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(ED 720)

and the

Central Luzon State University
Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija

This Self-Learning Module (SLM) in

Psychology of Learning is

designed to help students understand learning from the psychological

standpoint. It focuses on the various approaches used in explaining how
and why people learn and explores how these theories would apply to
the teaching-learning process. Individual differences in learning, such as
those pertaining to motivation, reinforcement, intelligence,


styles and the assessment of learning are also covered.

This learning package consist of six (6) modules broken down into 22
lessons. Basic concepts and principles are presented followed by suggested
enrichment activities and assessment guide questions. These

are designed

to provide you with a solid knowledge base and actualize your learning
experiences. They aim to enhance your long-term learning by allowing you

pace and monitor your own learning

frame the materials/concepts in your own terms

- come up with your own examples of the concept and their application
to teaching-learning process and everyday life.
- analyze and decide on the importance of the information to your own
fields of endeavor.
- write your own philosophy of learning and teaching.
You are advised to go through each topic, do the suggested activities
and participate in the discussion through the learning guides. My role in this
course as a facilitator of learning is to provide basic information about each

topic and to structure the course so that you will most likely learn from the
materials and the tasks. But the final output will depend on your own
efforts. It is quite impossible to cover everything about the realm of human
learning. Thus, you are advised to supplement this material with additional
readings, exploring the world wide web, personal experience and actual
observation and interview of learners and facilitators of learning.
As part of your class portfolio, you will be required to write a personal
learning journal, the purpose of which is to stretch your learning from the
classroom/theoretical inputs to the real world so that your learning is
actualized and personalized. This will also help you write out your own
philosophy of learning and teaching.
There is a lot to learn about the psychological issues in learning. The
next page outlines our procedure in getting the most out of this learning
package. Join me in this journey on learning about human learning.


Associate Professor


At the end of the course, the students are expected to be able to:
1. Explain the basic concepts, factors, and principles involved in
2. Have a working knowledge of the various theoretical orientations
used in explaining how and why people learn.
3. Explain and cite examples on the application of the learning theories
in the teaching-learning process and actual life situation.
4. Utilize these theories and concepts in their own field of work as a
facilitator of learning.
5. Understand the nature of individual differences in learning.
6. Develop their own philosophy of teaching and learning.


You will be a self-regulated learner in this course. The basic
information about the concepts and theories being discussed will be
presented here and our discussion will be interactive through the CLSU
Open University website. Other queries and comments may be coursed
through my personal email account:
At the end of every module , you will encounter Enrichment Activities
and Assessment Guide Questions which aimed to synthesize your learning
and check how far you have gone in understanding the material.
Your grade in this class will be determined by your performance and
output in the following requirements:

1. Enrichment Activities and Assessment Guide Questions which

may include Giving Examples, Integrative Essay, and Critical
Thinking. Your examples should be authentic and involves human
behavior that you have actually witnessed or experienced.
Integrative Essay and Critical Thinking consist of questions that
require a substantive explanation and you need to pull together
various pieces of information to draw a conclusion.
2. Class Portfolio which will serve two very important purposes: (a)
for me to know to what extent you have learned from this course,
and (b) for you to have a permanent record of what you have
learned. Your class portfolio is a repository of documents from
the class that consist of:
2.1. Answers to Enrichment Activities and Guide Questions
(including responses to my comments, if any)

Personal Learning Journal. This is a personal reflection

and monitoring of your learning which may include
questions and insights drawn from what you have read in the
modules and other sources, reactions to issues raised, notes
on miscellaneous readings, anecdotes of actual life
experiences and how they relate to topics discussed and how
they influenced your learning. A suggested format is
presented but you are free to have your own style of writing.


Personal Philosophy on Learning and Teaching. From

your own readings, activities, learning journal and actual life
experiences, you may draw your own line of thinking about
learning and teaching. Perhaps unknowingly you have been
following this philosophy all along in your learning and
teaching endeavors. This is the opportunity to write it out
and understand how this philosophy is running your life.

3. Final Examination this will be an integration of all learning

derived from this course and its application to actual life situation
and the teaching-learning process.

This module is anchored on the following key themes in educating
children which are quoted by Santrock (2001) and also appeared in the
American Psychological Associations learner-centered psychological
Every facilitator of learning should consider that:
Successful learners are active, reflective thinkers who construct their
Successful learners develop positive learning strategies and effectively
monitor their learning.
Successful learners are motivated to learn.
Successful learners are goal-directed.
Successful learners have teachers who adapt their instruction to the
developmental levels of the learners.
Successful learners have teachers who pay attention to individual
differences in learning.
Successful learners have teachers who understand that contexts play
important roles in learning.
Successful learners have teachers who set appropriately challenging
standards and recognize that effectively assessing learning is an
integral dimension of the learning process.
Take time to reflect on these themes which epitomizes our goals in this
learning module.

Learning Objectives
Lesson 1 The Nature of Learning
Lesson 2 Types of Learning
Lesson 3 Factors Affecting Learning
Lesson 4 Learning Theories
Enrichment Activities
Self-Quiz on Your Emerging Theory/Philosophy of Learning
Learning Objectives
Lesson 5 Classical Conditioning (I. Pavlov)
Lesson 6 Instrumental or Operant Conditioning (E. Thorndike and
B. F. Skinner)
Enrichment Activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson 7
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
Lesson 8
Information Processing Model and Memory
Lesson 9
Cognitive Constructivism (J. Bruner and D. Ausubel)
Lesson 10 Social Constructivism (L. Vygotsky)

Lesson 11 Hierarchical Learning (R. Gagne)

Enrichment Activities
Learning Objectives:
Lesson 12 Social Learning (A. Bandura)
Lesson 13 Humanistic Learning
Lesson 14 Cooperative Learning
Enrichment Activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson 15 Intelligence
Lesson 16 Motivation
Lesson 17 Self-Regulated Learning
Lesson 18 Learning Styles
Enrichment Activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson 19 Assessment and Educational Objectives
Lesson 20 Standardized Tests vs Teacher-made Tests
Enrichment Activities



After going through this module, the students are expected to be able
1. Explain the nature of learning.
2. Differentiate learning from other types of behavioral changes.
3. Explain how learning concepts/theories evolved from its historical roots.
4. Cite examples of the different ways in which learning occurs
5. Describe the factors that hinder or facilitate learning
6. Explore his/her own thinking or philosophy about teaching and


Learning Defined
Learning occupies much of a persons conscious and even unconscious state. It is
one of the most important facet of our being and that makes it a well-discussed topic in
present day psychology. The Websters New World Dictionary (1994) defines learning as
the acquiring of knowledge of (a subject) or skill in (an art, trade etc.) by study,
experience, or instruction.
In determining whether learning has taken place, psychologists look at behavioral
changes as indicators. Most psychologists agree that learning is a process, that it
involves behavior changes and that it results from practice or experience. (Craig, 1975;
Hilgard 1975-1987; Lupdag,1984)
Kimble (1961), described learning as a relatively permanent change in behavioral
potentiality that occurs as a result of reinforced practice. Potentiality means that the
change in behavior need not occur immediately following the learning experience. For
example, basketball players may learn a new game strategy through lectures and film
clips, but may not translate that learning into behavior until the Sundays game. Kimble
also emphasized that only those responses that lead to reinforcement will be learned.
As emphasized by Gagne and Driscol (1988), learning involves interaction with
the external environment (or with a representation of this interaction stored in the
learners memory). Learning is inferred when a change or modification in behavior
occurs that persists over relatively long periods during the life of the individual.
Learning can be both a process and a product but most definitions stress learning
as a process because the products of learning include both what
one is capable of and
what he is predisposed to.
Learning As A Process
Most learning theorists view learning as a process that mediates behavior. For
them, learning is something that occurs as the result of certain experiences and precedes
changes in behavior. In such a definition, learning is given the status of an intervening
variable. An intervening variable is a theoretical process that is assumed to take place
between the observed stimuli and responses.
The independent variables cause a change in the intervening variable (learning),
which, in turn, causes a change in the dependent variable (behavior). The situation can be
diagrammed as follows:








What Learning Is Not

Not all behavioral changes can be considered as learning. Those changes in behavior
that do not constitute learning are:
changes caused by maturation or growth processes
innate tendencies like reflexes, and
temporary conditions caused by fatigue, drugs and diseases
In addition, changes produced by learning are not always positive in nature. People learn
bad habits and as well as good behavior. In fact, faulty learning is the major cause of
maladaptive or abnormal behavior according to the behaviorist model.
Early Notions About Learning
The discussion about knowing and how human beings acquire knowledge dates
back to the time of the famous Greek philosophers. The views of Plato (427-347 B.C.)
and Aristotle (384-322 B.C) concerning the nature of knowledge have influenced other
thinkers and set philosophical trends that have persisted until this day. While both
recognized the role of the mind in acquiring knowledge, they differ in position with
regards to the basis of knowledge.
Platos position is called nativism because he insists that knowledge is inherited
or innate. For Plato, one gain knowledge by reflecting on the contents of the mind. He
stressed that the mind must become involved before knowledge is obtainable.
On the other hand, Aristotle forwarded empiricism with his view that knowledge
is not inherited but is a result of sensory experience which is the basis of all knowledge.
The following laws of association formulated by Aristotle were significant
contributions to psychology.

Law of Similarity the expression or recall of one object will elicit the
recall of things similar to that object.

Law of Contrast - the expression or recall of one object will elicit recall
of opposite things

Law of Contiguity - the expression or recall of one object will elicit

recall of things that were originally experienced along with that object.

Law of Frequency the more frequently two things are experienced

together, the more likely it will be that the experience or recall of one will stimulate the
recall of the second.

Aristotle emphasized that sensory experience gives rise to ideas which will
stimulate other ideas in accordance with the laws of similarity, contrast, contiguity, and
Other Historical Influences on Learning
Other thinkers and scientists and their significant contributions in the study of
knowledge and learning are as follows:
Rene Descartes (1595-1650) - postulated a separation between the mind and the body.
He believed that the mind was free and could decide the actions of the body.
John Locke (1632-1704)- posited that the human mind at birth, is a tabula rasa, a blank
slate and experience writes on it. He stressed that There is nothing in the mind that is not
first in the senses. He added that the mind is made up of ideas, and ideas come from
experience. Simple ideas come directly from sensory experience, whereas complex ideas
result from combining simple ideas.
Immanuel Kant (1724-1776)- attempted to correct the impractical features of both
rationalism and empiricism. Rationalism can only involve the manipulation of concepts,
and empiricism confines knowledge to sensory experience and its derivative. He
introduced categories of thought called innate faculties which though not empirically
experienced can give meaning to our experience of the physical world. These include
reality, unity, totality, existence, necessity, causality and reciprocity. His ideas were
picked up by the Gestaltists and Jean Piaget
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)- believed that simple ideas combine into a new totality
that may bear little resemblance to its parts. For example, if we combine 2 primary
colors, we produce a secondary color. His view that the whole is more than the sum of its
parts was later adopted by the Gestaltists.
Francis Galton (1822-1911)- devised a number of methods, such as the questionnaire,
psychological scales, and correlation, specifically designed to measure individual
differences. He changed philosophic questions such as How do humans know? to
How do humans adjust to their environment? and Given certain circumstances what
do humans do?. It led to scientific inquiry on human behavior. He also made pioneering
efforts in behavioral assessment.

Herman Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)- made a significant contribution in liberating
psychology from philosophy by demonstrating that the higher mental processes of
learning and memory could be studied experimentally. Focusing on the law of frequency,
he invented his now famous nonsense syllable material which is used to study the rate of
learning, He created psychologys first learning curve and first retention curve. He also
found that over learning reduces the rate or forgetting considerably.

Learning is classified in several ways, based on the psychological make-up of a
person, the context or learning situation, the extent of learning and others.
Categories Based on Functioning
Learning is categorized depending on the three major facets of ones functioning
i.e. cognitive (mental/perceptual), affective (social/emotional) and psychomotor
1. Psychomotor
- this type of learning starts at birth and continues throughout the
developmental stages. Maturation plays an important role because the learning of
psychomotor skills involves the use of muscles and glands.
2. Cognitive
- this learning category gives emphasis on mental development.
The acquisition of knowledge and skills occur through mental processes.
3. Affective this type of learning involves the heart and emotions as values and
attitudes are inculcated in the person. It leads to creativity learning, discovery and
appropriate expression of feelings. The internalization process comes in, putting into
practice what one has learned.
Some schools focus only on the psychomotor and cognitive aspects of learning, to
the neglect of this one important factor in the psychological make-up of a person, the
affective domain.
cognitive, to the neglect of the affective domain.
Types According to Processes
Aside from the learning categories described above, learning can be classified as
formal and informal; verbal and non-verbal; or perfection-oriented and performance

oriented. Interestingly, learning occurs in four major waystransmission, acquisition,
accretion and emergence
Transmission is the process by which information, knowledge, ideas and skills are taught
to others through purposeful, conscious telling, demonstration, and guidance. Over the
course of a lifetime, this method accounts for only about 10% of learning. Unfortunately,
this is the most traditional and, currently, the most predominate method of instruction.
However, we are finding out it is not very effective and so must move toward acquisition
and emergence, and examine the lessons of accretion.
Acquisition is the conscious choice to learn. Material in this category is relevant to the
learner. This method includes exploring, experimenting, self-instruction, inquiry, and
general curiosity. Currently, acquisition accounts for about 20% of what we learn.
Accretion is the gradual, often subconscious or subliminal, process by which we learn
things like language, culture, habits, prejudices, and social rules and behaviors. We are
usually unaware that the processes involved in accretion are taking place, but this method
accounts for about 70% of what we know.
Emergence is the result of patterning, structuring and the construction of new ideas and
meanings that did not exist before, but which emerge from the brain through thoughtful
reflection, insight and creative expression or group interactions. This form of learning
accounts for the internal capacities of synthesis, creativity, intuition, wisdom, and
problem-solving. This method is greatly dependent on the allocation of time, and
opportunities to reflect and construct new knowledge. It plays an important role in
inspiration and originality. In the context of current educational practices, we learn only
1-2% by this method.

1. Read more about the early notions about learning and answer the following questions:
1.1. Plato and Aristotle differ in their views about knowledge. Plato stresses on
Nativism while Aristotle emphasizes on Empiricism in explaining the nature of
knowledge. To which point of view do you subscribe or agree with? Why?
1.2. John Locke believes that the mind at birth is a tabula rasa ( a blank slate) and
experience writes on it. Do you agree or disagree? Cite your own experiences in learning
and teaching to expound your answers.
2. Based on your own experience, list 5 examples of what you have learned under each of
the four ways of learningtransmission, acquisition, accretion and emergence.
Categorize these learning into psychomotor, cognitive, affective. Explain how learning
has taken place in each example.




