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Updated August 28th 2015

Daniel Chornet, Ph.D.

Department of Communication

Saint Louis University - Madrid Campus

Fall 2015

Office: C/ de las Amapolas, 3
3rd Floor - Office #9
Telephone: 91-554 5858 ext. 236

Class meets: M & W from 2:30 to 3:45 in_______

Office Hours: M & W from 12 to 2 p.m. and T & Th from
2 to 3 by appointment.
Course credit: 3.0 Hours
Prerequisite: CMM-1000, CMM 2000

Why do you need to study persuasion? Researchers state that a person receives between 300 and 3000
persuasive messages on a daily basis through different media (advertising, film, art, politics, interpersonal
communication, bumper stickers, and panhandling among others) (Gass & Seiter, 2014). We are creators and
receivers of persuasive messages, and as such we must know what persuasion is, what it entails, how to use it, and
how to analyze it. In this course we will study different theories and frameworks of persuasion through the lens of four
major approaches.
We will start with the Rhetorical Approach, where we will delve into the work of some of the classical and
modern theories of persuasion (Aristotle, Plato, Burke). Our second stop is the Psychological Approach where we will
navigate the concepts of attitudes, behaviors, and emotions and their relationship; and we will examine several
psychological theories (e.g. Social Judgement Theory and Cognitive Dissonance Theory among others). Thirdly, we
will read some work grounded in the Social and Discursive Approaches: Self-presentation and Framing; Accounts;
Politeness theory; Conversational Maxims; and Sequential-inferential compliance gaining. The Cultural Approach
makes up the remainder of this course, and it includes the Model of Cultural persuadables and applications of it in
different settings.

Persuasion is everywhere, and it is difficult to escape being exposed to it.
This course will:
! Help you understand the different ways in which persuasion works.
! Help you understand persuasion theories and concepts as tools to be used.
! Develop your analytic skills in everyday persuasive situations.
! Ethically develop your persuasive skills.


Upon completing this course, students will be able to:

! Analyze and illustrate persuasion theories and their core
! Evaluate persuasion theories critically along a series of
! Compare and contrast persuasion theories.
! Apply persuasion theories to their everyday lives.
! Use persuasion theories to talk about and act upon practical
problems in a productive way.
! Analyze communication texts through the lens of different
persuasion theories and frameworks.
! Use and apply persuasion theories ethically to everyday life.
! Use the different vocabulary used in each theory.
! Understand the similarities, differences, and the value of each
of the approaches to persuasion.
! Create effective persuasive messages.
! To design a high-impact PowerPoint presentation.
! To present and argue ideas clearly and effectively.

Class presentation, Exams Class Discussion,
Papers, Class Discussion, Exams.
Paper, Class Discussion, Exams.
Papers, Class Discussions, Exams.
Class Discussions, Papers.
Term paper, Class Discussions, Exams.
Papers, Class Discussions.
Papers, Class Discussion, Exams.
Papers, Class Discussion, Exams.
Papers, Class Discussions.
Group Presentation
Group Presentation

Overall, the structure of the course will include, lecturing, discussions, and activities & role plays. The
effectiveness of how the class unfolds highly depends on your attitude, work and, discipline. I expect that you have a
positive attitude in class; I expect you read the assigned articles and book chapters before coming to class; and I
expect that you always come to class ready to think, discus, apply, exemplify, theorize, critique, and evaluate the
materials you have read. This course requires that you are an active learner inside and outside the class. In the end,
being active in class will result in achieving the skills outlined above and in an enjoyable experience. Let me know
how I can help you meet these requirements in order to learn succeed in CMM-4050.

! Reading Packet available in Dropbox (Shared Folder)

The following books are available at out library and they can be very useful for our class (they have sections on
o Communication theories: perspectives, processes, and contexts / Katherine Miller. Call# 302 MIL
o Theorizing about intercultural communication / editor William B. Gudykunst. Call# 303.482 GUD
o Handbook of language and social interaction / edited by Kristine L. Fitch, Robert E. Sanders. Call# 306.44 FIT
o Engaging theories in family communication: multiple perspectives / editors, Dawn O. Braithwaite, Leslie A.
Baxter. Call# 306.87 BRA
o Engaging theories in interpersonal communication: multiple perspectives / Leslie A. Baxter, Dawn O.
Braithwaite, editors. Call# 153.6 BAX

Please keep track of your scores as you receive them from me.

