Juan

Puerto Rico

Saint
Barthlemy*

53.2

36,286

682 Gustavia

SaintBarthlemy

25

9,035

361 Marigot

Saint-Martin

Honduras

Martinique*

Mexico

Nicaragua

Peru

Saint
Martin*

350

340

57 Mexico City

23 Lima

Estados Unidos
Mexicanos

Per

Fla
g

Arm
s

Name

Area
(km)

Populatio
n

Uruguay

176,215

3,324,460

Venezuela

916,445

31,648,930

20,111,45
7

603,441,595

Total

Population
density
(per km)

Capital

Name(s) in
official
language(s)

18.87 Montevideo

Uruguay

31.59 Caracas

Venezuela

30

*: Not a sovereign state

History[edit]
Main article: History of Latin America
See also: History of North America, History of South America, History of Central America and History
of the Caribbean

Pre-Columbian history[edit]
Main articles: Settlement of the Americas, Population history of indigenous peoples of the
Americas and Pre-Columbian era

Archaeological site of Chichn-Itzin Yucatn, Mexico. One of the New Seven Wonders of the World.

A view of Machu Picchu, a pre-Columbian Inca site inPeru. One of the New Seven Wonders of the World.

The earliest known settlement was identified at Monte Verde, near Puerto Montt in Southern Chile.
Its occupation dates to some 14,000 years ago and there is some disputed evidence of even earlier
occupation. Over the course of millennia, people spread to all parts of the continents. By the first
millennium AD/CE, South America's vast rainforests, mountains, plains and coasts were the home of
tens of millions of people. The earliest settlements in the Americas are of the Las Vegas
Culture[22] from about 8000 BC and 4600 BC, a sedentary group from the coast of Ecuador, the
forefathers of the more knownValdivia culture, of the same era. Some groups formed more
permanent settlements such as the Chibchas(or "Muiscas" or "Muyscas") and the Tairona groups.
These groups are in the circum Caribbean region. The Chibchas of Colombia,
the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia and Per were the three indigenous groups that settled most
permanently.
The region was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations, including
the Aztecs,Toltecs, Caribs, Tupi, Maya, and Inca. The golden age of the Maya began about 250, with
the last two great civilizations, the Aztecs and Incas, emerging into prominence later on in the early
fourteenth century and mid-fifteenth centuries, respectively. The Aztec empire was ultimately the
most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas, until its downfall in part by the Spanish
invasion.

European colonization[edit]
Main articles: European colonization of the Americas, Spanish colonization of the
Americas and Portuguese colonization of the Americas

Romantic Painting of Christopher Columbus arriving to the AmericasPrimer desembarco de Cristbal Coln
en Amrica, by Discoro Puebla (1862).

The Colonial city of Granada inNicaragua, is one of the most visited sites inCentral America.

Brazil, for having been a colony of Portugal, makes the Portuguese architecture a mark in the colonial era, as
seen in the photo of a street in Paraty.

With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus' voyages, the indigenous elites,
such as the Incas and Aztecs, lost power to the heavy European invasion. Hernndo Corts seized
the Aztec elite's power with the help of local groups who had favored the Aztec elite, and Francisco
Pizarro eliminated the Incan rule in Western South America. The European powers of Spain and
Portugal colonized the region, which along with the rest of the uncolonized world, was divided into
areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation in 1494, which gave Spain all
areas to the west, and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in South America
subsequently becoming Brazil. By the end of the sixteenth century Spain and Portugal had been
joined by others, including France, in occupying large areas of North, Central and South America,
ultimately extending from Alaska to the southern tips of the Patagonia. European culture, customs
and government were introduced, with the Roman Catholic Church becoming the major economic
and political power to overrule the traditional ways of the region, eventually becoming the only official
religion of the Americas during this period.
Epidemics of diseases brought by the Europeans, such as smallpox and measles, wiped out a large
portion of the indigenous population. Historians cannot determine the number of natives who died
due to European diseases, but some put the figures as high as 85% and as low as 25%. Due to the
lack of written records, specific numbers are hard to verify. Many of the survivors were forced to work
in European plantations and mines. Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European
colonists was very common, and, by the end of the colonial period, people of mixed ancestry
(mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies.

Independence (18041825)[edit]
Main articles: Latin American wars of independence, Spanish American wars of
independence and Brazilian Declaration of Independence

Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla is the Leader of the Mexican War of Independence.

Simn Bolvar, Liberator ofVenezuela, Colombia, Ecuador,Bolivia, Peru and Panama

Jos de San Martn, The Liberator ofArgentina, Chile and Peru.

In 1804, Haiti became the first Latin American nation to gain independence, following a violent slave
revolt led by Toussaint L'ouverture on the French colony of Saint-Domingue. The victors abolished
slavery. Haitian independence inspired independence movements in Spanish America.
By the end of the eighteenth century, Spanish and Portuguese power waned on the global scene as
other European powers took their place, notably Britain and France. Resentment grew among the
majority of the population in Latin America over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government,
as well as the dominance of native Spaniards (Iberian-born Peninsulares) in the major social and
political institutions. Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808 marked a turning point,
compelling Criolloelites to form juntas that advocated independence. Also, the newly
independent Haiti, the second oldest nation in the New World after the United States, further fueled
the independence movement by inspiring the leaders of the movement, such as Miguel Hidalgo y
Costilla of Mexico, Simn Bolvar of Venezuela and Jos de San Martn of Argentina, and by
providing them with considerable munitions and troops.
Fighting soon broke out between juntas and the Spanish colonial authorities, with initial victories for
the advocates of independence. Eventually these early movements were crushed by the royalist
troops by 1810, including those of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Mexico in the year 1810. Later
onFrancisco de Miranda in Venezuela by 1812. Under the leadership of a new generation of leaders,
such as Simn Bolvar "The Liberator", Jos de San Martn of Argentina, and other Libertadores in
South America, the independence movement regained strength, and by 1825, all Spanish America,
except for Puerto Rico and Cuba, had gained independence from Spain. Brazil achieved
independence with a constitutional monarchy established in 1822. In the same year in Mexico, a
military officer, Agustn de Iturbide, led a coalition of conservatives and liberals who created
aconstitutional monarchy, with Iturbide as emperor. This First Mexican Empire was short-lived, and
was followed by the creation of a republic in 1823.

Consolidation and liberalconservative conflicts (18181990) [edit]


Conservative and liberal conflicts in Latin America in the 19th Century [edit]

Development of Spanish American Independence


Government under traditional Spanish law
Loyal to Supreme Central Junta or Cortes
American junta or insurrection movement
Independent state declared or established
Height of French control of the Peninsula

After the independence of many Latin American countries, there was conflict between the people
and the government, much of which can be reduced to the contrasting ideologies between liberalism
and conservatism.[23] Conservatism was the dominant system of government prior to the revolutions
and it was founded on having social classes, including governing by kings. Liberalists wanted to see
a change in the ruling systems, and to move away from monarchs and social classes in order to
promote equality.
When liberal Guadalupe Victoria became the first president of Mexico in 1824, conservatists relied
on their belief that the state had been better off before the new government came into power, so, by
comparison, the old government was better in the eyes of the Conservatives. Following this
sentiment, the conservatives pushed to take control of the government, and they
succeeded. General Santa Anna was elected president in 1833. The following decade, the Mexican
American War (184648) caused Mexico to lose a significant amount of territory to the United
States. This loss led to a rebellion by the enraged liberal forces against the conservative
government.

Presencia de Amrica Latina (Presence of Latin America, Chile, 196465). Also known as Latin America's
Integration, is a 300 square meters (3,200 sq ft) mural at the hall of the Arts House of the University of
Concepcin and used in its 75th anniversary commemorative postal stamp.

In 1837, conservative Rafael Carrera conquered Guatemala and separated from the Central
American Union. The instability that followed the disintegration of the union led to the independence
of the other Central American countries.
In Brazil, rural aristocrats were in conflict with the urban conservatives. Portuguese control over
Brazilian ports continued after Brazil's independence. Following the conservative idea that the old
government was better, urbanites tended to support conservatism because more opportunities were
available to them as a result of the Portuguese presence.
Simn Bolvar became president of Gran Colombia in 1819 after the region gained independence
from Spain. He led a military-controlled state. Citizens did not like the government's position under
Bolvar: The people in the military were unhappy with their roles, and the civilians were of the opinion
that the military had too much power. After the dissolution of Gran Colombia, New Grenada
continued to have conflicts between conservatives and liberals. These conflicts were each
concentrated in particular regions, with conservatives particularly in the southern mountains and the
Valley of Cauca. In the mid-1840s some leaders in Caracas organized a liberal opposition. Antonio
Leocadio Guzman was an active participant and journalist in this movement and gained much
popularity among the people of Caracas.[24]
In Argentina, the conflict manifested itself as a conflict between the centralists and federalists, which
are equivalent to conservatives and liberals, respectively. Uruguay gained its independence in a war
with Brazil, after which a central government was established in Argentina. After the first president of
the centralized government in Argentina resigned, the civil war between the centralists and
federalists continued. When the provinces became the Argentinian Federation with no head of
state, Juan Manuel de Rosas was given the powers of debt payment and international relations. He
refused to enact a national constitution which resulted in greater conflict and more civil war.[25] The
differences in Uruguay were manifested as blancos and colorados, where the conservatives were
represented by the blancos and the colorados represented the business interest in Montevideo. The
conflicts between these two groups resulted in a civil war which is known as the Guerra Grande.[26]

British influence in Latin America during 19th century[edit]

British invasions of the Ro de la Plata. Beresfordsurrenders to Santiago de Liniers (1806).

Losing the North American colonies at the end of the 18th century left Great Britain in need of new
markets to supply resources in the early 19th century.[27] In order to solve this problem, Great Britain
turned to the Spanish colonies in South America for resources and markets. In 1806 a small British
force surprise attacked the capitol of the viceroyalty in Ro de la Plata.[28] As a result the local
garrison protecting the capitol was destroyed in an attempt to defend against the British conquest.
The British were able to capture numerous amounts of precious metals, before a French naval force

intervened on behalf of the Spanish King and took down the invading force. However, this caused
much turmoil in the area as militia took control of the area from the viceroy. The next year the British
attacked once again with a much larger force attempting to reach and conquer Montevideo. [29] They
failed to reach Montevideo but succeeded in establishing an alliance with the locals. As a result the
British were able to take control of the Indian markets.
This newly gained British dominance hindered the development of Latin American industries and
strengthened the dependence on the world trade network.[30] Britain now replaced Spain as the
region's largest trading partner.[31] Great Britain invested significant capital in Latin America in order
to develop the area as a market for processed goods. [32] From the early 1820s to 1850, the postindependence economies of Latin American countries were lagging and stagnant. [27] Eventually,
enhanced trade among Britain and Latin America led to state development such as infrastructure
improvements. These improvements included roads and railroads which grew the trades between
countries and outside nations such as Great Britain.[33] By 1870 exports dramatically increased
attracting capital from abroad (including Europe and USA.)[34]

French involvement in Latin America during the 19th century[edit]

Maximilian receiving a Mexican delegation atMiramar Castle in Trieste, Italy.

