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Basics ofPLC

Programming
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Processor
Memory
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Program Files.
Program fi les are the areas of processor memory where ladder
logic programming is stored. They may include:

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System functions (file 0) This file is always included and


contains various systemrelated information and user
programmed information such as processor type, I/O
configuration, processor file name, and password.

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Reserved (file 1) This file is reserved by the processor and is


not accessible to the user.

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Main ladder program (file 2) This fi le is always included and


contains userprogrammed instructions that define how the
controller is to operate.

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Subroutine ladder program (files 3255) These files are user


created and are activated according to subroutine instructions
residing in the main ladder program file.

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Data Files.
The data file portion of the processors memory stores input
and output status, processor status, the status of various bits,
and numerical data. All this information is accessed via the
ladder logic program. These files are organized by the type of
data they contain and may include:

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Output (file 0) This file stores the state of the output


terminals for the controller.

Processor
Memory
Organization

Input (file 1) This fi le stores the status of the input terminals


for the controller.
Status (file 2) This file stores controller operation information
and is useful for troubleshooting controller and program
operation.
Bit (file 3) This file is used for internal relay logic storage.
Timer (file 4) This file stores the timer accumulated and preset
values and status bits.

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Counter (file 5) This file stores the counter accumulated and


preset values and status bits.
Control (file 6) This file stores the length, pointer position,
and status bit for specific instructions such as shift registers and
sequencers.

Processor
Memory
Organization

Integer (file 7) This file is used to store numerical values or bit


information.
Reserved (file 8) This fi le is not accessible to the user.
Network communications (file 9) This file is
used for network communications if installed or used like files
10255.
Userdefined (files 10255) These files are userdefined as bit,
timer, counter, control, and/or integer data storage.

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Processor
Memory
Organization

TheI/Oaddressformatfor
theSLCfamilyofPLCsis
showninFigure.

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The timer file stores the timer status and timer data. A timer
element consists of three words: the control word, preset
word, and accumulated word. The addressing of the timer
control word is the assigned timer number. Timers in fi le 4 are
numbered starting with T4:0 and running through T4:999. The
addresses for the three timer words in timer T4:0 are:

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Processor
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Organization

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The counter file stores the counter status and counter data. A
counter element consists of three words: the control word,
preset word, and accumulated word. The addressing of the
counter control is the assigned counter number. Counters in file
5 are numbered beginning with C5:0 and running through
C5:999. The addresses for the three counter words in counter
C5:0 are:

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PLC Programming Languages.


The term PLC programming language refers to the method by
which the user communicates information to the PLC. The
standard IEC 61131 was established to standardize the multiple
languages associated with PLC programming by defining the
following five standard languages:

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Ladder Diagram (LD) a graphical depiction of a process with


rungs of logic, similar to the relay ladder logic schemes that
were replaced by PLCs.

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Function Block Diagram (FBD) a graphical depiction of


process flow using simple and complex interconnecting blocks.

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Sequential Function Chart


(SFC) a graphical depiction
of interconnecting steps,
actions, and transitions.

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Processor
Memory
Organization

Instruction List (IL) a lowlevel, textbased language that


uses mnemonic instructions.

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Structured Text (ST) a


highlevel,
textbased
language such as BASIC, C,
or PASCAL specifi cally
developed for industrial
control applications.

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RelayType Instructions.

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The ladder diagram language is basically a symbolic set of


instructions used to create the controller program. These
ladder instruction symbols are arranged to obtain the desired
control logic that is to be entered into the memory of the PLC.
Because the instruction set is composed of contact symbols,
ladder diagram language is also referred to as contact
symbology.

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RelayType Instructions.
The three fundamental symbols that are used to translate relay
control logic to contact symbolic logic are Examine If Closed
(XIC), Examine If Open (XIO), and Output Energize (OTE).

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Examine If Closed (XIC)


instruction.

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Examine If
instruction.

Open

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(XIO)

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Output Energize
instruction.

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(OTE)

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