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.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE


MANUAL
FOR 1 X 41TPH
100% INDIAN COAL FIRED

ATMOSPHERIC FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTION BOILER

SUPPLIED TO

HARE KRISHNA METALLICS LIMITED


KOPAL, KARNAKATA

THERMAX PROJECT NO.: PD 0161

THERMAX LIMITED
BOILER & HEATER GROUP
PUNE, INDIA
0
REV

SSC

03.12.2008

PREPARED BY

AA

05.12.2008

CHECKED BY

USU

08.12.2008

APPROVED BY

0
REVISION
DESC. /
REMARK

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Contents
Volume 1 Boiler Description ....................................................................................................1
Section A................................................................................................................................2
1 Design Specifications of Steam Generator ....................................................................3
2 Design Code...............................................................................................................3
3 Material Specifications Pressure Parts .....................................................................3
4 Heating Surface Area ..................................................................................................5
5 Fuel ...........................................................................................................................5
6 Fuel Analysis (% By Wt.) .............................................................................................5
6.1 Ultimate Analysis ...............................................................................................5
6.2 Fuel size ...........................................................................................................5
7 Bed Material ...............................................................................................................6
7.1 Bed Material Specifications - Crushed Refractory ................................................6
8 Continuous Blowdown .................................................................................................6
9 Intermittent Blowdown .................................................................................................6
10 Feed Water Recommended Quality ............................................................................6
11 Boiler Water Recommended Quality ...........................................................................7
12 Utilities .....................................................................................................................7
12.1 Electrical Power...............................................................................................7
12.2 Cooling Water..................................................................................................7
12.3 Instrument Air ..................................................................................................8
12.4 Service Air.......................................................................................................8
13 Chemicals for Dosing ................................................................................................8
14 Site Condition ...........................................................................................................8
15 Fans.........................................................................................................................8
16 HP Dozing System ....................................................................................................9
17 Rotary Feeders ....................................................................................................... 10
17.1 Capacity Chart............................................................................................... 10
18 Gauge Glass........................................................................................................... 11
18.1 Drum Level Gauge......................................................................................... 11
18.2 Blow Dowm Tank Level Gauge ....................................................................... 11
19 Safety Valves .......................................................................................................... 11
20 Temperature Profile ................................................................................................ 13
20.1 Gas Temperature ........................................................................................... 13
20.2 Water Temperature ........................................................................................ 13
20.3 Air Temperature ............................................................................................. 13
21 Flue Gas Pressure Profile ........................................................................................ 13
22 Process Flow Diagram............................................................................................. 13
Section B ............................................................................................................................. 14
1 Section Overview ...................................................................................................... 15
2 Feed Water System................................................................................................... 16
2.1 Feed Water Control Station .............................................................................. 16
2.2 Attemperation Control Station........................................................................... 17
3 Boiler Pressure Part Description................................................................................. 17
3.1 Economizer ..................................................................................................... 17
3.2 Steam Drum .................................................................................................... 17
3.3 Water Drum..................................................................................................... 18
3.4 Down Comer Tubes ......................................................................................... 18
3.5 Furnace .......................................................................................................... 19
3.6 Inbed Evaporator ............................................................................................. 20
3.7 Riser Tubes..................................................................................................... 20
3.8 Super Heater................................................................................................... 20
3.9 Attemperator ................................................................................................... 20
3.10 Convection Bank ........................................................................................... 21

Operation & Maintenance Manual

4
5

Main Steam Piping .................................................................................................... 21


Boiler Blow Down System .......................................................................................... 21
5.1 Drain Lines...................................................................................................... 22
5.2 CBD Drain....................................................................................................... 22
5.3 IBD Drain ........................................................................................................ 22
5.4 Other Drains.................................................................................................... 23
5.5 Blow down Tank .............................................................................................. 23
6 Air and Gas System .................................................................................................. 24
6.1 System Description: ......................................................................................... 24
6.2 FD Fan ........................................................................................................... 24
6.3 Air Pre Heater ................................................................................................. 24
6.4 PA Fan............................................................................................................ 25
6.5 Air Ducts ......................................................................................................... 25
7 Flue Gas System ...................................................................................................... 27
7.1 System Description .......................................................................................... 27
7.2 Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)......................................................................... 27
7.3 ID Fan............................................................................................................. 27
8 Fuel Feeding & Firing System .................................................................................... 28
8.1 Fuel Bunker..................................................................................................... 28
8.2 Rotary Feeders................................................................................................ 28
8.3 Fuel Mix Nozzles ............................................................................................. 29
8.4 Combustor ..................................................................................................... 29
8.5 Bed Drain System............................................................................................ 30
8.6 Ash Drain ........................................................................................................ 30
9 Chemical Dosing & Sampling System......................................................................... 30
9.1 HP Dosing System........................................................................................... 30
9.2 Description of Dosing System Skid HP)............................................................. 30
9.3 Sampling System............................................................................................. 31
Section C ............................................................................................................................. 32
1 Boiler Start Up .......................................................................................................... 32
1.1 Start-up of a Cold Boiler ................................................................................... 32
1.2 Procedure For Normal Operation ...................................................................... 36
2 Operational Control ................................................................................................... 39
2.1 Load Operation................................................................................................ 39
2.2 Bed Level Control ............................................................................................ 40
2.3 Bed Ash Alkali Control ..................................................................................... 40
2.4 Adequate Bed Temperature.............................................................................. 41
2.5 Fuel and Bed Material Sieve Analysis as per the Designed Conditions ................ 41
3 Balance of Plant Start Up (Boiler) ............................................................................... 42
3.1 Deaerator Charging ......................................................................................... 42
3.2 Air Pre Heater ................................................................................................. 43
4 Part Load Operation By Bed Slumping ....................................................................... 43
4.1 Bed Slumping Procedures ................................................................................ 43
4.2 Slumped Bed to Active Bed .............................................................................. 43
5 Warm / Hot Start Up .................................................................................................. 44
5.1 Case-I (Bed Ash Temperature > 600C) ............................................................ 44
5.2 Case-II (Bed Ash Temperature < 600C) ........................................................... 44
6 Boiler Shutdown........................................................................................................ 45
6.1 Planned Shut Down ........................................................................................ 45
6.2 Boiler Emergency Trip...................................................................................... 45
7 Dos and Donts......................................................................................................... 47
8 Controls.................................................................................................................... 48
9 Troubleshooting Chart ............................................................................................... 49
10 Walkdown Checklist during Operation....................................................................... 52
11 Boiler Safety ........................................................................................................... 53

ii

Operation & Maintenance Manual

11.1 Emergency Procedures .................................................................................. 53


12 Operational Precautions for Safety ........................................................................... 55
Section-D ............................................................................................................................. 59
1 Section Overview ...................................................................................................... 59
2 Recommended Maintenance Practice ........................................................................ 59
2.1 Preventive Maintenance................................................................................... 59
3 Conditioned Based Maintenance................................................................................ 60
3.1 Daily Checks ................................................................................................... 60
3.2 Daily Maintenance ........................................................................................... 62
3.3 Weekly Checks................................................................................................ 63
3.4 Monthly Checks ............................................................................................... 63
3.5 Checks Every Six Months................................................................................. 64
3.6 Checks Every Year .......................................................................................... 64
3.7 Annual Maintenance Check Sheet .................................................................... 65
4 Boiler Annual Maintenance and Overhaul ................................................................... 72
4.1 Planning Before Overhaul ................................................................................ 72
4.2 Shutdown and Cooling the Boiler ...................................................................... 72
4.3 Inspection after Cooling.................................................................................... 72
4.4 Drum Inspection .............................................................................................. 72
4.5 Inspection of Screen, Primary & Secondary Superheater, Evaporator I/ II &
Economiser................................................................................................ 73
4.6 Expansion Joints ............................................................................................. 73
4.7 Insulation and Cladding.................................................................................... 73
4.8 Other Equipment ............................................................................................. 73
4.9 Feed & Boiler Water Conditioning ..................................................................... 73
4.10 Fans ............................................................................................................. 75
4.11 Safety Valves, Start Up Vent Valves And Other Isolating Valves ........................ 76
5 Boiler Preservation Procedure.................................................................................... 77
5.1 Definitions OF Water Quality ............................................................................ 77
5.2 Dry Storage Preservation ................................................................................. 77
5.3 Wet Storage Preservation ................................................................................ 78
5.4 Nitrogen Blanket .............................................................................................. 79
5.5 Hot Draining .................................................................................................... 79
5.6 Alkaline Water Dozed With Hyderzine ............................................................... 79
5.7 Preservation Of External Surfaces Of Pressure Parts During Long Shut
Down......................................................................................................... 80
5.8 Boiler Lay Up Procedures................................................................................. 80
5.9 Preservation of Rotating Equipments ................................................................ 80
5.10 Preservation of Instruments ............................................................................ 80
5.11 Tube Thickness Survey .................................................................................. 81
6 Tube Failures............................................................................................................ 81
6.1 Tube Failure Investigation / Analysis Method ..................................................... 81
6.2 Tube Thickness Survey Data Collection Format .............................................. 84
6.3 Failure Reporting Formats ................................................................................ 85
7 Water Chemistry ....................................................................................................... 87
7.1 Undissolved and Suspended Solid Materials ..................................................... 87
7.2 Dissolved Salts and Minerals............................................................................ 87
7.3 Dissolved Gases.............................................................................................. 88
7.4 Other Materials................................................................................................ 88
7.5 pH Value of the Water and its Importance.......................................................... 88
7.6 Effects of Impurities ......................................................................................... 88
7.7 Feed & Boiler Water Conditioning ..................................................................... 90
8 Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) ................................................................... 92
8.1 Window Patch Welding .................................................................................... 93
8.2 General Principle of Weld Repairs .................................................................... 94

iii

Operation & Maintenance Manual

8.3 Weld Repair of Small Cracks in Tube ................................................................ 98


8.4 Plugging Tubes in Drums & Headers................................................................. 98
8.5 Replacement of Tube Section......................................................................... 100
8.6 Removing Tubes from Drums, Headers & Tube Plates ..................................... 100
8.7 Attached figures 13 to 21 ............................................................................... 101
Section E............................................................................................................................ 110
Volume 2 Drawings.............................................................................................................. 111
List of Drawings .................................................................................................................. 112
Volume 3 E & I Specifications.............................................................................................. 113
Section 01 .......................................................................................................................... 114
Section 02 .......................................................................................................................... 114
Section 03 .......................................................................................................................... 114
Section 04 .......................................................................................................................... 114
Section 05 .......................................................................................................................... 114
Section 06 .......................................................................................................................... 114
Section 07 .......................................................................................................................... 114
Section 08 .......................................................................................................................... 114
Section 09 .......................................................................................................................... 114
Section 10 .......................................................................................................................... 115
Volume 4 Vendor Manuals ................................................................................................... 116
Section 01 .......................................................................................................................... 117
Fan TLT Engineering ................................................................................................ 117
Section 02 .......................................................................................................................... 117
H.P / LP. Dosing System - NM Enterprises ..................................................................... 117
Section 03 .......................................................................................................................... 117
Level Gauge Hi Tech Systems (Tyco) ........................................................................ 117
Section 04 .......................................................................................................................... 117
Level Gauge Chemtrol.............................................................................................. 117
Section 05 .......................................................................................................................... 117
Tight Shout off Damper Virgo ..................................................................................... 117
Section 06 .......................................................................................................................... 118
Kniff Gate Valve Orbinox .......................................................................................... 118
Section 07 .......................................................................................................................... 118
Process Valve KSB ................................................................................................. 118
Section 08 .......................................................................................................................... 118
Safety Valves Tyco Sanmar ...................................................................................... 118
Section 09 .......................................................................................................................... 118
Motors Siemens........................................................................................................ 118
Section 10 .......................................................................................................................... 118
Rotary Feeder - Nova Bulk............................................................................................ 118
Volume 5 Vendor Manuals ................................................................................................... 119
Section 01 .......................................................................................................................... 120
Pressure Transmitter Emerson.................................................................................. 120
Section 02 .......................................................................................................................... 120
Temperature Transmitter Emerson ............................................................................ 120
Section 03 .......................................................................................................................... 120
I/P Converter ABB..................................................................................................... 120
Section 04 .......................................................................................................................... 120
Pressure Switch Switzer ........................................................................................... 120
Section 05 .......................................................................................................................... 120
5.1 Orifice Plate General Instruments ......................................................................... 120
5.2 Thermocouple General Instruments ..................................................................... 120
Section 06 .......................................................................................................................... 120
Pressure Gauge Gages Bourdon .............................................................................. 120

iv

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 07 .......................................................................................................................... 120


Local Indicator Nishko ............................................................................................... 120
Section 08 .......................................................................................................................... 121
Control Valves MIL .................................................................................................... 121
Section 09 .......................................................................................................................... 121
Power Cylinder Keltron.............................................................................................. 121
Section 10 .......................................................................................................................... 121
ACVFD Drives ABB.................................................................................................. 121
Index.................................................................................................................................. 123

Operation & Maintenance Manual

vi

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Volume 1 Boiler Description


Chapters Covered in this Part

Section A
Section B
Section C
Section-D
Section E

Volume 1 Boiler Description

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section A
Topics Covered in this Chapter

Design Specifications of Steam Generator


Design Code
Material Specifications Pressure Parts
Heating Surface Area
Fuel
Fuel Analysis (% By Wt.)
Bed Material
Continuous Blowdown
Intermittent Blowdown
Feed Water Recommended Quality
Boiler Water Recommended Quality
Utilities
Chemicals for Dosing
Site Condition
Fans
HP Dozing System
Rotary Feeders
Gauge Glass
Safety Valves
Temperature Profile
Flue Gas Pressure Profile
Process Flow Diagram

Section A

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Number and Type of Boiler


1 no. AFBC, Bi Drum, outdoor, water tube, natural circulation, balance draft, Under-bed firing
system, Bottom Supported with RCC construction..