Between 1821 and 1910, Mexico battled through various civil wars between the established
Conservative government and the Liberal reformists ("Mexico Timeline- Page 2)". On May 8, 1827
Baron Damas, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Sebastin Camacho, a Mexican diplomat,
signed an agreement called "The Declarations" which contained provisions regarding commerce and
navigation between France and Mexico. At this time the French government did not recognise
Mexico as an independent entity.[35] It was not until 1861 that the liberalist rebels, led by Benito
Jurez, took control of Mexico City, consolidating liberal rule. However, the constant state of warfare
left Mexico with a tremendous amount of debt owed to Spain, England, and France, all of whom
funded the Mexican war effort (Neeno). As newly appointed president, Benito Jurez suspended
payment of debts for next two years, to focus on a rebuilding and stabilization initiative in Mexico
under the new government. On December 8, 1861, Spain, England and France landed in Veracruz
in order to seize unpaid debts from Mexico. However Napoleon III, with intentions of establishing a
French client state to further push his economic interests, pressured the other two powers to
withdraw in 1862 (Greenspan; "French Intervention in Mexico").

Painting depicting the Battle of Puebla in 1862

France under Napoleon III remained and established Maximilian of Habsburg, Archduke of Austria,
as Emperor of Mexico.[36] The march by the French to Mexico City enticed heavy resistance by the
Mexican government, it resulted in open war-fare. The Battle of Puebla in 1862 in particular
presented an important turning point in which Ignacio Zaragoza led the Mexican army to victory as
they pushed back the French offensive ("Timeline of the Mexican Revolution"). The victory came to
symbolize Mexico's power and national resolve against foreign occupancy and as a result delayed
France's later attack on Mexico City for an entire year (Cinco de Mayo (Mexican History)). With
heavy resistance by Mexican rebels and the fear of United States intervention against France, forced
Napoleon III to withdraw from Mexico, leaving Maximilian to surrender, where he would be later
executed by Mexican troops under the rule of Porfirio Daz.[37]
Napoleon III's desire to expand France's economic empire influenced the decision to seize territorial
domain over the Central American region. The port city of Veracruz, Mexico and France's desire to
construct a new canal were of particular interest. Bridging both New World and East Asian trade
routes to the Atlantic were key to Napoleon III's economic goals to the mining of precious rocks and
the expansion of France's textile industry. Napoleon's fear of the United States' economic influence
over the Pacific trade region, and in turn all New World economic activity, pushed France to
intervene in Mexico under the pretense of collecting on Mexico's debt. Eventually France began
plans to build the Panama Canal in 1881 until 1904 when the United States took over and
proceeded with its construction and implementation ("Read Our Story").

United States involvement in Latin America during the 19th Century[edit]


Monroe Doctrine[edit]
The Monroe Doctrine was included in President James Monroe's 1823 annual message to
Congress. The doctrine warns European nations that the United States will no longer tolerate the
colonization of Latin American countries. It was originally drafted to meet the present major
concerns, but eventually became the precept of U.S. foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere. The
doctrine was put into effect in 1865 when the U.S. government supported Mexican president, Benito
Jurez, diplomatically and militarily. Some Latin American countries viewed the U.S. interventions,
allowed by the Monroe Doctrine when the U.S. deems necessary, with suspicion. [38]
Another important aspect of United States involvement in Latin America is the case of
the filibuster William Walker. In 1855, he traveled to Nicaragua hoping to overthrow the government

and take the land for the United States. With only the aid of 56 followers, he was able to take over
the city of Granada, declaring himself commander of the army and installing Patricio Rivas as a
puppet president. However, Rivas's presidency ended when he fled Nicaragua; Walker rigged the
following election to ensure that he became the next president. His presidency did not last long,
however, as he was met with much opposition from political groups in Nicaragua and neighbouring
countries. On May 1, 1857, Walker was forced by a coalition of Central American armies to
surrender himself to a United States Navy officer who repatriated him and his followers. When
Walker subsequently returned to Central America in 1860, he was apprehended by the Honduran
authorities and executed.
MexicanAmerican War (184648)[edit]

American occupation of Mexico City.

The MexicanAmerican War, another instance of U.S involvement in Latin America, was a war
between the United States and Mexico that started in April 1846 and lasted until February 1848. The
main cause of the war was the United States' annexation of Texas in 1845 and a dispute afterwards
about whether the border between Mexico and the United States ended where Mexico claimed, at
theNueces River, or ended where the United States claimed, at the Rio Grande. Peace was
negotiated between the United States and Mexico with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, which
stated that Mexico was to cede land which would later become part of California and New Mexico as
well as give up all claims to Texas, for which the United States would pay $15,000,000. However,
tensions between the two countries were still high and over the next six years things only got worse
with raids along the border and attacks by Native Americans against Mexican citizens. To defuse the
situation, the United States agreed to purchase 29,670 squares miles of land from Mexico for
$10,000,000 so a southern railroad could be built to connect the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. This
would become known as the Gadsden Purchase. A critical component of U.S. intervention in Latin
American affairs took form in the SpanishAmerican War, which drastically affected the futures of
Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Americas, as well as Guam and the Philippines, by dismantling some of
the last remaining Spanish colonial possessions throughout the world.

World wars (191445)[edit]


[show]

United States involvement


in the Mexican Revolution

See also: Pan-Americanism

World War I and the Zimmermann Telegram[edit]

The Zimmermann Telegram as it was sent from Washington to Ambassador Heinrich von Eckardt (who was the
German ambassador toMexico).

The Zimmermann Telegram was a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire for Mexico to
join an alliance with Germany in the event of the United States entering World War I against
Germany. The proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence. Revelation of the
contents outraged American public opinion. President Woodrow Wilson moved to arm American
merchant ships to defend themselves against German submarines, which had started to attack
them. The news helped generate support for theUnited States declaration of war on Germany in
April of that year.[39]
The message came as a coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German
Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, on January 16, 1917. The message was sent to the German
ambassador of Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt. Zimmermann sent the telegram in anticipation of
the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany on 1 February, an act which Germany
presumed would lead to war. The telegram instructed Ambassador Eckardt that if the U.S. appeared
certain to enter the war, he was to approach the Mexican Government with a proposal for military
alliance, with funding from Germany. As part of the alliance, Germany would assist Mexico to
reconquer Texas and the Southwest. Eckardt was instructed to urge Mexico to help broker an
alliance between Germany and Japan. Mexico, in the middle of the Mexican Revolution, far weaker
militarily, economically and politically than the U.S., ignored the proposal; after the U.S. entered the
war, it officially rejected it.
Brazil's participation in World War II[edit]
After World War I, in which Brazil was an ally of the United States, Great Britain, and France, the
country realized it needed a more capable army but didn't have the technology to create it. In 1919,
the French Military Mission was established by the French Commission in Brazil. Their main goal
was to contain the inner rebellions in Brazil. They tried to assist the army by bringing them up to the
European military standard but constant civil missions did not prepare them for World War II.
Brazil President, Getlio Vargas, wanted to industrialize Brazil, allowing it to be more competitive
with other countries. He reached out to Germany, Italy, France, and the United States to act as trade
allies. Many Italian and German people immigrated to Brazil many years before World War II began
thus creating a Nazi influence. The immigrants held high positions in government and the armed
forces. It was recently found that 9,000 war criminals escaped to South America, including Croats,

Ukrainians, Russians and other western Europeans who aided the Nazi war machine. Most, perhaps
as many as 5,000, went to Argentina; between 1,500 and 2,000 are thought to have made it to
Brazil; around 500 to 1,000 to Chile; and the rest to Paraguay and Uruguay.[40] It was not a secret that
Vargas had an admiration for Hitler's Nazi Germany and its Fhrer. He even let German Luftwaffe
build secret air forces around Brazil, but he knew that he could never favor the Nazis because of
their racism towards the large black population in Brazil. This alliance with Germany became Brazil's
second best trade alliance behind the United States.

Brazilian soldiers greet Italian civilians in the city of Massarosa, September 1944.

Brazil continued to try to remain neutral to the United States and Germany because it was trying to
make sure it could continue to be a place of interest for both opposing countries. Brazil attended
continental meetings in Buenos Aires, Argentina (1936); Lima, Peru (1938); and Havana, Cuba
(1940) that obligated them to agree to defend any part of the Americas if they were to be attacked.
Eventually Brazil decided to stop trading with Germany once Germany started attacking offshore
trading ships resulting in Germany declaring a blockade against the Americas in the Atlantic Ocean.
Furthermore, Germany also ensured that they would be attacking the Americas soon.
Once the German submarines attacked unarmed Brazilian trading ships, President Vargas met with
United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt to discuss how they could retaliate. On January 22,
1942, Brazil officially ended all relations with Germany, Japan, and Italy, becoming a part of the
Allies.
The Brazilian Expeditionary Force was sent to Naples, Italy to fight for democracy. Brazil was the
only Latin American country to send troops to Europe. Initially, Brazil wanted to only provide
resources and shelter for the war to have a chance of gaining a high postwar status but ended up
sending 25,000 men to fight.[41]
After World War II, the United States and Latin America continued to have a close relationship. For
example, USAID created family planning programs in Latin America combining the NGOs already in
place, providing the women in largely Catholic areas access to contraception. [42]
Involvement in World War II[edit]
There was Nazi influence in certain parts of the region, but Jewish migration from Europe during the
war continued.[citation needed] Only a small number of people recognized or knew about the Holocaust.
[43]
Furthermore, numerous military bases were built during the war by the United States, but some
also by the Germans. Even now, unexploded bombs from the second world war that need to be
made safe still remain.[44]

Cold War (194690) [edit]


See also: Operation Condor, Organization of American States, Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal
Assistance and Alliance for Progress
Economy[edit]

Burning forest in Brazil. The removal of forest to make way for cattle ranchingwas the leading cause of
deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest from the mid-1960s. Soybeans have become one of the most
important contributors to deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.[45]

The Great Depression caused Latin America to grow at a slow rate, separating it from leading
industrial democracies. The two world wars and U.S. Depression also made Latin American
countries favor internal economic development, leading Latin America to adopt the policy of import
substitution industrialization.[46] Countries also renewed emphasis on exports. Brazil began selling
automobiles to other countries, and some Latin American countries set up plants to assemble
imported parts, letting other countries take advantage of Latin America's low labor costs. Colombia
began to export flowers, emeralds and coffee grains and gold, becoming the world's second leading
flower exporter.
Economic integration was called for, to attain economies that could compete with the economies of
the United States or Europe. Starting in the 1960s with the Latin American Free Trade Association
and Central American Common Market, Latin American countries worked toward economic
integration.[46]
Reforms[edit]
Large countries like Argentina called for reforms to lessen the disparity of wealth between the rich
and the poor, which has been a long problem in Latin America that stunted economic growth. [47]
Advances in public health caused an explosion of population growth, making it difficult to provide
social services. Education expanded, and social security systems introduced, but benefits usually
went to the middle class, not the poor. As a result, disparity of wealth increased. Increasing inflation
and other factors caused countries to be unwilling to fund social development programs to help the
poor.
Bureaucratic authoritarianism[edit]
Bureaucratic authoritarianism was practiced in Brazil after 1964, in Argentina, and in Chile under
Augusto Pinochet, in a response to harsh economic conditions. It rested on the conviction that no
democracy could take the harsh measures to curb inflation, reassure investors, and quicken
economic growth quickly and effectively. Though inflation fell sharply, industrial production dropped
with the decline of official protection.[47]
US relations[edit]
After World War II and the beginning of a Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union,
US diplomats became interested in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and frequently[vague] waged proxy
wars against the Soviet Union in these countries. The US sought to stop the spread of communism.
Latin American countries generally sided with the US in the Cold War period, even though they
complained of being neglected since the US's concern with communism were focused in Europe and
Asia, not Latin America. Some Latin American governments also complained of the US support in
the overthrow of some nationalist governments, and intervention through the CIA. In 1947, the US

Congress passed the National Security Act, which created the National Security Council in response
to the United States's growing obsession with anti-communism.[48]
In 1954, when Jacobo Arbenz of Guatemala accepted the support of communists and attacked
holdings of the United Fruit Company, the US decided to assist Guatemalan counter-revolutionaries
in overthrowing Arbenz.[49] These interventionist tactics featured use of the CIA rather than the
military, which was used in Latin America for the majority of the Cold War in events including the
overthrow of Salvador Allende. Latin America was more concerned with issues of economic
development, while the United States focused on fighting communism, even though the presence of
communism was small in Latin America.[48]
Cuban Revolution[edit]

Che Guevara (left) and Castro, photographed by Alberto Korda in 1961.

