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MOMENT OF MOMENTUM EQUATION OR ANGULAR MOMENTUM EQUATION

Torque - moment of a force w.r.t an axis is important in engg problems


Moment of a linear
momentum with each
particle of fluid

Moment of resultant forces acting


on each particle of fluid

Newtons second law of motion to a particle of fluid

D
(Vrd V ) = dF particle
Dt
V particle velocity measured in an inertial reference system
r - density of the fluid particle

dV - infinitesimally small particle volume

dF particle

- resultant external forces acting on the particle


Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

D
r
(Vrd V ) = r dF particle
Dt
r is the position vector from the origin of the inertial coordinate system

D
Dr
D (Vrd V )
[(r V )rdV ] = VrdV + r
Dt
Dt
Dt
Dr
=V
Dt

V V = 0

Dr
\
Vrd V = 0
Dt

D (Vrd V ) D
[(r V )rd V ]
r
=
Dt
Dt

D
[(r V )rd V ] = r dF particle
Dt
Above equation is valid for every particle of a system. For a system (collection of
fluid particles), we need to use the sum of both side
Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

sys

D
[(r V )rdV ] =
Dt

(r F )sys

(r dF particle ) = (r F )sys

where

D
Dt

(r V )rdV =

sys

D
Dt

sys

D
[(r V )rdV ]
Dt

(r V )rdV = (r F )sys

sys

Time rate of change of moment


of momentum of the system

Sum of the external torques


acting on the system

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

For a control volume that is instantaneously coincident with the system, the torques
acting on the system and on the control volume contents are identical

(r F )sys = (r F )cv
D
Dt

sys

(r V ) r dV =
t

Time rate of change of


moment of momentum of
the system

(r V ) r dV

cv

dA
(
r

V
)
r
V
.
n

cs

Net rate of flow of


Time rate of change of
the moment of
moment of momentum + momentum through
of the contents of CV
the control surface

For a fixed and non-deforming control volume

contents of

(
r

V
)
r
d
V
+
(
r

V
)
r
V
.
n
dA
=
(
r

F
)

cv

the
control volume

cs

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

APPLICATION OF THE MOMENT OF MOMENTUM EQUATION


1.

Flows are one-dimensional (uniform distributions of average


velocity at any section)

2. Steady flows or steady-in-the-mean cyclical flows

(
)
r

V
r
d
V

=0

cv

dA = (r F )contents of
(
)
r

V
r
V
.
n

the
control volume

cs

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

w
-90o

Vq

w
r
-90o

r Vq = r Vq sin(-90o) = - r Vq

Vq

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

-90o

Vq

r
-90o

r Vq = - r Vq

Vq

In both the cases, the right hand rule application makes the thumb point into the
paper plane
Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

(r V ) r V .n dA

cs

r V .n dA
Flow into the control volume is negative
Flow out of the control volume is positive

(r V ) r V .n dA = (- r2Vq 2 )[+ m& out ] + (zero)[- m& in ]

cs

Water enters the control volume axially, at this portion

r V = 0

(r V ) r V .n dA = (- r V )[+ m& ]
2 q2

cs

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

out

of the = Tshaft
(r F )contents
control volume

We have taken Tshaft as a positive quantity. This is equivalent to assuming that Tshaft is
in the same direction as rotation

- r2Vq 2 m& = Tshaft


Tshaft - being a negative quantity means that the shaft torque opposes the rotation
of the sprinkler arms
Tshaft, - shaft torque opposes rotation in all turbine devices

W& shaft = Tshaft w = - r2Vq 2 m& w

W& shaft = - U 2Vq 2 m&


Negative shaft work is work out of the control volume i.e., work is done by the fluid
on the rotor and thus its shaft
Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

Moment of momentum equation for a more general one dimensional flow through a
rotating machine

Tshaft = (- m& in ) rin Vq in + (m& out ) rout Vq out

U and Vq - same direction; r Vq is POSITIVE


U and Vq - opposite direction; r Vq is NEGATIVE
Tshaft is positive if Tshaft is in the same direction as w