Design Specifications of Steam Generator

Parameters

Unit

Value

Boiler Rating [MCR]

TPH

41

Steam Pressure at Main


Steam Stop Valve Outlet
from minimum Load upto
MCR

Kg/cm2(g)

66

Steam Temperature at the


Main Steam Stop valve at
MCR

Deg C

490+/- 5

Main Steam Temperature


Control range at the Main
Steam Stop Valve Outlet.

% MCR

60 100

Feed Water Temperature


at Economiser Inlet / Spray
water temp

Deg C

130

Flue Gas Temperature at


APH Outlet

Deg C

160

Main Fuel

Indian Coal

Start Up Fuel for Coal

Charcoal Sprayed with diesel fuel.

Fuel Zizing

100 % Indian coal < 6mm , 30%(max)


<1mm

Boiler Performance Testing


Procedure

ASME PTC 4.1 Indirect addreviated heat


loss method on GCV Basis

Design Code
:

Boiler & Economiser / Pressure Parts

As per IBR

Material Specifications Pressure Parts


Description
Steam Drum

Details

Size In Mm

Shell

4540 X 1000 X 70 Thk

Dished End
(SEMI-ELIPSOIDAL)

1375 I.D. X 70Thk

Material
SA 516 Gr.70

Shell

3173 X 2500 X 50 Thk

Water Drum

Dished End
(SEMI-ELIPSOIDAL)

960 I.D. X 50 Thk

SA 516 Gr.70 SA 516


Gr.70

Riser

Tube

101.60 O.D. x 5.74 Thk.

SA 210 Gr A1

Section A

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Description

Details

Size In Mm

Material

Top Header

200 NB X SCH 160

SA 106 Gr B

Bottom Header

200 NB X SCH 160

SA 106 Gr B

Panel Tubes

63.5 O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 210 Gr A1

Bend Tube

63.5 O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 210 Gr A1

Top Header

200 NB X SCH 160

SA 106 Gr B

Bottom Header

200 NB X SCH 160

SA 106 Gr B

Panel Tubes

63.5 O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 210 Gr A1

Opening Tubes

63.5 O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 210 Gr A1

Top Header

200 NB X SCH 160

SA 106 Gr B

Bottom Header

200 NB X SCH 160

SA 106 Gr B

Panel Tubes

63.5 O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 210 Gr A1

Opening Tubes

63.5 O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 210 Gr A1

Top Header

200 NB X SCH 160

SA 106 Gr B

Bottom Header

200 NB X SCH 160

SA 106 Gr B

Panel Tubes

63.5 O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 210 Gr A1

Opening Tubes

63.5 O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 210 Gr A1

DC1-DC11

100 x Sch 80

SA 106 Gr B

Reducer

200 x 100Nb x Sch 80

SA 234 WPB

Pipe

168.3 O.D x 10.97 Thk

SA 106 Gr B

90 Elbow

100 x Sch 80

SA 234 WPB

Tube Stub

63.5 O.D x 4.0 Thk

SA 210 Gr A1

44.5O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 210 Gr A1

44.5O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 210 Gr A1

44.5O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 213 Gr T11

44.5O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 213 Gr T22

Pipe

219.1 O.D x 18.26 Thk

SA 106 Gr B

Tube

44.5O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 213 T22

Pipe

88.9 O.D x 7.62Thk

SA 106 Gr B

Pipe

88.9 O.D x 7.62Thk

SA 106 Gr B

Attemperator

Header

219.1 O.D X 18.26 thk

SA 106 Gr B

Inbed Coils

Tube

50.8 O.D X 6.35 Thk.

SA 210 Gr A1

Inbed Header

Header

200 O.D x Sch 120

SA 106 Gr B

Tube

38.1 O.D x 3.66 Thk

SA 210 Gr A1

Top & Bottom headers

168.3 O.D x 14.27 Thk

SA 106 Gr B

Tube

50.8 O.D x 4.06 Thk

SA 210 Gr A1

RH Panel

Front Panel

LH Panel

Rear Panel

Down comers

Super Heaters
(CSH & RSH)

Super Heaters
(CSH & RSH)

Economiser
Boiler bank

Section A

Coils

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Heating Surface Area


Zone

Unit

Value

Boiler Bank Zone

Sq.Mtr

354.0

Water wall Zone

Sq.Mtr

242.1

Super Heater Zone

Sq.Mtr

688.0

Inbed coils

Sq.Mtr

81.6

Economiser

Sq.Mtr

566.0

Total Heating Surface

Sq.Mtr

1931.7

Fuel
Fuel Type

Fuel Name

Main Fuels

Indian Coal

Start up Fuel

Charcoal sprayed with Diesel fuel.

Fuel Analysis (% By Wt.)

6.1 Ultimate Analysis


Composition

Unit

Indian Coal

Char

Hydrogen

% Wt

2.30

0.42

Carbon

% Wt

37.1

40.30

Nitrogen.

% Wt

0.70

0.17

Oxygen.

% Wt

6.60

2.84

Moisture

% Wt

8.00

3.21

Ash

% Wt

45.0

52.68

Sulphur

% Wt

0.30

0.38

Calorific Value
(GCV)

Kcal/kg

3500

3200

6.2 Fuel size


Indian Coal
100 %

< 6 mm

Up to 30 % (Max.)

< 1mm

100 %

< 3mm

Up to 30 % (Max.)

< 1mm

Char

Coal: - Non caking type.


We have consider standard analysis for India Coal & Char available
It is recommended that the fuels be stored in covered yards to prevent choking and bridging of fuel
storage and feeding system due to surface moisture. All the Fuels should be free from chlorine.
Predicted Thermal efficiency on 70% Indian Coal, + 30 % Char ( Mixing by weight Basis) Firing
Shall be 83 +/- 1%

Section A

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Bed Material

Required Per start Up

60 Metric Tonnes (Approx.)

Lump Size

0.8 mm to 2.36 mm (100 %)

Bluk Density

10001100

Chemical Composition

AL2O3 % 35 to 45
SiO2 % 55 to 65

7.1 Bed Material Specifications - Crushed Refractory


Material

Sieved natural sand/Crushed

refractory Bulk Density

1200 1400 Kg/m3

Temperature

>1300 deg C

SIZE

0.7 to 2 (for sand) Fusion

Shape

Sub Angular / Spherical.


Percentage limits

Chemical Composition
SIO2

5060

AL2O3

37-40 , Min 30% required

FEO

<2.0

TIO2

1.67

MNO

Traces

CAO

0.54

MGO

0.23

P2O5

0.08

NA2O

0.22

K2O

0.45

Continuous Blowdown
Max

3 %/ Hr

Normal

1 %/ Hr

6%

Intermittent Blowdown
Once in 8 Hours

10 Feed Water Recommended Quality


Parameters

Unit

General Appearance
Total Hardness as CaCO3

Section A

Value
Clear & Colorless

ppm

Nil

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Parameters

Unit

Value

Total Fe

ppm

<0.01

Total Cu

ppm

<0.003

Total O2

ppm

<0.007

Oil & Organic.

ppm

Nil.
8.5 9.5

pH Value at 25 Deg C
Total Dissolved Solids

ppm

0.1

Silica as SIO2

ppm

<0.02

Hyderzine residual

ppm

0.02 0.04

11 Boiler Water Recommended Quality


Parameters

Unit

Value

pH at 25 deg C

9.5 10.2

Phosphates PO4

ppm

2- 6

Total Alkalinity

ppm

4 max.

Sodium Sulphite

ppm

Nil

Oil & Organic

ppm

Nil

p value

mval/kg

0.1

Silica as SiO2

Ppm

Units

Value

12 Utilities
12.1 Electrical Power
Parameters

For LT motors (UPTO AND INCLUDING 160 KW)


Voltage

415 +/- 10%

Frequency

Hz

50 +/- 5%

Type

AC, 3 Phase, 4 WIRE

For Instrumentation (field switches, Level gauge illumination, solenoid valves etc.)
Voltage

110

Frequency

Hz

50

Type

AC, 1 Phase, 2 Wire,

For Field Transmitters


Voltage

24

Frequency

Hz

NA

Type

DC

12.2 Cooling Water

Section A

Parameters

Unit

Value

Supply Pressure

Kg/cm2(g)

34

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Parameters

Unit

Value

Supply Temperature

Deg C

Ambient

Quality

SOFT & Chlorine free

Duty

Sample Cooling.

12.3 Instrument Air


Parameters

Unit

Value

Pressure

Kg/cm2(g)

67

Dew point

Deg C

-40

Temperature

Deg C

Ambient

Parameters

Unit

Value

Pressure

Kg/cm2(g)

Temperature

Deg C

Ambient

12.4 Service Air

Quality

Dry & Oil Free

Duty

General purpose

13 Chemicals for Dosing


HP Dosing

Tri sodium phosphate

LP Dosing

Hydrazine

14 Site Condition
Kopal, Karnataka

Site Location
Ambient Temperature
Performance

36 C

Maximum

45 C

Minimum

20 C

Electrical Design

60 C

Relative Humidity

60%

Altitude

890 m above MSL

Seismic coefficient

As per IS 1893, Part 1,2002, Zone-2

15 Fans
Duty conditions
Make
Model

Section A

Unit

FD fan

ID Fan

PA Fan

Test Block
Conditions

Test Block
Conditions

Test Block
Conditions

TLT Engineering

TLT Engineering

TLT Engineering

2218 /

16378B -

3166-

758

982

256

Operation & Maintenance Manual

FD fan

ID Fan

PA Fan

Duty conditions

Unit

Test Block
Conditions

Test Block
Conditions

Test Block
Conditions

Quantity

Nos.

Clean Air

Flue Gas

Clean Air

Nature of medium
Air /Gas density

Kg/N M3

1.29

1.31

1.29

Volume

Kg/hr

77486

86970

15300

Gas Temperature
at Fan Inlet

Deg C

45

150

45

Absorbed Power /
Rated Fan Power

KW

250

90

50

Differential static
head

mmWc

860

200

760

Fan Speed

Rpm

1480

980

2920

Static Pressure

mmWC

8437

1962

2920

22220 EK/C3

222216 EK/C3

222176 EK/C3

SNH-520

SNH-516

LOE-217

22220 EK/C3

222211 EK/C3

222174 EK/C3

SNH-520

SNH-511

LOE-214

Servogem; EP-2

Servogem; EP-2

Servogem; EP-2

250 KW 4 Pole

90 KW 6Pole

55 KW 2Pole

Siemens Make

Siemens Make

Siemens Make

Flexible Resilient

Flexible Resilient

Flexible Resilient

Size 212A

Size 212A

Size 212A

Wellman MakeI

Wellman MakeI

Wellman MakeI

Free/Fixed
Bearing Housing

Bearing
Lubrication
Motor

Coupling Model
/ Make

16 HP Dozing System
Make : N M Enterprises
Drg no : NMEDS-HP-21 Rev -1
Description

HP

Make

Metachem Pump

Model

MC 2

Type

Reciprocating Plunger

Flow

10 LPH by Stroke Adjustment

Discharge Pressure

86 kg/cm2 g

Relief Valve Set Pressure

110 kg/cm2 g

Pumps

Motor for Dosing Pumps

Section A

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Description

HP

Make

Crompton/Siemens

Type

0.5HP, 1500 RPM, TEFC-IP55, 50 Deg


C amb. ,415 V, 50 Hz

Rating

0.5 HP / 1500 rpm

Make

N M Enterprises

Type

AG 2 Model, Motorised propeller type


750 rpm (material SS 304)

Rating

0.5 HP / 1500 rpm

Storage Working Volume

300 litres

Fluid To Be Handled.

Tri sodium phosphate.

Motor for agitator

17 Rotary Feeders
Make - Nova Bulk Handlers (P) Ltd.
Refer G.A for Drag Chain Feeder. Drg No : Nova /48/ 0708. 2 sheets
Description

Rotary Feeder

Type

Horizontal

Capacity

See Table Below

Material Used

Indian Coal l

Location

At Bunker Outlet

Length Of Feeder

781mm
2.2 KW with Variable Frequency Drive.
3 HP , 4 Pole

Geared Motor (2 HP , 4 Pole Frame)

Frame size- 100L; Make :Siemens


Chain

Simples 1.25 pitch (Reduction 1:2.53)

Sprocket; Head & Tail

Simplex 1.25 pitch

Type of Drive

Motorised With VFD Drive

Rotor Size

Dia 208 mm X 625 MM LG

17.1 Capacity Chart


Indian Coal

Unit

Design

100% MCR

50% MCR

Min

Capicity

Kg/hr

3840

3200

1600

800

7.2

6.0

3.0

1.5

Speed
Through Loading
Capicity Per Unit time per
Revelation

RPM
%

95

Kg/hr/reve
0.00234

Char

Unit

Design

100% MCR

50% MCR

Min

Capicity

Kg/hr

2100

1750

875

438

Section A

10

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Char

Unit
RPM

Speed
Through Loading

Capicity Per Unit time per


Revelation

Design

100% MCR

50% MCR

Min

3.14

2.62

1.31

0.65

95

Kg/hr/reve
0.00234

18 Gauge Glass
18.1 Drum Level Gauge
Description

Details

Make

HI- TECH SYSTEMS AND SERVICES LTD.