By 1959, Cuba was afflicted with a corrupt dictatorship under Batista, and Fidel Castro ousted
Batista that year and set up the first communist state in the hemisphere. The United States imposed
a trade embargo on Cuba, and combined with Castro's expropriation of private enterprises, this was
detrimental to the Cuban economy.[46] Around Latin America, rural guerrilla conflict and urban
terrorism increased, inspired by the Cuban example. The United States put down these rebellions by
supporting Latin American countries in their counter guerrilla operations through the Alliance for
Progress launched by President John F. Kennedy. This thrust appeared to be successful. A Marxist,
Salvador Allende, became president of Chile in 1970, but was overthrown three years later in a
military coup backed by the United States. Despite civil war, high crime and political instability, most
Latin American countries eventually adopted democracies besides Cuba.
Bay of Pigs Invasion[edit]
Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion
Encouraged by the success of Guatemala in the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'tat,[50] in 1960, the U.S.
decided to support an attack on Cuba by anti-Castro rebels. The Bay of Pigs invasion was an
unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, financed by the U.S. through the CIA, to overthrow Fidel
Castro. The incident proved to be very embarrassing for the new Kennedy administration. [51]
Alliance for Progress[edit]

President John F. Kennedy initiated the Alliance for Progress in 1961, to establish economic
cooperation between the U.S. and Latin America. The Alliance would provide $20 billion for reform in
Latin America, and counterinsurgency measures. Instead, the reform failed because of the simplistic
theory that guided it and the lack of experienced American experts who could understand Latin
American customs.
Nicaraguan Revolution[edit]
Following the American occupation of Nicaragua in 1912, as part of the Banana Wars, the Somoza
family political dynasty came to power, and would rule Nicaragua until their ouster in 1979 during the
Nicaraguan Revolution. The era of Somoza family rule was characterized by strong U.S. support for
the government and its military[15] as well as a heavy reliance on U.S. based multi-national
corporations. The Nicaraguan Revolution (Spanish: Revolucin Nicaragense or Revolucin Popular
Sandinista) encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s,
the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) to violently oust the dictatorship
in 197879, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua from 1979 until 1990 and the
Contra War which was waged between the FSLN and the Contras from 19811990.
The Revolution marked a significant period in Nicaraguan history and revealed the country as one of
the major proxy war battlegrounds of the Cold War with the events in the country rising to
international attention. Although the initial overthrow of the Somoza regime in 197879 was a bloody
affair, the Contra War of the 1980s took the lives of tens of thousands of Nicaraguans and was the
subject of fierce international debate.[52] During the 1980s both the FSLN (a Leftist collection of
political parties) and the Contras (a rightist collection of counter-revolutionary groups) received large
amounts of aid from the Cold War super-powers (respectively, the Soviet Union and the United
States).

Washington Consensus[edit]
Main article: Washington Consensus
See also: Free Trade Area of the Americas

Roll-on/roll-off ships, such as this one pictured here at Miraflores locks, are among the largest ships to pass
through the Panama Canal. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for international
maritime trade.

The set of specific economic policy prescriptions that were considered the "standard" reform
package were promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.-based
institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and the US Treasury
Department during the 1980s and 1990s.
In recent years, several Latin American countries led by socialist or other left wing governments
including Argentina and Venezuela have campaigned for (and to some degree adopted) policies
contrary to the Washington Consensus set of policies. (Other Latin countries with governments of
the left, including Brazil, Chile and Peru, have in practice adopted the bulk of the policies.) Also

critical of the policies as actually promoted by the International Monetary Fund have been some US
economists, such as Joseph Stiglitz and Dani Rodrik, who have challenged what are sometimes
described as the "fundamentalist" policies of the International Monetary Fund and the US Treasury
for what Stiglitz calls a "one size fits all" treatment of individual economies.
The term has become associated with neoliberal policies in general and drawn into the broader
debate over the expanding role of the free market, constraints upon the state, and US influence on
other countries' national sovereignty.
This politico-economical initiative was institutionalized in North America by the 1994 NAFTA, and
elsewhere in the Americas through a series of like agreements. The comprehensive Free Trade Area
of the Americas project, however, was rejected by most South American countries at the 2005 4th
Summit of the Americas.

Turn to the left[edit]


See also: Pink tide

UNASUR summit in the Palacio de la Moneda, Santiago de Chile.

Due to the So Paulo Forum, in most countries, since the 2000s left-wing political parties have risen
to power. The presidencies of Hugo Chvez in Venezuela, Ricardo Lagos and Michelle Bachelet in
Chile, Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff in Brazil, Nstor Kirchner and his wife Cristina Fernndez in
Argentina, Tabar Vzquez and Jos Mujica in Uruguay, Evo Morales in Bolivia, Daniel Ortega in
Nicaragua,Rafael Correa in Ecuador, Fernando Lugo in Paraguay, Manuel
Zelaya in Honduras (removed from power by a coup d'tat), Mauricio Funes and Salvador Snchez
Cern in El Salvador are all part of this wave of left-wing politicians who often declare
themselves socialists,Latin Americanists, or anti-imperialists (often implying opposition to US policies
towards the region). A development of this has been the creation of the eight-member ALBA alliance,
or "The Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America" (Spanish: Alianza Bolivariana para los
Pueblos de Nuestra Amrica) by some of the countries already mentioned. By June 2014, Honduras
(Juan Orlando Hernndez), Guatemala (Otto Prez Molina), Colombia (Juan Manuel Santos) and
Panama (Ricardo Martinelli) had right-wing governments.

The return of social movements[edit]

Argentinean Pope Francis and Mexican president Enrique Pea Nieto. In 2015 in a private email to a friend,
Francis had lamented increased drug trafficking in his native Argentina, using the term "Mexicanization."
Mexico was irked by Pope Francis' choice of word 'Mexicanization'

Mural view on globalization, namedSomos cultura que camina en un mundo globalizado (We are a culture
walking in the road of globalize society). Mural is located inHumahuaca in the north of Argentina

In 1982, Mexico announced that it could not meet its foreign debt payment obligations, inaugurating
a debt crisis that would "discredit" Latin American economies throughout the decade. [53] This debt
crisis would lead to neoliberal reforms that would instigate many social movements in the region. A
"reversal of development" reigned over Latin America, seen through negative economic growth,
declines in industrial production, and thus, falling living standards for the middle and lower classes.
[54]
Governments made financial security their primary policy goal over social security, enacting new
neoliberal economic policies that implemented privatization of previously national industries
and informalization of labor.[53] In an effort to bring more investors to these industries, these
governments also embracedglobalization through more open interactions with the international
economy. Significantly, as democracy spread across much of Latin America, the realm of
government more inclusive (a trend that proved conductive to social movements), the economic
ventures remained exclusive to a few elite groups within society. Neoliberal restructuring consistently
redistributed income upward while denying political responsibility to provide social welfare rights, and
though development projects took place throughout the region, both inequality and poverty
increased.[53] Feeling excluded from these new projects, the lower classes took ownership of their
own democracy through a revitalization of social movements in Latin America.
Both urban and rural populations had serious grievances as a result of the above economic and
global trends and have voiced them in mass demonstrations. Some of the largest and most violent of
these have been protests against cuts in urban services, such as theCaracazo in Venezuela and
the Argentinazo in Argentina.[55]

Children singing the Internationale, 20th Anniversary of MST.

Rural movements have made diverse demands related to unequal land distribution, displacement at
the hands of development projects and dams, environmental and indigenous concerns, neoliberal

agricultural restructuring, and insufficient means of livelihood. These movements have benefited
considerably from transnational support from conservationists and INGOs. TheMovement of Rural
Landless Workers (MST), is perhaps the largest contemporary Latin American social movement.
[55]
As indigenous populations are primarily rural, indigenous movements account for a large portion
of rural social movements, including the Zapatista rebellion in Mexico, theConfederation of
Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE), indigenous organizations in the Amazon region of
Ecuador and Bolivia, pan-Mayan communities in Guatemala, and mobilization by the indigenous
groups of Yanomami peoples in the Amazon, Kuna peoples in Panama, and
Altiplano Aymara and Quechua peoples in Bolivia.[55] Other significant types of social movements
include labor struggles and strikes, such as recovered factories in Argentina, as well as genderbased movements such as the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo in Argentina and protests
against maquila production, which is largely a women's issue because of how it draws on women for
cheap labor.[55]

Commodity boom and increasing relations with China[edit]


The 2000s commodities boom caused positive effects for many Latin American economies. Another
trend is the rapidly increasing importance of the relations with China.[56]

Demographics[edit]
Historical populations
Year

Pop.

1750

16,000,000

1800

24,000,000

+50.0%

1850

38,000,000

+58.3%

1900

74,000,000

+94.7%

1950

167,000,000

+125.7%

1999

511,000,000

+206.0%

2013

603,191,486

+18.0%

Source: "UN report 2004 data" (PDF).

Main article: Latin Americans

Largest cities[edit]
The following is a list of the ten largest metropolitan areas in Latin America. [2]

City

Country

Metropolitan
population
(2012)

Gross
Domestic
Product
(USD, 2012)

GDP per
capita
(USD, 2012)

Global
economic
ranking by
GDP(2012)

1.

Mexico
City

Mexico

20,631,353

$411.4 billion

$19,940

15th

2.

So Paulo

Brazil

19,953,698

$473 billion

$23,704

11th

3.

Buenos
Aires

13,333,912

$348.4 billion

$26,129

20th

4.

Rio de
Janeiro

Brazil

11,968,886

$194.9 billion

$16,282

51st

5.

Lima

Peru

10,231,678

$177.4 billion

$17,340

62nd

6.

Bogot

8,868,395

$140.9 billion

$15,891

86th

7.

Santiago

Chile

7,023,767

$150.3 billion

$21,393

79th

8.

Belo
Horizonte

Brazil

5,504,729

$94.9 billion

$17,239

123rd

9.

Caracas

5,297,026

$69 billion

$24,000[57]

N/A

10
.

Guadalajara

4,593,444

$77.4 billion

$16,855

142nd

Argentin
a

Colombi
a

Venezuel
a

Mexico

Ethnic groups[edit]
Main article: Ethnic groups in Latin America

The Mexican mestizo population is the most diverse in Latin America, with people being either largely
European or Amerindian rather than having a uniform admixture.[58]

The inhabitants of Latin America are of a variety of ancestries, ethnic groups, and races, making the
region one of the most diverse in the world. The specific composition varies from country to country:
many have a predominance of European-Amerindian or more commonly referred to
as Mestizo or Castizo depending on the admixture, population; in others, Amerindians are a majority;
some are dominated by inhabitants of European ancestry; and some countries' populations are
primarily Mulatto, in Latin America the only Black majority nation is Haiti. Asian and Afro-Amerindian
(historically sometimes called Zambo) minorities are also identified regularly. People with European
ancestry are the largest single group, and along with people of part-European ancestry, they
combine to make up approximately 80% of the population, [59] or even more.[60]

Language[edit]

Linguistic map of Latin America. Spanish in green, Portuguese in orange, and French in blue.