Transmission :
1. __________________________


2. __________________________
3. __________________________
4. __________________________
5. __________________________


1. __________________________


2. __________________________
3. __________________________
4. __________________________
5. __________________________


1. __________________________


2. __________________________
3. __________________________
4. __________________________
5. __________________________


1. __________________________


2. __________________________
3. __________________________
4. __________________________
5. __________________________



Learning is either facilitated or hindered by several factors which may be intrinsic
or extrinsic to the individual learner. These factors that affect learning may be grouped
into three categories namely the learner, the teacher and the environment/culture.
The Learner
As the recipient or end-user in learning, the learner is an important factor in the
teaching-learning process. He is the only one who can say whether learning has taken
place and to what extent. In addition, the learner brings to the teaching-learning situation
several variables that may facilitate or hinder learning.
The sex and age of the learner are important factors because learning rates may
vary across sex and ages. A related factor is intelligence which may vary among
learners and may even decline with age.
The learners values, interests, aspirations, and motivation to learn will greatly
affect the rate of learning as well as its retention. Two other important learner factors
which teachers should take into account are their learning styles and personality.
Current thinking consider emotional intelligence on equal footing with cognitive
intelligence as important factors in the success of people. Some of these important learner
factors will be discussed lengthily in Module 5 of this learning package.
The Teacher/Facilitator
The teacher or the person facilitating learning is equally important for effective
learning to occur. Some people construe that learning depends heavily on the teacher
because he/she is the provider of knowledge and skills to be learned. Thus, educators
advocate that if teaching and learning is to be improved, the improvement must first start
with the teacher. Some of the teacher variables that were identified by Lupdag (1984) as
crucial to the teaching-learning process are discussed below:
1. Sex Studies show that the teachers gender have an effect on the socialization
of learners. Female teachers tend to give more opportunities to female students
who in turn are more responsive to them. However, there are differences in social
interaction in the elementary, secondary and tertiary levels. More so, sex
differences in classroom interaction depends on the teachers and students

2. Age The age of the teacher affects his/her social, emotional and perceptual
functioning as well as the thinking, interests, and values, These may influence his
relationship and credibility with his students.
3. Academic Qualifications a teacher who has better academic preparation is
more likely to deliver good teaching than one who is underqualified. However, it
is not only mastery of the subject matter that counts in effective teaching but it is
more of effective methods and teaching strategies that the teacher employs.
4. Intelligence and Aptitude As facilitators of learning, teachers are expected to
possess at least an average IQ and aptitude for teaching. It is assumed that the
higher the abilities of the teacher, the better equipped they are in teaching. It is for
these reasons that there are now more stringent requirements for teaching such as
passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET).

Experience There is no doubt that teacher who has 10 years of teaching

experience would be more efficient than a neophyte because he/she is said to
have mastered the craft. Experience is the best teacher so they say and
seasoned faculty are expected to show better performance. However, other
factors such as age, intelligence and aptitude, and personality may interact with

6. Interests To be effective, a teacher must in the first place have interest in

teaching as a career, in the subject matter that he/she teaches, and in the type of
learners that he/she deals with.
7. Motivation Aside from having the interest, teachers should also be highly
motivated to pursue a teaching job. Achievement, recognition, responsibility,
interpersonal relations and supervision are good sources of job satisfaction.
Unfortunately, economic considerations remain to be a predominant motivator
that moves teachers to seek extra income, pursue other jobs or seek greener
pastures abroad. The teachers values are equally important. If he/she values selffulfillment more that monetary rewards, this will influence his/her efforts in
facilitating learning.
8. Personality For some students, it is not what the teacher teachers but how
he/she deals with them that matters most. Thus, the approachable, friendly, kind,
patient, and lenient teacher is more appreciated than one who is unapproachable,
rigid, strict, impatient, and authoritative.
In addition to the above-mentioned variables, other teacher characteristics that are worth
considering are their emotional intelligence, stress management skills, and teaching
styles. More people are now recognizing that EQ matters more than IQ. It is not only the
abilities but how a person manages his emotions and copes with stressful situations that
contributes more to successful undertaking. Likewise, if a teacher matches his/her

teaching style with the students learning styles, it will more likely result to better
teaching and learning.
With advanced technology, the role of the teacher or facilitator of learning may be
delegated to a machine or a computer. E-learning and interactive education, with their
benefits in terms of fast communication, global competitiveness and innovative learning
would continue to dominate the field of education. Nonetheless, this type of learning still
needs to be done under the supervision of a human being, a well-experienced teacher.
Environment refers to the social and physical environment or forces that are
external to the individual. The family, neighborhood, school, church, friends/barkadas,
society and mass media all constitute the social environment that can influence learning,
either positively or negatively. On the other hand, the physical environment consists of
the school structure and facilities, learning materials and equipment which should provide
a conducive setting for effective learning to take place. The environment should also be
seen in the context of cultural changes and acculturation that impacts on society.

Knowledge about learning can be accumulated by scientific methods. When such
knowledge is adequately verified through empirical data, it can be expressed as learning
principles. When these principles appear to be congruent with each other and makes
rational sense, a model of the learning process can be constructed. Elaborations of this
model (or other alternative models) become learning theories
An example of a Principle of Learning is this:
Facts are learned more readily when they can be meaningfully related by the
learner to a kind of memory structure already possessed by the learner.
Tria et. al. (1998) defines a theory as a set of interrelated constructs, concepts
principles and hypotheses which attempt to explain, predict, or control a set of
phenomenon. Within this view, a learning theory can be defined as a formulation of the
conditions and principles that lead to learning that would explain the nature of the
learning process. It involves systemized interpretations of observations about learning,
attempting to explain the hows and whys of learning. It presents, describes, explains,
or predicts conditions under which learning would or would not occur.

To this day, the Philippines is still wanting on the formulation of theories of
learning that are Filipino-based. There are some views and principles though that were
forwarded by some noted Filipino psychologists. Two of these were quoted by Lupdag
1. On the Filipino learning style Dr. Virgilio Enriquez (1997) wrote:
The Filipino seems to be most effective when he is exposed to a material as a
meaningful whole. While he appreciate parts, he tackles them simultaneously
or sequentially. He does this not according to an inflexible and pre-conceived
plan but according to the most efficient combination of interaction between
the exigencies of the situation and the changing demands of the active self.
The Filipino would rather control his schedule than allow himself to become a
compulsive victim of an imposed structure.
2. On the practice of learning in Philippine context Jose W. Diokno (1978) stressed that.
For the Filipino, learning for the sake of knowledge but which is not used is
not learning at all. This is shown by the fact that Filipino who knows a lot
(labis sa dunong) but who lacks action (kulang sa gawa) is not appreciated.
Though not systematically organized into a learning theory, these are indigenous
concepts relevant to learning among Filipinos. In our efforts to systematically study the
Filipino psyche, we must continuously search for these locally-based concepts and
principles as they apply to our everyday lives.
Most theories of learning that we will discuss have Western orientation. Thus,
their relevance in explaining how Filipinos learn should be used with flexibility and
should be seen within the context of Asian and Philippine culture.
1. Based on your own experiences, list examples of factors inherent to you as the learner,
to your teacher and your environment that have either facilitated or hindered your
learning. Explain how these influenced your learning.
Learner Factors



Teacher Factors
_______________________ __________________ _________________
_______________________ __________________ _________________

_______________________ __________________ _________________
_______________________ __________________ _________________
_______________________ __________________ _________________
Environment/Cultural Factors
_______________________ __________________
_______________________ __________________
_______________________ __________________
_______________________ __________________
_______________________ __________________


2. Self-quiz Your Emerging Theory/Philosophy of Teaching and

As a starter in this course, you may be interested to check yourself to see how you view
teaching and learning. Just follow the simple instructions.
Print a copy of the rating scale. Then, using the scale below rate the extent of your
agreement with each of the following statements. Write a 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 on the blank
space before each item depending on your opinion. Please rate every statement but note
that you cannot give a rating of 4.
1= strongly disagree 2= disagree for the most part 3= disagree a little
5= agree a little
6= agree for the most part
7= strongly agree
____1. Students learn best when they receive good grades, praise or other rewards for a
job well done.
____2. Children learn best when they discover answers for questions and problems
____3. Learning has occurred when there is a measurable change in student behavior.
____4. School learning should involve the total development of the person.
____ 5. Learning requires concept formation and mental construction of knowledge into
concept systems.
____ 6. Fostering social and emotional development is just as important as the
development of academic skills.

____ 7. Learning occurs best when the overall task is broken down into a sequence of
short steps.
____ 8. It is important to help students organize their thinking by teaching them general
concepts and principles first.
____ 9. Students can be trusted to find their own goals and should be given choices as to
what and how to learn.
____ 10. Helping students feel good about themselves is just as important as the
academic skills they are taught.
____ 11. Students learn best when they observe a demonstration or model of the skill and
then practice it.
____ 12. Learning is most effective when students are taught problem solving and other
thinking/learning skills.
____ 13. Significant learning only takes place when the subject matter is perceived by the
student as having relevance in his/her life and when personal meaning can be
____ 14. The teacher should be a facilitator of learning rather than a presenter of
____ 15. Objectives or outcomes should be identified and stated before the teaching
process begins.
____ 16. If information is organized properly, students can learn very effectively through
teacher presentation.
____ 17. For the most effective learning, students errors should be minimized and
successes maximized.
____ 18. It is crucial that instruction be organized so as to help students grasp the major
concepts of the subject.
____ 19. Self-paced, independent learning materials (such as computer-based programs)
that provide for immediate reinforcement of correct responses are effective
means of instruction.
____ 20. Students learn most effectively when they are allowed to rely on their own
experiences and background knowledge to mentally construct their own,
personal understandings of course concepts.



After you have answered the 20 items,
1. Write the following letter(s) beside your rating to each item:
B for items 1, 3, 7, 11, 15, 17, and 19
C for items 2, 5, 8, 12, 16, 18, and 20
H for items 2, 4, 6, 9, 10, 13, and 14
(Note that item # 2 will have both a C and an H next to it)
2. Now add up the total of your ratings for all the Bs, Cs, and Hs. You should have three
totals between 7 and 49.
3. Each of the three totals tells you the extent of your agreement with one of the three
teaching models: B for Behaviorism, C for Cognitive, and H for Humanism.
4. Examine the items which you have given the highest ratings. This suggests your
working philosophy or viewpoint with regards to teaching and learning.
If the results came as a surprise to you this is an important opportunity to explore the
various learning/teaching models that will be discussed.
2. Exercise on the Uses of Learning Theories
1. List some ways in which the following individuals can utilize or benefit from learning
Policy-Makers ____________________________________________
School Administrators







The Community___________________________________________
Others Involved In The Teaching-Learning Process.


Activity: (may involve reading, observing, conducting training or any topic
relevant to learning).
1. The topic/issue I particularly liked and would like to explore more is
_________________________________________. It has caught my attention and
interest because _________________________________
2. The questions I have in relation to the topics and issues


3. The knowledge/insights I gained from this module and the activities are

4. With this learning experience I intend to __________________________

1. Domjan, M. (1993) The Principles of Learning and Behavior 3rd ed.,
California: Brooks/Cole Publishing.
2. Gines, Adelaida C., et. al. (2002) Educational Psychology. Manila: Rex Book
3. Lupdag, Anselmo D. (1984) Educational Psychology. Quezon City: National
Book Store.
4. Tria, G., Limpingco, D. and Jao, L. (1998) Psychology of Learning. Quezon
City: KEN Inc.
5. Santrock, John W. (2001) Educational Psychology, New York: McGraw Hill,
New York.
6. Woolfolk, Anita, E, (1998) Educational Psychology. Massachusetts: Allyn and

W. Huitt and J. Hummel Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning.


After going through this module, the students are expected to be able to:
1. Explain the mechanics and principles involved in
association learning and conditioning.
2. Compare classical and operant conditioning, and give examples of each.
3. Give examples of four different kinds of consequences that can follow any
behavior and the effect each is likely to have on future behavior.

Describe situations that illustrate the effects of reinforcement (positive and

negative) and punishment.

5. Compare and analyze the effect of using different schedules of reinforcement.

A number of theories on learning have been proposed. Some evolve from
previous notions of their predecessors. Although some theories differ and some overlap in
their formulations, these formulations are broadly classified as behavioral and cognitive.
A third category being recognized is the social-humanistic domain. Others are a
combination of the concepts and principles found in the behavioral, cognitive, and social
Psychologists subscribing to Behaviorism believe that behavior should be
explained by observable experiences, not by mental processes. On the other hand, the
cognitive psychologists maintain that mental process mediate between the stimulus
impressions and the corresponding response actions of an organism.
For the behaviorist, behavior is everything that we do that can be observed. For
example, a child tying the laces of her shoes or a teacher smiling at a student who helps
in erasing the blackboard.

Mental processes include the thoughts, feelings and motives that each of us
experiences but that cannot be observed by others. Although they cannot be seen by the
naked eye, these mental processes are no less real. Examples are: a child thinking about
ways to tie her shoe lace, or a teacher feeling good about a child who is very helpful.

Classical conditioning occurs when a person forms a mental association between
two stimuli so that encountering one stimulus makes the person think of the other
stimulus. People tend to form these mental connections between stimuli that occur
simultaneously or become closely together in time and space.
In his experiments on digestion, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov noticed that the
dogs in his laboratory began to salivate just at the mere sight of the keeper, even before
they could see or smell the food to be given.
His series of experiments led to the formulation of Classical Conditioning, which
won for Pavlov the Nobel Prize in 1904 (Tria, Limpingco and Jao (1998). Classical
conditioning is a type of learning wherein an organism learns to connect or associate
stimuli. A neutral stimulus (such as the sight of a person) becomes associated with a
meaningful stimulus (such as food) and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response
(Santrock 2001).
Classical conditioning involves two types of stimuli and two types of responses.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) is one that by itself naturally produces an
unconditioned response (UR) without any prior training or learning. In Pavlovs
experiments, food or meat powder is the US. Salivation is an unconditioned response
(UR) because it is a natural or automatic reaction to food, especially for one who is
hungry. Thus, everytime the food is presented, the dog salivates.
A conditioned stimulus (CS) is a previously neutral one that eventually elicits a
conditioned response after being associated with the unconditioned stimulus (food). The
bell was a first a neutral stimulus and the dog did not salivate with the sound of the bell.
But with repeated pairing of the ringing of the bell with the food, the bell acquired the
characteristics of the food, that is eliciting salivation on the dog.
The bell became a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the dogs salivation to the sound
of the bell is a conditioned response (CR). According to Santrock, (2001) conditioned
response is a learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after the US-CS
This type of learning by conditioning is illustrated as follows:

Before Conditioning
Neutral Stimulus (bell) ----------------- Response (no salivation)
U S (food) --------------------- U R (dog salivates)
During Conditioning
Neutral Stimulus (bell) + U S (food) ------------ U R (dog salivates)
After Conditioning
C S (bell) --------------------- C R (dog salivates)

Principles of Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning involves four main processes: acquisition, generalization,
discrimination, and extinction.
This involves the initial learning of the conditioned response. For example, the dog
learning to salivate at the sound of the bell. Two important factors that can affect the
speed of conditioning during the acquisition phase are the order and timing of the
stimuli. Conditioning occurs most quickly when the conditioned response (bell) precedes
the unconditioned stimulus (food) by about half a second. If the time interval is quite long
or if the food is presented first before the bell, conditioning is less likely to occur.

It involves the tendency of a new stimulus similar to the original conditioned stimulus to
produce a similar response. In the experiment of John Watson on the baby named Albert,
the fear of white rat that was developed in Albert was generalized to other white and furry
animals. In like manner, a student who developed fear in a male teacher after an
embarrassing incident may later fear all male teachers.
In contrast to generalization, in discrimination, an individual learns to produce a
conditioned response to one stimulus but not to another stimulus that is similar. For
example, a child may show a fear response to large black dogs roaming in the yard, but
not to dogs who are in a cage.