& out ) rout wVq out


W& shaft = Tshaft w = (- m& in ) rin w Vq in + (m

W& shaft = Tshaft w = (- m& in ) U in Vq in + (m& out ) U out Vq out


W& shaft

is positive, power is into the control volume - PUMP

W& shaft

is negative , power is out of the control volume - TURBINE

m& in = m& out = m&

CONSERVATION OF MASS

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

Direction of rotation
-90o

Vq

r
-90o

r Vq = r Vq sin(-90o) = - r Vq

Vq

U and Vq - opposite direction; r Vq is NEGATIVE


Direction of rotation
90o

Vq

r
90o

r Vq = r Vq sin(-90o) = + r Vq

Vq

U and Vq - same direction; r Vq is POSITIVE

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

Water enters a rotating lawn sprinkler through its base at the steady rate of 60 lpm
as sketched in Fig. The exit area of each of the two nozzles is 30 mm2,and the flow
leaving each nozzle is in the tangential direction. The radius from the axis of rotation
to the centerline of each nozzle is 200 mm.
(a) Determine the frictional torque associated with the sprinkler rotating with a
constant speed of 500 rpm.
(c) Determine the speed of the sprinkler if no frictional torque is applied.

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

DBsys
Dt

=
rbdV + rbW n dA
d t cv
cs

DM sys
Dt

=
rdV + rW n dA

d t cv
cs

rW n dA

=0

cs

rW n dA

= - m& in + rAW2 = 0

cs

m& in rQ& in
W2 =
=
rA
rA

60 10 -3
= 16.7 m / s
-6
60 2 30 10

W2 = 16.7 m / s
Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

V2 = Vq 2 = W2 - U 2
Vq 2 = 16.7 - 10.5
Vq 2 = 6.2 m / s

Tshaft = - r2Vq 2 m&


&
m

Tshaft = -0.2 6.2 1


Tshaft = -1.24 N .m

U 2 = w r2 =

2pN
2p (500)
(0.2) = 10.5 m / s
r2 =
60
60
-3

10
m& = rQ& in = 1000 60
= 1.0 kg / s
60
Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

When the sprinkler rotates at the


constant speed, the friction torque at
the sprinkler pivot just balances the
torque generated by the angular
momentum of the two jets

The speed of the sprinkler if no frictional torque is applied.

Tshaft = - r2Vq 2 m&


Tshaft = - r2 m& (W2 - U 2 )

0 = - r2 m& (W2 - U 2 )
W2 = U 2
16.7
16.7 = wr2 = w 0.2 w =
= 83.5 rad / s
0.2
2pN
w=
= 8.35 rad / s N = 797 rpm
60
Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai
N = 797 rpm

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS THE ENERGY EQN


Time rate of increase of
the total stored energy
of the system

D
Dt

Net time rate of energy


= addition by heat transfer +
into the system

Net time rate of energy


addition by work
transfer into the system

e r dV = Q& net in + W& net in


system

sys

e total energy stored per unit mass for each particle in the system

V2
e=u+
+ gz
2
u internal energy per unit mass for each particle in the system
V2/2 kinetic energy per unit mass
gz potential energy per unit mass

Q& net in

Net rate of heat transfer into the system

W& net in

Net rate of work transfer into the system

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

Work and heat


+ is into the system
- is coming out

D
Dt

&
&

e
r
dV
=
e
r
d
V
+
e
r
V

n
dA
=
Q
+
W
net
in
net in
sys
cs
t cv

Time rate of increase


of the total stored
energy of the system

cv

time rate of increase of total


Net time rate of
energy of the
energy addition by
= stored
contents of the control + work transfer into the
volume
system

W& net in =

W& in -

W& out

When the control surface cuts through the shaft material, the shaft torque is exerted
by shaft material at the control surface

W& shaft = Tshaft w

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

Normal stress s = - p
Power transferred due to fluid normal stresses

W& normal = s V .n dA = - p V .n dA
st ress

cs

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

cs


dt

e r dV + e r V n dA = Q& net + W& shaft -

cv

in

cs

net in

pV .n dA

cs

V2
e=u+
+ gz
2
Steady flow
2

p
V
e r dV + u + +
+ gz r V n dA = Q& net + W& shaft

dt
r 2
in
net in

cv
cs

2
2
2

p
V
p
V
p
V
u + +

+ gz r V n dA =
u+ +
+ gz m& u+ +
+ gz m&

r
2
r
2
r
2

flow
flow
cs

out

in

If there is only one stream entering and leaving the control volume
2
2
2

p
V
p
V
p
V
u + +

+ gz r V n dA = u + +
+ gz
m& out - u + +
+ gz m& in

r 2
r 2
r 2

in
cs
out

Substituting this in eqn A

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

2
2

V
V

p
p
out
in

m& uout - uin +


- +
+ g (z out - z in ) = Q& net + W& net

2
r out r in
in
in

One Dimensional Energy Equation For Steady Flow Applicable for


Compressible And Incompressible Flow
Enthalpy

h=u +

2
2

V
V
out
in
m& hout - hin +
+ g (z out - z in ) = Q& net + W& net

2
in
in

Flow is steady throughout, one dimensional, only one fluid stream is involved, then
the shaft work is zero
2
2

V
V
p
p
out
in

m& uout - uin + - +


+ g (zout - zin ) = Q& net

2
r out r in
in

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

Steam enters a turbine with a velocity of 30 m/s and enthalpy, of 3348 kJ/kg (see
fig). The steam leaves the turbine as a mixture of vapor and liquid having a velocity
of 60 m/s and an enthalpy of 2550 kJ/kg. If the flow through the turbine is adiabatic
and changes in elevation are negligible, determine the work output involved per unit
mass of steam through-flow.