Tag No.

LG-600A & LG-600B

Type

Bicolor Port type

Location

Steam drum

Operating Pressure

72.7 kg/cm2 (g)

Design Pressure

78.8 kg/cm2 (g)

Hydrotest Pressure

315 BAR

C/C Distance

800 mm

Visibility Range

403 mm

Operating Temp.

289 Deg C (Saturated) Normal Operating

18.2 Blow Dowm Tank Level Gauge


Description

Details

Make

Chemtrol Samils (I) Pvt Ltd.

Tag No.

LG-550

Type

Tubular Level Gauge

Location

Blow Down Tank

Operating Pressure

05 kg/cm2 (g)

C/C Distance

500 mm

Visibility Range

360mm

Operating Temp.

200 Deg C (Saturated) Normal Operating

19 Safety Valves
Description
Application

Unit

Drum LHS

Drum RHS

Type

Spring Loaded

Make

Tyco Sanmar Ltd

SH

Size Orifice

1.5/ H/3.0

1.5/ H/3.0

1.5/H /3.0

Set Pressure

Kscg

78.8

80.0

71.8

Section A

11

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Description

Drum RHS

SH

Tag No

B7

B8

S4

Model

HC56
W-IBR-SPL

HC56
W-IBR-SPL

HCA58
W-IBR-SPL

19027

19313

13892

1 / BLR

1 / BLR

1 / BLR

Rated Capacity
Quantity

Section A

Unit

Drum LHS

Application

Kg/Hr

12

Operation & Maintenance Manual

20 Temperature Profile
20.1 Gas Temperature
At the outlet of furnace

875 Deg C.

At the outlet of bank tubes

445 Deg C.

At the outlet of economiser

250Deg C.

At the outlet of air-preheater

160Deg C.

At the outlet of ESP

160Deg C.

Condensate from process

47 Deg C.

Process return

100 Deg C.

Make up water

32 Deg C.

inlet of FW Pumps

130 Deg C.

the inlet of economiser

130 Deg C.

At the outlet of economiser

216Deg C.

t the inlet of air heater

45 Deg C.

At the outlet of air heater

150 Deg C.

Furnace

After Boiler Bank

40

After Economiser

80

After Air Heater

110

After ESP

135

At ID Fan Inlet

135

At ID Fan Out let

+5

20.2 Water Temperature

20.3 Air Temperature

21 Flue Gas Pressure Profile

22 Process Flow Diagram


Process Flow Diagram

Section A

13

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section B
Topics Covered in this Chapter
Section Overview
Feed Water System
Boiler Pressure Part Description
Main Steam Piping
Boiler Blow Down System
Air and Gas System
Flue Gas System
Fuel Feeding & Firing System
Chemical Dosing & Sampling System

Section B

14

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section Overview

This section gives a brief overview of the boiler


and its associated systems. The description of
the various systems that form part of the boiler
package is also included. The aim of this section
is to make the reader familiar with the boiler
package components before introducing the
operation and maintenance sections..
Brief Overview
The boiler package supplied by Thermax Ltd,
Pune, India and has been designed for 41 TPH
steam generation, 66 kg/cm2 (g) pressure, 490
+/- 5 deg C Super Heated Steam output designed
for firing with 100% Indian Coal and secondary
fuel 70% Indian Coal + 30% Char. This boiler
is AFBC, Bi-Drum, outdoor, natural circulation,
Water tube, fluidised bed combustion, Underbed
Fuel Feeding System, balance draft, Bottom
Supported with Steel construction & Hopper
Bottom design.
Fuel Combustion will be in an Atmospheric Bed
Combustor (AFBC) fixed at the Boiler bottom.
Fuel is stored in Bunker. Rotary feeders are
connected at the bottom of hoppers (below the
bunker). The fuel is fed by these feeders to
under-bed fuel feeding system and transported to
the furnace for firing in the bed.
As a complete unit the boiler plant is equipped with
the following circuits.
Feed water and steam system.
Pressure parts circuit.
Boiler Steam circuit.
Boiler Blow down circuit.
Sample coolers.
Chemical dosing system
Combustor
Combustion Air
Fuel handling storage & Fuel feeding system
Flue gas circuit
Refractory and insulation.
Electrical and Instrumentatio
Chimney

Section B

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The main parameters of the boiler are
Maximum Continuous
Rating

41TPH

Steam Pressure

66 kg/cm2

Steam Temperature

490+/- 5 Deg C

Fuel Fired

Indian Coal and


Char

The boiler has been designed to confirm to Indian


Boiler Regulations (IBR)
The boiler is divided into a combustion zone
i.e.
furnace and non-combustion zone i.e.
economiser, air heater etc. The furnace sides,
front and rear are of membrane panel construction
providing a gas tight sealing. For all the four
water wall bottom headers, water is fed through
supply pipes from water drum. The sidewall, front
wall and rear wall panel tubes top headers are
connected to the steam drum through risers. The
front wall panel tubes form the roof of the furnace.
Feed water is pumped by feed water pumps
from deaerator to economiser through feed water
control station. The feed water from economiser
outlet is then led to the steam drum. Steam is
generated in the furnace membrane wall tubes.
The resulting water-steam mixture from the riser
tubes of membrane panel returns to the steam
drum where the separation of steam from water
takes place. The saturated steam is led through
the supply pipes to the PSH inlet header. From
the PSH inlet header steam passes through the
coils to PSH O/l header, then steam is led to
Attemperator and then to the Sec SH inlet header
and passed through coils to the Sec SH outlet
header. Finally from the Sec SH outlet header
steam is passed to the main steam line to Turbine.
Combustion of the fuel takes place in the
furnace bed where the fuel is spread with the
help of the fuel feeding screw feeders over
the Bedplate. Combustion air is sucked from
the plant environment by the motor driven
FD fan and combustion air is passed through
specially designed air nozzles which are welded
in distributor plate or Bed plate.
Secondary Air arrangement is done to:
Suppress the unburnt fuel materials from
escaping the combustion zone.

15

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Maintains the super heater temperature by


controlled combustion.
Balanced draft conditions inside the furnace
suitable for combustion is being maintained by
I.D fan.
Air pre-heater, ESP and finally into the stack by ID
fan.
The starting, stopping and safe shut down of boiler
are done by manual intervention systematically
and sequentially through DCS control system from
control room.
Details of equipments, their brief operational
and maintenance features are elaborated in the
subsequent sub-sections and chapters of this
manual.

Feed Water System

(Ref. P & I Diagram D12-1PD-6499P, R-2)


Feed water system consists of the following:
1. Feed water control station.

2.1 Feed Water Control Station


When the boiler is in service, feed water must
be continuously supplied to maintain near- normal
water level in the steam drum. It is unsafe to
operate the boiler at lower water levels. Feed
water control station regulates the water flow to
the steam drum to maintain the steady & required
water level
Feed water control station consists of the
following:
Feed water control station consists of one
welded type flow control valve of 100 % capacity
(FCV-500), which is pneumatically actuated by a
spring opposed diaphragm actuator
The 100 % FCV is provided with isolation valve
W12 & W12 at upstream and downstream
respectively, whereas W12 is manual valve.
There are two bypass valves one is 100% bypass
manual globe valve & another is FCV-500B
30% bypass pneumatic control valve, W13 is
isolation valve of 30% bypass valve having
manual isolation valve W13 & W13. Whereas
W17 is 100% manual bypass valve. These main
isolation valves are normally kept closed before
the main valve is opened during pump start-up.
The bypass valve should also be closed during
pump start-up. The bypass is used only if the
control valve is out of service.
Drain valves W-14 is provided after the 100%
control valve. Theses drain valves are normally

Section B

kept closed. This drain is to be opened only to


drain the line when control valve has to be opened
for inspection/maintenance.
Following instruments are provided at the inlet of
feed water control station:
Flow nozzle FE-500 with flow transmitter
FT-500 is provided for total feed water flow
measurement. Flow transmitter transmits the
water flow signal to flow indicating controller
at control panel.
A 25 NB pipe tapping with W33 valve for the
SH desuperheater.
Control valve is operated through the Flow
indicating controller (FIC-600). Input signals are
given to FIC-600 by Level indicating controller
(LIC-600), steam flow transmitter (FT-604) and
feed water flow transmitter (FT-500). Ref. three
element control for detail operation of drum level
controller.
From the control station feed water flows to
economiser inlet header (bottom) through an
100 NB non return valve (W-24). Thermocouple
TG-501 is located before the Eco. inlet header to
measure the feed water temperature prior to Eco.
Pressure gauge PG-501 is provided with isolation
valves (W15 & W16)to measure the FW pressure
at Eco. inlet.
From the economiser bottom header, water flows
to the outlet (top) header through coils. Heated
water flows from Eco. top header to steam drum,
through feed water Eco. outlet piping. .
2.1.1 Single & Three-element control
1. Drum level control is the single most important
process control for any steam generator. The
simplest of the control loops involve measuring
the drum level and comparing with a fixed set
point. A control signal to operate the control
valve will be calculated based on the deviation
between the set point and the process variable.
This calculated signal would be a function of the
loop configuration parameters. The simplicity
of the loop is its advantage at low loads and
constant loads. However, at higher loads and with
load swings, this loop fails to control the process
parameter. This has necessitated the introduction
of two more elements (process parameters) into
the control loop. The additional elements that are
measured are steam flow & water flow.
In the three-element drum level control, drum
level is maintained as a function of the drum
level and the steam flow. The control signal is a
suitable summation of these two elements. This
variable is compared to the measured water flow

16

Operation & Maintenance Manual

and a suitable control signal is generated which is


used to drive the 100% control valve. The major
advantage of the loop is its ability to maintain
drum level during load swings, variations & throw
conditions that are certain to occur during the
operating regime of any steam generator. Though
this loop is advantageous from an operation point
of view, it is recommended to use this loop at
loads > 30%, as the single element control loop is
optimised for low load conditions with its control
valve sizing & parameter tuning

2.2 Attemperation Control Station


A tapping 25 NB from Feed Water line is provided,
to supply spray water for Attemperator. This line
is provided with a manual isolation valve W-33 &
NRV W37. A temperature control valve TCV-604
with isolation valves W-34 is provided. A by-pass
manual valve W-35 is provided. This line connects
to Attemperator through a NRV W-36.

Boiler Pressure Part Description

This boiler is AFBC design, BI-Drum, outdoor,


natural circulation, Water tube, fluidised bed
combustion, Underbed Fuel Feeding System,
balance draft, Bottom Supported with STEEL
construction & Hopper Bottom design. Various
pressure parts are grouped as follows:
1. Economiser
2. Steam drum

Provision of this additional heating surface,


increases the efficiency of the steam-generating
unit and saving in fuel consumption is achieved.
Economiser is located in between boiler bank
outlet and Air Pre-heater.
A continuous loop tube Economiser assembly is
constructed with rows of 38.1 O.D x 3.66 thick
tubes, and two headers. Both the ends of the coil
were terminated to the top and bottom headers by
welding.
Feed water flows from the bottom header to the
top headers through these coils. Heated water
flows out from the top header to steam drum
through the connecting pipe. The economiser is
fully drainable by the drain valves W-26 located
on the inlet header.
Economiser top header is provided with the
following attachments:
25 NB air vent with two valves (Tag No. W
28 which will be kept open during initial filling
to remove the air trapped between the coil.
Closed after free flow of water from the vent.
Pressure indicator PG-502 with twin isolation
valve W 27.
Thermocouple (TE-502) is provided for panel
mounted temperature indicator.
Pressure gauge(PG-502) is provided for Local
Indication.

3.2 Steam Drum

3. Water drum
4. Down comer Tubes

(Refer Drg no: P21-1PD-43823, Rev-1)

12. Boiler bank

Steam drum (1375 ID X 70-mm thk.) is a welded


cylindrical vessel made of SA 516 Gr.70 material.
The cylindrical portion of the vessel is made of
70-mm thick plates and the two Torispherical dish
ends are 70mm. thick. Two elliptical manholes at
either end of the drum provide access inside the
drum. These manholes are closed tight at either
end by 70-mm thick plates, bolted against the
manhole rim by two holding bars. A gasket is fitted
between the cover plate and the mating machined
surfaces in the end shield. The cover plate swing
inside the drum, for convenience during opening.

3.1 Economizer

Steam drum is supported by saddle supports on


the super structure of the boiler.

5. Furnace
6. RH & LH Inbed Evaporator
7. Furnace membrane water walls
8. Riser Tubes
9. Saturated steam supply tubes
10. Super heater
11. Attemperator

Refer Drg no: PL4-1PD-45132, R-0


Function of an Economiser in a steam-generating
unit is to absorb heat from flue gases & add this as
a sensible heat to the feed water, before the water
enters to the steam drum.