Spanish and Portuguese are the predominant languages of Latin America. Spanish is spoken as first
language by about 60% of the population, Portuguese is spoken by about 34% of the population and
about 6% of the population speak other languages such as Quechua, Mayan languages, Guaran,
Aymara, Nahuatl, English, French, Dutch and Italian. Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil (Brazilian
Portuguese), the biggest and most populous country in the region. Spanish is the official language of
most of the rest of the countries on the Latin American mainland (Spanish language in the
Americas), as well as in Cuba, Puerto Rico (where it is co-official with English), and the Dominican
Republic. French is spoken in Haiti and in the French overseas
departments of Guadeloupe,Martinique and Guiana, and the French overseas collectivity of Saint
Pierre and Miquelon; it is also spoken by some Panamanians of Afro-Antillean descent. Dutch is the
official language in Suriname, Aruba, and the Netherlands Antilles. (As Dutch is a Germanic
language, these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin America.)

Native American languages are widely spoken in Peru, Guatemala, Bolivia, Paraguay and Mexico,
and to a lesser degree, in Panama,Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina,
and Chile amongst other countries. In Latin American countries not named above, the population of
speakers of indigenous languages tend to be very small or even non-existent (e.g. Uruguay). Mexico
is possibly the only country that contains a wider variety of indigenous languages than any Latin
American country, but the most spoken language is Nahuatl.
In Peru, Quechua is an official language, alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in
the areas where they predominate. InEcuador, while holding no official status, the closely
related Quichua is a recognized language of the indigenous people under the country's constitution;
however, it is only spoken by a few groups in the country's highlands. In Bolivia, Aymara, Quechua
and Guaran hold official status alongside Spanish. Guaran, along with Spanish, is an official
language of Paraguay, and is spoken by a majority of the population (who are, for the most part,
bilingual), and it is co-official with Spanish in the Argentine province of Corrientes. In Nicaragua,
Spanish is the official language, but on the country's Caribbean coast English and indigenous
languages such as Miskito, Sumo, and Rama also hold official status. Colombia recognizes all
indigenous languages spoken within its territory as official, though fewer than 1% of its population
are native speakers of these languages. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by
indigenous people in Mexico, which are officially recognized by the government as "national
languages" along with Spanish.
Other European languages spoken in Latin America include: English, by some groups in Puerto
Rico, as well as in nearby countries that may or may not be considered Latin American,
like Belize and Guyana; German, in southern Brazil, southern Chile portions of Argentina
and Paraguay; Italian, in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; Ukrainian and Polishin southern Brazil,
and Welsh, in southern Argentina.[61][62][63][64][65][66] Yidish and Hebrew are possible to be heard around
Buenos Aires and So Paulo especially.[67] Non-European or Asian languages include Japanese in
Brazil and Peru, Korean in Brazil, Arabic in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela
and Chinese throughout South America.
In several nations, especially in the Caribbean region, creole languages are spoken. The most
widely spoken creole language in Latin America and the Caribbean is Haitian Creole, the
predominant language of Haiti; it is derived primarily from French and certain West African tongues
with Amerindian, English, Portuguese and Spanish influences as well. Creole languages of mainland
Latin America, similarly, are derived from European languages and various African tongues.
The Garifuna language is spoken along the Caribbean coast
in Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Belize mostly by the Garifuna people a mixed
race Zambo people who were the result of mixing between Indigenous Caribbeans and escaped
Black slaves. Primarily an Arawakan language, it has influences from Caribbean and European
languages.

Religion[edit]
Main article: Religion in Latin America

Basilica of Our Lady of the Angelslocated in Cartago, Costa Rica.

The vast majority of Latin Americans are Christians, mostly Roman Catholics belonging to the Latin
Rite.[68] About 70% of the Latin American population consider themselves Catholic. [69]

Migration[edit]
Due to economic, social and security developments that are affecting the region in recent decades,
the focus is now the change from net immigration to net emigration. About 10 million Mexicans live in
the United States.[70] 28.3 million Americans listed their ancestry as Mexican as of 2006. [71] According
to the 2005 Colombian census or DANE, about 3,331,107 Colombians currently live abroad. [72] The
number of Brazilians living overseas is estimated at about 2 million people. [73] An estimated 1.5 to two
million Salvadorans reside in the United States.[74] At least 1.5 million Ecuadorians have gone
abroad, mainly to the United States and Spain.[75] Approximately 1.5 million Dominicans live abroad,
mostly in the United States.[76] More than 1.3 million Cubans live abroad, most of them in the United
States.[77] It is estimated that over 800,000 Chileans live abroad, mainly in Argentina, the United
States, Canada, Australia and Sweden.[78] An estimated 700,000 Bolivians were living in Argentina as
of 2006 and another 33,000 in the United States.[79] Central Americans living abroad in 2005 were
3,314,300,[80] of which 1,128,701 were Salvadorans,[81] 685,713 were Guatemalans,[82] 683,520
were Nicaraguans,[83] 414,955 were Hondurans,[84] 215,240 were Panamanians,[85] 127,061 wereCosta
Ricans[86] and 59,110 were Belizeans.
For the period 20002005, Chile, Costa Rica, Panama, and Venezuela were the only countries with
global positive migration rates, in terms of their yearly averages.[87]

Education[edit]
See also: Education in Latin America

World map indicating literacy by country (2011 Human Development Report) Grey = no data

Despite significant progress, education access and school completion remains unequal in Latin
America. The region has made great progress in educational coverage; almost all children attend
primary school and access to secondary education has increased considerably. Quality issues such
as poor teaching methods, lack of appropriate equipment and overcrowding exist throughout the
region. These issues lead to adolescents dropping out of the educational system early.[88] Most
educational systems in the region have implemented various types of administrative and institutional
reforms that have enabled reach for places and communities that had no access to education
services in the early 1990s. Compared to prior generations, Latin American youth have seen an
increase in their levels of education. On average, they have completed two years schooling more
than their parents.[88]
However, there are still 23 million children in the region between the ages of 4 and 17 outside of the
formal education system. Estimates indicate that 30% of preschool age children (ages 45) do not
attend school, and for the most vulnerable populations, the poor and rural, this calculation exceeds
40 percent. Among primary school age children (ages 6 to 12), coverage is almost universal;
however there is still a need to incorporate 5 million children in the primary education system. These
children live mostly in remote areas, are indigenous or Afro-descendants and live in extreme poverty.
[89]

Among people between the ages of 13 and 17 years, only 80% are full-time students in the
education system; among them only 66% advance to secondary school. These percentages are
lower among vulnerable population groups: only 75% of the poorest youth between the ages of 13

and 17 years attend school. Tertiary education has the lowest coverage, with only 70% of people
between the ages of 18 and 25 years outside of the education system. Currently, more than half of
low income children or living in rural areas fail to complete nine years of education. [89]

Crime and violence[edit]


Main article: Crime and violence in Latin America

A Favela (shanty town) in Rio de Janeiro.

Latin America and the Caribbean have been cited by numerous sources to be the most dangerous
regions in the world.[90][91] Studies have shown that Latin America contains the majority of the world's
most dangerous cities. Many analysts attribute the reason to why the region has such an alarming
crime rate and criminal culture is largely due to social and income inequality within the region, they
say that growing social inequality is fueling crime in the region. [92] Many agree that the prison crisis
will not be resolved until the gap between the rich and the poor is addressed.

Crime is particularly high in Honduras' second city and industrial heartland, San Pedro Sula

Crime and violence prevention and public security are now important issues for governments and
citizens in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Homicide rates in Latin America are the highest
in the world. From the early 1980s through the mid-1990s, homicide rates increased by 50 percent.
The major victims of such homicides are young men, 69 percent of whom are between the ages of
15 and 19 years old. Countries with the highest homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants
were: Honduras 91.6, El Salvador 69.2, Venezuela 45.1, Belize 41.4, Guatemala 38.5,Puerto
Rico 26.2, Dominican Republic 25, Mexico 23.7, and Ecuador 18.2.[93] Compared to the world
average homicide rating of 6.9, the country with the highest rating in Latin America is more than
13x's the world average. The top 10 highest homicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants ever recorded
since 1995 were entirely made up of countries from Latin America and they were El Salvador,
Honduras, and Colombia with El Salvador scoring the highest homicide rate ever recorded at 139.1
back in 1995.[94] In Colombia alone, one person was murdered every 10 minutes in 2005.[95] Amnesty
International has even named Latin America as the most dangerous region in the world for
journalists to work.[96] Crime-related violence in Latin America represents the most threat to public
health, striking more victims than HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases.[97]
Countries with low crime rates in Latin America are Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Costa
Rica, Nicaragua and Uruguay.[98]

Economy[edit]
Size[edit]
According to Goldman Sachs' BRIC review of emerging economies, by 2050 the largest economies
in the world will be as follows: China, United States, India, Brazil, and Mexico. [99]

Native New World crops exchanged globally: Maize, tomato, potato, vanilla,rubber, cacao, tobacco

Maracas appear in many forms of Caribbean and Latin musicand also in pop and classical music.

Population and economy size for Latin American countries

Country

Population[100]
(2010)
Millions

GDP (nominal)[101]

GDP (PPP)[102]

(2012)
Millions
of US$

(2012)
Millions
of US$

40.4

472,815

726,226

Bolivia

9.9

27,012

54,134

Brazil

201

2,395,968

2,393,954

Argentina

Population and economy size for Latin American countries

Country

Population[100]
(2010)
Millions

GDP (nominal)[101]

GDP (PPP)[102]

(2012)
Millions
of US$

(2012)
Millions
of US$

17.1

272,119

316,516

Colombia

45

378,713

500,576

Costa Rica

4.7

44,313

57,955

Chile

Cuba

11.3

N/A

N/A

9.9

59,429

98,835

14.5

88,186

134,805

El Salvador

6.2

24,421

46,050

Guatemala

15.5

50,303

79,970

Haiti

10.0

8,335

13,501

7.6

18,320

37,408

113.4

1,207,820

1,743,474

5.8

7,695

19,827

Dominican Republic

Ecuador

Honduras

Mexico

Nicaragua

Population and economy size for Latin American countries

Country

Population[100]
(2010)
Millions

GDP (nominal)[101]

GDP (PPP)[102]

(2012)
Millions
of US$

(2012)
Millions
of US$

Panama

3.5

34,517

55,124

Paraguay

6.5

22,363

35,262

29.1

184,962

322,675

Puerto Rico

3.7

101,500

64,840 (2010 estimate)

Uruguay

3.4

52,349

53,365

29.0

337,433

396,848

577.8

5,725,145

7,114,547

Peru

Venezuela

Total

Standard of living[edit]
The following table lists all the countries in Latin America indicating a valuation of the
country's Human Development Index, GDP at purchasing power parity per capita, measurement of
inequality through the Gini index, measurement of poverty through the Human Poverty Index,
measurement of extreme poverty based on people living under 1.25 dollars a day, life expectancy,
murder rates and a measurement of safety through the Global Peace Index. Green cells indicate the
best performance in each category while red indicates the lowest.