Adiabatic flow
2
2

V - V1
m& h2 - h1 + 2
+ g (z 2 - z1 ) = Q& net + W& net

2
in
in

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

W& net
w& shaft =
net in

in

m&

V22 - V12
= h2 - h1 +
2

w& shaft net out = - w& shaft net in


V12 - V22
w& shaft net out = h1 - h2 +
2
30 2 - 60 2
w& shaft net out = 3348 - 2550 +
2 1000

w& shaft net out = 3348 kJ / kg - 2550 kJ / kg - 1.35 kJ / kg


Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

w& shaft net out = 797 kJ / kg

Comparison of the Energy Equation and Bernoulli Equation


One dimensional steady flow energy equation
2
2

V
V
p
p
out
in
m& uout - uin + - +
+ g (zout - zin ) = Q& net

2
r out r in
in

INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW
2
2

p
p
V
V
out
in
out
in

m& uout - uin +


+
+ g (zout - zin ) = Q& net

r
r
2
in

pout

Vout
pin Vin2

+
+ gzout =
+
+ gz in - uout - uin - q& net

2
r
2
in

pout

2
Vout
pin Vin2
+
+ gzout =
+
+ gz in
2
r
2

uout - uin - q& net in = 0

uout - uin - q& net in > 0

Heat transfer per unit


mass
Q&
q& net =
in

net
in

m&

Bernoullis equation

Steady and Incompressible flow is frictionless


Steady,Incompressible flow with friction
Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

V2
2

+ gz

USEFUL OR AVAILABLE ENERGY

uout - uin - q& net in = Loss


pout

Loss of useful or available energy that


occurs in an incompressible fluid flow
because of friction

2
Vout
pin Vin2
+
+ gzout =
+
+ gzin - loss
2
r
2

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

ONE DIMENSIONAL, INCOMPRESSIBLE, STEADY FLOW


WITH FRICTION AND SHAFT WORK
2
2

p
p
V
V
out
in
out
in

m& uout - uin +


+
+ g (zout - zin ) = Q& net + W& net

r
r
2
in
in

pout

Vout
pin Vin2

+
+ gzout =
+
+ gzin + w shaft - uout - uin - q&net

2
r
2
net in
in

pout

2
Vout
pin Vin2
+
+ gzout =
+
+ gzin + w shaft - loss
2
r
2
net in

Pump when the shaft work is into the control volume large amount of loss will
result in more shaft work being required for the same rise in available energy
Turbine when the shaft work is out of the control volume larger loss will result in
less shaft work out for the same drop in available energy
Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

2
pout
Vout
pin Vin2
+
+ zout =
+
+ gzin +
rg
2g
rg
2g

W& shaft

Loss
m& g

net in

m& g

2
p
p

Vout
V in2
out
in
+
+ z out -
+
+ gz in

r
g
2
g
r
g
2
g

net in

m& g

PUMP

Loss
m& g

2
2
p
p

V
V
out + out + z
in
in
+
+ gz in

out -

rg
h=

W& shaft

2g

rg

2g

W& shaft

net in

m& g
Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

W& shaft

net in

m& g
W& shaft

net in

m& g

Loss
m& g

2
pout
Vout
pin Vin2
+
+ zout =
+
+ gzin +
rg
2g
rg
2g

W& shaft

net in

m& g

Loss
m& g

W& shaft

net OUT

2
2
p

in + Vin + gz - pout + Vout + z

in
out
2g
2g
rg
rg

m& g

TURBINE

W& shaft

net OUT

Loss
m& g
W& shaft

net OUT

m& g
m& g
h=
= &
2
W shaft
pin Vin2
pout

Vout
LOSS
+
+ gz in -
+
+ zout
net OUT

+
2g
2g
rg
rg

m& g
m& g
Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

A pump delivers water at a steady rate of 1135 lpm as shown in Fig. Just upstream of
the pump [section (1)] where the pipe diameter is 90 mm, the pressure is 1.24 bar.
Just downstream of the pump [section (2)] where the pipe diameter is 25 mm, the
pressure is 4 bar . The change in water elevation across the pump is zero. The rise in
internal energy of water, associated with a temperature rise across the pump is 280
J/kg. If the pumping process is considered to be adiabatic, determine the power (hp)
required by the pump.

