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Asphalt Cements New Superpave Performance Graded Specification 1
Asphalt Cements
New Superpave Performance Graded Specification
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PG Specifications • Fundamental properties related to pavement performance • Environmental factors • In-service
PG Specifications
• Fundamental properties related to
pavement performance
• Environmental factors
• In-service & construction temperatures
• Short and long term aging
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PG Specifications • Based on rheological testing – Rheology: study of flow and deformation •
PG Specifications
• Based on rheological testing
– Rheology: study of flow and deformation
• Asphalt cement is a viscoelastic material
• Behavior depends on:
– Temperature
– Time of loading
– Aging (properties change with time)
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High Temperature Behavior • High in-service temperature – Desert climates – Summer temperatures Viscous Liquid
High Temperature Behavior
• High in-service temperature
– Desert climates
– Summer temperatures
Viscous Liquid
• Sustained loads
– Slow moving trucks
– Intersections
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Pavement Behavior (Warm Temperatures) • Permanent deformation (rutting) • Mixture is plastic • Depends on
Pavement Behavior
(Warm Temperatures)
• Permanent deformation (rutting)
• Mixture is plastic
• Depends on asphalt source, additives,
and aggregate properties
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Permanent Deformation Courtesy of FHWA Function of warm weather and traffic 6
Permanent Deformation
Courtesy of FHWA
Function of warm weather and traffic
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Low Temperature Behavior • Low Temperature – Cold climates – Winter Elastic Solid • Rapid
Low Temperature Behavior
• Low Temperature
– Cold climates
– Winter
Elastic Solid
• Rapid Loads
– Fast moving trucks
Hooke’s Law
σ = τ E
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Pavement Behavior (Low Temperatures) • Thermal cracks – Stress generated by contraction due to drop
Pavement Behavior
(Low Temperatures)
• Thermal cracks
– Stress generated by contraction due to
drop in temperature
– Crack forms when thermal stresses
exceed ability of material to relieve
stress through deformation
• Material is brittle
• Depends on source of asphalt and
aggregate properties
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Thermal Cracking 9 Courtesy of FHWA
Thermal Cracking
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Courtesy of FHWA
Aging • Asphalt reacts with oxygen – “oxidative” or “age hardening” • Short term –
Aging
• Asphalt reacts with oxygen
– “oxidative” or “age hardening”
• Short term
– Volatilization of specific components
– During construction process
• Long term
– Over life of pavement (in-service)
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Superpave Asphalt Binder Specification The grading system is based on Climate PG 64 - 22
Superpave Asphalt Binder Specification
The grading system is based on Climate
PG 64 - 22
Performance
Min pavement
temperature
Grade
Average 7-day max
pavement temperature
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Pavement Temperatures are Calculated • Calculated by Superpave software • High temperature – 20 mm
Pavement Temperatures are Calculated
• Calculated by Superpave software
• High temperature
– 20 mm below the surface of mixture
• Low temperature
– at surface of mixture
Pave temp = f (air temp, depth, latitude)
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Tests Used in PG Specifications Construction RV DSR BBR 13
Tests Used in PG Specifications
Construction
RV
DSR
BBR
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Concentric Cylinder Rheometers Concentric Cylinder M i ττττ Rθθθθ ==== 2222 ππππ R i 2
Concentric Cylinder Rheometers
Concentric Cylinder
M i
ττττ Rθθθθ ====
2222 ππππ R i 2 L
ΩΩΩΩ R
γγγγ ====
R o - R i
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Rotational Viscometer (Brookfield) Torque Motor Inner Cylinder Thermosel Environmental Chamber Digital Temperature
Rotational Viscometer
(Brookfield)
Torque Motor
Inner Cylinder
Thermosel
Environmental
Chamber
Digital Temperature
Controller
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Original Properties, Rutting, and Fatigue DSR RV BBR 16
Original Properties, Rutting, and Fatigue
DSR
RV
BBR
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Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) • Parallel Plate Shear flow varies with gap height and radius
Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR)
• Parallel Plate
Shear flow varies with
gap height and radius
Non-homogeneous flow
2 M
ττττ R =
ππππ R 3
R ΘΘΘΘ
γγγγ R =
h
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Oscillating Plate B C A Fixed Plate B Test operates at 10 rad/sec or 1.59
Oscillating Plate
B
C
A
Fixed Plate
B
Test operates at 10 rad/sec
or 1.59 Hz
Time
A
A
360 o = 2 π radians per circle
1 rad = 57.3 o
C
1 cycle
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Elastic Viscous B Strain Time A A C Strain in-phase δ = 0 o Strain
Elastic
Viscous
B
Strain
Time
A
A
C
Strain in-phase
δ = 0 o
Strain out-of-phase
δ = 90 o
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Complex Modulus, G* Viscous Modulus, G” δ Storage Modulus, G’ Complex Modulus is the vector
Complex Modulus, G*
Viscous Modulus, G”
δ
Storage Modulus, G’
Complex Modulus is the vector sum of the
storage and viscous modulus
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DSR Equipment DSR Computer Control and Data Acquisition Equipment 21
DSR Equipment
DSR
Computer Control
and Data
Acquisition
Equipment
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Motor Parallel Plates with Sample Area for Liquid Bath 22
Motor
Parallel Plates
with Sample
Area for
Liquid Bath
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25 mm Plate with Sample 23
25 mm Plate with Sample
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Rutting RV BBR DSR 24
Rutting
RV
BBR
DSR