A conditioned response (salivation) can be eliminated or weakened by repeatedly
presenting the conditioned stimulus (bell), without the unconditioned stimulus (food).
Thus, the bell looses its capacity to elicit a conditioned response (salivation).
Spontaneous Recovery
A response that had been learned and then extinguished can reappear spontaneously when
the conditioned stimulus is again presented. Spontaneous recovery indicates that learning
is not permanently lost.
Applications and Contributions of Classical Conditioning
1. It helps us understand some concepts of learning better than others. It excels in
explaining how neutral stimuli become associated with unlearned involuntary
2. It aids in explaining many emotional responses such as happiness, excitement,
anger and anxiety- that people have for certain stimuli.
3. It helps explain the underlying cause of some phobias which are irrational or
excessive fears of specific objects or situations.
4. Classical conditioning procedures are likewise used to treat phobias and other
unwanted behaviors such as alcoholism and addictions.

Classical conditioning is helpful in understanding students fears and anxieties..
However, it is not as effective in explaining voluntary behaviors, such as why a student
studies hard for a test or likes history better than sociology. For these domains, operant
conditioning is more relevant.
The major theorists in operant conditioning are Edward Thorndike, John Watson
and B.F. Skinner. They proposed that learning is the result of the application of
consequences, that is, learners begin to connect certain responses with certain stimuli.
This connection causes the probability of the response to change, thus, learning occurs.
Thorndikes Connectionism and S-R Theory
Edward Lee Thorndikes experiment with hungry cats in a puzzle box was a
precursor to B.F. Skinners operant conditioning. Thorndike called this type of learning
instrumental because through trial and error method the cat was able to open the latch
(e.g. an instrument) inside the box and was able to escape from the box to get the food

From his studies on cats, dogs, and chickens, Thorndike came up with his Laws of
Learning. He recognized two components of learning, the stimulus (S) and the responses
(R ). For him, learning involves the establishment of Stimulus-Response connections thus
paving the ways for the development of the S-R theory of learning. His method is also
called association learning or connectionism because it involves forming bonds between
the stimulus impressions and the responses. The Laws of Learning which is still
influential in modern thinking and practice are:
1. Law of Effect it states that behavior followed by a positive outcome or reward
are strengthened and those followed by a negative consequence or dissatisfiers are
weakened. Thus, the strengthening or weakening of the S-R bond is dependent on
the consequence or what follows the response. For example, when a pupil is
praised for doing well in his project, he continues to strive to have superior work.
On the other hand, if he is not recognized for his efforts and was even criticized,
he may not strive to improve his performance.
2. Law of Readiness it posits that when the S-R connections are ready to conduct,
then the learner is ready to learn. This readiness to learn differs from maturation
which is a prerequiste to learning. As emphasized by Lupdag (1984). readiness to
learn here refers to a temporary neurophysiological state which Sprinthall and
Sprinthall referred to as neurologically teachable moment. Thus a child is
ready to learn to dance when his bones are matured for such an activity and when
he has the mind set and eagerness to learn.
3. Law of Exercise- it simply means that learning occurs with constant practice. The
S-R connections are strengthened when these are used and rehearsed and are
weakened when not utilized. The drill method is a good example of the use of this
B.F. Skinners Operant Conditioning
Burrhus Freferick Skinner used to term operant conditioning because he
described the organism as operating on and influenced by the environment. Whereas
classical conditioning illustrates S-R pattern, operant conditioning is often viewed as R-S
learning. It is the consequence that follows the response that influences whether the
response will be repeated.
In the famous Skinners box, there is a lever or bar that operates to dispense
pellets or food. A hungry rat was placed inside the box. As the rat moves around and
explores the box, it accidentally pressed the lever that dispensed the food. Later, the rat
was conditioned to intentionally press the lever to get the food.
Operant conditioning is a form of learning in which the consequences of
behavior produce changes in the probability that the behavior will occur (Santrock 2001).
These consequences of behavior are reinforcement and punishment


Reinforcement (reward) is a consequence that increases the probability that a

behavior will occur, while punishment is a consequence that decreases the possibility for
the occurrence of a behavior. Reinforcement can be positive or negative. In positive
reinforcement, a behavior increases because it is followed by a rewarding stimulus (such
as a praise). In negative reinforcement, a behavior increases because the consequence is a
removal of an unpleasant stimulus. The result in both is reinforced behavior. Examples of
Reinforcement and Punishment are as follows:


Student gives a good

answer to teachers


Teacher praises the student.


Student submits
Homework on time


Student give more

good answers

Teacher stops
criticizing student.

Student increasingly
submits homework
on time.


Student makes noise

in class

Teacher verbally
reprimands the student.

Student stops
making noise in class

Schedules of Reinforcement
Skinner developed schedules of reinforcement which are important to determine
when a response will be reinforced.
1. Continuous Reinforcement - the behavior is followed by a consequence each time
it occurs. For example, every time the student volunteers to erase the blackboard, the
teacher gives praises.
2. Intermittent Reinforcement this is based either on the passage of time (interval
schedule) or the number of correct responses emitted (ratio schedule). It consist of
four types.
a) fixed ratio a behavior is reinforced after a set number of responses.
This schedule is recommended for learning a new behavior.

Examples: a weekly quiz; a candy for every 5 correct words spelled.
b) variable ratio a behavior is reinforced after an average number of times which
changes on an unpredictable basis. This schedule is best for maintaining behavior.
For example a reward is given after the 2 nd correct response, after 8 more correct
responses, then after the next 5 more correct responses.
c) fixed-interval the first appropriate response after a fixed amount of time is
reinforced. For example, a praise is given to a correct response after every 2
minutes have elapsed.
d) variable- interval a response is reinforced after a variable amount of time has
elapsed. For example, the teacher might praise a student after 5 minutes, then
after 8 minutes, then after 15 minutes have gone by.


Aside from positive and negative reinforcement, there are other principles of
operant conditioning that can be applied in learning.
1. The Premack Principle
Named after David Premack (1965), this principle states that a high frequency
behavior (a preferred activity) can be an effective reinforcer for a low frequency behavior
(less preferred activity). This is sometimes called Grandmas Rule: first do what I want
you to do, then you may do what you want to do. For the Premack principle to be
effective, the low-frequency (less preferred) behavior must happen first.
a) less preferred activity - for students to finish their seatwork or study
a new lesson.
b) preferred activity - moving around the room, reading magazines, playing
games, talking about a film, or being exempt from
Teachers can use this principle to encourage their students to finish their school work.
first before they will be allowed to do other things.
2. Shaping

The method of successive approximation is used to shape behavior. A target goal
or desired behavior is set. Then the individual is rewarded for each small step taken
that would lead to the final goal or target response. With the use of this method, it is
possible to train animals in complex behavior. In the case of humans, the procedure
for teaching a complex behavior is to start b reinforcing partial responses, the small
bits of behavior that leads to the whole, and little by little, a complete response is
shaped. And once the desired behavior is learned it may not need reinforcing
1. Observe a group of people (students, teachers, others) undergoing training or
instruction or engaging in an activity. Note and list instances where conditioning
(classical or operant) has taken place. Explain why you consider such as examples of
Examples of Conditioning Instances:
2.. Read thoroughly about the experiment of John B. Watson on a baby named Albert
who was conditioned to fear a small white rat by pairing the sight of the rat with a loud
noise. Why was the experiment ethically questionable?
3. How can a learned behavior be eliminated? Give concrete examples and show how
this specific learned behavior can be weakened or eliminated through conditioning
Activity: (may involve reading, observing, conducting training or any topic
relevant to learning).

1. The topic/issue I particularly liked and would like to explore more is
_________________________________________. It has caught my attention and
interest because _________________________________
2. The questions I have in relation to the topics and issues


3. The knowledge/insights I gained from this module and the activities are
4. With this learning experience I intend to __________________________
1. Domjan, M. (1993) The Principles of Learning and Behavior 3rd ed.,
California: Brooks/Cole Publishing.
2. Gines, Adelaida C., et. al. (2002) Educational Psychology. Manila: Rex Book
3. Lupdag, Anselmo D. (1984) Educational Psychology. Quezon City: National
Book Store.
4. Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis (1998) Human Learning: Theories, Principles and
Educational Applications. McMillan Publishing Company, New York.
5. Tria, G., Limpingco, D. and Jao, L. (1998) Psychology of Learning. Quezon
City: KEN Inc.
6. Santrock, John W. (2001) Educational Psychology, New York: McGraw Hill,
New York.
7. Woolfolk, Anita, E, (1998) Educational Psychology. Massachusetts: Allyn and

W. Huitt and J. Hummel Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning.

Learning Objectives:
By the time you have completed this module, you should be able to:
1. Explain how childrens thinking differs at each stage of cognitive
2. Suggest ways in which teachers can use Piagets theory in teaching children at
different ages.
3. Explain how information is processed and how memory works.
4. Differentiate cognitive constructivism from social constructivism
5. Differentiate Bruners from Ausubels views on constructivism (discovery
learning vs. reception learning)
6. Explain the role of social environment in cognitive learning.
7. Cite implications of cognitive theories in the teaching-learning process.
How would you explain the concept of airplane to a 4 year old and to a 12 year
old child. Would you use words? Pictures? Drawing or sketch? Specific examples? What
kind? Do young and old children think alike or differ in their thinking? The material in
this module will help you understand how young people think and how their thinking
changes over time and affects their behavior.
Cognition refers to mental processes including thinking, remembering, learning
and using language. When we use a cognitive approach to learning and teaching, we
focus on the understanding of information and concepts. Cognitive theorists maintain that
a persons thinking largely determines his or her feelings and behavior.
Cognitive development involve changes in thinking and understanding. Piagets
ideas can help teachers understand what students can learn and when they are ready to
learn. What happens within a persons mind or the cognitive processing can be
understood well by looking at the information processing model. This will tell us how
information is stored in and retrieved from memory. The cognitive constructivism
theories of Jerome Bruner and David Ausubel explains how people construct ideas and
utilize them in learning about their environment.

The work of Lev Vygotsky (social constructivism) highlights the important role
teachers and parents play in the cognitive development of the child.

In contrast to the behavioral views on learning which focus on observable
behavioral changes, cognitive psychologists believe that mental processes mediate
learning. Among the early concepts explaining cognitive development, Jean Piagets
formulation of the stages of cognitive development had the greatest impact in the study of
thinking and learning.
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist devised a model describing how a persons
thinking develop from infancy to adulthood. According to him, our thinking processes
change radically, though slowly, from birth to maturity because we constantly strive to
make sense of the world (Woolfolk, 1998).
Piagets Basic Assumptions on Human Learning and Cognition
Some of Piagets ideas about how people learn and think as discussed by Ormrod,
(1990) and Woolfolk (1998) are presented here. For better understanding, some
implications of these concepts to the teaching-learning process are presented.
1. The rate of cognitive development is controlled to some extent by maturation.
According to Piaget, cognitive development can proceed only after
maturation, which is the unfolding of the biological changes that are genetically
programmed in each human being at conception (Woolfolk, 1998) has taken
place. Brain development is important to allow more sophisticated cognitive
structures to develop. Because of physiological limitations, it would be impossible
for a 2-year old to think logically like a 7 year old.
Educational Implication: Remember that some students, especially those
younger than eleven or twelve may not yet be capable of understanding certain
ideas, particularly the abstract and hypothetical.
2. People are active processors of information and are motivated learners
Piaget described human beings as actively involved in the learning and
interpretation of events around them. (Ormrod, 1990). Being naturally curious,

children actively seek out information, manipulate objects in the environment, and
observe their effects of their own actions.
Educational Implication: Capitalize in student natural curiosity. For example, let
them experiment with new objects.
3. Knowledge can be described in terms of structures that change with
People are born with a tendency to organize their thinking processes into
psychological structures called schema (plural is schemata), which are the basic
building blocks of thinking. Schemes or schemata are organized systems of
action or thought that allow us to mentally represent or think about the objects
and events in our world. (Woolfolk, 1998).
For example, an infant might have a schema for grasping and use it for
grabbing everything from bottles to toys. As children develop, new schemata
emerge and integrate with one another to form cognitive structures called
operations that govern logical reasoning.
Educational implication: Childrens schemata may differ depending on their
responses to stimuli. Help students develop appropriate schema of objects or
4. Cognitive development results from the interaction of individuals with their
physical and social environment
By manipulating the environment, individuals develop and shape
schemata. For example, they can learn that some objects can be used as tools to
obtain other objects. Equally important is their interaction with other people.
Piaget described young children as being egocentric or self-centered. Through
social interaction, children begin to realize that they hold a perspective of the
world uniquely their own.
Educational Implication: Give students many hands-on experiences. Provide
opportunities for students to share opinions, perspectives and beliefs with others.
5. Cognitive development involves an increasing integration and organization of
Children use the information they accumulate to construct an overall view
of how the world operates. Piaget maintains that individuals are capable of
organization and adaptation.

Organization is the tendency of every living organism to integrate processes into
coherent systems while Adaptation is the innate tendency of a child to interact
with his environment. Adaptation involves two complementary processes:
assimilation and accommodation.
Thus, as children grow, their schemes are modified with experience and
became increasingly better integrated with one another.
Educational Implication: Help students discover relationships among concepts
and ideas.
6. The ways in which people interact with the environment remain constant.
Piaget maintains that people interact with their environment through two
unchanging processes, assimilation and accommodation.
Assimilation is the process whereby an individual interacts with an object or
event in a way that is consistent with an existing schema. (Ormrod, 1990)
Accommodation is the process of dealing with new event by either modifying an
existing scheme of forming a new one (Woolfolk,1998).
Assimilation involves modifying ones perception of the environment to
fit a schema; accommodation involves modifying a schema to fit the environment.
According to Piaget, these two processes go hand in hand, with individuals
interpreting new events within the context of their existing knowledge
(assimilation) but also modifying their knowledge as a result of those events
For Example, consider this sentence. Sigmund Freud believe that people
who are id-dominated tend to be impulsive and irrational in their behavior
Unless you know who Sigmund Freud is and unless you are familiar with
the concept of id and irrational behavior, you can learn very little from the
sentence. Assimilation is almost always a necessary condition for accommodation
to occur; you must be able to relate a new experience to what you already know
before you can learn from it.
Educational Implication: Make sure students have prior knowledge and
experiences to which they can relate new material.
Stages of Cognitive Development

Piaget views cognitive development as being a continuous process of unfolding
but with recognizable stages through which all individuals pass. He called these stages
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. He believes
that the thought processes at each stage are qualitatively different from those at other
stages. Table 2 below summarizes the characteristics of the individual at each stage.
(from Piagets Theory of Cognitive and Affective Development, 1971, 1989)

Table 2





0-2 years

Begins to make use of imitation, memory,
and thought.
Begins to recognize that objects do not cease
to exist when they are hidden.
Moves from reflex actions to goal-oriented


2-7 years

Gradually develops use of language and

ability to think in symbolic form.
Able to think operations through logically in
one direction.
Has difficulties seeing another persons point
of view.