Updated August 28th 2015



Midterm Exam
Final Exam
(AP) Application Paper (Psychology Approach) [Application]
(IP) Interactional Paper (Social & Discursive Approaches) [Analysis]
(CPP) Cultural Persuadables Paper (Cultural Approach) [Analysis & Construction]
Group Presentation & Application
Class Participation and Attendance
Total Score




Description of Assignments
Format for the Midterm and Final Exams: Their focus will be to assess that you understand concepts and theories,
that you are able to establish connections among them, that you are able to integrate and evaluate knowledge; and
that you are able to provide and analyze real-life situations that illustrate different concepts and theories. Midterm and
Final exams will require that you answer short-answer questions. (See student learning outcomes table above to see
specific skills that I will assess in this assignment).
Group Presentation: Group presentations will entail reading an assigned journal article or book chapter, presenting it
to your peers in class, and demonstrating the applicability of the materials presented to a different communication
phenomenon. Presentations will take the entire class period and they include lecturing, providing examples, doing
activities with your audience, engaging the audience in class discussion among others. (See student learning
outcomes table above to see specific skills that I will assess in this assignment).
Papers: Instructions for the papers will be provided in class.
In-class Participation: Participation entails critical thinking, critical listening and sharing your thoughts and opinions
with your classmates. You should come to class prepared and willing to discuss the readings or ideas for that day.
Active and useful participation requires effort from your part. I expect that your contributions to the discussion be
grounded in the assigned readings. Avoid going off on tangents. Only coming to class does not count as participation. I
will keep track of your participation during discussions and in-class activities. In order to get credit for your presence in
the classroom, you need to participate as described here. (See Student Learning Outcomes table above to see
specific skills that I will assess in this assignment).
In-class Participation Grade: This classroom will be a safe place for expressing your opinions and discussing
them in a reasonable fashion with your classmates. You are free to speak your mind in class. As such, you may
hear opinions and viewpoints that are contrary to yours and since you are all adults, I will expect you to be
respectful when we are engaged in class discussion. Nonetheless, if you feel uncomfortable because of a class
discussion, you may speak with me at any time.
How will you earn your in-class participation grade?
An A in participation means that you almost always participate in class (as described above).
A B in participationmeans that you frequently participate in class (as described above).
A C in participation means that you sometimes participate in class (as described above).
A D in participation means that you seldom participation in class (as described above).
An F in participation means that you rarely participate in class (as described above) and/or that you
disrespect your peers.
CAVEAT: Missing classes and lateness will lower your participation grade.


All written assignments have to be submitted electronically following the link below:
1. This link is also available in the wiki. Click on it and enter the password (caps sensitive): Communication2016
2. Upload your word document and a copy of it in pdf.
3. IMPORTANT!!! FILE FORMAT: The file names of the documents that you upload MUST follow the following
a. Here is a sample file name: CMM200-JSMITH-AP.docx and CMM4050-JSMITH-AP.pdf
b. If you do not to give your file the correct format and name, I will discard it as soon as I receive it.
4. Assignments are due by midnight of the day assigned, but they can be submitted earlier as well.
5. Youre fully responsible for uploading a word document that opens correctly. It is unlikely, but files can get
corrupted in the process of sending and receiving. Uploading the word document along with a copy of it in pdf
format will maximize your chances of me being able to open your assignment.


ATTENDANCE: Attendance is mandatory for this course to run properly. I will expect your physical and mental
presence for each class day. I expect you to pay attention to class material (no newspapers, magazines, headphones,
etc.) Later arrivals are highly discouraged since they are disruptive for the class. Arriving 20 minutes late or longer will
count as an absence. If you are unable to attend class, it is your responsibility to find out what assignments,
handouts, activities, or instruction you missed (all supplementary readings are available in the WiKi workspace online.
The schedule below contains a description of what will happen each in each class. Ask me and/or your classmates to
make sure you do not miss anything).
ABSENCES: Only university events and trips will be officially excused. However, it is your responsibility to make sure
such events or trips do not interfere negatively with your performance in your classes. I will use my discretion to
excuse medical or other situations.
ABSENCES & PENALTIES: You are allowed only 2 unexcused absences. More than 2 unexcused absences will
significantly lower your grade (minus 5 points per unexcused absence after the second). Missing 5 or more classes
will be grounds to earn a failing grade.
ABSENCES & ASSIGNMENT SUBMISSIONS: If youre sick and cant come to class the day an assignment is due,
DO SUBMIT IT FOLLOWING THE INSTRUCTIONS ABOVE. You are more credible if you miss class and send the
assignment due than if you dont send the assignment. You have all the dates for assignments scheduled in the
syllabus. Plan your work ahead of time and be organized.
LATE WORK: You will lose 10% of your scoreper dayin any graded assignment submitted late without an
official excuse. Submitting an assignment on time means to turn it in class. If you know that you are not going to turn
in an assignment on time, let me know before it is due, in order to work out an solution.