Section B

Steam drum is fitted with several components


to perform important functions, which are listed
below:
Direct water level gauge LG 600A & LG 600B
that shows the water level inside the steam

17

Operation & Maintenance Manual

drum. DWLGS are provided at both ends of


the drum.
Two nos. Level transmitters are provided LT
600A B C which transmit the actual water level
to the remote indicators i.e. at control room
and provide drum level signal to the drum level
controller
Drum safety valves B 7 & B 8 which protects
the boiler and the personnel against the
consequences of abnormal pressure increase
because of sudden load decrease, malfunctioning of firing system, steam stop valve
etc.
Level indicator LI 600: this gauge is mounted
at the firing floor, so as the firing floor attendant
can view the drum level.
H.P dosing connection: To dose phosphate in
to the steam drum to maintain the boiler water
quality.
Continuous blow down (CBD): To drain the
boiler water during operation to maintain the
water concentration. Also the water sample
is taken from this blow down. It is connected
to the common IBD tank directly as well as
through CBD tank.

ensure the uniform distribution of feed water in the


entire length of the steam drum.
Pipe is made in two pieces for installation ease
and provided with flanged joint.
Continuous blow down pipe (CBD) 1 no 25NB
perforated pipe with 6-7 holes is installed in the
drum with holes at 6 O clock position. CBD pipe
is provided to drain the boiler water to maintain the
boiler water concentration at the specified limit.
Pipe is made in two pieces for installation ease
and provided with a drain hole to drain the water
during shut down.
HP dosing pipe 1 no 25NB perforated pipe with
6-4 holes is installed in the drum with holes at 12
Oclock position. As the pipe is of perforated type
the chemical is uniformly distributed across the
length of the drum. Chemical dosing at steam
drum is, to maintain boiler water concentration as
per the specified limit. Pipe is made in two pieces
for installation ease and provided with a drain hole
to drain the water during shut down.

Two air vent with isolation valves B 6 that will


be closed at 2 Kg/cm2 (g) during pressure
rising and open at 2 kg/cm2 (g) during cooling.

3.3 Water Drum

Local Pressure gauge PG 600A with isolation


B9 & B9 shows the drum pressure near steam
drum and PG-600B with isolation B11 & B11
at operator floor.

Water drum is a shell welded cylindrical vessel


made of SA 516 Gr.70 material I.D. 960 and
50 mm thick. The cylindrical portion of the
vessel is made of 50mm thick plates and the
two semi-ellipsoidal dish ends. Two elliptical
manholes at either end of the drum to provide
access to the drum. A gasket is fitted between the
cover plate and the end shield. The cover plate
swing inside the drum for convenience during
opening. There is also arrangement of blow-off
baffle with clamp arrangement inside the water
drum..

One pressure transmitter PT-600 is given to


three element drum level control compensation.
3.2.1 Steam Drum Internals
(Refer Drg. no. P21-1PD-41824, R-0)
Steam drum internals are provided to supply
moisture free steam to S.H coils.
Steam drum receives water/steam mixture from
the water wall panels through the raiser tubes in
the baffles of the boiler drum. In this steam/water
mixture, high-density water is separated from
steam and trickle down to mix with water in the
drum. Steam raises upward to flow through the
demister pads and finally moisture free saturated
steam goes out of the steam drum.
Feed water pipe 1 No. 100 NB perforated
pipe with holes is installed in the drum with holes
positioned at 7 & 7 O clock position while looking
from RH Side (i.e. towards boiler front). This will

Section B

(Refer Drg no: P21-1PD-43928, Rev-1)

Water drum is fitted with intermittent blow down


connection (IBD) of size 40 NB with isolation
valves (D3 & IBD Valve D4) through which
the water can be removed during emergency
situations like high water level and high
concentration situation.

3.4 Down Comer Tubes


(Refer Drg no. P73-1PD-46307, R- 1)
Down comer tubes are of 323.9 O D x 33.3
THK size, which supplies water to furnace wall &
convection bank headers from steam drum.

18

Operation & Maintenance Manual

There are two main down comers from water drum


which supplies water to all bottom headers these
have O.D 323.9 and 33.32 thk. And material is
SA 106 Gr. B. Two branch supply pipes are taken
from these downcomers to supply water to bottom
headers. Supply pipes are taken for RHS and
LSH evaporator panel bottom header each had
been provided. And supply pipes are taken for
front wall bottom header & for rear wall bottom
header each.

shape under the expansion conditions. Front


wall tubes are supported through rod slings with
rocker washer from the super structure. Front
wall bottom header is provided with a 25 N.B.
drain connection, which normally remains closed
during operation of the boiler. It is to be used to
drain the boiler during shut down and start-up..
3.5.2 Rear Wall
(Refer Drg no. P45-1PD 45012)

3.5 Furnace
Furnace is the part of the boiler where the
chemical energy in the fuel is converted into
thermal energy by absorbing the heat produced
through combustion of fuel.
The furnace is
designed for efficient and complete combustion,
with due consideration to the factors that
effect, combustion efficiency like fuel residence
time inside the furnace, temperature and the
turbulence required for complete mixing of fuel
and air..
Following are the distinct advantages of the
furnace design:
Heat transfer is facilitated inside the furnace in
addition to combustion
Practically no maintenance for refractory is
required in case of membrane wall furnace
Due to heat transfer inside the furnace, higher
loading is possible, as part of heat generated,
is already absorbed by the furnace tubes
leaving the flue gas temperature out of furnace
within acceptable limits into super heater zone.
Furnace is constructed with shop fabricated
membrane (water wall) construction. It comprises
of Front panel, Rear panel, L.H panel and R.H
panel. Furnace is 7380 mm long x 5040 mm wide.
3.5.1 Front Wall
(Refer Drg no. P42-1PD 45013, R-1)
Front wall is formed with front header (200NB
x SCH 160) and 63.5 O.D x 4.06 Thick tubes.
One end is connected to the bottom header and
the other end is terminated to the top header.
Front wall tubes receive water from steam drum
through supply pipes. To strengthen the wall
tubes, Buckstays beams are provided all around
the furnace. The buck stay beams are supported
on cleats from the water wall panels and flexibly
interconnected at the corners. The buck stay
beams help to retain the furnace shape within
permissible deviations of furnace pressure.
Corner end connecting links maintain furnace

Section B

Rear wall is formed with rear bottom header (200


NB x SCH 160 THK) and 63.5 OD x 4.06 thick
tubes (One end is welded to the bottom header
and the other end is terminated to the top header.
Rear wall tubes receive water from steam drum
through supply pipes. To strengthen the wall
tubes buck stay beams have been provided. Rear
wall tubes are supported through rod slings with
rocker washer from the super structure. Rear wall
bottom header is provided with a 25 N.B. drain
connection, which normally remain closed during
operation of the boiler. It is to be used to drain the
boiler during shut down and start-up.
3.5.3 R.H & L.H Side Wall
(Refer Drg no.
P43-1PD-45215 , R-1)

P41-1PD45213

&

L.H & R.H Side wall is formed with Inbed


evaporator top header & sidewall panel top
headers (200 NB x SCH 160) and 63.5 O.D x 4.06
thick tubes. Both ends of tubes are terminated
at bottom and top headers. Sidewall panels are
connected to steam drum through riser tubes
from either sidewall . Both the wall assemblies
are supported through sling rods with rocker
washers from the super structure of the boiler. To
strengthen the wall tubes buckstay beams have
been provided. Sidewall headers are provided
with a 25 N.B. drain connection, which normally
remain closed during operation of the boiler. It is
to be used to drain the boiler during shut down
and start-up.
Some of the tubes of the LHS wall are specially
bent to accommodate one burner at front of the
boiler for boiler 2, RHS for boiler 1. A large
furnace volume has been provided to obtain
complete combustion of fuel, full radiant heat
transfer to the water wall panels to ensure that
there is no flame radiation in the second pass
and only hot flue gas flows to the second pass.
Interlaced Secondary air nozzles are provided at
single elevation on LHS & RHS wall.
Membrane wall construction of the furnace
and the second pass provided a totally gas

19

Operation & Maintenance Manual

sealed enclosure suitable for balanced draft


operation. Adequate number of access doors
(which normally remain tightly closed) have been
provided in the furnace and in the second pass for
inspection of observation of the bed/Flame and
for addition bed material during regular operation.

3.6 Inbed Evaporator


(Drg No. PD1-1PD-45751, R-1)
Figure 1 Inbed Evaporator

In-bed coils (50.8 OD x 6.35 THK Tubes) are


provided inside the furnace. Water mixture enters
the in bed evaporator bottom header through
down comers from steam drum (D1 to D4) and
the steam water mixture exits through in bed
evaporator top header and then through water
wall panel tubes to water wall top headers. Both
R.H & L.H Inbed Evaporator bottom headers
receive water from the steam drum through supply
pipes.
Inbed evaporator outer and Inner coils bottom
loops are provided with round studs at an angle of
120 deg to reduce direct impingement of particles
on the bare tubes and to avoid erosion. Phoscast
90 XR Refractory has been applied over the
bends for reducing the erosion and extend the life
of the coils.

Superheated steam also eliminates the formation


of condensate in steam piping which is harmful to
the turbine blades and pipelines.
There are two stages of superheater in this
boiler. They are SH-1 & 2. From the steam drum
dry saturated steam enters the SH-1 i.e. 1st
stage inlet header (O.D 219.1 x 18.26) through
saturated steam supply tubes. From the 1st
stage inlet header, steam flows to 1st stage outlet
header through 44.45 O.D x 4.06 Thk coils. SH-1
is installed vertically above the goose neck zone
with adequate supports. The SH headers are
supported through saddle supports.
1st stage outlet header is connected to SH-2
i.e.2nd stage inlet header with Attemperator.
From the 2nd stage inlet header, steam flows to
2nd outlet header through 44.5 OD x 4.06 thick
coils.
150 NB Steam outlet line is taken from the 2nd
stage outlet header of Superheater SH-2.
Following connection is attached to primary
S.H. Inlet header:
15NB sampling line with isolation valve S-17,
which is used to take saturated steam sample.
A 25 NB air vent with twin isolation valves S-1
& S-1 is provided for the PSH I/L header.

3.9 Attemperator

3.7 Riser Tubes

(Refer Drg no. PB1-1PD-42672, R-0)

(Refer Drg no. P71-1PD-41465, R-1)

Attemperator is provided in between the two


stages of superheater in this boiler.

Purpose of these tubes is to carry the saturated


steam from front, rear & sidewall panels to steam
drum. Sidewall panels are connected to steam
drum through 101.6 ODx5.74 Thk riser tubes.
Front wall top header is connected to steam drum
through 4 nos. 150 NB x SCH 8 riser tubes and
rear wall top header is connected through 10nos.
101.6 O.D x 5.6 THK riser tubes. Convection
Bank top headers are connected through 14 nos.
101.6 O.D x 5.6 THK riser tubes (6 from each top
header).

3.8 Super Heater


(Refer Drg no.
PA1-1PD-45809, R-1/
PA2-2PD-41254, R-1 / PA3-1PD-45937 R-1)
Super-heaters are provided to raise the steam
temperature above the saturation temperature
by absorbing heat from the flue gas.
By
increasing the temperature of the steam, the
useful energy that can be recovered increases,
thereby increasing efficiency of the cycle also.

Section B

From the PSH outlet steam enters the


Attemperator made of 219.1 OD x 12.7 thk SA
335 P11 material.
Function of Attemperator is to control the final
temperature of the steam to a pre-determined
value by spraying required quantity of feed
water. Inner SS sleeve is provided to shield the
header from thermal stresses due to temperature
variations. The inner shield is firmly held at one
end by location pins welded on to header and is
free to expand at the other end. Flanged joints
on to the header hold the spray nozzle. The
Spray nozzle at the blind end rests on a guide
to with stand the force of the steam. Water is
sprayed along the steam flow direction. Spray
water for attemperation is taken from feed water
line branch after flow nozzle, through spray water
control station.
Following are the connections attached
to Inlet & Outlet pipes of Spray type
Attemperator:

20

Operation & Maintenance Manual

of pressure at panel, for steam density


correction and for pressure indicating PI 404
for Steam flow compensation.

Thermocouple (TE-601) is provided on inlet


pipe for panel mounted temperature indicator
(TI-601).
Thermocouple (TE 602) is provided at the
outlet of the Attemperator header for panel
mounted temperature indicator (TI-602) .
After Attemperator steam enters the secondary
super-heater inlet header.

3.10 Convection Bank

Start up vent: Start up vent, with pneumatic


control valve (S3) and manual isolation valve
(S2) is used to vent the steam to atmosphere
during boiler start up, as the main steam stop
valve & by-pass valve remains closed till the
boiler reaches the operating pressure. This
also protects the SH coils from over heating
during start up.
To reduce the noise level from the steam
venting to atmosphere, a silencer is provided
to the start up vent line.

(Refer Drg no. P61-2PD-40326, R-1) The name


itself indicates that heat transfer in this area is
by convection mode. This is a Bi-drum boiler,
the steam drum (Top drum) and the water drum
(mud drum) is connected by a set of tubes called
convection bank tubes.
Convection bank tubes are constructed of 50.8
O.D x 4.06 thk. Both ends of the tubes are
terminated at water / steam drum, and the ends
are fixed to drums by expansion of the tubes.
Bank sides were covered with refractory tiles
followed with insulation and outer MS casing.
Also the tubes are strengthened by buck stay
arrangement at one elevations.
An Ash hopper has been provided below
convection bank to collect fly ash, which is
disposed to Ash Handling System (AHS).