Concrete operational

7-11 years

Able to solve concrete (hands-on) problems

in logical fashion
Understands laws of conservation and is able
to classify and seriate.
Understands reversibility

Formal operational

11- adult

Able to solve abstract problems in logical

Becomes more scientific in thinking.
Develops concerns about social issues,


1. Sensorimotor stage birth until 2 years

During this stage infants interact with and learn about their environments by
relating their sensory experiences (such as hearing and seeing) to their motor
actions (mouthing and grasping)
At about 9 months onwards, infants learn object permanence, the understanding
that objects or events continue to exist even if they can no longer be heard,
touched, or seen.
2. Pre-operational Stage 2 years until 6 or 7 years
Children learn to use symbols, such as word or mental images to solve simple
problems, and to think or talk about things that are not present. Language develop
and the ability to think about objects and events in their absence involves the
development of internal mental schemata.
A common confusion at this stage is on the principle of conservation. Children
do not readily understand that even though the shape of some objects or substance
is changed, the total amount remains the same. It is also common for children at
this stage to be egocentric or self-centered.
3. Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11 years)
Children at this stage begin to think logically about conservation problems and
other situations as well. However, they can apply their logical operations only to
concrete, observable objects and events. They have difficulty dealing with
abstract information and with hypothetical ideas.
4. Formal Operational Stage (11 or 12 years through adulthood)
Children at this stage develop the ability to reason with abstract, hypothetical and
contrary-to-fact information. They also begin to understand the concept of
proportion, and become capable of thinking about their own thought processes
and evaluate the quality and logic of those thoughts.

Enrichment Activities
1. Read more about Piagets stages of cognitive development and analyze the
implications of teaching students at each stage of development.

2. Talk to a preschooler and a Grade VI pupil and ask their ideas about the relation
of the earth to the moon and the sun or how and why it rains. Compare their ideas.
In what important cognitive ways do the preschooler and the Grade VI pupil
differ?. What adjustments in thinking will you need to make when you
communicate with each of the child.

Critical Thinking. Do we all reach the fourth stage formal operational

thinking? Cite your own personal experiences and acquaintances with people who
may or may not have reached the 4 th stage of cognitive development. What are the
factors that may limit formal operational thinking?

1. Gines, Adelaida C. et.el (1998) Educational Psychology, Rex Book Store,
2. Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis (1998) Human Learning: Theories, Principles and
Educational Applications. McMillan Publishing Company, New York.
3. Tria, G., Limpingco, D. and Jao, L. (1998) Psychology of Learning. Quezon
City: KEN Inc.
4. Santrock, John W. (2001) Educational Psychology, New York: McGraw Hill,
New York.
5. Woolfolk, Anita, E, (1998) Educational Psychology. Massachusetts: Allyn and

1. Cognitive Learning Theory
2. Jean Piaget Intellectual Development

Overview of Jean Piagets Theory


4. Piagets Key Ideas




The primary focus of cognitive psychology is on
thinking and memory which involves the storage and
retrieval of information.
According to Santrock (2001), the information processing
approach emphasizes that children manipulate information, monitor it and strategize
about it. Central to this approach are the processes of memory and thinking.
Robert Siegler (1998) described three main characteristics of the information processing
1. Thinking
In Sieglers view, thinking is information processing. He says that when children
perceive, encode, represent and store information from the world, they are
engaged in thinking. However, people can attend to only a limited amount of
information at any point in time, and there are limits on how fast we can process
2. Change mechanisms.
Siegler believes that there are four main mechanisms that work together to create
changes in childrens cognitive skills: encoding, automatization, strategy
construction, and generalization.
Encoding is the process by which information gets into memory. Several factors
affect (impede or enhance) the encoding of information.
Automaticity refers to the ability of a person to process information with little or
no effort. With age and experience, information processing becomes increasingly
automatic on many tasks, allowing children to detect connections among ideas
and events that they would otherwise miss.


Strategy construction involves the discovery of a new procedure for processing

information. Siegler says that children need to encode key information about a
problem and coordinate the information with relevant prior knowledge to solve
the problem. This is related to the assimilation and accommodation processes
explained by Piaget.
Generalization. To fully benefit from a newly constructed strategy children need
to generalize or apply it to other problems.
Transfer occurs when the child applies previous experiences and knowledge to
learning or problem solving in a new situation.
3. Self-modification.
Children use knowledge and strategies that they have learned in previous
circumstances to adapt their responses to a new learning situation. In this manner,
children build newer and more sophisticated responses from prior knowledge and
strategies. The importance of self-modification in processing information is
exemplified in metacognition (knowing about knowing).

Memory is the retention of information over time (Santrock, 2001). We study how
information is initially placed or encoded into memory, how it is retained or stored after
being encoded, and how it is found or retrieved for a certain purpose later.
Our memory allows us to experience continuity in our experiences and our lives.
Without memory, we will not be able to connect what happened to us yesterday with what
is going on in our life today.
Santrock (2001) explains that our memory involves 3 processes: Encoding which
involves getting information into memory, Storage which means retaining information
over time, and Retrieval which means taking information out of storage. The information
processing model will help us better understand how memory works.
There are several models used to demonstrate the processing of information.
Most of these models consider the processes of encoding, storage and retrieval of
information and recognize the memory structures that are involved. The concepts
found in most models particularly that of the Stage Theory by Atkinson and Shriffin
(1968) are incorporated in the model below.



Long-Term Memory




Elaboration and

Rehearsal or





According to Biehler (1982), the processing of information involve several

memory structures and control processes. Memory structures are used to classify how
our memory works. They include the Sensory Memory or Sensory Register (SR) , Short
Term Memory (STM) and Long Term Memory (LTM).
The control processes include recognition, attention, rehearsal, encoding and
retrieval. They govern the flow of information between memory stores and the manner in
which it is encoded. The control processes play a key role in the information processing
system because the learner decides when and how to employ them.

Sensory Memory (SM)

Stimulations coming from the environment are received through the senses. Our
visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and gustatory sense receptors are constantly stimulated
by environmental stimuli. These experiences are initially recorded in the sensory memory
or sensory register. The SM holds information in an instant, just long enough (one to
three seconds) to decide if we want to attend to it further.
Recognition and attention are two processes that determine whether or not information in
the SM will receive additional processing. Information that is not selectively attended to
and not recognized is easily forgotten and disappears from the system.
Short Term Memory (STM)
Once information has been attended to and recognized as meaningful, it is
transferred to short-term memory (STM). It is also called working memory because it
holds information that we are aware of at a given moment in time (Gines,,1998). It is
created by our paying attention to an external stimulus, an internal thought or both. It will
initially last somewhere around 15 to 20 seconds at which point it may be forgotten if not
repeated or rehearsed.
Rehearsals can serve two purposes: (a) to memorize information for later use and
(b) to hold information in STM for immediate use. At this point it may be available for up
to 20 minutes. Maintenance rehearsal is also called rote rehearsal or repetition and is
somewhat mechanical. On the other hand Elaborative rehearsal facilitates the transfer to
long-term memory (LTM) as well as its maintenance in STM.

Long-Term Memory (LTM)

Long term memory is one that holds enormous amount of information for a long
period of time in a relatively permanent fashion (Santrock, 2001). The distinguished
computer scientist John von Neumann describe the LTMs storage capacity as virtually
According to Gines et. al (1998) LTM plays an influential role throughout the
information processing system. The interests, attitudes, skills, and knowledge of the
world influences what we perceive, how we interpret our perceptions, and whether we
process information for short-term or long-term storage.
Long-term memory is divided into the subtypes of declarative and procedural
memory. Declarative memory is further subdivided into episodic memory and semantic
Declarative memory is the conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or
events that can be verbally communicated (Santrock, 2001). When students report an
event that they have witnessed or describe a basic principle in Math, declarative memory
is at work

On the other hand, Santrock (2001) describes Procedural memory as the
knowledge in the form of skills and cognitive operations which need not be consciously
recalled. When students apply their skills to perform a dance, ride a bicycle, drive a car,
or use a computer, their procedural memory is at work..
Episodic memory is the retention of information about personal experience or the
where and when of lifes happenings. Examples are students memories of their first day
at school, their date in the prom night, and their grade in the final exam in Math.
Semantic memory refers to facts and generalized information about the world. It
is independent of the persons experiences and identity with the past. For example, the
knowledge that the earth is round or that the national hero of the Philippines is Jose Rizal.
Retrieval and Forgetting
In retrieval, we search for information that is stored in our memory bank, the
LTM. The ease of retrieval depends on the type of memory used (semantic or episodic)
and the time that has lapsed when the information was stored in memory.
Retrieval is influenced by the serial position effect (memory is better for items at
the beginning and end of lists than in the middle), how effective retrieval cues are,
encoding specificity, and the memory task (such as recall versus recognition).
Forgetting can be explained in terms of cue-dependent forgetting (failure to use
effective retrieval cues), interference theory (because information gets in the way of what
we are trying to remember) and decay (losing information over time).
Mnemonics as Study Strategies
Recall of material that is stored in memory could be facilitated through the use of
Mnemonics which are memory aids for remembering information. Mnemonic strategies
can be in the form of imagery and words. Some types of mnemonics described by
Santrock (2001) are:
1. Method of loci. In this procedure, children develop images of items to be
remembered and mentally store them in familiar locations, such as rooms of their
house. When they need the information, they can imagine the house, mentally go
to the room and retrieve the information.
2. Rhymes. Common examples are the alphabet song and the month rule Thirty
days hath September, April, June and November,. . . .
3. Acronyms. This strategy involves creating a word from the first letters of items to
be remembered. For example for important characteristics of research problems it
must be SMART specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time-bound.


4. Keyword method- a strategy in which vivid imagery is attached to important

words. For example, to teach children that the famous chocolate hills is found in
Bohol, they would be asked to attach the picture of Hersheys chocolate to the
word Bohol.
Chunking is another method used to aid learning and storage of information by grouping
together in chunks those information that are similar or related to each other.
1. Interview a kindergarten teacher and a high school teacher. Find out how they
maintain students attention in teaching and how they incorporate critical thinking
into their everyday teaching activities.
2. Get together with two or three other students in the class and discuss about the
best ways to guide students in developing better memory and study strategies.
Make your individual list of strategies for children and adolescents at different
grade levels and discuss their effectiveness.
Grade Level

Study Strategies and Memory Enhancers

1. Pre-school


2. Elementary


3. High School


1. Gines, Adelaida C. et.el (1998) Educational Psychology, Rex Book Store,
2. Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis (1998) Human Learning: Theories, Principles and
Educational Applications. McMillan Publishing Company, New York.
3. Tria, G., Limpingco, D. and Jao, L. (1998) Psychology of Learning. Quezon
City: KEN Inc.
4. Santrock, John W. (2001) Educational Psychology, New York: McGraw Hill,
New York.

5. Woolfolk, Anita, E, (1998) Educational Psychology. Massachusetts: Allyn and
1. Cognitive Learning Theory

Constructivism is an educational philosophy which holds that learners ultimately
construct their own knowledge that then resides within them, so that each persons
knowledge is as unique as him or her. (ALN Magazine 1997). In other words, learners
construct knowledge for themselveseach learner individually (and socially) constructs
meaningas he or she learns.
Cognitive constructivism is based on the theory of Jean Piaget which proposes
that humans cannot be given information which they immediately understand and use.
Instead, they construct their own knowledge through experience and active interaction
with their environment.
In the Constructivist theory, the emphasis is placed on the learner or the student
rather than the teacher. It is the learner who interacts with objects and events and thereby
gains an understanding of the features held by such objects of events. The learner,
therefore, constructs his/her own conceptualizations and solutions to problems.
Basic Assumptions:
In essence, constructivism postulates the following:

Emphasizes learning and not teaching

Encourages and accepts learner autonomy and initiative

Sees learners as creatures of will and purpose

Thinks of learning as a process

Considers how the student learns

Encourages learner inquiry and nurtures learners natural curiosity.

Acknowledges the critical role of experience in learning


Takes the learners mental model into account

Emphasizes performance and understanding when assessing learning

Makes extensive use of cognitive terminology such as predict, create and analyze

Encourages learners to engage in dialogue with other students and the teacher

Supports co-operative learning and collaboration

Involves learners in real world situations

Emphasizes the context in which learning takes place

Considers the beliefs and attitudes of the learner

Provides learner the opportunity to construct new knowledge and understanding

from authentic experience

Aside from Piaget, two other noted contributors to cognitive constructivism are
Jerome Bruner and David Ausubel.

JEROME BRUNER (Categorization and Discovery Learning)

Jerome Bruner is one of the forerunners of the Cognitive Revolution in the late 1950s
that was set to replace behaviorism. His most notable contributions were his ideas about
categorization. Bruner maintained that people interpret the world in terms of similarities
and differences which are detected among objects and events. Objects that are viewed as
similar are placed in the same category. The major variable in his theory of learning is the
coding system into which the learner organizes these categories.
Based upon the idea of categorization, Bruners cognitive learning theory states
to perceive is to categorize, to conceptualize is to categorize, to learn is to form
categories, to make decisions is to categorize.
Categorization involves two stages: (a) Concept formation which is the initial
understanding that there are different classes and categories and that there are
distinguishing attributes between objects/events. (b) Concept attainment where one can
determine what those particular attributes are and how they can be used to identify what
belongs and what does not.


Bruner believes that all human cognitive activity involve categories. This is the
process of building and using representations in order to make sense of the world. Either
incoming information is organized in terms of pre-existing categories or we create new
Bruner identified three modes of representation, corresponding to the
developmental stages, that we use to make meaning out of what we encounter in the
world.. Each of these modes has its unique way of representing objects and events.
Table 3

Three Kinds of Representation Identified by Bruner






Represented in the
muscles (doing)

Tying a knot

Motor skills


Using mental image

to stand for objects

Having an image of
what the knots
look like

Sensory skills
(mental picture of


Using symbol
systems (thinking,

Describing the knot Intellectual skills

and how to tie it.
(knowing the reality
of things).

The first phase is enactive where a childs world is represented in terms of their
immediate sensation and through which learning is achieved through doing. These motor
acts (know-how) that involve sequential movements are being integrated by a certain
conceptual scheme.
The iconic stage happens during 2-3 years of age and involves the use of mental
images to stand for certain objects or events when they are changed in minor ways. The
symbolic representation is the highest and most complicated manner by which we
acquire learning. This phase starts from age 7 and beyond. It involves the ability to
transform action and image into a symbolic system to encode knowledge Primarily, these
symbols are language and mathematical notation.
Discovery Learning

Bruner also advocated the discovery oriented learning approach in schools which
he believes would help students discover the relationship between categories. This
framework promotes learning as a process of constructing new ideas based on current and
past knowledge. Students are encouraged to discover the facts and relationships for
themselves and continually build on what they already know. The school curriculum is
ideally organized in a spiral manner to facilitate this process, such as the same topics are
redeveloped at succeeding age or grade levels to progressively reinforce learning.
(Bruner, 1966).
Bruners discovery learning focused on the significance of understanding the
structure of the subject being studied, the need for active learning as the basis for true
understanding, and the value of inductive reasoning in learning. Students must be active
in discovering major concepts for themselves, rather than passively accepting the
teachers explanations. The discovery method enhances student learning by allowing the
class to be involved in the lesson, rather than simply being lectured to.