Saint Louis University - Madrid Campus is committed to excellent and innovative educational practices. In order to
maintain quality academic offerings and to conform to relevant accreditation requirements, we regularly assess our
teaching, services, and programs for evidence of student learning outcomes achievement. For this purpose we keep
on file anonymized representative examples of student work from all courses and programs such as: assignments,
papers, exams, portfolios, and results from student surveys, focus groups, and reflective exercises. Thus, copies of
your work for this course, including exams, quizzes, application papers, class discussions (video taped), oral
presentations (video taped), final projects may be kept on file for institutional research, assessment and
accreditation purposes. If you prefer that Saint Louis University-Madrid Campus does not keep your work on file, you
will need to communicate your decision in writing to your professor.

Updated August 28th 2015

CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR: The use of cell phones and other electronic devices that may distract or disrupt the flow of
class will not be tolerated. Yes, that includes WhatsApp ;-). Please, turn them off at the beginning of class or set them
in FLIGHT mode. Laptops ARE authorized in the classroom as long as they are used to work on any aspect related to
this particular course (taking notes, consulting electronic materials for discussion in class etc.) Students using
laptops for other non-academic purposes will be invited to leave the classroom, their absence will count as
unexcused, and they will not be allowed to use laptops in the classroom.
POLICY ON STUDENT--INSTRUCTOR COMMUNICATION: If you need to contact me outside the classroom, use the
email address listed in this syllabus or post a comment in the wiki workspace created for this course. I will reply to the
email you send me within 24 to 48 hours.

AAn A performance is a superior performance.

To earn an A on an assignment, you must extend

increased effort to seeing and thinking beyond the surface level of the assignment as well as show particular skill in
composing your work. To earn an A in the course, you must excel consistently throughout the semester. This means
producing polished, well-crafted work that shows extreme effort, using the revision process to shape your message for
a particular audience, taking an active leadership role in class, being organized, ambitious and articulate.

BA grade B shows that you have done a little more than what is required for the assignment.

For example,
it may mean that you have done some extra research or an effective analysis on an assignment, or that you have
produced a piece of discourse that is somewhat innovative and interesting. To earn a B in the course, you must
exceed the minimum requirements of producing solid work as well as show evidence of revision, be an active
participant in the classroom, complete all activities carefully, and show preparation, improvement, and effort in every

CA grade of C is an average grade. A C indicates that you have met the minimum requirements of the
assignment. A C indicates that you need to improve and that there is potential in your work. To earn a C in this
course means that you have made a minimum effort in your assignments and in class participation.

DA grade of D means that your assignment has significant problems. For example, not completing part of an
assignment or the assignment was not done on time. Also, a D will be given if you do not show sufficient effort, time,
or concern for any particular assignment. Earning a grade of D or lower in this course means that you have not shown
consistent effort toward improvement and have not met the minimum standards for the course.

FA grade of F will be given in a case where your work is seriously lacking. Getting an F is an indicator that
shows lack of interest and effort. Intentional plagiarism will undoubtedly lead to a grade of F (actually a 0) and may
also result in more serious consequences such as failing the course.