If there is any interruptions in steam flow due to


sudden turbine trip / load cut by the end users,
start up vent valve to be opened immediately to
maintain boiler pressure else safety valve will
blow.
Drain connection with twin valves S8 & S8
before the main steam stop valve. Drain is
terminated to Blow down tank.
150 NB Main Steam Stop Valve (MSSV) S-9 (M
131 ), along with a integral bypass/equalising
valve S -10 (S 9 ). Both the valves are
motorised valves and bypass Valve S 10is
manual operated Valve.
During regular operation of the boiler, MSSV
is kept fully open supplying steam from the
boiler to the plant. Integral bypass valve is
opened during the start up of the boiler for initial
warming of the main steam line before opening
the MSSV.

Main Steam Piping

Super heated steam from IBSH outlet header is


connected to common steam distribution header
by the main steam piping.
Main steam piping is of 150 N.B. pipe with the
following attachments:
Safety valve S 4 is provided on steam line. To
reduce the noise level from the steam venting
to atmosphere, a silencer is provided to the
safety valve exhaust line.

A 15 NB line with twin isolation valves (S12 &


S12) is taken from Main steam line for Sample
cooler.
A NRV (S13) is provided before the stop valve
to prevent back flow of the steam from the
plant to the boiler.

Pressure Gauge (PG-604) with twin isolation


valves (S5 & S5) for indication of main steam
pressure..

Steam flow-measuring device, i.e. flow nozzle


(FE-606) along with flow transmitter Tag no.
FT-606 with impulse piping and isolation alves
(Tag No. S-11)

Thermocouple (TE-604) is provided for main


steam temperature control loop.

Temperature indicator (TI 604) is provided for


local temperature indication in the operating
floor and for temperature indicating controller
(TIC 604) for steam flow compensation
Pressure Transmitter (PT-604) with twin
isolation valves (S7 & S7) for remote indication

Section B

Boiler Blow Down System

Aim
This chapter describes the Boiler Blow down
system for safe draining of high pressure and
temperature steam and water from the boiler
using the Blow down tank.

21

Operation & Maintenance Manual

System Description

LH In-bed evaporator bottom header

P & I Diagram (D12-1PD-6499P, R 21) (Steam and


Water system) show the various drains from the
boiler, main steam lines, etc. A common drain
system has been provided for both he boilers.
Large quantities of steam of high pressure /
temperature water are not drained through open
canals for the following reasons:
a) Such draining will cause splashing of high
volumes of steam, which can be a nuisance by
the noise it creates, and also it affects the visibility
around the draining area.
b) High temperatures of these drains can cause
scalding injuries to workmen who may come in
contact with it.
c) The force and temperature of these drains will
erode the linings of the drain canals.
d) Low-pressure steam, which can be recovered,
if required, is wasted.

RH In-bed evaporator bottom header


Economiser header drains
Eco I/L header
Drain header has following
A 50 NB -thk drain line for draining Furnace
Drain Header to nearest trench.
An 50 NB thk initial filling line with W -26 and
isolation valve W-26. The water is supplied
from DM water transfer pump.
Drain line is connected to IBD tank with an
isolation valve W - 40
5.1.2 SH Drain Line
Following drains (All 25 NB) are connected to the
SH drain header ).
Main steam line drain before and after main
steam stop valve.
Main steam line drain before main steam stop
valve has 25 NB drain line with isolation valve
(S-8) this line is connected to the BD tank.

5.1 Drain Lines


A 50 NB Common drain line is provided which is
connected to the Blowdown tank with an isolation
valve W40. Two drain lines from sidewall panel
headers are connected to this common drain line.
Also Economiser drain is connected with same
line.
A 50 NB initial filling with isolation valve and NRV
DW 16 & DW 17 is connected to the common drain
line.

5.2 CBD Drain


A CBD is tapped from STEAM drum, A 25 NB
line for continuous blow down (CBD) is connected
to the blow down tank. A CBD valve (D-2) is
provided on CBD line. Isolation valve (D-1) is
provided.

5.3 IBD Drain

5.1.1 Furnace Drain Line


A furnace drain header 50 NB is provided as
a common collection point for the drains from
various points of the boiler. The following drains
(All 25 NB ) of the boiler are connected to the
Furnace drain header.
All water wall drains from-

IBD is tapped from WATER drum with a 40 NB


pipeline with isolation valve (D-3) and IBD VALVE
(D-4). Intermittent blow down (IBD) which is
connected to the blow down tank. Table shown
below is a summary of such drains with tag nos
High Pressure / High Temperature Steam And
Water Drains

SOURCE

VALVE TAG NOS.

Continuous Blow down


from Drum

D1 isolation, D-2 CBD VALVE.

306

Continuous (depending
on quality of Boiler water)

Intermittent Blow down


from Drum

D-3 isolation, D-4 IBD VALVE.

306

During high levels in


drum and during boiler
draining.

Section B

TEMP. OF
DRAIN C

FREQUENCY OF
USAGE

22

Operation & Maintenance Manual

SOURCE

VALVE TAG NOS.

TEMP. OF
DRAIN C

FREQUENCY OF
USAGE

S.H. & Main steam


drain

FOR M.S. LINE isolation valves


S-8

Varying from
70 to 520

Draining of condensate
during start-up and after a
shut down.

Furnace & Economiser


drains

For ECO drains isolation valves


are W-26, and for furnace W.W
isolation valves are W-39.

~70 - 150

During boiler start-up and


shutdown.

Drains indicated in the above Table are connected


to the common intermittent blow down (IBD) tank
except CBD drain and various samples. CBD tank
is connected to IBD tank while samples to the
nearest drain trench.

5.4 Other Drains


Other drains of the boiler are open drains and are
connected to the nearest trench within the boiler
area. The drains are All level control station drain
All pressure control station drain
Steam drum level indicator.
Steam drum safety valve drains
Sample cooler sample let off drain

5.5 Blow down Tank

of the tank, such that the drain fluid is directed


circumferentially around the inner wall of the tank.
Tangential flow of the drain fluid into the tank
separates steam from the water. Steam rises to
the top of the tank and water collects at its lower
portion. A vent is provided at the top of the tank.
Following connections are connected to the
common BD tank.
A Level gauge glass LG-550 with isolation
valves D6 & D6 has been fitted on the tank to
verify water level in the tank.
Tank is provided with a 50 NB drain pipe with a
valve (Tag no. D-7) for flushing purpose.
Connections from CBD line, from IBD line, from
Drain line, and from MS Drain line.
An air vent to atmosphere.

Blow down tank is a pressure vessel capable of


separating steam from the drained hot water. This
drain is connected tangentially in the upper half

Section B

23

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Air and Gas System

( P & I DIAGRAM D12-1PD-6500P, R- 2)

the required fan output pressure and flow. The


VFD receives input signal from furnace pressure
indicating controller (HZ 200).

Air System

Fan Discharge Duct

This chapter describes supply of primary and


secondary air to the boiler. The components that
form part of air system are

1.
To minimise the force due to possible
movement of the discharge duct on the fan, as
well as to isolate fan vibrations being passed on
to the duct, the fan is connected to the discharge
duct through bellows type expansion joint (1no)

FD Fan
Air Pre-Heater (APH)
Air ducts
Combustion air to Windbox
Secondary Air OR Over fire air.
Secondary Air For Air Spray Nozzle

Test pockets temp. gauge and pressure gauge is


provided on outlet duct. A Draft Gauge (DG 200)
is provided with an isolation valve (A1) at the outlet
duct.
Fan outlet is connected to air pre-heater (APH)
through a ducting.

6.1 System Description:

Aerofoil

6.2 FD Fan

An Airfoil to measure the airflow is provided (AFM


200). The airflow is measured by the principle
of pressure drop across the element being
proportional to the airflow passing across it. Flow
transmitter (FT-200) gives input to a controller
(FIC-200), which also get inputs from combustion
control and ultimately it controls suction air by
power cylinder.

Figure 2 FD Bearing

Each Boiler is provided with 1x 100 %. F.D


fans driven by electric motor to supply main
combustion air to the furnace and various other
equipment. FD fan is of centrifugal type, with
radial, backward curved blades.
FD Fan Suction Side
FD fan is provided with a suction duct with
silencer for cold combustion air from the plant
environment. The details are elaborated below in
the component wise description.
FD Fan Suction Duct
Bird Screen & Silencer
At the inlet of the FD fan suction duct rain cowl
with bird screen is provided. An absorption type
silencer is installed to attenuate the noise.
FD Fan Suction Damper
Suction damper (inlet guide vane) control has
been fitted on the suction of the FD fan. FD fan
sucks air from environment through the suction
duct and inlet damper. The percentage opening
of the inlet damper (guide vane) regulates the
capacity of the fan to meet the combustion air
and other requirements of the boiler. Fan inlet
damper gets input signal from pressure indicating
controller (HZ 200). A pneumatic actuator (HY
200) is provided to operate the damper. The
actuator is provided with limit switches (ZSC 0/C
200) for 0% & 100% positions, which are used as
safety interlocks for fan start permissive. VFD is
provided. In VFD mode, the inlet damper is kept
full open and the motor speed is varied to get

Section B

Please refer Vendor Manual for safe Operation


& Maintenance of FD fans.

6.3 Air Pre Heater


Reference drg no: A32 - 1PD - 44980 R 0
Air heater provided is of tubular type and the
purpose is to recover a portion of the sensible
heat from flue gases by all incoming combustion
air, thereby improving combustion efficiency. The
hot flue gas passes through the tubes to heat air
while the air from F.D fans passes from out side
of the tubes for heating.
APH is single flue gas pass and double air pass.
APH is assembled on a steel structure enclosed
with a 4-mm thick steel casing. Bottom Tube
sheet is plate 3495 X 2035 X 16 THK. and the
Top Tube sheet is 3495 X 2035 X 12 THK , Middle
Tube sheet is 3495 X 1851 X 10 THK. APH tubes
are 63.5 mm OD X 2.34-mm thk. Every tube is
expanded in top and bottom sheet. Baffle plates
are provided to support and strengthen APH tubes
between top and bottom tube sheets. To avoid
cold end corrosion some rows of CORTEN STEEL
are provided.
APH is a non-mixing type heat exchanger in which
flue gases pass through the tubes and air out
side the tubes. Flues enter in APH from bottom
of APH-I, enter in to APH-II & leave from top of

24

Operation & Maintenance Manual

APH-II. APH is provided with common hopper for


APH-II & APH-I. Due to change in direction and
sudden pressure drop in APH hopper, fly ash gets
collected in the hopper. Hot air duct from Bed Ash
Cooler is connected to APH hopper.
Ambient air from FD passes through APH to
absorbs sensible heat from flue gases.
A
manually Operator damper is provided at the inlet
of APH. Access doors are provided in connecting
ducting for inspection of air heater tubes.
Hot primary air is then connected to Windbox
Compartments below Combustor (Bedplate) from
bottom & hot secondary air to SA duct to furnace.
Following are the attachments to APH inlet
duct:
Aerofoil AFM-200 for total air flow
measurement.
Pressure Indicator ( Draft Gauge) DG-200
with isolation valve A1 for remote indication in
panel.
Following are the attachments to APH outlet
duct:
Pressure Indicator ( Draft Gauge) PG-202 with
isolation valve A-3 for remote indication in
panel.
One temperature element TE-201 and its
indication TI-201 is provided in DCS.
Thermocouple TE-201 for remote indication
TI-201 in panel.
APH can be bypassed partially so as to maintain
the back end temperature, to maintain the flue gas
exit temp out of air heater above sulphur dew point
temperature. To facilitate this, an interconnecting
duct with butterfly damper (HCV-400A) in between
APH inlet and outlet duct is provided.
A tapping is taken from the APH O/l (Hot air)
going to the suction of PA fan for Fuel Feeding
System.
Combustion Air from APH is passed to the
Windbox. From Windbox, which is divided into
5 nos. compartments, hot primary air passes
across the Bedplate in to the furnace.

6.4 PA Fan
Each Boiler is provided with 2x 100 %. PA fans
driven by electric motor to deliver high-pressure
air, which is used for transportation of fuel to the
Combustor. The suction for the PA fan is taken
after APH second pass.

Section B

A pneumatically operated inlet guide vane damper


is provided at PA fan inlet, to maintain the
required pressure at the fan outlet. The actuator
is provided with limit switches for 0% positions,
which are used as safety interlocks for fan start
permissive. Tight shut-off dampers are provided
at the upstream & downstream of PA fan, to
isolate fans in case of maintenance. A pressure
Indicator ( Draft Gauge DG-300 with Isolation
Valve (A6 ) is provided at common outlet duct for
indicating the Primary Air pressure to fuel feeding
system.
To minimise the forces due to possible movement
of the discharge ducts on the fan, as well as to
isolate fan vibrations being passed on to the duct,
the fans are connected to the discharge duct
through bellow type expansion joints.