David Paul Ausubel (Verbal Learning and Expository Teaching)

Influenced by Piagets ideas, Ausubel developed his instructional models based on
cognitive structures. His significant contributions are the following:
Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning
Ausubel contributed much to cognitive learning theory in his explanation of
meaningful verbal learning which he saw as the predominant method of classroom
learning. This theory deals mostly with how individuals learn large amounts of
meaningful materials from verbal and textual lessons in school. To Ausubel, a stimulus or
concept gains meaning when it is related to an idea that is already present in the mind.
Thus, there must be something in the learners cognitive structure to which it can be
related. He believed that a signifier (i.e. word) has a meaning when its effect upon the
learner is equivalent to the effect of the object it signifies. He described three main
categories on meaningful reception of information
1. Representation- the meaning of a single word or symbol is learned.
2. Conceptual the learner begins to recognize the features or attributes of a
3. Propositional the learner combines words and/or symbols to form new ideas.
Subsumption Process

A subsumer is a concept similar to a schema or coding system. It leads us to
think of cognitive structure as a type or organization where higher level concepts
incorporate or subsume other ideas. In describing the process of subsumption Ausubel
contended that the most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner
already knows.
Derivative subsumption occurs if the new material is so similar to existing structure that
could have been derived directly from it.
Correlative subsumption occurs if the new material requires an extension of structure
because some of it is entirely new.
After learning (subsumption) takes place, the newly subsumed material becomes
increasingly like the structure to which it was incorporated in Ausubels terms, it losses
its dissociability. And when it has finally reached the point of zero dissociability, it can no
longer be recalled.
Reception and Expository Learning
According to Ausubel, people acquire knowledge primarily through reception
rather than through discovery as proposed by Bruner. Concepts, principles, and ideas are
presented and understood, not discovered. The more organized and focused the
presentation, the more thoroughly the individual will learn. He stresses meaningful verbal
learning and not rote memory. According to him rote memory is not considered
meaningful because it does not involve subsumption (new knowledge is not connected
with existing knowledge).
Ausubel specifies that his theory applied only to reception
(expository) learning in school settings.
Ausubel thus proposed his Expository Teaching model to encourage meaningful
rather than rote reception learning. In his approach he emphasized that teachers should
present material in a carefully organized, sequential manner so that students receive the
most usable material in the most efficient way. Ausubel believes that learning should
progress deductively- from the general to the specific and not inductively as Bruner
Advance Organizers
A major contribution of Ausubel is the use of advance organizers in learning and
teaching. These organizers must be introduced in advance and presented at a higher level
of abstraction, generality and inclusiveness. They are selected on the basis of their
suitability for explaining, integrating, and interrelating the material they precede. Ausubel
emphasizes that advance organizers are different from overviews and summaries, which
simply emphasize key ideas and are presented at the same level of abstraction and
generality as the rest of the material.

Organizers act as a subsuming bridge between new learning material and existing
related ideas. Optimal learning generally occurs when there is a potential fit between the
students schemas and the material to be learned. To foster this association, Ausubel
suggests that the lesson always begin with an advanced organizer an introductory
statement of a relationship of high level concept, broad enough to encompass all the
information that will follow.
Examples of advanced organizers are those found in some textbooks the chapter
overviews that explains the lessons to be learned in the chapter. They usually serve three
1. direct attention to what is important in the coming material
2. highlight relationships among ideas that will be presented and
3. remind the student of relevant information already in memory.

1. Suppose you are a teacher and you will be presenting to your class a topic of your
choice (could be in Science, Math, your field of specialization or maybe Module 2
of this Self-Learning Module). Prepare an advance organizer for your presentation
of this topic. Describe how you will present the new lesson to class using this
advance organizer.
2. Critical Thinking. Compare and contrast Bruners and Ausubels views about
teaching and learning. Which do you think is more effective discovery learning or
reception learning/expository teaching? Cite your own experiences to elucidate
your answers.
1. ALN Magazine Volume 1, Issue 1 . March 1997.
2. Ausubel, David P. (1963). The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. New
York: Grune and Stratton.


Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist and philosopher in the 1930s, is most
often associated with the social constructivist theory. He emphasizes the influences of
cultural and social contexts in learning and support a discovery model of learning
The major theme of Vygotskys theoretical framework is
that social interactions play fundamental role in the
development of cognition. This type of model places the
teacher in an active role while the students mental
abilities develop naturally through various paths of
Vygotsky modeled his theory after the Soviet view
that each person has a role in transforming the society where he belongs.
Key Concepts in Vygotskys Theory
1. Every function in the childs cultural development appears twice:
a) first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level;
b) first, between people (interpsychological) and then
inside the child (intrapsychological).
This applies equally to the voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the
formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between
2. In making meaning about of the world, the community plays a central role. The people
around the student greatly affect the way he or she sees the world.
3. The potential for cognitive development depends upon the Zone of Proximal
Development. Problem solving skills in doing tasks can be placed into three categories:
a. those able to be performed independently by the student;
b. those that cannot be performed even with help; and
c. those that fall between the two extremes, i.e. the tasks that can be performed with
help from others. This is what Vygotsky called the Zone of Proximal Development
(ZPD) a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior.

The potential for cognitive development is limited by the ZPD. Furthermore, full
development during the ZPD depends upon full social interactions and the range of skills
that can be developed with adult guidance or peer collaboration exceeds what can be
attained alone.
4. Tools for Cognitive Development
The type and quality of these tools determine the pattern and rate of development.
The tools may include important adults and peers of the student, culture, language and
others in the social environment.
5. Thought and Language Connection
Before the age of two years, the development of thought and speech are separate.
However, at two years, they join to initiate a new form. Thought becomes verbal and
speech becomes rational. Speech serves the intellect as thoughts are spoken. Thus, social
environment is important to childrens development because it can accelerate or
decelerate development.
6. Language and Egocentric and Inner Speech
Language is a tool for organizing thinking because it bears the concepts. The
primary function of speech is communication. Communicative and egocentric speech are
both social with different functions. Speech develops first with external
communicative/social speech, then egocentric speech, and finally inner speech.
Vygotsky theorized that egocentric speech has a genetic connection with inner
speech. Egocentric speech is the key to studying inner speech because it is the stage that
precedes it. Both fufill intellectual functions and have similar structures. Inner speech is
for oneself while external, social speech is for others.

Application of Vygotskian Principles in the Classroom

1. Learning and development is a social, collaborative activity.
2. The Zone of Proximal Development can serve as a guide for curricular and lesson
3. School learning should occur in a meaningful context and not be separated from
learning and knowledge children develop in the real world.
4. Out-of-school experiences should be related to the childs school experience.


Robert Mills Gagne was a research director of the perceptual and motor skills
laboratory of the US Air Force when he developed his ideas on his comprehensive
learning theory, the conditions of learning, or sometimes called hierarchical learning.
Conditions of Learning
In his best known book The Conditions of Learning (1988) Gagne enumerated 8
conditions where there is a hierarchy or progression of increasing complexity in learning
from the most basic condition to the most complex one.
1. Signal learning stage where involuntary responses are learned; this condition
is similar to classical conditioning.
2. Stimulus-response learning where voluntary responses are learned; similar to
operant conditioning.
3. Chaining a series of stimulus-response connections are linked.
Example: adding 1 and 2 as 3.
4. Verbal association this stage entails labeling certain responses.
5. Discrimination learning the condition where the learner selects a response
which applies to certain stimuli. Example: choosing 2 rather than 3 when
presented with the problem: 1+1 = ________ .
6. Concept learning involves classifying and organizing perceptions to gain
meaningful concepts.
7. Principle learning involves combining and relating concepts already learned to
formulate a new one: Example: 1+2 =3 is the same as 2+1=3 (association)
8. Problem solving- the most complex condition which involves applying rules to
appropriate problem situation.

Teaching implication: The significance of this hierarchy to teaching is to identify
prerequisites that should be completed to facilitate learning at each level and to provide
basis for the sequencing of instruction.

Nine Phases of Learning

In addition to the learning conditions, Gagne came up with his nine phases of
learning or nine events of instruction and their corresponding cognitive processes.
Preparation for Learning
1. gaining the learners attention (reception)
2. informing learners of the learning goal or objective (expectancy)
3. stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval)
Acquisition and Performance

presenting the stimulus (selective perception)

providing learning guidance (Semantic encoding)
eliciting performance (responding)
providing feedback (reinforcement)

Transfer of Learning
8. assessing performance (retrieval)
9. enhancing retention and transfer of learning (generalization)
These events should satisfy or provide the necessary conditions for learning and serve as
the basis for designing instruction and selecting appropriate media (Gagne, Briggs &
Wager, 1992). While Gagnes theoretical framework covers all aspects of learning, the
focus of the theory is on intellectual skills.

1. Give an example to illustrate a teaching sequence corresponding to the nine
instructional events described by Gagne.
Cite a specific learning task with an objective such as Teaching students how to
recognize an equilateral triangle.
2. Critical Discussion:

Compare cognitive constructivism with social constructivism. Point out the strong
points and weak points of each theory in relation to the teaching-learning process.


1. The topic/issue I particularly liked and would like to explore more is ___________
____________________________________________. It has caught my attention and
interest because _______________________________________________________
2. The questions I have in relation to this topic/incident is/are ___________________
3. The knowledge/insights I gained from this module and the activities/were
4. With this learning experience I intend to _________________________________
1. Domjan, M. (1993) The Principles of Learning and Behavior 3rd ed.,
California: Brooks/Cole Publishing.
2. Gagne, Robert (

) The Conditions of Learning

3. Santrock, John W. (2001) Educational Psychology, New York: McGraw Hill,

New York.

4. Woolfolk, Anita, E, (1998) Educational Psychology. Massachusetts: Allyn and
Websites on the topics:

Learning Objectives:
After reading this module, the students should be able to:
1. Explain how individuals learn through modeling and imitation.
2. Identify and explain the factors that affect observational learning.
3. Differentiate humanistic education learning from behavioral and
cognitive views in learning.
4. Differentiate cooperative learning from individualistic/competitive
5. Cite specific situations where cooperative learning would be highly
Some psychologists classify social learning under behavioral
approaches because observation and reinforcement forms part of the
elements of observational learning. Other authors categorize social learning
under cognitive approaches because cognitive processes are involved in
modeling and imitation. In this module, Banduras social learning theory is
grouped under the social/humanistic approaches which is considered a third
force in psychology. Theories and approaches under this cluster consider
learning as occurring within a social context or through interaction with


other people. Cooperative learning is differentiated from individual and

competitive learning and its components are discussed.
Humanistic theories emphasize that if students have the inherent
tendency towards self-actualization and if they are accorded humane
treatment like unconditional positive regard, emphatic understanding, and
integrity, their learning will be facilitated.
Albert Bandura believes that the traditional behavioral views of learning are
incomplete because they overlook important elements, particularly the social influences
on learning. Thus, his Social Learning theory focuses on the learning that occurs within a
social context. It considers that people learn from one another through observational
learning, imitation and modeling. It emphasizes the importance of observing and
modeling the behaviors, attitudes and emotional reactions of others. Banduras theory is
also called Social Cognitive Theory.
Elements of Social Cognitive Theory
Bandura distinguishes between the acquisition of knowledge (learning) and the
observable performance based on that knowledge (behavior).
In social cognitive theory, both internal and external factors are important.
Environmental events, personal factors and behaviors are seen as interacting in the
process of learning. Personal factors (beliefs, expectations, attitudes, and knowledge),
the environment (resources, consequences of actions, and physical setting), and behavior
(individual actions, choices, and verbal statements) all influence and are influenced by
each other. Bandura calls this interaction of forces reciprocal determinism. (Woolfolk,
1998). In other words, there is the mutual effects of the individual and the environment
on each other.
Bandura made a distinction, between enactive and vicarious learning. Enactive
learning is learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of ones actions;
vicarious learning is learning by observing others. Aside from modeling and imitation,
Bandura emphasizes that cognitive processes are involved because when people learn by
watching, they are focusing their attention, constructing images, remembering,
analyzing, and making decisions that affect learning.
Modeling and Imitation

Modeling, (also called observational learning) involves learning by observing
and imitating others behavior. By observing others, one forms an idea of how new
behaviors are performed, and later this coded information serves as a guide for action.
In Banduras classical Bobo doll experiment, children were exposed to models
in films. He had children witness a model aggressively attacking a plastic clown called
the Bobo doll. The children watched a video where a model aggressively hit a doll. In
one film, the model is rewarded, in another, the model is punished, and in the third,
nothing is done with the model. The result showed that children first chose to imitate the
model who was rewarded, the no-consequence model was next and the model who was
punished was the last choice.
With his experiment Bandura showed that
1. the tedious and hazardous process of trial and error learning can be shortcut
through social modeling of knowledge and competencies exhibited by the rich
variety of models.
2. in addition to cultivating new competencies, modeling influences can alter
motivation by instilling behavioral outcome expectations, and creating emotional
tendencies and value systems.
3. modeling influences can promote creativeness by exemplifying diversity for novel
synthesis and fresh perspectives that weaken conventional mind sets.
Process of Observational Learning
There are four important elements or component processes involved in observational
1. Attention
Individuals cannot learn much by observation unless they perceive and attend to the
significant features of the modeled behavior. As applied in the classroom, the teacher
must ensure student attention to critical features of the lesson.
2. Retention
In order to imitate the modeled behavior, the student must remember it. Retention
involves mentally representing the models actions, most likely as verbal steps, visual
images or both. Retention can be improved by mental rehearsal or by actual practice. The
individual must code the information into long-term memory.
3. Motor Reproduction
The observer must be able to reproduce the models behavior. Practice, feedback and
coaching can help reproduce the behavior of the model. Once a behavior is learned
through attention and retention, the observer must posses the physically capabilities to
produce the act.


4. Motivation and Reinforcement

In this process, the observer expects to receive positive reinforcement for the modeled
behavior. We may acquire a new skill or behavior through observation, but we may not
perform that behavior until there is some motivation or incentive to do so. Reinforcement
can play several roles in observational learning. If we anticipate being reinforced for
imitating the actions of a model, we may be more motivated to pay attention, remember,
and reproduce the behaviors.
Factors That Influence Observational Learning
Several factors play a role in observational learning, as shown in the table below.
The last three influences involve goals, and expectations. If observers expect that certain
actions of models will lead to particular outcomes (such as particular practice regiments
leading to improved athletic performance) and the observers value those outcomes or
goals, then the observers are more likely to pay attention to the models and try to
reproduce their behaviors. Finally, observers are more likely to learn from models if the
observers have a high level of self-efficacy- that is, if they believe they are capable of
doing the actions needed to reach the goals, or at least of learning how to do so.
Factors That Affect Observational Learning (Woolfolk, 1998)

Developmental status


Improvements with development include longer attention and
increased capacity to process information, use strategies,
compare performances with memorial representations, and
adopt intrinsic motivators.

and Observers pay greater attention to competent, high-status

models. Consequences of modeled behaviors convey
information about functional value. Observers attempt to learn
actions they believe they will need to perform.

Vicarious consequences

Consequences to models convey information about behavioral

appropriateness and likely outcomes of actions. Valued
consequences motivate observers. Similarity in attributes or
competence signals appropriateness and heightens motivation.

Outcome expectations

Observers are more likely to perform modeled actions they

believe are and will result in rewarding outcomes.

Goal setting

Observers are likely to attend to models who demonstrate

behaviors that help observers attain goals.