94-100% A

84-86% B

74-76% C

60% & below F

90-93% A- 80-83% B- 70-73% C87-89% B+ 77-79% C+ 61-69% D


Students are required to abide by the Academic Integrity guidelines summarized below.
The SLU-Madrid Academic Honesty Policies unabridged document can be found in the link here:
The University is a community of learning, whose effectiveness requires an environment of mutual trust and integrity,
such as would be expected at a Jesuit, Catholic institution. As members of this community, students, faculty, and staff
members share the responsibility to maintain this environment. Academic dishonesty violates it. Although not all forms
of academic dishonesty can be listed here, it can be said in general that soliciting, receiving, or providing any
unauthorized assistance in the completion of any work submitted toward academic credit is dishonest. It not only
violates the mutual trust necessary between faculty and students but also undermines the validity of the Universitys
evaluation of students and takes unfair advantage of fellow students. Further, it is the responsibility of any student who
observes such dishonest conduct to call it to the attention of a faculty member or administrator.
Examples of academic dishonesty would be copying from another student, copying from a book or class notes during a
closed-book exam, submitting materials authored by or editorially revised by another person but presented as the
students own work, copying a passage or text directly from a published source without appropriately citing or
recognizing that source, taking a test or doing an assignment or other academic work for another student, tampering
with another students work, securing or supplying in advance a copy of an examination without the knowledge or
consent of the instructor, and colluding with another student or students to engage in an act of academic dishonesty.
Where there is clear indication of such dishonesty, a faculty member or administrator has the responsibility to apply
appropriate sanctions. Investigations of violations will be conducted in accord with standards and procedures of the
school or college through which the course or research is offered. Recommendations of sanctions to be imposed will
be made to the dean of the school or college in which the student is enrolled. Possible sanctions for a violation of
academic integrity include, but are not limited to, disciplinary probation, suspension, and dismissal from the University.


In recognition that people learn in a variety of ways and that learning is influenced by multiple factors (e.g., prior
experience, study skills, learning disability), resources to support student success are available on campus. Students
who think they might benefit from these resources can find out more about:
Course-level support (e.g., faculty member, departmental resources, etc.) by asking your course instructor.
University-level support (e.g., tutoring/writing services, Disability Services) by visiting the Academic Dean's
Office (San Ignacio Hall) or by going to
Students who believe that, due to a disability, they could benefit from academic accommodations are encouraged to
contact Disability Services at +34 915 54 58 58, ext. 204, send an e-mail to, or to
visit the Counseling Office (San Ignacio Hall). Confidentiality will be observed in all inquiries. Course instructors
support student accommodation requests when an approved letter from Disability Services has been received and
when students discuss these accommodations with the instructor after receipt of the approved letter.

Updated August 28th 2015

All readings are available in your shared Dropbox folder.
This is a tentative schedule and it is subject to change as the semester progresses depending on your leaning needs

Class Description
Reading for the Day
W- #Introduction to the course
SeptW 2
READ: Gass & Seiter (2014). Ch. 1:
1 F- #FOUNDATIONS: Persuasion is
Sept- everywhere!... did you know it? What are Why Study Persuasion?
4 the benefits of studying Persuasion?


M #Rhetorical & Humanistic Approaches: READ: Larson (2010). Ch. 3:

Traditional, Artistic, and Humanistic
Sept Aristotles, Platos, Scotts, Quintilians
Burkes, Fishers, and Power-Oriented
Approaches to Persuasion (pp. 70-80)
W 7 Approaches to Persuasion

W #Rhetorical & Humanistic Approaches: READ: Foss & Griffin (1995) Beyond
persuasion: A proposal for an invitational
Sept Rhetoric. An alternative approach to
9 traditional Persuasion.
M #Rhetorical & Humanistic Approaches:
Sept An illustration of Aristotles Ethos applied
online contexts.

3 14



LlAaSsTt DdAaYy TtOo CcHhOoOoSsEe AaUuDdIiTt (AaUu) OoRr SsAaTtIiSsFfAaCcTtOoRrYy/UuNnSsAaTtIiSsFfAaCcTtOoRrYy (Ss/Uu)

READ: Gass & Seiter (2004). Ch. 2:
Embracing divergence: A definitional
analysis of pure and borderline cases of
READ: Perloff (2010). Ch. 2: Attitudes:
Definition and structure (pp. 40-59).

M #Psychological Approach: What are

Sept Attitudes?
W #Psychological Approach: What are
READ: Perloff (2010). Ch. 2: Attitudes:
Definition and structure (pp. 59-79) .
Sept Attitudes?
M #Psychological Approach: How do
READ: Perloff (2010). Ch. 3: Attitudes:
Functions and consequences.
Sept Attitudes function in Persuasion?
W #Psychological Approach: Dissonance READ: Perloff (2010). Ch. 9: Cognitive
Sept among thoughts and our need to reduce it. Dissonance Theory.
M #Psychological Approach: Interpersonal READ: Perloff (2010). Ch. 10:
Interpersonal Approaches.
Oct approaches to Persuasion.
W #Psychological Approach: An illustration READ: Smith (2006). A Social
Judgment Theory Approach to
Oct of Social Judgment Theory.
Conducting Formative Research in a
Social Norms Campaign.