D2 = 25 mm
Q = 1135
lpm

D1 =
90
mm

P2 = 4.0 bar

P1 = 1.24 bar
280 J/kg
Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

D2 = 25 mm
Q = 1135
lpm

D1 =
90
mm

P2 = 4.0 bar

P1 = 1.24 bar
280 J/kg

p
p

out
in
+
+ z out -
+
+ gz in

r
g
2
g
r
g
2
g

h=
=
&
W shaft
2
Vout

Vin2

net in

m& g
Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

W& shaft

net in

m& g
W& shaft

net in

m& g

Loss
m& g

-3
3
1135

10
m
3
Q& = 1135lpm =
= 18.92 10
60
s

Q&
Q&
18.92 10 -3
m
V1 =
=
=
= 2.974
2
A1 p 2 p
s
D1
90 10- 3
4
4

Q&
Q&
18.92 10 -3
m
V2 =
=
=
= 38.54
2
A2 p 2 p
s
D2
25 10- 3
4
4

W& shaft

38.54
2.974
4 10
1.24 10
280
net in
+
+ zout =
+
+ z in +
1000 9.81
2 9.81
1000 9.81
2 9.81
m& g
m& g
5

40.78 + 75.71 = 12.64 + 0.451 +


Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

W& shaft

net in

m& g

280
m& g

103.4 =

W& shaft - 280


net in

m& g

W& shaft = 103.4 m& g + 280


net in

W& shaft = 103.4 18.91 9.81 + 280


net in

W& shaft = 19181.25 + 280


net in

W& shaft = 19461.25 W


net in

W& shaft = 26.1 HP


net in

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

1 HP = 745.7 W

An axial-flow ventilating fan driven by a motor that delivers 0.4 kW of power to the
fan blades produces a 0.6-m-diameter axial stream of air having a speed of 12 m/s.
The flow upstream of the fan involves negligible speed. Determine how much of the
work to the air actually produces a useful effect, that is, a rise in available energy
and estimate the fluid mechanical efficiency of this fan.

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

2
2
p
p

V
V
2
2
1
1

w shaft - loss =
+
+ gz 2 +
+ gz1
r
r

2
2
net in

Atmospheric pressure

2
2
p
p

V
V
2
2
1
1

w shaft - loss =
+
+ gz2 +
+ gz1
r
r

2
2
net in

zero

V22 12 2
w shaft - loss =
=
= 72 N .m / kg
2
2
net in
w shaft - loss

h=

net in

w shaft

net in

w shaft - loss
net in

w shaft - loss
net in

= &
= &
=
W shaft net in
W shaft net in
m&
rAV

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

h=

72
= 0.752
95.8

72
0.4 1000
1.225

p (0.6 )2
4

12

pout

2
Vout
pin Vin2
+
+ gzout =
+
+ gzin + w shaft - loss
2
r
2
net in

pout +

2
rVout

+ r g zout = pin +

rVin2
2

+ r g zin + r w shaft - r (loss )


net in

rg is the specific weight of the fluid. Each term involves the energy per unit volume
2
Vout
pin Vin2
+
+ zout =
+
+ zin + hs - hL
g
2g
g
2g
W& shaft
Loss
w shaft net in
hL =
net in
=
g
g
m& g

pout

hs =

Turbine head; hT = - (hs+ hL)T;


Actual head drop across the turbine = work head out of the turbine + head loss in
the turbine
Pump; hP = (hs- hL)P;
Actual head rise across the pump = shaft work head into the pump head loss within
Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai
the pump

APPLICATION OF ENERGY EQUATION TO NON-UNIFORM FLOWS

2
Vout
pin Vin2
+
+ gzout =
+
+ gzin + w shaft - loss
2
r
2
net in

pout

If the velocity profile is not uniform


2
a V 2
a
V
V2
out
out
in
in

r V .n dA = m&

2
2
2

CS

m& a V
2

V2
=
r V .n dA
2

a=

2
a outVout

+ gzout =

m& V 2
2

a - KINETIC ENERGY COEFFICIENT

pout

V2
r V .n dA
2

pin

a inVin2
2

Prof S V Prabhu, IITB, Mumbai

+ gzin + w shaft - loss


net in