6.5 Air Ducts


6.5.1 Combustion Air To Windbox
Hot air duct after APH terminates to 3
compartments in the windbox through branch
ducts. The main duct is branched into 6ducts
and connected to each compartment through
pneumatically operated dampers. Start up 1st,
2nd, & 3rd compartments are provided with
manually operated dampers. Pressure Indicators
PI-6Nos. with isolation valves A5 & Draught
gauges DG-101 A/B, 102 A/B, 103 A/B with
isolation valve A5 for each compartment are
provided for pressure indication..
6.5.2 Secondary Air (Over Fire Air) System
A SA Header-1, 2, 3 & 4 with rows of spray
nozzles provided on RHS & LHS wall respectively.
Header 1 & 2 are at 7.8-m elevation & header 3
& 4 are at 7.1 m elevation. Secondary air ducts
from final APH outlet is taken and branched to air
spreading nozzle & connected to Header-1 & 2
mounted on sidewall. High-pressure Secondary
Over Fire inject air into the furnace through the
spray nozzles mounted in the Header-1 & 2 which
is to help for complete combustion of fuel.
Boiler RHS sidewall nozzles are located at +7825
mm & +7150 mm elevation above C/L of IB
Evaporator bottom header on Header-1, having
30 nozzles of 33.4 O.D x 2.87 thk pipe inclined
horizontally. Ducting is provided with damper at
inlet of Header to adjust the air pressure.
Boiler LHS sidewall nozzles are located at +7825
mm & +7150 mm elevation above C/L of IB
Evaporator bottom header on Header-2, having

25

Operation & Maintenance Manual

30 nozzles of 33.4 O.D x 2.87 thk pipe inclined


horizontally. Ducting is provided with damper at
the inlet of Header to adjust the air pressure.
A pressure pocket and test pocket is provided
each on LH and RH OFA headers.
6.5.3 Secondary Air Duct To Air spreading
nozzle
A Secondary air tapping is taken from APH fan
outlet duct. One main branch is taken from the
APH outlet duct, which is further divided into two
sub-branches, One branch is connected to the
HEADERS 1 & 2 on both sides and other branch
is connected to the HEADERS 3 & 4. And one

Section B

another branch is connected to Air spreading


nozzle, which is used for Fuel spreading inside
the furnace. Manual dampers are provided at
inlet of air spreading nozzle on both LHS & RHS.
Boiler RHS & LHS Air spreading nozzles are
located at 733-mm & 1408-mm distance from C/L
of IB Evaporator bottom header. This spreading
nozzle consists of Holes & Openings.
Sufficient Ducting supports are provided at
suitable locations to strengthen the branch ducts.
Sufficient Expansion Bellows had been provided
at suitable locations in air ducts to take care of
thermal expansion.

26

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Flue Gas System

Flue gas from the furnace passes through S.H


coils, Convection bank tubes, Economiser coils,
Air Pre-heater tubes and ESP to I.D Fans. From
the I.D fan gas is blown through chimney to
atmosphere..

7.1 System Description


Combustion products of gases exits from the
furnace and passed to S.H zone. Furnace is
provided with the following attachments in the flue
path.
Furnace pressure transmitters, PT-100 with
isolation valves FG- 1 and Pressure Indicator
PIC100 are provided to Measure Furnace
Pressure
Furnace pressure high and low alarm / trip
(PAHH-100 & PAH-100, PALL-100 & PAL-100)
are also generated from above transmitters.
A Temperature Elements 3 no (TE-102 A B C )
at the top of the furnace.
Temperature Element (Tag no. TE-100) with
temperature indicator TI-100 at the topside for
the measurement of the fluegas temperature at
the inlet of the super heater stage -II.
From furnace, flue gases pass through the super
heater zone, enters to SSH and then to PSH coil
assembly. From the super heater zone the gases
further passes through the convection bank tubes
and enters to economiser assembly..
From the economiser the flues pass to air pre
heater assembly. Further the gas from APH outlet
pass through the ESP and to I.D fans. From the
fans it is discharged to atmosphere through the
chimney.
Following instruments are provided in flue gas
pathTemperature Indicators
Bed temperature for
each compartment
Flue gas temperature
at boiler bank inlet

(TE-102 A B C)

Flue gas temperature


at economiser inlet

(TE-106)

Flue gas temperature


at economiser outlet

(TE-107)

Local temperature
indicator after APH

(TI-109)

Section B

(TE-100)

Temperature Indicators
Flue gas temperature
at Air-heater outlet

(TE-109)

Flue gas temperature


at ID fan inlet

(TI-110)

Pressure Indicators ( Draft Gauge)


Flue gas pressure at
Economiser inlet
Flue gas pressure at
Economiser outlet

(DG-106)

Flue gas pressure at


Air-heater outlet

(DG-108)

Flue gas pressure at ID


fan inlet

(DG-109)

(DG-107)

O2 Analyser
A probe connection to measure the O2 % by O2
Analyser Tag no AP is provided in ID Fan Inlet
duct.

7.2 Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)


ESP in Customer scope.
The dust particles in the flue gas are collected
here in ESP and clean gas is let into the stack
through ID fan.
Refer O & M manual of ESP vendor manual for
safe Operation & Maintenance.

7.3 ID Fan
Figure 3 ID Fan

Boiler is provided with 1x 100 %. I.D fans. ID


fan is driven by variable frequency drive. ID fan is
of centrifugal type, with radial, backward curved
blades and driven by electrical motor.
The percentage opening of the inlet damper OR
the motor speed regulates the furnace pressure.
Fan inlet dampers are operated on input signals
of furnace pressure indicating controller (Tag no.
PZ 100) through a pneumatic actuator (Tag no.
PY-100) to maintain the required furnace draft.
The actuator is provided with limit switches.
(ZS-100 & 100 O/C) for 0% & 100% positions,
which are used as safety interlocks for fan start
permissive.
In VFD mode, the inlet damper is kept full
open and the motor speed is varied to get the

27

Operation & Maintenance Manual

required furnace Draught. The VFD receives


input signal from furnace pressure indicating
controller (PIC-100).
Also two manual field operated dampers are
provided at fan inlet & outlet duct. Pressure
Gauge DG-109 are provided on individual ID fan
inlet duct for remote indication.
To minimise the force due to possible movement
of the discharge duct on the fan, as well as to
isolate fan vibrations being passed on to the duct,
the fans are connected to the duct through bellows
type expansion joints.
ID fan outlet ducts are connected to chimney.

Fuel Feeding & Firing System

(Refer Fuel Feeding


F591PD-46483, R-0)

System

DRG

Description

Details
Indian Coal:
mm,

100%< 6

30% (max) < 1 mm.


Fuel Size

Char: 100%< 3 mm
30% (max) < 1mm.
Iron particles < 0.5% by
wt. Coal:
Non caking type.

Feeders Type and


Size

Horizontal , Dia 208 mm


x 625mm Long.

8.1 Fuel Bunker


no

Aim
Fuel feeding system is of UNDERBED FEED
type and the fuel is burnt in an ATMOSPHERIC
FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTOR. Fuel is fed
through fuel feed ROTARY FEEDERS with the
help of VFD driven motors into a hot fluid bed
where the combustion takes place.

From the fuel processing plant the fuel enters the


fuel bunker of different capacities as mentioned
above, through belt conveyors.
Fuel is stored in separate bunker and fed through
feeders to a chute above Rotary Feeders and then
fed to boiler through under bed feed system.

Fuel feeding system comprises the following:

A manually operated isolating sliding gate is


provided at the bottom of bunker, before fuel
enters chute above Rotary feeders. By isolating
this gate maintenance job can be taken up in
the respective feeder. A rod type gate is also
provided before fuel enters Rotary feeders. By
inserting or withdrawing required nos. of rod, the
fuel feed quantity can be controlled.

Fuel bunker

8.2 Rotary Feeders

Rod Gate below bunker

There are 3nos. of ROTARY FEEDER provided


below Indian Coal bunker. Provided each on LHS
& RHS below the Surge hopper (Inlet Chutes).
These Rotary feeders are Motor driven coupled
with Gearbox and the speed is controlled by VF
drives and these three stage reduction gearboxes.
Fuel control can be achieved by varying the
speed of the feeder. Fuel from feeder discharge
is conveyed to Combustor with the help of air
spreading nozzle. Also provided 3 local control
switchboard.

This sub-section describes the handling, storage


and feeding system of fuel to the Boiler.

Fuel distribution chutes


Fuel mixing nozzles
Primary Air line for PA headers & mixing nozzle
Secondary air line for combustion
Rotary Feeders for Coal
Rotary feeder for Coal and Char
Component Description
Description
Bunker Capacity
Fuel Feeding Type

Section B

Details
110 Cu M for Coal
110 Cu M for Char/Coal
Under Bed Feeding

There are 3nos. of ROTARY FEEDER provided


below Coal and char bunker. Each on LHS &
RHS below the Surge hopper (Inlet chutes). Fuel
enters through these chutes from bunker. These
Rotary feeders are Motor driven and the speed
is controlled by VF drives and through double
stage reduction gearboxes. Fuel control can be

28

Operation & Maintenance Manual

achieved by varying the speed of the feeder. Fuel


from feeder discharge is conveyed to Combustor
with the help of air spreading nozzle.
Fuel Distribution Chutes
Fuel from the fuel drop chute is fed into the
MIXING NOZZLE provided below the fuel drop
chute, where fuel and air mixes for conveying the
fuel pneumatically to the Combustor.

8.3 Fuel Mix Nozzles


Air from the PA fan enters the mixing nozzle and
creates the suction to allow the fuel to enter the
mix nozzle for conveying to Combustor. In the
mixing nozzle fuel and air mixes and enters the
fuel-conveying pipe.
Total 9 nos. mixing Nozzles are provided. PA
lines from respective PA headers, for nozzles is
provided with manual butterfly type damper (125
NB)
Below the fuel mixing nozzle there is a drain
provided to clean the mix nozzle in case of any
foreign materials / big size particles accumulation.

8.4

Combustor

The combustor is the zone where the firing of the


fuel takes place. The combustor of this boiler is
of unique design. The combustor is divided into
three compartments.
Combustion air distribution pipes
Air nozzles (Bubble caps)
Bed drain pipes.
Bed thermocouples
8.4.1 Combustor Air distribution pipes
There are 6 combustor air supply pipes mounted
in the combustor. All compartments are equipped
with two pipes each. The fluidising air nozzles are
mounted on these combustor pipes.
8.4.2 Air Nozzle
Fluidising nozzles are mounted on the combustion
air supply pipes. Stainless steel fluidising nozzles
are specially designed to prevent in bed spouts
and inbed coils erosion. Besides, the nozzles
shall permit effective fluidisation at lower loads
with shutting down of some compartments.
8.4.3 Bed Drain Pipes
To maintain bed level and to drain out bed ash /
shale / stones etc from the fluid bed Combustor,

Section B

Ash drain-pipe per compartment is provided to the


Combustor, at suitable locations.
Bed drainpipe from the Combustor is provided
with a hand operated sliding gate to drain the ash.
8.4.3 Bed Thermocouples
There are 6 bed thermocouples having 35 mm of
holes. 2 thermocouples for each compartment for
indication of the bed temperatures. Details of bed
thermocouplesTemperature Indicators
1st Compartment
(Start-up
Compartment)
2nd Compartment

TE-101 A,
TE-102 A
TE-101B
& TE-102E

3rd Compartment

TE-101C &
TE-102C

The above temperature element gives input to


Temperature controller TIC-101 A to C which
provides Temperature High & Low Alarms
Indicators (3 nos. each provided, Tag nos. 101
A to C)
8.4.4 Refractory
FIRE BRICKS (IS:6) Layer is applied on the
Combustor on the both side wall upto certain
height (4013 mm from centre line of IB Evaporator
top header) to avoid erosion on the sidewall.
CASTABLE WHITEHEAT-K is applied on boiler
front and rear panel. Also Air supply pipes are
provided with Tile 600x150x150Thk, side skew
block and whytheat-K applied after winding 10-dia
rope. This arrangement is for sealing for all the
six air supply pipes.
8.4.5 Sealing
Boiler Pressure Parts are top supported having
downward & sideways expansion. Windbox/
Combustor is bottom supported having sideways
expansion. Since water walls, which are part of
furnace & Combustor have expansion in opposite
direction, an arrangement of sealing water walls &
Combustor has been provided, so as to construct
an airtight furnace suitable for balanced draught
operation, without any hot air/flue gas leakage.
8.4.1Start Up Firing System
Light up of boiler is done by charcoal/wood coal
assisted firing. The detailed light up procedure is
described in Sec. C (cold light up of boiler).

29

Operation & Maintenance Manual

8.5 Bed Drain System


To maintain bed level and to drain out bed ash /
shale / stones etc from the fluid bed Combustor,
Manual ash drainpipe per compartment is
provided to the Combustor with slide gate, at
suitable locations..

8.6 Ash Drain


During the boiler operation ash is generated in the
Combustor. Fine ash goes along with the flue gas,
which will be collected in the ESP, and the coarse
particles remain in the bed and gradually increase
the bed level.
Bed ash quantity depends upon the ash content
in the fuel, foreign materials like stones and shells
etc. Since bed height needs to be maintained for
trouble free operation, it is necessary to drain the
excess material to maintain the desired level.

Chemical Dosing & Sampling


System

Chemical dosing system consists of chemical


dosing tank with two pumps with motorised
agitator interconnecting piping, valves and
mountings. The complete assembly is mounted
on the skid.
Chemical dosing system are required to maintain
feed & boiler water quality at desirable levels.