W 12
7 W

Group Presentation #1

LlAaSsTt DdAaYy TtOo DdRrOoPp Aa CcLlAaSsSs WwIiTtHhOoUuTt Aa GgRrAaDdEe OoFf Ww AaNnDd/OoRr TtOo AaDdDd Aa CcLlAaSsSs

W #FOUNDATIONS: What is Persuasion?

Sept What is Social Influence? What is


READ: Burger & Anemaet (2011).

Exploring everyday ethos. Ethos
techniques in online discussions about
extraordinary experiences.

(AP) Application Paper Due

(Psychology Approach)

Group Presentation #2






#Media Theories and Persuasion: How READ: Holbert-(2012) Ch. 3: Media

do Media exert influence?
Influence as Persuasion.
#FOUNDATIONS: Tools to Analyze
Persuasive Language.
#FOUNDATIONS: Understanding
Persuasive Nonverbal Messages.

READ: Larson-(2010) Ch. 6: Tools for

Analyzing Language and Other
Persuasive Symbols.
READ: Larson-(2010) Ch. 10:
Nonverbal Messages in Persuasion

#The Social & Discursive Approaches: READ: Wilson (2002) Ch. 6: Discourse
Conversational Maxims, Speech Acts, and Perspectives on Message Production
Conversation Analysis.
(pp. 183-201)

LlAaSsTt DdAaYy TtOo DdRrOoPp Aa CcLlAaSsSs AaNnDd RrEeCcEeIiVvEe Aa GgRrAaDdEe OoFf Ww

The Social & Discursive Approaches:

Attribution Theories, Politeness Theory,
and Message Design Logics Theory.
W The Social & Discursive Approaches:
The Sequential Inferential Paradigm:
Nov Compliance Seeking as interactive and
4 incremental.

READ: Wilson (2002) Ch. 6: Discourse

Perspectives on Message Production
(pp. 201-239)
READ: Sanders & Fitch (2001). The
actual practice of compliance seeking.

Nov RrEeGgIiSsTtRrAaTtIiOoNn FfOoRr SsPpRrIiNnGg 2016 SsEeMmEeSsTtEeRr BbEeGgIiNnSs
W 9
The Social & Discursive Approaches: READ: Goffman, E. (1959). The
11 W The Interpersonal Consequences of Talk: presentation of self in everyday life.(pp. (IP) Interaction Analysis Paper
Nov Erving Goffman on Performances and
Due (Social & Discursive
17-28 & pp. 248-255).
11 Impression Management.






The Social & Discursive Approaches:

Erving Goffmans Framing: Toward a
Rhetoric of Talk.
The Social & Discursive Approaches:
An Illustration of Macro-Level of Framing.
The Social & Discursive Approaches:
Accounts as Persuasive Attempts.


READ: Tannen (2004). Talking the dog:

Framing pets as interactional resources
in family discourse.
READ: Buttny & Morris. (2001).

Group Presentation #3

#Cultural Approach: The role of Cultural READ: Fitch (2003) Cultural

Norms and Premises in Persuasion.

#Cultural Approach: What are cultural

patterns and how can they influence
W #Cultural Approach: Compliance gaining
Dec in two Speech Communities in Colombia
and the U.S.

W 7
15 W

READ: Smith (2006). Ch. 4 Framing


#Cultural Approach: An Illustration of

Cultural Persuadables and Compliance
#Ethics & Persuasion

READ: Larson (2010) Ch. 9: Cultural

Premises in Persuasion
READ: Fitch, (1994). A cross-cultural
study of directive sequences and some
implications for compliance-gaining
READ: Valde & Fitch, (2004). Desire
and sacrifice: Seeking compliance in
designated driver talk.
READ: Larson (2010) Ch. 2Perspectives on Ethics in Persuasion.