Social and economic indicators for Latin American countries

Coun
try

Huma
n
develo
pment[
103]

(2012)
HDI

GD
P
(PP
P)
[104]

(201
2)
US$
per
capit
a

Rea
l
GD
P
gro
wth[
105]

(2011
)
%

Inco
me
ineq
ualit
y[106]
(2011)
Gini

Pov
erty[
107]

(2009)
HPI-1
%

Ext
rem
e
pov
erty[
108]

(2011)
<1.25
US$
%

Mur
der[1

Life
expec
tancy[

Lite
racy[
109]

10]

(2012)
Rate
per
100,00
0

103]

(2010)
%

(2011)
Years

Pea
ce[11
1]

(201
4)
GPI

0.811

18,70
9

8.9

45.8

3.7

0.9

98

76

3.4

1.789

0.675

5,330

5.1

57.3

11.6

14.0

91

67

8.9

1.969

0.730

12,34
0

2.7

53.9

8.6

0.3

90

74

21.0

2.073

0.819

19,47
4

5.9

52.1

3.2

0.8

99

79

3.2

1.591

Col
ombia

0.719

11,28
4

5.9

53.9[112]

7.6

8.2

93

74

31[113]

2.701

Co
sta Rica

0.773

13,20
5

4.2

50.3

3.7

0.7

96

79

11.3

1.781

0.780

N/A

100

79

5.0

1.986

0.702

9,845

90

73

25.0

2.093

Ar
gentina

Bol
ivia

Bra
zil

Chi
le

Cu
ba

Do
minican
Republi
c

N/A

4.5

N/A

48.4

4.6

9.1

N/A

4.3

Social and economic indicators for Latin American countries

Coun
try

Huma
n
develo
pment[
103]

(2012)
HDI

GD
P
(PP
P)
[104]

(201
2)
US$
per
capit
a

Rea
l
GD
P
gro
wth[
105]

(2011
)
%

Inco
me
ineq
ualit
y[106]
(2011)
Gini

Pov
erty[
107]

(2009)
HPI-1
%

Ext
rem
e
pov
erty[
108]

(2011)
<1.25
US$
%

Mur
der[1

Life
expec
tancy[

Lite
racy[
109]

10]

(2012)
Rate
per
100,00
0

103]

(2010)
%

(2011)
Years

Pea
ce[11
1]

(201
4)
GPI

Ec
uador

0.724

10,51
7

7.8

49.0

7.9

5.1

92

76

15.2

2.042

El
Salvado
r

0.680

7,648

1.4

46.9

14.6

5.1

84

72

69.2

2.280

Gu
atemala

0.628

5,335

3.8

53.7

19.7

16.9

75

71

38.5

2.248

0.456

1,358

5.6

59.5

31.5

54.9

49

62

6.9

2.127

0.632

4,741

3.6

57.7

13.7

23.3

85

73

91.6

2.281

0.775

15,93
1

4.0

51.7

5.9

8.4

93

77

22.7

2.500

0.599

4,641

4.7

52.3

17.0

15.8

78

74

13.6

1.882

0.780

16,99
3

10.6

52.3

6.7

9.5

94

76

21.6

1.877

Hai
ti

Ho
nduras

Me
xico

Nic
aragua

Pan
ama

Social and economic indicators for Latin American countries

Coun
try

Huma
n
develo
pment[
103]

(2012)
HDI

Par
aguay

GD
P
(PP
P)
[104]

(201
2)
US$
per
capit
a

Rea
l
GD
P
gro
wth[
105]

(2011
)
%

Inco
me
ineq
ualit
y[106]
(2011)
Gini

Pov
erty[
107]

(2009)
HPI-1
%

Ext
rem
e
pov
erty[
108]

(2011)
<1.25
US$
%

Mur
der[1

Life
expec
tancy[

Lite
racy[
109]

10]

(2012)
Rate
per
100,00
0

103]

(2010)
%

(2011)
Years

Pea
ce[11
1]

(201
4)
GPI

0.669

6,787

3.8

52.0

10.5

5.1

94

73

11.5

1.976

0.741

11,40
3

6.9

48.0

10.2

5.9

90

74

10.3

2.304

Ur
uguay

0.792

16,72
8

5.7

42.4

3.0

0.0

99

77

5.9

1.565

Ve
nezuela

0.748

13,63
3

4.2

43.5

6.6

3.5

96

74

45.1

2.410

Per
u

Environment[edit]

Angel Falls, the highest waterfall in the world, is located in Venezuela.

Glaucous macaw (behind hyacinth macaw) and other macaws. Macawsare long-tailed, often colourful New
World parrots.[114]

Environmental indicators for Latin American countries

Country

Environmental
performance[115]

CO2 emissions[116]
(2009)
(tons of CO2
per capita)

(2012)
EPI

Argentina

56.48

4.14

Bolivia

54.57

1.31

Brazil

60.90

1.74

Chile

55.34

3.84

Colombia

62.33

1.33

Costa Rica

69.03

1.37

Cuba

56.48

2.40

Dominican Republic

52.44

1.79

Ecuador

60.55

2.09

El Salvador

52.08

1.10

Guatemala

51.88

1.03

Haiti

41.15

0.24

Environmental indicators for Latin American countries

Country

Environmental
performance[115]

CO2 emissions[116]
(2009)
(tons of CO2
per capita)

(2012)
EPI

Honduras

52.54

0.96

Mexico

49.11

3.72

Nicaragua

59.23

0.73

Panama

57.94

2.10

Paraguay

52.40

0.64

Peru

50.29

1.32

Uruguay

57.06

2.31

Venezuela

55.62

5.45

Inequality[edit]
Main articles: Casta, Gente de Razon and Race and ethnicity in Latin America

Slums on the outskirts of a wealthy urban area in So Paulo, Brazil are an example of poverty and inequality
common in Latin America.

Expensive homes and apartments surrounding a poor marginal zone are an example of the stark difference in
incomes among Mexico City inhabitants.

Poverty continues to be one of the region's main challenges; according to the ECLAC, Latin America
is the most unequal region in the world.[117] Inequality is undermining the region's economic potential
and the well-being of its population, since it increases poverty and reduces the impact of economic
development on poverty reduction.[118] Children in Latin America are often forced to seek work on the
streets when their families can no longer afford to support them, leading to a substantial population
of street children in Latin America.[119]According to some estimates, there are 40 million street children
in Latin America.[120] Inequality in Latin America has deep historical roots in the Latin European
racially based Casta system[121][122][123][124][125][126][127] instituted in Latin America in colonial times that have
been difficult to eradicate since the differences between initial endowments and opportunities among
social groups have constrained the poorest's social mobility, thus making poverty to be transmitted
from generation to generation, becoming a vicious cycle. High inequality is rooted in the deepest
exclusionary institutions of the Casta system[128][129][130] that have been perpetuated ever since colonial
times and that have survived different political and economic regimes. Inequality has been
reproduced and transmitted through generations because Latin American political systems allow a
differentiated access on the influence that social groups have in the decision making process, and it
responds in different ways to the least favored groups that have less political representation and
capacity of pressure.[131] Recenteconomic liberalisation also plays a role as not everyone is equally
capable of taking advantage of its benefits.[132] Differences in opportunities and endowments tend to
be based on race, ethnicity, rurality and gender. Because inequality in gender and location are near
universal, race and ethnicity play a larger, more integral role in the unequal discriminatory practices
in Latin America. These differences have a strong impact on the distribution of income, capital and
political standing.
In 2008, According to UNICEF, Latin America and the Caribbean region had the highest
combined income inequality in the world with a measured net Gini coefficient of 48.3, an unweighted
average which is considerably higher than the world's Gini coefficient average of 39.7. Gini is the
statistical measurement used to measure income distribution across entire nations and their
populations and their income inequality. The other regional averages were: sub-Saharan Africa
(44.2), Asia (40.4), Middle East and North Africa (39.2), Eastern Europe and Central Asia (35.4), and
high-income nations (30.9).[133]
According to a study by the World Bank,the richest decile of the population of Latin America
earn[134] 48% of the total income, while the poorest 10% of the population earn only 1.6% of the
income. In contrast, in developed countries, the top decile receives 29% of the total income, while
the bottom decile earns 2.5%. The countries with the highest inequality in the region (as measured
with the Gini index in the UN Development Report[135]) in 2007
were Haiti (59.5), Colombia (58.5), Bolivia (58.2), Honduras (55.3), Brazil (55.0), and Panama(54.9),

while the countries with the lowest inequality in the region were Venezuela (43.4), Uruguay (46.4)
and Costa Rica (47.2).

Trends on income inequality 1998-2010 in 7 Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,
Mexico, Peru, Venezuela). Source of the data: World Bank.

According to the World Bank, the poorest countries in the region were (as of 2008):
[136]
Haiti, Nicaragua, Bolivia and Honduras. Undernourishment affects to 47% of Haitians, 27%
of Nicaraguans, 23% of Bolivians and 22% of Hondurans.
Many countries in Latin America have responded to high levels of poverty by implementing new, or
altering old, social assistance programs such as conditional cash transfers. These include Mexico's
Progresa Oportunidades, Brazil's Bolsa Escola and Bolsa Familia, Panama's Red de Oportunidades
and Chile's Chile Solidario.[137] In general, these programs provide money to poor families under the
condition that those transfers are used as an investment on their children's human capital, such as
regular school attendance and basic preventive health care. The purpose of these programs is to
address the inter-generational transmission of poverty and to foster social inclusion by explicitly
targeting the poor, focusing on children, delivering transfers to women, and changing social
accountability relationships between beneficiaries, service providers and governments. [138]These
programs have helped to increase school enrollment and attendance and they also have shown
improvements in children's health conditions.[139] Most of these transfer schemes are now benefiting
around 110 million people in the region and are considered relatively cheap, costing around 0.5% of
their GDP.[140] In some countries e.g. in Perudecentralisation is hoped to help addressing social
justice and poverty better. NGOs which addressed those problems on the local level before could
help with that.[141]

Trade blocs[edit]

Rafael Correa, Evo Morales, Nstor Kirchner, Cristina Fernndez, Luiz Incio Lula da Silva, Nicanor Duarte,
and Hugo Chvez at the signing of the founding charter of the Bank of the South.

The major trade blocs (or agreements) in the region are the Pacific Alliance and the Union of South
American Nations, composed of the integrated Mercosur and Andean Community of Nations (CAN).
Minor blocs or trade agreements are the G3 Free Trade Agreement, theDominican Republic
Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM).
However, major reconfigurations are taking place along opposing approaches to integration and
trade; Venezuela has officially withdrawn from both the CAN and G3 and it has been formally
admitted into the Mercosur (pending ratification from the Paraguayan legislature). The presidentelect of Ecuador has manifested his intentions of following the same path. This bloc nominally
opposes any Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States, although Uruguay has manifested
its intention otherwise. Chile has already signed an FTA with Canada, and along
with Peru, Colombia and Mexico are the only four Latin American nations that have an FTA with the
United States, the latter being a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

Tourism[edit]

Cancn is a top international tourist destination in Mexico and Latin America.