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Permanent Deformation Addressed by: G*/sin δδδδ on unaged binder > 1.00 kPa G*/sin δδδδ on
Permanent Deformation
Addressed by:
G*/sin δδδδ on unaged binder > 1.00 kPa
G*/sin δδδδ on RTFO aged binder > 2.20 kPa
For the early part
of the service life
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Short Term Binder Aging • Rolling Thin Film Oven – Simulates aging from hot mixing
Short Term Binder Aging
• Rolling Thin Film Oven
– Simulates aging from hot mixing and construction
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Inside of RTFO Fan Rotating Bottle Carriage Air Line 27
Inside of RTFO
Fan
Rotating
Bottle
Carriage
Air Line
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Bottles Before and After Testing Opening in Bottle 28
Bottles Before and After Testing
Opening in
Bottle
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Testing • Calculate mass loss after RTFO Original mass - Aged mass x 100 Mass
Testing
• Calculate mass loss after RTFO
Original mass - Aged mass
x 100
Mass loss, % =
Original mass
• Determine G*/sin δδδδ for RTFO aged material at
same test temp. used for original asphalt
cement
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Permanent Deformation Question: Why a minimum G*/sin δδδδ to address rutting Answer: We want a
Permanent Deformation
Question: Why a minimum G*/sin δδδδ to
address rutting
Answer:
We want a stiff, elastic binder
to
contribute to mix rutting resistance
How: By increasing G* or decreasing δδδδ
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Fatigue RV BBR DSR 31
Fatigue
RV
BBR
DSR
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Fatigue Cracking Function of repeated traffic loads over time (in wheel paths) 32
Fatigue Cracking
Function of repeated traffic loads over time
(in wheel paths)
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Testing • Aged binder – Since long term performance problem, include: • Short term aging
Testing
• Aged binder
– Since long term performance problem,
include:
• Short term aging
• Long term aging
• Determine DSR parameters using 8 mm
plate and intermediate test temperature
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Pressure Aging Vessel (Long Term Aging) • Simulates aging of an asphalt binder for 7
Pressure Aging Vessel
(Long Term Aging)
• Simulates aging of an asphalt binder
for 7 to 10 years
• 50 gram sample is aged for 20 hours
• Pressure of 2,070 kPa (300 psi)
• At 90, 100 or 110 C
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Pressure Aging Vessel Rack of individual pans (50g of asphalt / pan) Bottom of pressure
Pressure Aging Vessel
Rack of individual pans
(50g of asphalt / pan)
Bottom of
pressure aging
vessel
Vessel Lid Components
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Pressure Aging Vessel Courtesy of FHWA 36
Pressure Aging Vessel
Courtesy of FHWA
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Fatigue Cracking •• G*G* (sin(sin δδδδδδδδ)) onon RTFORTFO andand PAVPAV agedaged binderbinder •• TheThe
Fatigue Cracking
•• G*G* (sin(sin δδδδδδδδ)) onon RTFORTFO andand PAVPAV agedaged binderbinder
•• TheThe parameterparameter addressesaddresses thethe laterlater partpart ofof
thethe fatiguefatigue lifelife
•• ValueValue mustmust bebe << 50005000 kPakPa
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Fatigue Cracking • Question: Why a maximum G* sin δδδδ to address fatigue? Answer: We
Fatigue Cracking
Question: Why a maximum G* sin δδδδ to
address fatigue?
Answer: We want a soft elastic binder (to
sustain many loads without cracking)
How: By decreasing G* or decreasing δδδδ
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Thermal Cracking RV BBR DSR 39
Thermal
Cracking
RV
BBR
DSR
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Bending Beam Rheometer Deflection Transducer Computer Air Bearing Load Cell Fluid Bath 40
Bending Beam Rheometer
Deflection Transducer
Computer
Air Bearing
Load Cell
Fluid Bath
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Bending Beam Rheometer Sample 41
Bending Beam Rheometer Sample
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Bending Beam Rheometer Equipment Fluid Bath Loading Ram Cooling System 42
Bending Beam Rheometer Equipment
Fluid Bath
Loading
Ram
Cooling
System
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Bending Beam Rheometer • S(t) = P L 3 4 b h 3 δδδδ (t)
Bending Beam Rheometer
• S(t) =
P L 3
4 b h 3 δδδδ (t)
Where:
S(t) = creep stiffness (M Pa) at time, t
P = applied constant load, N
L
= distance between beam supports (102 mm)
b
= beam width, 12.5 mm
h = beam thickness, 6.25 mm
d(t) = deflection (mm) at time, t
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Bending Beam Rheometer • Evaluates low temperature stiffness properties – Creep stiffness – Slope of
Bending Beam Rheometer
• Evaluates low temperature stiffness
properties
– Creep stiffness
– Slope of response (called m-value)
Log Creep
Stiffness, S(t)
8
15
30
60
120
240
Log Loading Time, t (sec)
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Is Stiffness Enough? • No. Need to assess strain needed to break specimen. – Thermal
Is Stiffness Enough?
• No. Need to assess strain needed to
break specimen.
– Thermal cracking occurs when strain is
too great
• Direct tension test
– Currently (1998) in specification
• New equipment is now available
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Direct Tension Test Load Stress = σ = P / A ∆ L σ f
Direct Tension Test
Load
Stress = σ = P / A
∆ L
σ f
∆ L e
ε f
Strain
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Direct Tension Test FHWA Courtesy of FHWA 47
Direct Tension Test
FHWA
Courtesy of FHWA
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Direct Tension Test Courtesy of FHWA 48
Direct Tension Test
Courtesy of FHWA
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Summary Fatigue Low Temp Cracking Construction Rutting Cracking [DTT][DTT] [RV] [DSR] [BBR] No aging RTFO
Summary
Fatigue
Low Temp
Cracking
Construction
Rutting
Cracking
[DTT][DTT]
[RV]
[DSR]
[BBR]
No aging
RTFO
Short Term Aging
PAV
Long Term Aging
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Questions - ? 50
Questions - ?
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