Observers attend to models when they believe they are capable

of learning or performing the modeled behavior. Observation
of similar models affects self-efficacy (If they can do it, I can

Educational Implications of Social learning Theory:

Social Learning Theory has numerous implications for classroom use. Read each
statement and analyze how these can be actualized in the classroom.
1. Students often learn a great deal simply by observing other people.
2. Describing the consequences of behavior can effectively increase the appropriate
behaviors and decrease inappropriate ones. This can involve discussing with
learners about the rewards and consequences of various behaviors.
3. Modeling provides an alternative to shaping for teaching new behaviors. Instead
of using shaping, which is operant conditioning, modeling can provide a faster,
more efficient means for teaching new behavior. To promote effective modeling,
a teacher must make sure that the four essential conditions exist; attention,
retention, motor reproduction and motivation.
4. Teachers and parents must model appropriate behaviors and take care that they
do not model inappropriate behaviors.
5. Teachers should expose students to a variety of other models. This technique is
especially important to break down traditional stereotypes.
6. Student must believe that they are capable of accomplishing school tasks. Thus it
is very important to develop a sense of self-efficacy for students. Teachers can
promote such self-efficacy by having students receive confidence-building
messages, watch others be successful, and experience success on their own.
7. Teachers should help students set realistic expectations for their academic
8. Self-regulation techniques provide an effective method for improving student

1. Application of Modeling in Teaching Situation.
In Mrs. Domingos 2nd grade class, the pupils were working on a Social Studies
project. Mrs. Domingo noticed that at a table with four children, two students
(Pupil A and Pupil B) were concentrating while the other two (Pupil C and Pupil
D) were fooling around. How will you use modeling to help Pupils C and D to
focus their attention at their project by using the two students (Pupils A and B) as
models? What will you tell the students?
2. List some forms of punishment used in public schools. Does the punishment
decrease or extinguish the behavior for which it is given? Give some examples of
punishment being experienced by the students as reinforcement.
1. Gines, Adelaida C. et.el (1998) Educational Psychology, Rex Book Store,
2. Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis (1998) Human Learning: Theories, Principles and
Educational Applications. McMillan Publishing Company, New York.
3. Santrock, John W. (2001) Educational Psychology, New York: McGraw Hill,
New York.
4. Woolfolk, Anita, E, (1998) Educational Psychology. Massachusetts: Allyn and

Humanism and Humanistic Psychology
Humanistic psychology got its name from its belief in the basic goodness and
respect of humankind, an understanding and acceptance of ones own existence and
responsibility. Humanism has variously been described as a philosophy, a theory of
psychology, and an approach to educational practice
As a philosophy, humanism is a paradigm that emphasizes the freedom, dignity,
and potential of humans. Humanists, therefore, give primacy to the study of human
needs and interests. A central assumption is that human beings behave out of
intentionality and values (Kurtz, 2000). Humanists also believe that it is necessary to
study the person as a whole, especially as an individual grows and develops over the
lifespan. The study of the self, motivation, and goal-setting are also areas of special
The basic ideas behind Humanistic Psychology and humanism are:

The present is the most important aspect of the person


Humanistic theory is reality based

The individual, merely being human, posses an inherent worth
The goal of life should always be to achieve personal growth and
Human beings possess the power or potentiality of solving their own
Because individuals possess freedom of creative choice and action, they are
within limits, masters of their own destiny.
Prime movers of Humanism
Carl Rogers (1969) and Abraham Maslow (1970) and Art Combs (1984)
advocated student-centered teaching. They were not identified as constructivists at that
time, though their humanistic philosophy and approach were consistent with
constructivism. They believe that each person constructs his or her own reality. What a
person perceives as real and important is reality for that individual and one person cannot
fully know the reality of another.
Carl Roger's View (Facilitative Teaching)
The essence of Carl Rogers theory is that human beings have a tendency towards
self actualization. According to him a therapeutic relationship based on the values of
unconditional positive regard, accurate emphatic understanding, honesty and integrity can
help individuals fulfill their greatest potential. Thus, a persons learning is facilitated.
The major goal in this view is to help the individual foster a greater level of selfdirection, where a person can see a situation clearly and take responsibility for the
situations. (Rogers, 1961).
One of the models included in the overall review of open education was facilitative
teaching developed by Carl Rogers. Aspy and Roebuck (1975) studied teachers in terms
of their ability to offer facilitative conditions (including empathy, congruence, and
positive regard). Teachers who were more highly facilitative tended to provide more
response to student feeling; often smiles, conducts dialogue, use praises, and is genuine
in dealing with students
Abraham Maslow
He developed a theory of human motivation, which holds that needs are arranged
in ascending order: from physiological needs to social and psychological needs. He
placed importance on the potential of human beings to strive for and achieve greater
levels of growth. Maslow believe in the persons inherent goal of reaching his full
potential and being self-actualized. If this human nature is considered by teachers,
learning tends to be facilitated.

Among other human needs, the need for achievement which Maslow called nAch
is well studied in education. Studies show that those with high need for achievement
(nAch) demonstrate a consistent concern about meeting obligations and accomplishing
tasks. They are however more focused on internal motivation rather than external


Humanistic education is a natural outgrowth of principles derived from humanistic
philosophy and psychology.
Patterson (1973) stated that- the purpose of education is to develop selfactualizing persons. The two aspects of humanistic education: (a) facilitating instruction
in a more humane way; (b) developing affective aspects of the learner to lead to greater
understanding of self and others.
Principles of Humanistic Education

Humanistic education is student-centered.

Students learning should be self-directed.
The teacher is the facilitator of the teaching learning process
Schools should produce students who want and know how to learn
The act of learning is highly personal
Feelings, as well as knowledge, are important in learning process
The curriculum is not an end, but rather, a means of promoting goals
The only form of meaningful evaluation is self-evaluation
Students learn best in a supportive, cooperative and non threatening environment.

1. Cite 3 specific examples of learning situations where humanistic approaches
would be highly applicable and would result to better learning.
Gage, N., & Berliner, D. (1991). Educational psychology (5th ed.). Boston:
Houghton, Mifflin.
Kurtz, P. (2000). Humanist manifesto 2000: A call for a new planetary humanism.
Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books.


Huitt, W. (2001) Humanism and Open Education. Educational Psychology



According to Johnson and Johnson (1987), there are three basic types of learning that
goes on in any classroom:
1. Individualistic learning - the more traditional structure of learning that has each
student working independently on a project. Student accomplishment toward a
specified goal relies little, if any, on other students performance.
2. Competitive learning - a structure where students are vying against each other
in order to accomplish a particular goal. Students find themselves in Win-Lose
situations i.e. in order for me to win, you must lose.
3. Cooperative learning - a structure that utilizes small groups to encourage
students to work together to optimize their own and their peers learning.
While the first two types involve individualistic behaviors, the third type, cooperative
learning will not be possible without social participation. .
What is Cooperative Learning?
Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which students with different
levels of ability are grouped into small teams and use a variety of learning activities to
improve their understanding of the subject. Each member of the team is responsible not
only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an
atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group
members successfully understand and complete it.
According to Joan Henley (ISG501 Homepage) Cooperative classrooms are changing the
essence of learning from I classrooms to We classrooms. As a classroom structure,
cooperative learning allows students to work together in small, mixed-ability groups.

The teachers role shifts from learning disseminator to learning facilitator. The
responsibility for learning shifts from the teacher to the student. Furthermore, students
working in cooperative groups have an additional twist to their learning. They are not
only responsible for learning the material that is presented but also for ensuring everyone
in the group knows the material as well. (Slavin, 1987).

Why Use Cooperative Learning?

Cooperative learning has been widely used in many developed countries because of its
promise of enhancing learning while promoting cooperation and social involvement.
Research has shown that cooperative learning techniques:
1. Place the responsibility for student learning where it should be the learner.
Cooperative learning promotes higher level thinking skills, while allowing
students to develop better social skills. (Diane Augustine, Kristine Gruber, and
Lynda R. Hanson, 1989).
2. Develop students social skills. Nowadays, children come from one-parent
households and come home to an empty household after school. The opportunity
to appropriate social skills around the family table is no longer a given. Without
appropriate socialization skills, the ability to cooperate and work with others as a
team is minimized. (Kagan, 1994).
3. Help to promote positive race relations. Limited English speaking students and
racial relations are only two reasons why students need to be taught social
skills. Cooperative learning provides a platform for instruction. (Johnson and
Johnson, 1994).
4. Other contributions of cooperative learning are:
a. Promote student learning and academic achievement
b. Increase student retention
c. Enhance student satisfaction with their learning experience
d. Help students develop oral communication skills
e. Promote student self-esteem
Five Components of Cooperative Learning
While cooperative learning has shown efficacy as a new approach in learning, it may not
always be applicable for all situations. There are conditions that are necessary for
cooperative efforts to be more effective and productive than competitive and
individualistic efforts. Basically, there are five elements of cooperative learning identified
by Johnson, Johnson, and Holubec (1993).

1. Positive interdependence. (Sink or swim together) Positive interdependence is
successfully structured when group members perceive that they are linked with each
other in a way that one cannot succeed unless everyone succeeds. Group goals and tasks,
are designed in a way that communicates a one for all; all for one policy or the sink or
swim together motto.
2. Face-to-face interaction. (Promote each others success) Students should promote
each other's success by sharing resources and helping, supporting, encouraging, and
applauding each other's efforts to achieve. This can be done by: orally explaining how to
solve problems, teaching one's knowledge to others, checking for understanding,
discussing concepts being learned, and connecting present with past learning. It is
through promoting each other's learning face-to-face that members become personally
committed to each other as well as to their mutual goals.
3. Individual and group accountability. (No hitchhiking /no social loafing). The group
must be accountable for achieving its goals and each member must be accountable for
contributing his or her share of the work. Individual accountability exists when the
performance of each individual is assessed and the results are given back to the group and
the individual to find out who needs more assistance, support, and encouragement in
learning. As students learn together, they gain greater individual competency, making
each member a stronger individual.
4. Interpersonal and small group skills. Cooperative learning is more complex than
competitive or individualistic learning because students have to engage simultaneously in
task work (learning academic subject matter) and teamwork (functioning effectively as a
group). Leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication, and conflictmanagement skills empower students to manage both teamwork and task work
5. Group processing. Group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals
and maintaining effective working relationships. Continuous improvement of learning
results from careful analysis of how members are working together and how group
effectiveness can be enhanced.
Examples of Class Activities that use cooperative learning:
1. Jigsaw

6. Numbered Heads

2. Think-Pair-Share

7. Team Pair Solo

3. Three-Step Interview

8. Circle the Sage

4. Round Robin Brainstorming

9. Partners

5. Three-minute Review.


Taking it to the Net
1. Read further on elements of cooperative learning and the examples of class activities
that use cooperative learning. Among the class activities described (i.e. Jigsaw etc.) select
two which could be applicable in the Philippine setting (considering the culture and
values). Illustrate how you will do these cooperative learning activities if you are the
Websites references:
a) David and Roger Johnson

Johnson D. and R. Johnson (1987) Learning Together and Alone. Englewood

Cliffs, N.J. Prentice Hall.
Kagan, S. (1994) The Structural Approach to Cooperative Learning. Educational
Schulz, J (1989). Cooperative learning, refining the process. Educational
Leadership. 47, p. 42-43.
Slavin R. S. (1987). Cooperative learning and the cooperative school. Educational
Leadership, 47, p.7-13.


1. The topic/issue I particularly liked and would like to explore more is ___________
____________________________________________. It has caught my attention and
interest because _______________________________________________________
2. The questions I have in relation to this topic/incident is/are ___________________
3. The knowledge/insights I gained from this module and the activities/were

4. With this learning experience I intend to _________________________________

Learning Objectives:
By the time you have completed this module, you should be able to:
1. Explain the construct of intelligence from Sternbergs and Gardners
2. Discuss the relationship of intelligence and aptitude to learning and
academic performance.
3. Differentiate intrinsic from extrinsic motivation and give examples
of each.
4. View motivation from the different theoretical perspectives.
5. Set motivating goals for yourself and your students.
6. List some characteristics of a self-regulated learner and describe how
teachers can promote self-regulated learning in the classroom.
7. Describe different ways of looking at learning styles and explain how
they influence learning.
8. Differentiate the types of exceptionality in terms of cognitive and
non-cognitive functioning.
9. Explain how a teacher may improve learning by considering the
principle of individual differences.
The principle of individual differences emphasize that there are
variations among individuals and that no two persons are exactly alike. As
applied in the teaching-learning process, the teacher must recognize that
learners differ not only across sex, age, economic status and the like, but
also in their physical, intellective and non-intellective functioning.
Individual differences exist in terms of intellectual ability, motivation, and


learning style, For one student, self-regulated learning may work best while
for another, it may result to failure. There are also individuals who may be
gifted and would profit well from teaching while there are those with special
needs and experience learning difficulties.
If education is geared towards the well-rounded development of a
person, then the teacher need to consider individual differences and accord
every student the learning and services suited to their special needs.
Lesson 15
Students differ in terms of the individual characteristics and traits that they bring
into the learning situation. Such individual differences may be classified into
physiological, intellective or non-intellective domains. Under the intellective domains,
intelligence and aptitude are two important factors where learner differences may be
pronounced and would definitely affect learning.
With the contributions of cognitive psychologists, there is no doubt that learning
is an active mental process. Thus, educational psychologists are interested in how people
think, learn concepts, make decisions, and solve problems. A major factor that mediates
these cognitive processes is ones intelligence which is often referred to as the general
capacity to learn and adjust to the environment.
The Nature of Intelligence
Some psychologists like James McKeen Cattell were influenced by Darwin to
view intelligence as a genetic factor, separate from special abilities. On the other hand,
Charles Spearman maintains that intelligence consists of two factors, the g or general
intelligence factor and the s or specific factors.
David Wechsler (1939, 1974), the author of the Wechsler intelligence scales for
adults, children and preschoolers defines intelligence as the global capacity of a person
to think rationally, act purposefully and deal effectively with his environment
(Drummond, 1996).
To better understand the nature of intelligence, let us look at some of its elements and
characteristics as described by several theorists.

Intelligence is adaptive. It involves modifying and adjusting ones behavior in

order to accomplish new tasks successfully


Intelligence is culture-specific. What is intelligent behavior in one culture is not

necessarily intelligent behavior in another culture

Intelligence is related to learning ability. Intelligent people learn information more

quickly and easily than less intelligent people

Intelligence involves the use of prior knowledge to analyze and understand new
situations effectively

Intelligent thinking involves the complex interaction and coordination of many

different mental processes

Intelligence maybe seen in different arenas-for example on academic tasks or in

social situations.

Intelligence is not necessarily a permanent, unchanging characteristic. It can be

modified through experience and learning.

Intelligence is somewhat distinct from a persons innate potential for learning

(aptitude) and what an individual has actually learned (achievement).

Theories Of Intelligence
There are several models used in explaining intelligence. Two of these which are relevant
to teaching are Sternbergs Triarchic Intelligence and Howard Gardners Multiple
Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence
Robert Sternberg (1986) believes that intellectual skills and thinking skills are
inseparable. In Sternbergs words, intelligence is the purposive selection and shaping of
and adaptation to real-world environments relevant to ones life. This definition
emphasizes the individuals control over the environment by changing and molding them.
Successful intelligence, Sternberg explains, requires three types of abilities:
analytical, creative, and practical. Analytical abilities are needed in sorting out and
evaluating options, monitoring failure and success, and setting up strategies. It involves
judging, evaluating, contrasting, comparing, and analyzing.
Creative abilities allow the individual to generate options and ideas and to try
new ways of selecting, shaping and adapting to the environment. They are evident in
activities such as discovering, imagining, inventing and supposing. Practical abilities
allow people to carry out their options, to put into practice the behaviors and skills that
are involved in selecting, shaping, and adapting to environments.


Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligences

Howard Gardners theory made a paradigm shift in understanding intelligence and
had a great impact in the development of new curriculum and approaches in education.
Gardners theory of multiple intelligences in based on his assumption that the brain has
evolved separate systems for different adaptive abilities, talents or cognitive skills that he
calls intelligences. He further assumes that the brain pathways underlying these
intelligences are developed to different degrees in every person (Gines, 1998)
The eight intelligences according to Gardner are:
1. Linguistic intelligence the ability to communicate well in language, orally or in
writing, or both.
2. Interpersonal intelligence the ability to function well in social situations; to
sense others feelings and be in tune with others.
3. Intrapersonal intelligence self awareness, the ability to know ones self well; to
understand ones feelings, motives, body and mind.
4. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence the ability to use ones physical body well, to
move effectively and manipulate objects effectively.
5. Logical-mathematical intelligence the ability to learn higher mathematics, to
analyze and solve mathematical problems and to handle complex logical
6. Musical-Rhythmic intelligence the ability to learn, perform, and compose
7. Visual-Spatial intelligence the ability to perceive and arrange objects in the
environment; know where you are relative to fixed locations. The ability to
accomplish tasks requiring 3-dimensional visualization.
8. Naturalistic intelligence the ability to adapt to nature; to understand different
species, recognize patterns in nature, and classify natural objects.
Gardners theory viewed intelligence from different perspectives and showed a
high respect for the individuals learning potential. It recognizes that every person is
gifted with a particular intelligence which he can nourish and utilize. With this theory,
the different abilities and talents of students can be discovered and harnessed so that they
become more actively involved in learning.



Psychologists engaged in measurement and testing classify abilities into
intelligence, aptitude and achievement. The potentials for learning can be measured in
terms of intelligence tests and aptitude tests. On the other hand, the outcomes of
instruction or students progress as a result of learning or training are measured by
achievement tests.
While intelligence tests are designed to measure general capacity to solve
problems, adapt to changing circumstances, think abstractly and profit from experience ;
aptitude tests measure potential for learning or acquiring a new skill and predict future
performance. Because aptitude tests predict future performance, they are recognized as
better predictors of academic success. However, studies show that intelligence can also
predict school performance as IQ scores are correlated with achievement tests.
In recognizing the relationship between intelligence tests scores and school
achievement, we must also keep two points in mind about this relationship: the first is
that intelligence does not necessarily cause achievement, and the second important point
is that the relationship between IQ scores and achievement is not a perfect one.
1. Read more about intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests. Which among
these measures is the best predictor of academic success? Explain by citing
examples, facts and personal experiences.
2. Compare Robert Sternbergs Triarchic Theory with Howard Gardner in terms of
their reasonableness, practical utility and social responsibility. Which theory
could better explain the construct of intelligence?
3. Discuss the implications of Gardners theory in teaching in the preschools.
1. Aiken, L. (2000) Psychological Testing and Assessment 10 th edition U.S.A: Allyn
and Bacon.
2. Drummond, R.
3. Gines, A. et. al. (2002) Educational Psychology. Manila: Rex Book Store.

4. Wechsler, D. (1974) Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- Revised, New
York: Psychological Corporation.
5. Whiston, S. C. (2000) Principles and Applications of Assessment in Counseling
California: Cole Thomson Learning.

Lesson 16
Why are you reading this module? Is it because you are curious and interested
about the topic of motivation? Or maybe as a teacher you are having difficulty in
motivating your students. Do you need to study this module as a class requirement or is
there a test in the near future? Or perhaps you want to do well in the subject because you
expect to earn a good grade. We could think of several other reasons, and for some it may
be a combination of reasons to explain what motivates one to study motivation.
Defining Motivation
Motivation is a very important construct in learning because it is considered as
the intervening variable involved in arousing, directing, and sustaining behavior. Creder
et. al. (1996) refers to motivation as the desires, needs, and interests that arouse and
activate an organism and direct it toward a goal. Similarly, Bernstein et. al (1991) sees
motivation as the influence that govern the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence
of behavior.
According to Ball (1977), motivation is a hypothetical construct, It cannot be
observed directly, but is only inferred from a persons observable behavior. He added that
motivation is not the only factor that determines behavior. For example, poor academic
performance could stem from an interplay of motivation with low mental capacity,
learning disability, and absence of support.
In addition, we should consider that:

motivation is selective and directional

motivation involves goal-seeking, the learner persists to a reach a perceived goal
the same motive may be expressed in more than one behavior.
the same behavior may express different motivation.

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation


What energizes or directs our behavior? Some explanations of motivation focus

on internal, personal factors such as needs, interests, curiosity, and enjoyment. Other
explanations point to external, environmental factors such as rewards, social pressure and
punishment. The former involves intrinsic motivation while the latter is referred to as
extrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic motivation is the natural tendency to seek out and conquer challenges as
we pursue personal interests and exercise capabilities (Deci and Ryan, 1985). According
to Woolfolk (1998), one who is intrinsically motivated do not need incentives or
punishments, because the activity itself is rewarding. In contrast, when we do something
for the purpose of getting a reward or grade, avoiding punishment, or pleasing the teacher
or a parent, we are driven by extrinsic motivators.
The essential difference between the two is the students reason for acting., that is
whether the locus of causality is internal or external. Students may freely choose the
activity based on personal interests (internal locus of causality/intrinsic motivation) or
because someone or something else outside is influencing them (external locus of
causality/extrinsic motivation).
Approaches to Motivation
Woolfolk (1998) outlined four general approaches to motivation. These include
the behavioral, humanistic, cognitive and social learning theories.
1. Behavioral Approaches
Behaviorists look at extrinsic reinforcement as a source of motivation They study
motivation with a careful analysis of the incentives and rewards present in the
classroom. If a person is consistently reinforced for certain behaviors, he may
develop habits or tendencies to act in certain ways.
2. Humanistic Approaches
Humanistic explanations of motivation emphasize intrinsic sources such as a
persons need for self-actualization (Maslow, 1968), the inborn actualizing
tendency (Rogers & Freiberg, 1970; 1994), or the need for self-determination
(Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, 1991). From the humanistic perspective, to
motivate students means to encourage the development of their inner resources
their sense of competence, self-esteem, autonomy, and self-actualization.
3. Cognitive Approaches
Cognitive theorists believe that behavior is initiated and regulated by plans, goals,
schemas, expectations, and attributions (Woolfolk, 1998). Thus, people are
intrinsically motivated. They work hard because they want to understand and they
like what they are doing.

4. Social Learning Approaches
Social learning theories usually combine behavioral and cognitive approaches.
They take into account the individuals expectations of reaching a goal, and the
value of that goal or the outcome. The important questions asked are, If I try
hard, can I succeed?, and If I succeed, will the outcome be valuable or rewarding
to me?

Goals and Motivation

Goals increase motivation if they are specific, moderately difficult, and attainable
in the near future. The distinction between performance goals (the intention to appear
smart or capable in the eyes of others) and learning goals (the intention to gain
knowledge and master skills) is important. Students who are motivated to learn set
learning rather than performance goals and are task-involved rather than ego-involved.
(Woolfolk, 1998). For goal-setting to be effective, the goals must be acceptable to the
students and they need accurate feedback about their progress toward goals.
Sources of Motivation for Learning
According to Gagne and Driscoll (1988), the most fundamental motivation for a
learner is the desire to enter into a learning situation. As far as instruction is concerned,
the sources of motivation could be in knowledge structures that affect the pursuit of
learning. These include curiosity, achievement, and self-efficacy.
A persons curiosity is usually aroused by stimuli that are novel, complex and
incongruous (Berlyne, 1965). When instruction can be designed so as to make use of
unusual or novel patterns of stimulation, curiosity can serve as a form of motivation.
A strong source of motivation is the individuals desire to achieve, to produce
something, or to gain control over something by action. As applicable to motivation
for learning, the desire for achievement or competence obviously refers to peoples
own views of what they can accomplish through their own performances. (Gagne and
Driscoll, 1988).
Students belief about their own ability to succeed influence their achievement. Selfefficacy (Bandura (1986,1995) refers to beliefs about personal competence in a
particular situation (Woolfolk, 1998). Sense of self-efficacy not only affects
expectations for success or failure, it also influences motivation through goal setting.


Motivation in the Classroom

Motivating students to learn is one of the critical tasks of teaching. Teachers need
to develop a particular kind of motivation in their students the motivation to learn.
Jere Brophy (in Woolfolk, 1998) describes student motivation to learn as the tendency to
find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and try to derive the intended
academic benefits from them. Motivation to learn can then be construed as both a general
trait and a situation specific state.
1. List 5 examples each of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation strategies that you use
or a teacher need to use in teaching. Explain how each can work effectively to
motivate students.
2. Maslows theory has been criticized because people do not always appear to
behave as the theory would predict. Most of us move back and forth among
different types of needs at the same time. Some people deny themselves safety or
friendship in order to achieve knowledge, understanding, or greater self-esteem.
Criticisms aside, Maslows theory gives us a new way of looking at the whole
person whose physical , emotional and intellectual needs are all interrelated.
Discuss the implications of Maslows theory to education focusing on students
needs and motivation. Cite concrete examples of student behavior on each level of
the need hierarchy.
3. How can students need for achievement and self-actualization be supported
through goal setting?

1. Ball, S. (1977) Motivation in Education. New York: Academic Press
2. Domjan, M. (1993) The Principles of Learning and Behavior 3rd ed., California:
Brooks/Cole Publishing.
3. Gagne, Robert M and M. P. Driscoll (1988) Essentials of Learning for Instruction
2nd edition. New Jersey. Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs.
4. Santrock, John W. (2001) Educational Psychology, New York: McGraw Hill,
New York.


5. Woolfolk, Anita, E, (1998) Educational Psychology. Massachusetts: Allyn and


It is often said that learning is a life-long process, that one never ceases to learn as
long as he or she lives. One major goal of teaching is to free students from the need of
teachers so that they can continue to learn independently throughout their lives. This can
be achieved when the teacher has taught his or her students how to become self-regulated
Defining Self-Regulated Learning
Self-regulation refers to self-generated thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are
oriented to attaining goals (Zimmerman, 2000). Self-regulated learners are proactive in
their efforts to learn because they are aware of their strengths and limitations and because
they are guided by personally set goals and task-related strategies. They monitor their
behavior in terms of their goals and self-reflect on their increasing effectiveness.
Because of their superior motivation and adaptive learning methods, selfregulated students are more likely to succeed academically and are optimistic about their
Cleary and Zimmerman (2000) emphasize that self-regulated learning involves
more than detailed knowledge of a skill; it involves the self-awareness, self-motivation,
and behavioral skill to implement that knowledge appropriately.
Characteristics of Self-Regulated Learners
Self-regulated learners have a combination of academic learning skills and self-control
that makes learning easier. Three factors that influence their skill and will are:
knowledge, motivation, and self-discipline or volition. (Woolfolk, 1998)

Self-regulated learners need knowledge about themselves, the subject, the task,
strategies for learning and the context in which they will apply their learning. They
know their learning styles, their interests and talents, their strengths and limitations
and how to use their strengths.
Self-regulated learners are motivated to learn. They are interested to learn because
they know why they are studying and they value learning. They are self-determined
and not controlled by others.
Self-regulated learners have the willpower to continue what they are doing despite
the odds and temptations. They know how to protect themselves from distraction,
how to cope when they feel anxious and lazy, and what to do when they are
tempted to stop working.
Structure and Function Of Self-Regulatory Processes
According to Zimmerman (2002), the structure of self-regulatory processes can be
viewed in terms of three cyclical phases. The forethought phase refers to processes and
beliefs that occur before efforts to learn; the performance phase refers to processes that
occur during behavioral implementation, and self-reflection refers to processes that occur
after each learning effort. The processes and functions involved are summarized below
(Zimmerman, 2002).
1. Forethought Phase
Task Analysis (Goal setting, strategic planning)
Self Motivation (Self-efficacy, Outcome expectations, Instrinsic
Interest/value, Learning goal orientation)
2. Performance Phase
Self-Control (Imagery, self-instruction, attention focusing,
Task strategies)
Self-Observation (Self-recording, self-experimentation)
3. Self-reflection phase
Self-Judgment (Self-evaluation, Causal attribution)
Self-reaction (Self-satisfaction/affect, Adaptive/defensive)
1. Read more on the topic self-regulated learning. List some characteristics of
a self-regulated learner. Do you consider yourself as one? Explain why you

think so and cite specific activities that you do that characterizes a selfregulated learner.
2. How can a teacher promote self-regulated learning in the classroom? Cite
specific procedures or techniques and explain how they can be employed.
Critical Thinking
3. Why is it that not all students may be capable of becoming self-regulated
1. Garcia, John Addy S. (2005) Lecture-Presentation Self-Regulated Learning.
Psychology Department. Central Luzon State University.
2. Zimmerman, Barry J. (2002) Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview.
Theory Into Practice Vol. 42, 2, Spring 2002, College of Education, The Ohio
State University.
3. Zimmerman, Barry J. (2000) Attainment of self-regulation: A social cognitive
perspective. In M. Boekarts, P.R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds) Handbook of SelfRegulation. San Diego, C.A: Academic Presss.
4. Woolfolk, Anita, E, (1998) Educational Psychology. Massachusetts: Allyn and

Lesson 18
Try to ask your students how they study for an examination and which method
would usually bring about the best results. Perhaps one would say that when doing an
assignment or reviewing for an exam, he/she prefers to do it alone and in a quite place.
Another student might say that he /she prefers learning with peers he/she could learn
better study when there is background music. These two students definitely differ in the
ways or manner in which they learn best, that is, their learning styles.
Defining Learning Styles
Learning styles refer to the characteristic cognitive, affective, and psychological
behaviors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with,
and respond to the learning environment (Keefe & Monk, 1986). For Dunn and Dunn

(1993), learning style is the way in which each learner begins to concentrate, process, and
retain new and difficult information. No learning style is either good or bad. Each merely
provides inside into how a person is most likely to learn new and difficult information.
Thus if you are a teacher and you want to facilitate learning or accelerate the
learning process, you need to have a clear understanding of how your students learn best,
their styles or ways of learning. Learning will be maximized if students are taught using
their perceptual strengths.
Characteristics of Learning Style
1. Learning style is more than learning most easily by hearing, seeing, reading,
writing, illustrating or experiencing actively. Perceptual strength or modality is
only one factor.
2. It is also more than whether a person processes information sequentially,
analytically, or in a left-brain mode rather that in a holistic, simultaneous global
right brain fashion.
3. It is more than how someone responds to the environment or whether information
is absorbed concretely or abstractly.
4. Learning Style is the way in which each learner begins to concentrate on, process,
and retain new and difficult information. That process occurs differently for
Some facts about learning styles which are worth considering are:

Every person has a learning style and every person has learning style strengths.
People tend to learn more when taught with their own strengths than when taught
with the teachers strengths
No learning style is better or worse than another. Each style encompasses similar
intelligence ranges
Most gifted children are global learners. On the other hand, most underachievers
also are globals.
But whether students are analytical or global, they are capable of mastering
identical information or skills if they are taught through instructional methods, or
resources that complement their styles

Some Learning Styles

Several typologies of learners are described in the different models of learning
styles formulated by some psychologists and educators. Among the many learning style
models, the work of Dunn and Dunn and David Kolb were presented in this module.
1. Analytical vs. Global Learners (Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model)

Dr. Rita Dunn and K. Dunn (1975) classified students as globals and analyticals
based on their learning preferences. The Dunn, Dunn and Price Learning Style Inventory
is the most widely used and most researched diagnostic instrument for school aged
children in the United States. The instrument encompasses 21 different variables,
including each persons environmental, emotional, sociological, physiological and
cognitive- processing preferences.
The characteristics and attributes of analytical as well as global learners are
summarized in the table below. (Source:Manual on the Second National Conference of
the Center for Learning and Teaching Styles, Philippines)
Table 6. Characteristic of Analytical vs. Global Learners

- Prefers quiet place
- Prefers bright lights
- Prefers a formal setting

Prefers sounds
Prefers low lights
Prefers an informal setting

- Is persistent
- Have strong emotional need
to complete the tasks they are
working on
- Prefers routines and set
patterns in terms of tasks

Is not persistent
Prefers to work on several tasks
Prefers to structure tasks in
their own way; tends to dislike
imposed directions.