Income from tourism is key to the economy of several Latin American countries. [142] Thanks to its
proximity to the USA, Mexico receives the largest number of international tourists, with 22.3 million
visitors in 2010, followed by Argentina, with 5.2 million in 2010; Brazil, with 5.1 million; Puerto Rico,
with 3.6 million, Chile with 2.7 million, Colombia with 2.385 million;[143] Dominican Republic, with 4.1
million andPanama with 2.06 million.[144] Places such as Cancn, Galpagos Islands, Machu
Picchu, Chichen Itza, Cartagena de Indias, Cabo San Lucas, Acapulco, Rio de
Janeiro, Salvador, Margarita Island, So Paulo, Salar de Uyuni, Punta del Este, Santo
Domingo, Labadee, San Juan, La Habana, Panama City, Iguazu Falls, Puerto Vallarta, Pos
Volcano National Park, Punta Cana, Via del Mar, Mexico City, Quito,Bogot, Santa Marta, San
Andrs, Buenos Aires, Lima, Macei, Florianpolis, Cuzco, Ponce and Patagonia are popular among
international visitors in the region.[citation needed]

Performance indicators for international tourism in Latin America

Countr
y

Arge
ntina

Touri
st
arriva
ls[145]
(2011)
(Million
s)

Touri
sm
receip
ts[146]
(2011)
(Million
s
of US$)

Tour
ism
recei
pts
(2011)
(US$
per
arrival
)

Tour
ism
recei
pts

Touri
sm
receip
ts[147]

(2011)
(US$
per
capita)

(2003)
(as %
of GDP)

Touri
sm
receip
ts[148]
(2003)
(as %
of
exports)

Direct
and
indirect
employ
ment[149]
in
tourism

Tourism
competitiv
eness[150]
(2011)
(TTCI)

(2005)
(%)

5.663

5,353

945

133

7.4

1.8

9.1

4.20

0.807

310

384

31

9.4

2.2

7.6

3.35

Brazil

5.433

6,555

1,207

34

3.2

0.5

7.0

4.36

Chile

3.070

1,831

596

107

5.3

1.9

6.8

4.27

Colo
mbia

2.385

4,061

873

45

6.6

1.4

5.9

3.94

2.196

2,156

982

459

17.5

8.1

13.3

4.43

Cuba

2.507

2,187

872

194

Domi
nican
Republic

4.306

4,353

1,011

440

36.2

18.8

19.8

3.99

1.141

837

734

58

6.3

1.5

7.4

3.79

Boliv
ia

Costa
Rica

Ecua
dor

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Performance indicators for international tourism in Latin America

Countr
y

Touri
st
arriva
ls[145]
(2011)
(Million
s)

Touri
sm
receip
ts[146]
(2011)
(Million
s
of US$)

Tour
ism
recei
pts
(2011)
(US$
per
arrival
)

Tour
ism
recei
pts

Touri
sm
receip
ts[147]

(2011)
(US$
per
capita)

(2003)
(as %
of GDP)

Touri
sm
receip
ts[148]
(2003)
(as %
of
exports)

Direct
and
indirect
employ
ment[149]
in
tourism

Tourism
competitiv
eness[150]
(2011)
(TTCI)

(2005)
(%)

El
Salvador

1.184

415

351

67

12.9

3.4

6.8

3.68

Guat
emala

1.225

1,350

1,102

94

16.0

2.6

6.0

3.82

Haiti

0.255

167

655

17

19.4

3.2

4.7

0.931

701

753

92

13.5

5.0

8.5

3.79

23.403

11,869

507

105

5.7

1.6

14.2

4.43

1.060

377

356

65

15.5

3.7

5.6

3.56

2.06

1,926

1,308

550

10.6

6.3

12.9

4.30

0.524

241

460

37

4.2

1.3

6.4

3.26

2.598

2,360

908

81

9.0

1.6

7.6

4.04

Hond
uras

Mexi
co

Nicar
agua

Pana
ma

Parag
uay

Peru

N/A

Performance indicators for international tourism in Latin America

Countr
y

Urug
uay

Vene
zuela

Touri
st
arriva
ls[145]
(2011)
(Million
s)

Touri
sm
receip
ts[146]
(2011)
(Million
s
of US$)

Tour
ism
recei
pts
(2011)
(US$
per
arrival
)

Tour
ism
recei
pts

Touri
sm
receip
ts[147]

(2011)
(US$
per
capita)

(2003)
(as %
of GDP)

Touri
sm
receip
ts[148]
(2003)
(as %
of
exports)

Direct
and
indirect
employ
ment[149]
in
tourism

Tourism
competitiv
eness[150]
(2011)
(TTCI)

(2005)
(%)

2.857

2,187

765

643

14.2

3.6

10.7

4.24

0.510

739

1,449

25

1.3

0.4

8.1

3.46

Culture[edit]
Main article: Latin American culture

Roman Catholic Easter procession in Comayagua, Honduras.

Gold maize. Moche culture 300 A.D., Larco Museum, Lima, Peru.

Latin American culture is a mixture of many cultural expressions worldwide. It is the product of many
diverse influences:

Indigenous cultures of the people who inhabited the continent prior


to the arrival of the Europeans. Ancient and very advanced
civilizations developed their own political, social and religious
systems. The Maya, the Aztecs and the Incas are examples of
these. Indigenous legacies in music, dance, foods, arts and crafts,
clothing, folk culture and traditions are very strong in Latin America.
Linguistic effects on Spanish and Portuguese are also marked, such
as in terms like pampa, taco, tamale, cacique.

Western civilization, in particular the culture of Europe, was brought


mainly by the colonial powers
the Spanish, Portuguese andFrench between the 16th and 19th
centuries. The most enduring European colonial influence is
language and Roman Catholicism. More recently, additional cultural
influences came from the United States and Europe during the
nineteenth and twentieth centuries, due to the growing influence of
the former on the world stage and immigration from the latter. The
influence of the United States is particularly strong in northern Latin
America, especially Puerto Rico, which is a United States territory.
Prior to 1959, Cuba, who fought for its independence along
American soldiers in the SpanishAmerican War, was also known to
have a close socioeconomic relation with the United States. In

addition, the United States also helped Panama become an


independent state from Colombia and built the twenty-milelong Panama Canal Zone in Panama which held from 1903
(the Panama Canal opened to transoceanic freight traffic in 1914) to
1999, when the Torrijos-Carter Treaties restored Panamanian
control of the Canal Zone. South America experienced waves of
immigration of Europeans, especially Italians, Spaniards,
Portuguese and Germans. With the end of colonialism, French
culture was also able to exert a direct influence in Latin America,
especially in the realms of high culture, science and medicine.
[151]

This can be seen in any expression of the region's artistic

traditions, including painting, literature and music, and in the realms


of science and politics.

African cultures, whose presence derives from a long history of New


World slavery. Peoples of African descent have influenced the
ethno-scapes of Latin America and the Caribbean. This is
manifested for instance in music, dance and religion, especially in
countries like Belize, Brazil, Honduras, Puerto Rico, Venezuela,
Colombia, Panama, Haiti, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, and
Cuba.

Asian cultures, whose presence derives from the long history of


the Coolie trade mostly arriving during the 19th and 20th centuries.
This has largely effected the cuisine, traditions including literature,
art and lifestyles and politics. The effects of Asian influences have
especially and mostly effected the nations of Belize, Brazil, Cuba,
Panama and Peru.

Art[edit]
Main article: Latin American art
See also: List of Latin American artists

Casapueblo, Carlos Pez Vilar'scitadelsculpture near Punta del Este,Uruguay.

Beyond the rich tradition of indigenous art, the development of Latin American visual art owed much
to the influence of Spanish, Portuguese and French Baroque painting, which in turn often followed
the trends of the Italian Masters. In general, this artistic Eurocentrism began to fade in the early
twentieth century, as Latin-Americans began to acknowledge the uniqueness of their condition and
started to follow their own path.
From the early twentieth century, the art of Latin America was greatly inspired by the Constructivist
Movement.[citation needed] The Movement quickly spread from Russia to Europe and then into Latin
America. Joaqun Torres Garca and Manuel Rendn have been credited with bringing the
Constructivist Movement into Latin America from Europe. [citation needed]

Diego Rivera's mural depicting Mexico's history at the National Palace in Mexico City.

An important artistic movement generated in Latin America is muralism represented by Diego


Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Jos Clemente Orozco and Rufino Tamayo in Mexico, Santiago
Martinez Delgado and Pedro Nel Gmez in Colombia and Antonio Berni in Argentina. Some of the
most impressive Muralista works can be found in Mexico, Colombia, New York City, San Francisco,
Los Angeles and Philadelphia.
Painter Frida Kahlo, one of the most famous Mexican artists, painted about her own life and the
Mexican culture in a style combiningRealism, Symbolism and Surrealism. Kahlo's work commands
the highest selling price of all Latin American paintings. [152]
Colombian sculptor and painter Fernando Botero is also widely known[153][154][155][by whom?] by his works
which, on first examination, are noted for their exaggerated proportions and the corpulence of the
human and animal figures.

Film[edit]
Main article: Latin American cinema

Guadalajara International Film Festival the festival (held in Mexico) is considered the most prestigious film
festival in Latin America and among the most important Spanish language film festivals in the world.

Latin American film is both rich and diverse. Historically, the main centers of production have been
Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, and Cuba.
Latin American film flourished after sound was introduced in cinema, which added a linguistic barrier
to the export of Hollywood film south of the border. The 1950s and 1960s saw a movement
towards Third Cinema, led by the Argentine filmmakers Fernando Solanas andOctavio Getino. More
recently, a new style of directing and stories filmed has been tagged as "New Latin American
Cinema".

Alejandro Gonzlez Irritu is the second Mexican director to win both the Academy Award for Best
Director and the Directors Guild of America award for Best Director. He won the Academy Awards in 2015 for
Best Picture for Birdman, becoming the first Latin American to win the award in 2014.

Mexican cinema started out in the silent era from 1896 to 1929 and flourished in the Golden Era of
the 1940s. It boasted a huge industry comparable to Hollywood at the time with stars such as Mara
Flix, Dolores del Ro, and Pedro Infante. In the 1970s, Mexico was the location for many cult horror
and action movies. More recently, films such as Amores Perros (2000) and Y tu mam
tambin(2001) enjoyed box office and critical acclaim and propelled Alfonso Cuarn and Alejandro
Gonzlez Iarritu to the front rank of Hollywood directors. Alejandro Gonzlez Irritu directed in
(2010) Biutifuland Brirdman (2014), Alfonso Cuarn directed Harry Potter and the Prisoner of
Azkaban in (2004) and Gravity (2013). Guillermo del Toro close friend and also a front rank
Hollywood director in Hollywood and Spain, directed Pan's Labyrinth (2006) and produce El
Orfanato (2007). Carlos Carrera (The Crime of Father Amaro), and screenwriter Guillermo

Arriaga are also some of the most known present-day Mexican film makers. Rudo y Cursi released
in December (2008) in Mexico directed by Carlos Cuarn.

President Cristina Fernndez and the cast of The Secret in Their Eyes(2009) with the Oscar for Best Foreign
Language Film.