(CPP) Cultural Persuadables

Paper Due (Cultural
Group Presentation #4

Final Exam - 3:30 pm to 6:30 pm


Updated August 28th 2015

Readings References
Listed in Order of Appearance in the Syllabus
1. Gass, R. H., & Seiter, J. S. (2014). Persuasion, social influence, and compliance gaining (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn
& Bacon. (Ch.1. Why Study Persuasion?).
2. Larson, C. U. (2010). Persuasion: Reception and responsibility (12 ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth. (Ch. 3: Tradition, Artistic,
and Humanistic Approaches
3. Foss, S. K., & Griffin, C. L. (1995). Beyond persuasion: A proposal for an invitational rhetoric. Communication Monographs,
62(1), 218.
4. Burger, P., & Anemaet, L. (2011). Exploring everyday ethos. Ethos techniques in online discussions about extraordinary
experiences. In T. Van Haaften, H. Jansen, J. De Jong, & W. Koetsenruijter (Eds.), Bending opinion Essays on
persuasion in the public domain (pp. 219240). Amsterdam: Leiden University Press.
5. Gass, R. H., & Seiter, J. S. (2004). Embracing divergence: A definitional analysis of pure and borderline cases of persuasion.
In J. S. Seiter & R. H. Gass (Eds.), Perspectives on persuasion, social influence, and compliance gaining (pp. 1329).
Boston, MA.
6. Perloff, R. M. (2010). The dynamics of persuasion: Communication and attitudes in the 21st century (4th ed.). New York, NY:
Routledge (Ch. 2: Attitudes, definition and structure).
7. Perloff, R. M. (2010). The dynamics of persuasion: Communication and attitudes in the 21st century (4th ed.). New York, NY:
Routledge (Ch. 3: Attitudes: Functions and consequences).
8. Perloff, R. M. (2010). The dynamics of persuasion: Communication and attitudes in the 21st century (4th ed.). New York, NY:
Routledge (Ch. 9: Cognitive Dissonance Theory).
9. Perloff, R. M. (2010). The dynamics of persuasion: Communication and attitudes in the 21st century (4th ed.). New York, NY:
Routledge (Ch. 10: Interpersonal Persuasion).
10. Smith, S. W., Atkin, C. K., Martell, D., Allen, R., & Hembroff, L. (2006). A Social Judgment Theory Approach to Conducting
Formative Research in a Social Norms Campaign. Communication Theory, 16(1), 141152.
11. Holbert, R., & Tchernev, J. (2012). Media influence as persuasion. In J. P. Dillard & F. Shen (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of
persuasion Developments in theory and practice (pp. 3652). Thousand Oaks, CA. SAGE Publications.
12. Larson, C. U. (2010). Persuasion: Reception and responsibility (12 ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth. (Ch. 6: Tools for analyzing
language and other persuasive symbols)
13. Larson, C. U. (2010). Persuasion: Reception and responsibility (12 ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth. (Ch. 10: Nonverbal
Messages in Persuasion)
14. Wilson, S. R. (2002). Seeking and resisting compliance: Why people say what they do when trying to influence others?
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (Ch. 6: Discourse Perspectives on Message Production)
15. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday-Anchor. (pp. 17-28 & pp. 248-255).
16. Buttny, R., & Morris, G. H. (2001). Accounting. In W. P. Robinson, H. Giles, & H. Giles (Eds.), The new handbook on
language and social psychology (pp. 285302). New York, NY.
17. Sanders, R. E., & Fitch, K. L. (2001). The actual practice of compliance seeking. Communication Theory, 11(3), 263289.
18. Smith, G. (2006). Erving Goffman. New York, NY: Routledge. (Ch. 4: Framing Experience)
19. Tannen, D. (2004). Talking the dog: Framing pets as interactional resources in family discourse. Research on Language &
Social Interaction, 37(4), 399420.
20. Larson, C. U. (2010). Persuasion: Reception and responsibility (12 ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth. (Ch. 9: Cultural Premises
in Persuasion)
21. Fitch, K. L. (2003). Cultural persuadables. Communication Theory, 13(1), 100123.
22. Fitch, K. L. (1994). A cross-cultural study of directive sequences and some implications for compliance-gaining research.
Communication Monographs, 61(3), 185209.
23. Valde, K. S., & Fitch, K. L. (2004). Desire and sacrifice: Seeking compliance in designated driver talk. Western Journal of
Communication, 68(2), 121150.
24. Larson, C. U. (2010). Persuasion: Reception and responsibility (12 ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth. (Ch. 2-Perspectives on
Ethics in Persuasion).