9.1 HP Dosing System


During the boiler operation the impurities in the
boiler water keep on getting concentrated. If the
boiler feed water is hard the concentration of such
chemicals may cause formation & deposition of
scales on boiler heat transfer surfaces, which
is dangerous. The chemicals dosed, react and
form insoluble compounds, which prevent scale
formation and aid in removal of existing scales.
The quantity of such chemicals should to be
calculated and depending on the analysis of boiler
water.

9.2 Description of Dosing System Skid


HP)
Total system is mounted on a Base frame.
Chemical-mixing tank made of M.S. with rubber
lined of H.P. = 700 DIA X 950 LONG700 HT. X 5
THK. (300 ltrs) is provided, where the chemical
is mixed with water for 8/24 hrs dosing. Following
are the attachments of the tank - A level gauge,

Section B

One mixing water connection, one drain, one


over flow connection with isolation valves, one
motorised agitator for proper mixing of the solution
and a perforated screen at the inlet to avoid
foreign material entry.
Two pumps with motors are mounted on the base
frame. One pump is operating while another is
stand by.
Pump suction line is tapped of from the bottom of
the tank. It is connected to the pump through an
isolation valve and a strainer. A direct connection
of the DM water is given in between strainer
and isolation valve for flushing of the discharge
piping & strainer. Pumps are high precision
positive displacement type, in which feeding
volume can be controlled. In the discharge
line a pulsation dampener is given to dampen
intermittent discharge from the pump. After that
one NRV, a pressure gauge and isolation valve
is provided. One relief valve to maintain the
pressure in the system is given.
(Please refer Vendor Manual for relief valve set
pressure)
Discharge of the relief valve is connected back
to the tank. Pressure gauge is provided with
a Snubber and a Diaphragm, snubber helps to
dampen the fluctuating pressure and diaphragm
avoids direct contact of chemicals and the gauge
internals. One drain provided after the pressure
gauge is used to release pressure while adjusting
the relief valve setting. Also it can be used to
check the flow.
According to the system, discharge line of the
H.P dosing is connected to Steam Drum &
discharge line of the LP dosing is connected to the
Deaerator. Supports at required elevations are
given. All the piping in the system is to withstand
corrosive chemical solution.
Flushing Line
In the system, the chemical mixing water line is
connected to the pump suction line also, called
as flushing line. This is provided to clear the line
whenever there is no need for dosing.
Whenever the dosing is stopped, always there is
a chemically concentrate water is stagnant inside
the piping. If this liquid is not evacuated, it may
tend to solidify and settle inside the piping, which
will create a problem for free flow of chemical
whenever the dosing is re-started.
Whenever the dosing is stopped, first close the
mixing tank outlet valve and open the flushing line
valve, operate the pump for 2 hrs. In this process,

30

Operation & Maintenance Manual

the chemically concentrated water is replaced with


the clear water; thus choking of piping can be
avoided.
Please refer Vendor manuals for technical data
& safe Operation and Maintenance of dosing
system.

9.3 Sampling System


Sampling system consisting of sample cooler and
the cooling water sub-system for providing steams
& waters samples suitable for SWAS system.

The sample coolers are simple shell and coil


type heat exchangers. In these sample coolers,
the sample is passed through the coils while the
cooling media is passed around the coils on the
shell side.
Individual sample coolers are provided with
isolation valves on the cooling water inlet &
cooling water return lines. The cooling water is
provided from the plant via the terminal point at
pressure of 3.5 Kg/cm2 (g) & temp. 33 Deg C.
The supply & return line is provided with isolation
valves

Sample Coolers
There are three sample coolers provided on the
boiler for the Feed water sample, Drum water
sample and Superheated Steam sample.

Section B

31

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section C

knowledge of all components their design,


purpose, limitations and relationship with other
components is must for the operators.

Topics Covered in this Chapter


Boiler Start Up
Operational Control
Balance of Plant Start Up (Boiler)
Part Load Operation By Bed Slumping
Warm / Hot Start Up
Boiler Shutdown
Dos and Donts
Controls
Troubleshooting Chart
Walkdown Checklist during Operation
Boiler Safety
Operational Precautions for Safety
Section Overview
This section describes the start-up and shutdown
procedures of the boiler.
Note
The procedures explained in this section apply
for start up of a boiler already commissioned.
Commissioning a new boiler call for several
additional requirements, which are not explained
here.
The procedures explained in this section apply
for start up of a boiler already commissioned.
Commissioning a new boiler call for several
additional requirements, which are not explained
here.
It is assumed that operators are trained in
operation of similar AFBC boilers and have been
licensed to operate boilers by the concerned
authorities.
The owner is encouraged to evolve standard
operating procedures (SOP) based on the
framework and recommendations that are
explained in the subsections below. The SOPs
have to be well understood by the utility managers
and operators for safe and reliable operation.
Operators Responsibility
The boiler operator is responsible not only for
the smooth operation of the boiler and its related
equipment, but also for the safety of all the
personnel involved. The operator must be aware
of any operating conditions affecting the boiler or
related equipment. Should be able to recognise
hazardous conditions and to act properly to avoid
injury.
Even though operating procedures are normally
given for each piece of equipment, a complete

Section C

Boiler Start Up

This chapter describes the boiler start up and shut


down procedures as applicable for the following
boiler conditions:
1. Start up of a cold boiler
2. Start up of a warm / Hot boiler
3. Boiler shut down
NOTE
Procedures explained in this chapter apply
for start up of the boiler already commissioned.
Commissioning a new boiler calls for several
additional requirements.
It is assumed that operators are fully familiar with
the design and construction features described in
the earlier section.
It is assumed that Operators are trained in
operation of similar type of boilers and have been
licensed to operate boilers by the State Boiler
Authority.
Owner is encouraged to evolve standard
operating procedures (SOP) based on the
framework and recommendations that are
explained in the subsections below. The SOPs
have to be well understood by operating personnel
for safe and reliable operation.

1.1 Start-up of a Cold Boiler


1. Boiler start-up can be termed as cold start-up
when there is no pressure or when pressure
is less than 2-bar (g) in the steam drum.
2. In a cold start up, possibilities of some
inspection or maintenance works having been
done is presumed. A walk down check is
required and the boiler and its auxiliaries are
to be prepared meticulously for a start up
from the DCS of the control room. Before a
walk down check ensure that all work permits
have been returned, safety tags are removed
and maintenance permission for boiler start
up is available.
1.1.1 Walkdown Checks
Using powerful torches or low voltage inspection
lamps, inspect the furnace, other generating
sections, auxiliaries, flue and air ducting of the
boiler and ensure the following:
BOILER

32

Operation & Maintenance Manual

1. Furnace, Super heater and convection bank


area are clear, all maintenance personnel
have been removed and no scaffolding or
inspection devices have been left inside.
2. Furnace floor, water wall and convection
tubes are clean and there is no evidence of
any water drips, slag or any other deposits.
3. Steam drum is clean and manholes are closed
properly.
4. Confirm the evaporator and furnace wall drain
valves are in closed position.
5. Verify the in-bed super heater supports are
intact and in its rest position
6. Verify that all access doors, inspection doors
of furnace and wind box are tightly closed.
7. Verify that all peepholes have been tightly
closed and sealing/ cooling air connections
are intact and the air valves are open.
8. Verify that the air duct, windbox, economiser,
air pre-heater, dust collecting equipments
and flue gas ducts are clear and that
all maintenance personnel have been
withdrawn. Ensure that the manhole doors
closed properly.
9. Verify that the safety valves are not gagged.
10.

11.

Verify that the illuminators of local level


gauges are ON. Inlet valves from steam and
waterside is open and their drain valves are
closed.
Verify whether the Nitrogen purging valves
are open (connected to the steam drum and
main steam piping). If they are open, they
have to be closed just before boiler light up,
when air vents are opened.

ECONOMIZER
1. Verify the internal is clean and all the
manholes are closed with proper sealing

5. Verify that the drains and vents of standpipes


provided for level transmitters, indicator &
gauges are closed.
WATER DRUM
1. Close the IBD line isolation valve(D-3 ) and
the IBD valve (D-4).
ID, FD & PA FANS
1. Check that the fan inspection doors are
closed.
2. Ensure that the bearing lubrication is done
properly.
3. Check that the coupling and guards are
installed properly.
4. Check that the manual isolation dampers at
inlet and out of the fan are kept closed.
5. Ensure that the control damper actuator is
properly fixed to the operating lever and air
supply is open to actuator and I/P Converter.
DEAERATOR
(DEAERATOR IS NOT IN THE SCOPE OF
SUPPLY, YET FOLLOWING ARE THE CHECKS
TO BE DONE PRIOR TO START UP OF THE
BOILER)
1. Confirm the tank is clean and the manholes
are closed.
2. Close the tank drain valve
3. Keep the vapour tank vent valve open
4. Keep the chemical dosing valve open
5. Confirm the pegging steam valve) kept
closed.
6. Confirm the isolation valves to the level
gauges are in open position.
7. Confirm the isolation valves to the gauges and
transmitters are in open position.

2. Keep the air vent on the outlet header open.

8. Confirm the isolation valve to the steam to


deaerator in close position.

3. Ensure that the drain valves of top and bottom


headers are kept closed

9. Fill up the tank with feed water to the operating


level.

STEAM DRUM

BOILER FEED WATER PUMPS

1. Ensure that the drum vent valves (B 6) are


kept open

(NOT IN THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY, YET


FOLLOWING ARE THE CHECKS TO BE DONE
PRIOR TO THE START UP OF THE BOILER)

2. Open the CBD line isolation valve (D 1)and


keep close the CBD valve(D-2) .

1. Verify the bearing lubrication is done properly.

3. Open the HP dosing line isolation valve


(HP13)

2. Check that the coupling and guards are


installed properly.

4. Confirm that the isolation valves to the direct


level gauges are kept in open position.

3. Ensure that the suction strainers are cleaned


and secured in its place.

Section C

33

Operation & Maintenance Manual

4. Check that the manual isolation valves at


pump suction, minimum re-circulation and
balancing lines are kept in open position and
the discharge valves are close position.

ROTARY FEEDER

5. Check that the cooling water supply is


available.

3. Confirm the tightness of the feeder chain.

FEEDWATER AND SPRAY WATER LINE

1. Verify the bearing lubrication is done properly.


2. Confirm the tightness of the drive chain.
4. Open the slide and rod gate above the feeder
and admit the coal to the feeder.

1. Select the drum level and feed water flow


controllers( LCV-120)in manual mode and
close the control valves (FCV-500B ) also
close the bypass motorized control valve 100
% W-17. and 30% FCV500B

5. Confirm the outlet chutes are clear with out


any blockages.

2. Open the isolation valves of 40 % control


valve.

2. Pa line/duct leakage to be checked.

3. Select steam temperature controller TIC 604


in manual mode with 0% output

4. Dampers proper operation to be checked.

4. Close the manual isolation valves of the


spray water control valve (W34 & W34) for
Attemperator, along with the bypass valve
(W35).
SAMPLE SYSTEM

UNDER BED FIRING SYSTEM


1. Pa nozzle bolts tightness to be checked.
3. Pa line blockages to be checked.
5. Verify the open/close operation of the
compartment PA damper and keep the
damper in close position.
6. Verify the individual pipe isolation vales are in
open position.
APH

1. All the sample lines isolation valves to be


closed. Sample coolers can be taken into
service once the boiler is pressurised.

1. Ensure the soundness of the tube rolling


joints.

2. Ensure a slight bleeding through the sample


line as the boiler is pressurized to 2 bar to
avoid choking of the line and the cooler coil.

3. Verify the tubes are clear with out any


blockages.

COMBUSTOR & AIR SUPPLY PIPES


1. Verify the bubble caps holes are clear without
any blockages.
2. Verify the furnace seals are intact.

2. Verify tube ends are clean without erosion.

4. Verify the tubes are in good condition with out


damage.
5. Confirm the manholes are properly closed
with seal rope.

3. Verify the furnace seals are intact.

6. Ensure that Inlet damper to APH is kept


closed.

4. Verify the wall refractory is intact without any


spalling/damage.

7. Ensure that APH by-pass damper is kept fully


open during start-up.

5. Verify the in-bed coil refractory is intact.

ESP

6. Coal feed nozzles are in good condition.


7. Verify the elevation of bed thermocouples.

1. Switch on the insulator and hopper heaters


4hrs prior to boiler light up.

8. Verify the seal air to the bed thermocouples


are isolated.

2. Switch on the rapper mechanism 2hrs prior to


light up.

9. Ensure the Combustor supporting structure is


free for expansion without any obstruction.

3. Switch on the ash handling system below the


hopper prior to coal firing.

10. Ensure the Combustor supporting structure is


free for expansion without any obstruction.

GENERAL

11. Confirm the open closing operation of


compartment dampers and keep the dampers
in close position.
12. Verify the windbox pressure transmitter
isolation vales are in open position.

Section C

1. Ensure that the battery limit valves are open


and the inputs are available.
2. Instrument air and Service air.
3. Availability of sufficient quantity of feed water.
4. Power up the feeders at MCC.

34

Operation & Maintenance Manual

5. Pilot gas [LPG] up to terminal point isolation


valve.
6. LDO tank is filled with sufficient quantity.
7. LDO pump is ready for operation.
8. Ensure cooling water supply to the various
equipments.
9. Coal bunker is filled up with specified coal.
10. Lime stone bunker is filled with limestone.
11. Availability of initial filling and makeup bed
material.
12. Availability of chemical for feed and boiler
water treatment.
13. Availability of lubricants for normal operation.
14. Ash handling system is ready for normal
operation.