Argentine cinema has also been prominenent since the first half of the 20th century and today
averages over 60 full-length titles yearly. The industry suffered during the 19761983 military
dictatorship; but re-emerged to produce the Academy Award winner The Official Story in 1985. A
wave of imported U.S. films again damaged the industry in the early 1990s, though it soon
recovered, thriving even during the Argentine economic crisis around 2001. Many Argentine movies
produced during recent years have been internationally acclaimed, including Nueve
reinas (2000), Son of the bride (2001), El abrazo partido (2004), El otro (2007), the 2010 Foreign
Language Academy Awardwinner El secreto de sus ojos and Wild Tales (2014).
In Brazil, the Cinema Novo movement created a particular way of making movies with critical and
intellectual screenplays, a clearer photography related to the light of the outdoors in a tropical
landscape, and a political message. The modern Brazilian film industry has become more profitable
inside the country, and some of its productions have received prizes and recognition in Europe and
the United States, with movies such as Central do Brasil (1999), Cidade de Deus (2002) and Tropa
de Elite (2007).
Puerto Rican cinema has produced some notable films, such as Una Aventura Llamada
Menudo, Los Diaz de Doris and Casi Casi. An influx of Hollywood films affected the local film
industry in Puerto Rico during the 1980s and 1990s, but several Puerto Rican films have been
produced since and it has been recovering.
Cuban cinema has enjoyed much official support since the Cuban revolution and important filmmakers include Toms Gutirrez Alea.
It is also worth noting that many Latin Americans have achieved significant success within
Hollywood, for instance Carmen Miranda (Portuguese-Brazilian), Salma Hayek(Mexican),
and Benicio del Toro (Puerto Rican), while Mexican Americans such as Robert Rodriguez have also
made their mark in film production.

Literature[edit]
Main article: Latin American literature
See also: List of Latin American writers

Mexican scholar and poet of the 17th century Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz

Pre-Columbian cultures were primarily oral, though the Aztecs and Mayans, for instance, produced
elaborate codices. Oral accounts of mythological and religious beliefs were also sometimes recorded
after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the Popol Vuh. Moreover, a tradition of
oral narrative survives to this day, for instance among the Quechua-speaking population of Peru and
theQuich (K'iche') of Guatemala.
From the very moment of Europe's discovery of the continents, early explorers
and conquistadores produced written accounts and crnicas of their experience such
as Columbus's letters or Bernal Daz del Castillo's description of the conquest of Mexico. During the
colonial period, written culture was often in the hands of the church, within which context Sor Juana
Ins de la Cruz wrote memorable poetry and philosophical essays. Towards the end of the 18th
Century and the beginning of the 19th, a distinctive criollo literary tradition emerged, including the
first novels such as Lizardi's El Periquillo Sarniento (1816).
The 19th century was a period of "foundational fictions" (in critic Doris Sommer's words), novels in
the Romantic or Naturalist traditions that attempted to establish a sense of national identity, and
which often focussed on the indigenous question or the dichotomy of "civilization or barbarism" (for
which see, say, Domingo Sarmiento's Facundo (1845), Juan Len Mera's Cumand (1879),
or Euclides da Cunha's Os Sertes (1902)). The 19th century also witnessed the realist work
of Machado de Assis, who made use of surreal devices of metaphor and playful narrative
construction, much admired by critic Harold Bloom.
At the turn of the 20th century, modernismo emerged, a poetic movement whose founding text was
Nicaraguan poet Rubn Daro's Azul(1888). This was the first Latin American literary movement to
influence literary culture outside of the region, and was also the first truly Latin American literature, in
that national differences were no longer so much at issue. Jos Mart, for instance, though a Cuban
patriot, also lived in Mexico and the United States and wrote for journals in Argentina and elsewhere.

Chilean Poet Gabriela Mistral, first Latin American to win a Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1945.

Argentine Jorge Luis Borges inL'Htel, Paris in 1969.

However, what really put Latin American literature on the global map was no doubt the
literary boom of the 1960s and 1970s, distinguished by daring and experimental novels (such
as Julio Cortzar's Rayuela(1963)) that were frequently published in Spain and quickly translated
into English. The Boom's defining novel was Gabriel Garca Mrquez's Cien aos de soledad (1967),
which led to the association of Latin American literature with magic realism, though other important
writers of the period such as the PeruvianMario Vargas Llosa and Carlos Fuentes do not fit so easily
within this framework. Arguably, the Boom's culmination was Augusto Roa Bastos's monumental Yo,
el supremo (1974). In the wake of the Boom, influential precursors such as Juan Rulfo, Alejo
Carpentier, and above all Jorge Luis Borges were also rediscovered.
Contemporary literature in the region is vibrant and varied, ranging from the best-selling Paulo
Coelho andIsabel Allende to the more avant-garde and critically acclaimed work of writers such
as Diamela Eltit,Giannina Braschi, Ricardo Piglia, or Roberto Bolao. There has also been
considerable attention paid to the genre of testimonio, texts produced in collaboration
with subaltern subjects such as Rigoberta Mench. Finally, a new breed of chroniclers is represented
by the more journalistic Carlos Monsivis and Pedro Lemebel.

The region boasts six Nobel Prize winners: in addition to the two Chilean poets Gabriela
Mistral (1945) and Pablo Neruda (1971), there is also the Colombian writer Gabriel Garca
Mrquez (1982), the Guatemalan novelist Miguel ngel Asturias (1967), the Mexican poet and
essayist Octavio Paz (1990), and the Peruvian novelist Mario Vargas Llosa (2010).

Music and dance[edit]


See also: Dance and music of Latin America, Latin American music, Latin pop and Latin dance

Celebrating the annual "Alegra por la vida" Carnaval in Managua, Nicaragua

Jarabe Tapato in the traditional China Poblana dress.

Latin America has produced many successful worldwide artists in terms of recorded global music
sales. Among the most successful have been Gloria Estefan (Cuba), Mercedes
Sosa(Argentina), Roberto Carlos (Brazil), Carlos Santana (Mexico) of whom have sold over 90
million records, Luis Miguel (Mexico), Shakira (Colombia) and Vicente Fernndez (Mexico) with over
50 million records sold worldwide.
Caribbean Hispanic music, such as merengue, bachata, salsa, and more recently reggaeton, from
such countries as the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Cuba, and Panama
has been strongly influenced by African rhythms and melodies. Haiti's compas is a genre of music
that draws influence and is thus similar to its Caribbean Hispanic counterparts, with an element of
jazz and modern sound as well.[156][157]

Salsa dancing in Cali, Colombia

Another well-known Latin American musical genre includes the Argentine and Uruguayan tango, as
well as the distinct nuevo tango, a fusion of tango, acoustic and electronic music popularized
by bandonen virtuoso stor Piazzolla. Samba, North American jazz, European classical
music and choro combined to form bossa nova in Brazil, popularized byguitarrist Joo
Gilberto and pianist Antonio Carlos Jobim.

Brazilian actress Carmen Mirandahelped popularize sambainternationally.

Other influential Latin American sounds include the Antillean soca and calypso, the Honduras
(Garifuna) punta, the Colombian cumbiaand vallenato, the Chilean cueca, the Ecuadorian boleros,
and rockoleras, the Mexican ranchera and the mariachi which is the epitome of Mexican soul, the
Nicaraguan palo de Mayo, the Peruvian marinera and tondero, the Uruguayancandombe, the French

Antillean zouk (derived from Haitian compas) and the various styles of music from pre-Columbian
traditions that are widespread in the Andean region.
The classical composer Heitor Villa-Lobos (18871959) worked on the recording of native musical
traditions within his homeland of Brazil. The traditions of his homeland heavily influenced his
classical works.[158] Also notable is the recent work of the Cuban Leo Brouwer and guitar work of the
Venezuelan Antonio Lauro and the Paraguayan Agustn Barrios. Latin America has also produced
world-class classical performers such as the Chilean pianist Claudio Arrau, Brazilian pianist Nelson
Freire and the Argentine pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim.

A couple dances Argentine Tango.

Arguably, the main contribution to music entered through folklore, where the true soul of the Latin
American and Caribbean countries is expressed. Musicians such as Yma Smac, Chabuca
Granda, Atahualpa Yupanqui, Violeta Parra, Vctor Jara, Jorge Cafrune, Facundo Cabral,Mercedes
Sosa, Jorge Negrete, Luiz Gonzaga, Caetano Veloso, Susana Baca, Chavela Vargas,Simon
Diaz, Julio Jaramillo, Toto la Momposina as well as musical ensembles such as Inti Illimaniand Los
Kjarkas are magnificent examples of the heights that this soul can reach.
Latin pop, including many forms of rock, is popular in Latin America today (see Spanish language
rock and roll).[159]
More recently, Reggaeton, which blends Jamaican reggae and dancehall with Latin America genres
such as bomba and plena, as well as that of hip hop, is becoming more popular, in spite of the
controversy surrounding its lyrics, dance steps (Perreo) and music videos. It has become very
popular among populations with a "migrant culture" influence both Latino populations in the United
States, such as southern Florida and New York City, and parts of Latin America where migration to
the United States is common, such as Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominican Republic,
Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Mexico.[160]

Bibliography[edit]

Azevedo, Aroldo. O Brasil e suas regies. So Paulo: Companhia


Editora Nacional, 1971. (Portuguese)

Enciclopdia Barsa. Volume 4: Batrquio Camaro, Filipe. Rio de


Janeiro: Encyclopdia Britannica do Brasil, 1987. (Portuguese)

Coelho, Marcos Amorim. Geografia do Brasil. 4th ed. So Paulo:


Moderna, 1996. (Portuguese)

Galeano, Eduardo. Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of


the Pillage of a Continent. 1973

Edwards, Sebastin. Left Behind: Latin America and the False


Promise of Populism. University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Moreira, Igor A. G. O Espao Geogrfico, geografia geral e do


Brasil. 18. Ed. So Paulo: tica, 1981. (Portuguese)

Vesentini, Jos William. Brasil, sociedade e espao Geografia do


Brasil. 7th Ed. So Paulo: tica, 1988. (Portuguese)

Julio Miranda Vidal: (2007) Ciencia y tecnologa en Amrica Latina


Edicin electrnica gratuita. Texto completo
enhttp://www.eumed.net/libros/2007a/237/

Donghi, T. (1970). Historia contempornea de Amrica Latina ([2.


ed.). Madrid: Alianza Editorial.

Engerman, Stanley L., and Kenneth L. Sokoloff. "History Lessons:


Institutions, Factors Endowments, and Paths of Development in the
New World." The Journal of Economic Perspectives Vol. 14(3)
pp. 217232 (2000): pp. 217232. Print.

Latin American History from 1800 to 1914. Woodville. Colegio


Woodville, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013.
<http://www.woodville.org/documentos/130506latinamericanhistorysummary.pdf>.

Racine, K. (Aug2010). "This England and This Now": British Cultural


and Intellectual Influence in the Spanish American Independence

Era. Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 90(Issue 3), p423


454.

Pozas, Mario A. "EL LIBERALISMO HISPANOAMERICANO EN EL


SIGLO XIX" University of Central Arkansas.

Bakewell, Peter. "A History of Latin America": A Blackwell History of


the World.

Schneider, Ronald M. "Latin American Political History: Patterns and


Personalities"

See also[edit]
Latin America portal
North America portal

Latin American integration

Latin Americans (Amerindians, Criollo, AfroLatin American, Asian Latin

American,Mestizos, Mulatto, White Latin American, Zambo)

Diaspora (Latin American Australian, Latin

Americas (terminology) Use of the word American

Latin AmericaUnited States relations


Caribbean

American British, Latin American Canadian, Hispanic and


Latino Americans, Hispanic, Latino)

List of Latin Americans

Latin American studies

Agroecology in Latin America

Latin America and the League of


Nations

Latin Africa (United States of Latin


Africa)

References[edit]

Association of Caribbean States

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States


Central American Integration System

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101. Jump up^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2012".Gross
domestic product, current prices. International Monetary Fund (IMF).
102. Jump up^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2012".Gross
domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation
of country GDP. International Monetary Fund (IMF).
103. ^ Jump up to:a b "Human Development Report 2012" (PDF). Table 1:
Human Development Index and its components. United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP).
104. Jump up^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2013".Gross
domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) per capita
GDP. International Monetary Fund (IMF).
105. Jump up^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2012".Real
GDP growth. International Monetary Fund (IMF).
106. Jump up^ "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). Table 3:
Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP).
107. Jump up^ "Human Poverty Index (HPI) 2010". I-1: Human and
income poverty. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
108. Jump up^ "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). Table 5:
Multidimensional Poverty Index. United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP).