- Does not prefer intake while

learning. They rarely eat,
drink, smoke, chew or bite on
objects while learning

Prefers intake while learning

Take frequent breaks while
Lots of mobility





- Often likes learning alone or Often likes learning with peers

with authority figure (teacher,
parent, tutor)
-Left-brainthinkers (deductive
works on the big picture)
- Process new information in
linear, logical or sequential
- Learn more easily when
information is presented stepby-step in a cumulative
sequential pattern that builds

Right-brain thinkers (inductive;

attends to the details)
Learn more easily when they
understand the concept first,
and then can concentrate on
details, or when they are
introduced to the information
with preferably, a humorous
story replete with examples and


2. Learning Style Inventory (LSI)- Dr. David Kolb (1976)

The conceptual framework of this style is the experiential learning model. The
core of this model is a simple description of the learning cycle of how adult experience is
translated into concepts, which in turn are used as guides in the choices of new
experiences. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory is a 9-item assessment instrument with
4-sub-items to be ranked ordered by adults. It is designed for and applied to adult
organizational systems and management training.
Types of Learners According to the Kolb Model
1. Converger

use abstract conceptualization and active experimentation

Strength: practical application of ideas

2. Diverger

opposite of converger; use

Strength: imaginative ability

3. Assimilator

use abstract conceptualization and reflective observation

Strength: ability to create theoretical models

4. Accommodator

use concrete experience and active experimentation

Strength: actually doing things, carrying out plans
experiments, involving themselves in new experiences

concrete experience and reflective


1. Application of D. Kolbs Model. Assume that you are a teacher and you found out
that half of your class are of the converger type while the other half are of the diverger
type of learner. How would you design your teaching so that the learning of all your
students is facilitated and maximized.
2. Read more about the different models of learning styles. Suppose you are assigned to
do a study on learning styles of third year high school students in one private and one
government school. Which model of learning style will you use? What other variables
will you include in your study?
3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of matching your teaching style with your
students learning styles.


1. Center for Learning and Teaching Styles (2001) Manual for the Second National
Conference March 1-2, 2001 Creating an Enhanced Learning Environment
Through Individual Learning Styles. PICC, Pasay City.
2. Gines, A. et. al. (2002) Educational Psychology. Manila: Rex Book Store.
1. The topic/issue I particularly liked and would like to explore more is ___
______________________________________. It has caught my attention/interest
because ______________________________________
2. The questions I have in relation to this topic/incident


3. The knowledge/insights I gained from this module and the activities/were

4. With this learning experience I intend to _________________________


Learning Objectives

After going through this module, the students should be able to:
1. Explain the importance of assessment in the school setting.
2. Demonstrate through examples why evaluation is an integral part of
the teaching-learning process.
3. Explain Blooms taxonomy of educational objectives in the cognitive,
psychomotor, and affective domain.
4. Formulate learning outcomes as objectives of instruction
5. Differentiate standardized from teacher-made achievement tests.
6. Distinguish the different types and formats of tests.
7. Cite classroom situations where the principles of evaluation may be
The study about learning will not be complete without the topic on
assessment of learning. For how can one know if learning has taken place, if
not through assessment (whether formal or informal) where one could
determine if a person has learned and to what extent.


The process of instruction and evaluation are intimately related. The

results of educational assessment constitute a very powerful force that can be
used to improve the effectiveness of teaching-learning situations.
This module tackles assessment, its importance and role in education.
The relevance of instructional objectives and the taxonomy formulated by
Bloom et. al were presented. The various methods by which student
performance can be measured and evaluated are described, with focus on
standardized and teacher-made tests.
Lesson 19
Nature of Educational Assessment
Assessment is described by Bloom (1970) as the use of systematic approaches
to the description of relationships between selected task requirements, criterion behaviors
and the environment. It is concerned with the totality of the educational setting and
subsumes measurement and evaluation. (Payne, 1973). It focuses not only on the nature
of the learner but also on what is to be learned and how. For purposes of clarity, it is
important to define some terms commonly used in assessment.
Educational Assessment is the process of gathering data that will provide for
more precise and objective appraisal of learning outcomes than could be accomplished by
less formal and systematic procedures. (Payne, 1973). The primary component of
educational assessment is data collection through measurement which is considered to be
the backbone of any educational process. Assessment can be at the level of the individual
learner, the class, the institution, or the educational system as a whole.
Measurement is the process of collecting, quantifying and ordering information
on an individual, attribute or object. Evaluation is the process of summing up the results
of measurements or tests, giving them some meaning based on value judgments (Hopkins
& Stanley, 1981).
In distinguishing measurement from evaluation, Lefrancois (1988) said that
measurement involves the application of an instrument (e.g. ruler) to assess a specific
quantity while evaluation is the formation of a judgment concerning certain qualities. In
general, measuring is more precise and more objective, while evaluating is less precise
and more subjective. Both are important parts of the instructional process.

A test is a particular form of measurement; it is a systematic method of gathering
data for the purpose of making intra or inter individual comparisons. Tests may be
categorized as standardized, informal (teacher-made), oral, written, mastery, survey,
speed, power, verbal, nonverbal or performance.
Uses of Measurement and Evaluation
There is no question that measurement and evaluation are important in the
educational system. The assessment of the learning process in all its diverse forms and
contexts has enabled significant advances in educational theory and practice at all levels
and in all fields. Effective assessment can play a vital role in appropriately placing
students, diagnosing learning problems and progress, improving and enriching teaching
performance, and in achieving and maintaining academic standards. Some of the
important purposes of educational measurement and evaluation are the following:
1. Tests determine the optimum level of work and the students capacity to succeed.
For example, standardized aptitude tests, school entrance tests are used as basis
for predicting success in a particular course or year level.
2. Tests are used for selection, classification and placement of students to ensure
economy and equality of learning if classes are homogenous and provide if
necessary, for special classes for the gifted and the mentally challenged.
3. Tests are used in the diagnosis of learning difficulties and their implications for
remedial procedures.
4. Tests are important assessment tools for guidance and counseling purposes.
5. Tests and measurement are relevant in the learning process because they help
a. Select, appraise and clarify instructional objectives.
b. Describe and report learner progress toward, or achievement of,
educational objectives.
c. Plan, direct and improve learning experiences.
6. The evaluation of curricula and its further development represents one major
application of educational assessment.
7. The thoughtful and intelligent application of educational assessment principles
and devices can profoundly improve the quality of education.
Educational Objectives
Teaching, learning and evaluation are three interdependent aspects of the
educative process. (Gronlund 1981). This interdependence is clearly seen when the main

purpose of instruction is seen in terms of helping students achieve a set of learning
outcomes which include changes in intellectual, emotional or physical domains.
The integration of evaluation into the teaching-learning process is explicitly
shown in setting instructional objectives which is the first step in teaching and
evaluation. The educational objectives are stated in terms of desirable behavior in the
cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. These objectives provide direction to
teaching. They aid the teacher in making decisions regarding the types of methods,
activities, and materials he has to provide. To be most useful, objectives must be stated in
such a way they are attainable, observable and measurable.
Teachers usually formulate general and specific objectives. The general objectives
specify in general terms what the final desired learning outcome is. But it is the specific
objectives which usually serve as a blue print for the construction of measuring
instruments. Gronlund (1972) suggests that teachers should begin with a statement of
general objective that can be made more specific by listing examples of behaviors that
reflect the general objective.
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Educational objectives are classified into cognitive, psychomotor, and affective
domains. Bloom et. al (1956) and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia (1964) provided a
comprehensive and useful list of educational objectives in the cognitive and affective
domains. The structure of the taxonomy is educationally, logically and psychologically
consistent. The taxonomy represents an educational system in that the categories
correspond to a teachers concern in developing curricula and selecting learning
objectives. The hierarchical classes in the objectives are arranged from simple to complex
The Structure of the Cognitive Domain
Starting with simple to complex processes, the hierarchy of educational objective
in the cognitive domain include the following:

Knowledge - involves recall of information

Comprehension involves understanding of material being communicated.
Application involves the use of abstractions in particular, concrete situations
Analysis involves breaking of a communication into its parts so that the
organization of ideas is clear
5. Synthesis means putting elements into whole
6. Evaluation judging the value of the material for a given purpose.
Structure and Categories of the Affective Domain


The dimension of internalization is necessary to provide a meaningful hierarchical

structure. Internalization is the process by which behavioral control consistent with
positive values is exerted from within the individual.
1. Receiving
1.1. awareness
1.2. willing to receive
1.3. controlled or selected attention
2. Responding
2.1. acquiescence in responding
2.2. willingness to respond
2.3. satisfaction in response
3. Valuing
3.1. acceptance of value
3.2. preference of value
3.3. commitment
4. Organization
4.1. conceptualization of a value
4.2. organization of a value system
5. Characterization by a value or a value complex
5.1. generalized set
5.2. characterization
Psychomotor Domain
Harrows developed the most comprehensive system for classifying psychomotor
behavior, which represents an operationalization of cognitive and affective intentions. It
covers the following processes.

Reflex movements
Basic Fundamental movements
Perceptual abilities
Physical abilities
Skilled movements
Non-discursive communication


Lesson 20
Tests used to measure learning are different from common measuring instruments
like rulers, weighing scales, and thermometers which measure directly. Psychological and
educational instruments measure indirectly and evaluations are made by making
inferences from the test data. As described by Lefrancois (1988), the students test
performance consists of a sample of behaviors (selected from a large number of potential
behaviors) that, we assume represents some knowledge, ability or attitude, and on the
basis of which we make inferences.
To be properly guided in preparing tests, exams, and quizzes, teachers need to
blueprint their tests even before they begin to teach the relevant series of lessons.
A test blueprint is a table of specifications describing the topics to be tested, the
nature of the questions, how many questions for each topic, and the cognitive processes
to be sampled. The blueprint can help in clarifying instructional goals, selecting
instructional strategies and monitor students progress. Detailed blueprints can be based
on educational objectives using systems such as Blooms taxonomy.
Characteristics of a Good Measuring Instrument
For tests to serve its purpose well, it has to possess psychometric properties and
other characteristics relevant to effective assessment. A test need to be both reliable and
valid. Reliability refers to consistency in measurement. Validity, which is the most
important characteristic of a test, refers to the extent to which a test measures what it is
supposed to measure. The instrument should also be subjected to item analysis to
determine its difficulty index and discriminating index. Aside from these psychometric
properties, a good measuring instrument should (according to Payne, 1988), as a rule, be:
a. Relevant



Standardized Tests
Schools are the largest test users. A large collection of tests that are commonly
used at all levels include standardized scholastic ability tests, aptitude tests, and
achievement tests. Among these, achievement tests are the most widely used.
Standardized tests are those which provide standards (or norms) by which to compare the
performance of individual students. This type of test provides exact, uniform procedures
in controlling the method of administration and scoring and has norms for interpretation
of scores.
Standardized achievement tests are used for:
1. placement in special education programs
2. certifying student achievement
3. determining competency of teachers
4. evaluating curriculum and programs
5. advanced placement and credit by examination
6. instructional diagnosis

Teacher-Made Tests
Majority of the tests used in the classroom are teacher-made tests. It is not only
because they are cost-effective and easy to prepare that these tests are used. Some of
these tests are highly representative of course objectives, are at an appropriate level of
difficulty, and are used in reasonable ways.

According to Lefrancois (1988) among the uses of teacher-made tests are:

for assigning of grades
to determine whether students are ready to begin a unit of instruction
to indicate to the teacher how effective instructional procedures are,
to identify learning difficulties
to determine what students know and dont know
to predict their probability of success on future learning tasks
to motivate students to learn.

Teacher-made tests are usually of the paper-and-pencil type. It could be in the form of
the objective type or essay, or both. An essay test requires a written response of some
length which the student would develop for each question. An objective type of test
usually require less writing and the scoring is uniform with exact answers for each item.
The four major types of objective items are completion or fill in the blanks, matching,
true-false, and multiple choice.
Whatever type of test is constructed and used, professional ethics should be
exercised in the administration, interpretation and use of tests. These are needed so that
tests and measurement would serve their purpose well, i.e. assessing the outcomes of
Differences Between Teacher-Made and Standardized Tests
Both teacher-made and standardized achievement tests are widely used in the
school setting, although they differ in many aspects. For one thing, students spend more
time taking teacher-made tests than standardized tests. Teacher made tests are more
specific to a particular classroom, teacher, and unit of instruction and are easier to
update. They are more likely to reflect the current educational objectives of a particular
school or teacher.
On the other hand, standardized tests represent only a fraction of the tests
administered in the school. They are built around a core of educational objectives
common to many different schools. These objectives represents the combined judgments
of subject-matter expert who cooperates with test construction specialists in developing
the test. They are more carefully constructed, have broader content and norms, and is
usually more reliable than teacher-made tests.
Teacher-made and standardized tests are complementary rather than opposing
methods of evaluating achievement. Depending on the objectives of the particular
classroom both types of measures should be employed.

1. Read more on the taxonomy of educational objectives. Suppose you are teaching
in high school and you are preparing your lesson. You are given the option to
choose a subject (e.g. English, Social Science) and particular lesson that you will
focus on. Formulate learning objectives on the cognitive domain using Blooms
2. You are assigned to take charge of selection and placement of new students and
promotion of good performing students. What type of evaluation data would you

use in making decisions? Describe the different measures that you will use in
gathering these data and explain how you will do them.
3. List 5 classroom situations where the principles of evaluation may be applied.


1. The topic/issue I particularly liked and would like to explore more is ___________
____________________________________________. It has caught my attention and
interest because _______________________________________________________
2. The questions I have in relation to this topic/incident is/are ___________________
3. The knowledge/insights I gained from this module and the activities/were
4. With this learning experience I intend to _________________________________
1. Gagne, Robert M. (1988) Essentials of Learning for Instruction 2nd edition.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs.
2. Lefrancois, G. R. (1988) Psychology for Teaching. 6th edition. California:
Wadsworth Publishing Company.

3. Oriondo, Leonora and E. Dallo-Antonio (1984) Evaluating Educational
Outcomes (Tests, Measurement and Evaluation) Manila: Rex Book Store.
4. Payne, David A. (1973) The Assessment of Learning, Cognitive and Affective.
Massachusetts, D.C. Heath and Company.
5. Stanley, J. and K. Hopkins (1972) Educational and Psychological Measurement
and Evaluation. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. .
6. Thorndike, R. L. and E. Hagen (1977) Measurement and Evaluation in
Psychology and Education 4th edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
7. Woolfolk, Anita, E, (1998) Educational Psychology. Massachusetts: Allyn and