109. Jump up^ "Regional literacy profile Latin America and the
Caribbean". Adult literacy rates. United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
110.Jump up^ "Homicide Statistics 2012". Murder rate per 100,000
inhabitants. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
111. Jump up^ "Global Peace Index 2014". Global Peace Index rankings.
Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP).
112.Jump up^ "Cifras de pobreza y desigualdad en Colombia en 2012 |
Economa". Portafolio.co. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
113.Jump up^ "Colombia registra en 2012 la cifra ms baja de homicidios
en ltimos 27 aos". Amrica Economa.
114.Jump up^ "macaw". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford
University Press. September 2005.
115.Jump up^ "Environmental Performance Index 2012".Environmental
Performance Index 2012 rankings. Yale University.
116.Jump up^ "CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011" (PDF).CO2
emissions / population. International Energy Agency (IEA).
117.Jump up^ "Proteccin social inclusiva en Amrica Latina. Una mirada
integral, un enfoque de derechos" [Inclusive social protection in Latin
America. An integral look, a focus on rights]. Resumen. United Nations
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
(UNECLAC).
118.Jump up^ Francisco H. Ferreira, David de Ferranti et al. An example
of the policies introduced to combat the poverty and inequality was
the import substitution industrialization economic policy. This policy
sought to grow national industry and offer protection from foreign
competition as a means to reduce external dependencies and improve
local economies. "Inequality in Latin America:Breaking with History?",
The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2004

119.Jump up^ Scanlon, TJ (1998). "Street children in Latin America".


BMJ.
120. Jump up^ Tacon, P. (1982). "Carlinhos: the hard gloss of city
polish". UNICEF news.
121. Jump up^ Schaefer, Richard T. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Race,
Ethnicity and Society. Sage. p. 1096. ISBN 978-1-4129-2694-2. For
example, in many parts of Latin America, racial groupings are based
less on the biological physical features and more on an intersection
between physical features and social features such as economic
class, dress, education, and context. Thus, a more fluid treatment
allows for the construction of race as an achieved status rather than
an ascribed status as is the case in the United States.
122. Jump up^ Nutini, Hugo; Barry Isaac (2009). Social Stratification in
central Mexico 15002000. University of Texas Press. p. 55. There are
basically four operational categories that may be termed ethnic or
even racial in Mexico today: (1) gero or blanco (white), denoting
European and Near East extraction; (2) criollo (creole), meaning light
mestizo in this context but actually of varying complexion; (3) mestizo,
an imprecise category that includes many phenotypic variations; and
(4) indio, also an imprecise category. These are nominal categories,
and neither gero/blanco nor criollo is a widely used term (see Nutini
1997: 230). Nevertheless, there is a popular consensus in Mexico
today that these four categories represent major sectors of the nation
and that they can be arranged into a rough hierarchy: whites and
creoles at the top, a vast population of mestizos in the middle, and
Indians (perceived as both a racial and an ethnic component) at the
bottom. This popular hierarchy does not constitute a stratificational
system or even a set of social classes, however, because its
categories are neither exhaustive nor mutually exclusive. While very
light skin is indeed characteristic of the country's elite, there is no
"white" (gero) class. Rather, the superordinate stratum is divided into
four real classesaristocracy, plutocracy, political class, and the
crme of the upper-middle classor, for some purposes, into ruling,

political, and prestige classes (see Chap. 4). Nor is there a mestizo
class, as phenotypical mestizos are found in all classes, though only
rarely among the aristocracy and very frequently in the middle and
lower classes. Finally, the bottom rungs are not constituted mainly of
Indians, except in some localized areas, such as the Sierra Norte de
Puebla
123. Jump up^ Acua, Rodolfo F. (2011), Occupied America: A History
of Chicanos (7th ed.), Boston: Longman, pp. 2324,ISBN 0-20578618-9
124. Jump up^ MacLachlan, Colin; Jaime E. Rodrguez O. (1990). The
Forging of the Cosmic Race: A Reinterprretation of Colonial
Mexico (Expanded Edition ed.). Berkeley: University of California.
pp. 199, 208. ISBN 0-520-04280-8. [I]n the New World all Spaniards,
no matter how poor, claimed hidalgo status. This unprecedented
expansion of the privileged segment of society could be tolerated by
the Crown because in Mexico the indigenous population assumed the
burden of personal tribute.
125. Jump up^ Gibson, Charles (1964). The Aztecs Under Spanish
Rule. Stanford: Stanford University. pp. 154165.ISBN 0-8047-0912-2.
126. Jump up^ See Passing (racial identity) for a discussion of a related
phenomenon, although in a later and very different cultural and legal
context.
127. Jump up^ Seed, Patricia (1988). To Love, Honor, and Obey in
Colonial Mexico: conflicts over Marriage Choice, 1574-1821. Stanford:
Stanford University. pp. 2123. ISBN 0-8047-2159-9.
128. Jump up^ David Cahill (1994). "Colour by Numbers: Racial and
Ethnic Categories in the Viceroyalty of Peru" (PDF).Journal of Latin
American Studies 26: 325346.doi:10.1017/s0022216x00016242.

129. Jump up^ Maria Martinez (2002). "The Spanish concept of


Limpieza de Sangre and the emergence of the race/caste system in
the viceroyalty of New Spain, PhD dissertation". University of Chicago.
130. Jump up^ Bakewell, Peter (1997). A History of Latin America.
Malden, Mass.: Blackwell. pp. 160163. ISBN 0-631-16791-9. The
Spaniards generally regarded [local Indian lords/caciques] as hidalgos,
and used the honorific 'don' with the more eminent of the them. []
Broadly speaking, Spaniards in the Indies in the sixteenth century
arranged themselves socially less and less by Iberian criteria or frank,
and increasingly by new American standards. [] simple wealth
gained from using America's human and natural resources soon
became a strong influence on social standing.
131. Jump up^ Fracisco H. Ferreira et al. Inequality in Latin America:
Breaking with History?, The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2004
132. Jump up^ Nicola Jones and Hayley Baker. "Untangling links
between trade, poverty and gender". ODI Briefing Papers 38, March
2008. Overseas Development Institute (ODI).
133. Jump up^ Isabel Ortiz and Matthew Cummins (April 2011)."Global
Inequality: Beyond the Bottom Billion" (PDF). UNICEF. p. 26.
134. Jump up^ Francisco H. Ferreira et al. Inequality in Latin America:
Breaking with History?, The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2004
135. Jump up^ "- Human Development Reports" (PDF). undp.org.
136. Jump up^ "World Development Indicators database, 1 July
2011". Gross national income per capita 2010, Atlas method and PPP.
World Bank Organization (WBO).
137. Jump up^ Barrientos, A. and Claudio Santibanez. (2009). "New
Forms of Social Assistance and the Evolution of Social Protection in
Latin America". Journal of Latin American Studies. Cambridge
University Press 41, 126.

138. Jump up^ Benedicte de la Brire and Laura B. Rawlings,


"Examining Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: A Role for Increased
Social Inclusion?", Social Safety Net Primary Papers, The World Bank,
2006, p.4
139. Jump up^ "Regional Human Development Report for Latin America
and the Caribbean 2010" (PDF). Inequality in Latin America and the
Caribbean. Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean.
140. Jump up^ "Societies on the move". The Economist. 2010-09-11.
141. Jump up^ Monika Huber, Wolfgang Kaiser (February 2013)."Mixed
Feelings". dandc.eu.
142. Jump up^ Carmen Alts. "El turismo en Amrica Latina y el Caribe
y la experiencia del BID" [Tourism in Latin America and the Caribbean
and the experience of the IDB]. Ingresos directos por turismo
internacional. Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).
143. Jump
up^http://mkt.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/unwtohighlights11enhr_1.
pdf
144. Jump up^ "UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2011
Edition" (PDF).International Tourist Arrivals. World Tourism
Organization (UNWTO).
145. Jump up^ "UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2012
Edition" (PDF).International Tourist Arrivals. World Tourism
Organization (UNWTO).
146. Jump up^ "UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2012
Edition" (PDF).International Tourism Receipts. World Tourism
Organization (UNWTO).
147. Jump up^ Carmen Alts. "El turismo en Amrica Latina y el Caribe
y la experiencia del BID" [Tourism in Latin America and the Caribbean
and the experience of the IDB]. Figura 1: Ingresos por turismo

internacional (% de exportaciones). Inter-American Development Bank


(IDB).
148. Jump up^ Carmen Alts. "El turismo en Amrica Latina y el Caribe
y la experiencia del BID" [Tourism in Latin America and the Caribbean
and the experience of the IDB]. Figura 2: Ingresos por turismo
internacional (% del PIB). Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).
149. Jump up^ Carmen Alts. "El turismo en Amrica Latina y el Caribe
y la experiencia del BID" [Tourism in Latin America and the Caribbean
and the experience of the IDB]. Figura 3: Empleo en turismo (% del
empleo total). Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).
150. Jump up^ "The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report
2011" (PDF). Table 1: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011
and 2009 comparison. World Economic Forum (WEF).
151. Jump up^ Stepan, Nancy Leys (1991). "The Hour of Eugenics":
Race, Gender, and Nation in Latin America. Ithaca: Cornell University
Press. in passim. ISBN 978-0-8014-9795-7.
152. Jump up^ "Frida Kahlo "Roots" Sets $5.6 Million Record at
Sotheby's". Art Knowledge News. Retrieved2007-09-23.[dead link]
153. Jump up^ Notimex / El Siglo De Torren (2012-04-01). "Fernando
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Retrieved 2013-12-09.
154. Jump up^ "Fernando Botero, el aprendiz eterno".
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values in: |date= (help)
155. Jump up^ Forero, Juan (2005-05-08). "'Great Crime' at Abu Ghraib
Enrages and Inspires an Artist". The New York Times.
156. Jump up^ Dr. Christopher Washburne. "Clave: The African Roots of
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157. Jump up^ "Guide to Latin Music". Caravan Music. Retrieved200605-23.


158. Jump up^ "Heitor Villa-Lobos". Leadership Medica. Retrieved200605-23.
159. Jump up^ The Baltimore Sun. "Latin music returns to America with
wave of new pop starlets". The Michigan Daily. Retrieved 2006-05-23.
[dead link]

160. Jump up^ "Daddy Yankee leads the reggaeton charge". Associated
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External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has
media related to Latin
America.

IDB Education Initiative

Latin American Network Information Center

Latin America Data Base

Washington Office on Latin America

Council on Hemispheric Affairs

Infolatam. Information and analysis of Latin America

Map of Land Cover: Latin America and Caribbean (FAO)

Lessons From Latin America by Benjamin Dangl, The Nation, March


4, 2009

Keeping Latin America on the World News Agenda Interview with


Michael Reid of The Economist

Cold War in Latin America, CSU Pomona University

Latin America Cold War Resources, Yale University

Latin America Cold War, Harvard University

http://larc.ucalgary.ca/ Latin American Research Centre, University


of Calgary

The war on Democracy, by John Pilger


[show]

Regions of the world


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Pan-Americanism

Further reading[edit]

Isabel Maurer Queipo (ed.): "Directory of World Cinema: Latin


America", intellectbooks, Bristol 2013, ISBN 9781841506180

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