1. Start the feed water pump as per the start up


procedure. On confirming the pump start-up,
open the filling line isolation valve gradually.
Valve to be opened in such a way that the load
on the pump motor is with in the operating
limit. Since there is no backpressure from the
boiler side at this stage, pump outlet pressure
also to be maintained by manipulating the
valve opening.
2. Close the economiser air vent, on confirming
the free flow of water from the vent outlet.
Continue the filling, till the water level in
steam drum reaches to 50mm below the
normal operating limit. Stop the pump after
filling and close the drain valves at furnace
bottom headers, economiser bottom header
and water filling line isolation valves & open
the furnace drain header isolation valve.

1.1.2 System Line Up


PRELIMINARY REQUIREMENTS
1. Power supply: Ensure that the power supply
is switched ON and available for all the
feeders in MCC and for all panels.
2. Operating station -is ensured for readiness
and emergency push buttons are released, if
activated.

While filling the water care should


be taken to maintain the metal
temperature above 21C to avoid
brittle fracture.
Hence, the water temperature must be
maintained to meet this requirement.

3. As instrument air is necessary for the


operation of most of the valves and actuators,
charge the instrument air header, the
branch lines and instruments supply lines
elsewhere. Root valves of all Instruments
(Pressure gauges, Pressure transmitters, DP
transmitters, Level gauges, etc.,) must be
kept open and their drains if any are to be
kept closed. They are not separately listed.

1.1.4 Bed Material Filling

4. Ensure that all the field instruments are lined


up mechanically / electronically.

4. Adjust the furnace pressure to 2mmWc.

1.1.3 Filling of Water in the Boiler

6. Open all the compartment windbox dampers

Following are the guideline to fill the boiler:

7. Isolation dampers to over fire air and PA lines


shall be kept closed

It is recommended to use the filling line for initial


water filling of the boiler.
Prior to start the pump;
1. Open the furnace front wall, rear wall and
evaporator header drain valves.
2. Open the economiser bottom header drain
and top header vent valves (W-26 & W-28
respectively)
3. Close the Furnace drain header outlet valve
W-39, to IBD tank.
4. Open the drum vent valve B-6

Section C

1. Bed material size and chemical property must


be maintained strictly as per the specification
for smooth start up and efficient operation. It
also necessary to confirm the material must
be dry with out moisture.
2. Shift the bed material to the feeding platform.
3. Start the ID fan as per fan start-up procedure.
5. Start FD fan as per fan start-up procedure.

8. Open FD fan suction damper or increase the


fan speed and maintain the windbox pressure
100 125mmWC.
9. Maintain furnace pressure 2mmWc.
10. Note down the windbox pressure of individual
compartments.
11. Bed material may be filled manually through
openings provided on the sidewall wall panels
for view port cum bed material filling opening.
12. Bed material filling should be done in batches,
it should not be in one stretch as it will cause

35

Operation & Maintenance Manual

accumulation of material at the drop point and


restrict the fluidisation of bed material at this
location.
13. Bed material shall be filled up-to 275 to
300mm heights above the bubble cap top,
which is to be verified physically.
14. Prior to confirm the bed height, it is
recommended to fluidise the compartments
thoroughly to spread the material uniformly. It
may require fluidising the compartments one
by one with higher windbox pressure so as to
distribute the bed materials evenly across the
combustor.
15. On confirming the uniform distribution of bed
material, it is a must to study the minimum
fluidisation windbox pressure. Record the
minimum fluidisation windbox pressure and
airflow for the start-up compartment as the
same is a guiding parameter during coal
firing.
16.

After confirming the minimum fluidisation


windbox pressure, start-up compartment
(only) bed height to be increased to 450mm
above the bubble cap by adding additional
bed material.

1.2 Procedure For Normal Operation


1. Check and assure that there is sufficient
storage of fuels in the bunker and normal
water level in the drum. Clean the bed and the
nozzle holes prior to bed material charging,
Fill BED MATERIAL of specified size in the
combustor about 250 mm from the distributor
plate top. Start the FD fan and open the
fan damper gradually to level the sand bed.
Check the fluidization uniformity by observing
the flat surface of the sand bed. If any
non-uniformity is noticed, the same should
be rectified by clearing the sand around the
location & checking for any heavier stone
or metallic particle and blockage of nozzle
holes. Any external material or blocked hole
should be cleared and further fluidizing trial
should be taken.
2. After completion of fluidisation check for
all the compartments, close the second
compartment and check the fluidisation as
earlier for start up compartment. While doing
the same, mark or note the damper opening
where minimum fluidisation (bubbling) will
occur and mark the damper where mixing of
the bed will occur and stop the fans.

Section C

3. After completion of fluidisation check. Feed


dry charcoal uniformly over entire (start up
compartment) bed, afterwards feed charcoal
mixed with kerosene into the bed and spread
it evenly across the complete start up (over
dry charcoal). Ignite the charcoal by throwing
a burning cotton waste
4. After ensuring fire over the entire bed, start
ID, FD fans, increase the air flow gradually to
bring the charcoal to red hot condition by this
top level bed material will start getting heated
up.
After achieving the above condition
mixing of the bed should be carried (such that
all the burning charcoal get mixed up with the
bed material) by using the damper markings
established during fluidisation check. After
2- 3 minutes reduce the airflow to minimum
(i.e.; minimum bubbling). All the burning
charcoal will disappear for a little while as
they get covered with the bed material. Within
a short period, the whole surface again
will start glowing due to charcoal burning,
carefully observe bed temperature raise and
correspondingly increase the air flow to raise
the temperature more than 600 degrees.
If required, add charcoal to the bed for
raising the bed temperature. Once the bed
temperature of 600 Deg C is achieved, then
the fuel feeding can be started by keeping
slow speed. After ensuring firing of the fuel
in the furnace, The speed of feeder to be
adjusted such that the bed temperature is
maintained at around 700-850 Deg C. Once
we start feeding the fuel, the FD fan inlet
damper is opened more and bed material
to be added so that the plenum pressure is
around 500 - 550 mmwc.
5. The fuel feeding to the combustor will be
maintained so as to match with the steam
demand. In case the load on the boiler is
less, then the fuel feeding shall be reduced
along with reduction in combustion air ( by
reducing the FD fan damper). The FD fan air
should not be reduced below 70%(approx)
of that required at MCR. In case of further
reduction in fuel feed, there will be drop in
the bed temperature. If the bed temperature
drops below around 600 Deg C, then the
bed level may be drained suitably to reduce
the inbed heat absorption and thus maintain
the bed temperature. In case the load on
the combustor is more, then the rate of
fuel feeding will be increased along with
increase in combustion air flow. If this result in
increase in bed temperature, then by adding

36

Operation & Maintenance Manual

pressure is too negative all the fine fuel


particles will either fire close to S.H. zone or
fly as un-burnt. Firing at free board is to be
avoided for the protection of S.H. coils from
over- heating..

bed material, which will result in more inbed


area immersion, the bed temperature can be
brought under control..
6. The High and Low set points for the bed
temperature should be set at 900 and 650
Deg C. respectively. During start-up, the
Low temperature set point can be set below
ambient temperature and after start-up, re-set
again at 650 Deg C.
7. During start up it is advisable to go with the
specified fuel and after complete stabilisation
of the boiler with recommended bed height,
combination fuels can be started. Ultimate
care to be taken to avoid higher bed
temperature than recommended,
2 The following are the predicted normal
operating parameters for the start up.
Bed temperature (Deg C) : 800-850
Fluidizing air pressure (mmwc) : 550-575
1. Close the drum vent valve when the pressure
reaches to 2 kg/cm2(g). Do not close the start
up vent and drain valve on the S.H steam out
let header.

1. Increase the boiler pressure as per the cold


start up curve, to have a control on the
pressure raise, rate of firing is to be varied as
per the requirement.
2. At times feeder may have to be stopped, but
ensure that feeding is not discontinued for a
long time so that the bed temperature will be
maintained.
3. Once the boiler reaches close to the operating
pressure make preparation for charging the
main steam and other distribution lines viz.
opening the drain valves.
4. First open the main steam valve by-pass
valve to warm up the Main steam line also to
equalise the pressure at the in/out let of the
Main steam stop Valve (MSSV).

2. Crack open the CBD valve to avoid blockage


of CBD pipe holes and sample cooler coil.

5. When ever the steam line is warm and


condensate (if any) is removed, open the
main steam stop valve slowly. Fast opening
may cause sudden increase in drum level
and water carry over to S.H coils.

3. As the pressure increases, carefully watch the


pressure part for free expansion/movements

6. Close the M.S.S.V by-pass valve fully after the


stop valve is opened fully.

4. At times it will be required to poke the fire


during start up. Care should be taken while
poking by ensuring sufficient negative draft
inside the furnace

7. Keep the start-up vent valve open till the


steady flow of steam is ensured from the end
users. Also put the drum level controller in to
automatic control mode after ensuring steady
steam flow.

5. While viewing the furnace utmost care to


be taken, because if any interruption in fuel
feeding occurs, there is always a possibility of
furnace puffing. Use safety goggle and wear
cotton cloths and view through peep holes
provided to avoid accident.
6. Furnace pressure is to be maintained
between 2 to 5 MMWC, if the furnace

Section C

8.

It is advisable to keep a watch on the


performance of the controller whenever it
is put in to automatic control mode at least
for one hour. If the steam flow varies more
than 20% better to keep it in manual mode till
steady steam flow is ensured. At this stage it
is helpful if the furnace draft control is taken
to auto mode.

37

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Cold Pressure Raising Curve

Figure 4

Section C

38

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Operational Control

2.1 Load Operation

necessary to raise the start-up compartment


temperature with the help of start up burner if
necessary.
8. Above procedure to be followed for the
activation of the remaining compartments.
Note

While loading the boiler care to be


taken that the feed and boiler water
parameters to be brought to the
recommended limit before increasing
the load beyond 50% of the MCR.
To meet the steam flow demand, following
parameters are to be maintained to achieve the
desired output;
2.1.1 Number of Compartments in Active
Condition
Depends on the load requirement number off
compartments to be activated. Compartment
activation may be as per the following procedure;
COMPARTMENT TRANSFER
1. Compartment transfer means, activating a
static (cold) compartment of the Combustor
adjacent to the activated compartment. This
is done by admitting the fluidising air to the
compartment to be activated and mixing the
cold bed material with hot bed material of the
activated / operating compartment.
2. Before activating a static compartment,
fuel flow shall be increased to the active
compartment to avoid drastic drop in bed
temperature of the operating bed during
mixing.
3. Increase the active bed temp around 875C
and increase the airflow sufficient to maintain
the active compartment windbox pressure
while opening the bed to be activated
4. While mixing the cold bed with hot material,
the bed temperature starts rising gradually,
however the bed temp of the operating
compartment may drop. Mixing shall be
continued till the drop of 50C in the operating
compartment and close the cold compartment
damper.
5. Mixing to be continued, once the active
compartment bed temperature increase to
875 C.
6. Whenever the cold bed temperature rise to
450C, start the fuel feeding and stabilise the
compartment with coal firing.
7. In case if the temperature of the operating
compartment drops below 700C, it

Section C

After every compartment transfer


stabilize the active compartments
to the required parameters i.e bed
temperature and wind box pressure.
2.1.2 Fuel Feed Lines Cleaning
Moist coal, foreign materials and bigger size fuel
may choke fuel feed lines. This may results in bed
temperature drop. Following are the guidelines
during such situations:
1. Ensure that PA air available with sufficient
pressure at the fuel feed line.
2. To identify the line thoroughness, carefully
drain the vertical portion of the feed line. Once
cold bed material is drained, hot particles flow
out along with a jet of air. This indicates that
the fuel feed line is clear.
3. If the air is not coming out of the line this
indicates that the horizontal line is choked
which needs isolation of air line and fuel
feeding. Whenever the fuel feeder is stopped,
fuel flow needs to be increased to other
compartments.
4. To ensure the feed line cleanliness open the
drain plug of coal feed mixing nozzle, open the
P.A. air. Place your hand below the drain plug.
If there is a good suction of air, it indicates that
the path is clear. If there is positive pressure,
it indicates that the line is choked ahead of the
nozzle.
5. Check any foreign particles/bigger size coal
above the mixing nozzle, if any, clear the
same.
6. Dismantle or poke the lines through poking
holes and choking should be cleared.
7. Pass air through the line to ensure the line
cleanliness and put the feed line into service.
2.1.3 Adequate Bed Levels with Desired Bed
Chemistry
If the load demand is very low and may be for
few hours, it is suggested to go for low bed level
operation by reducing the bed level. So as to keep
more number off compartments in service. This
will help is accumulation of ash over the idle bed
and cause trouble during activation.

39

Operation & Maintenance Manual

During low bed level operation some of the inbed


tubes surface will be exposed from the active bed,
thus reducing the steam generation.
NOTE:
1. Bed level should not be less than 350mm
during boiler operation.
2. During low bed level operation, the bed
temperature may be high and possibility of
high bed temperature fluctuation even for
small upset in process changes, which is to
be taken care suitably.
3. While increasing the boiler load it is suggested
to increase the bed level to the required level
of around 450-500mm.
During low bed level operation if the boiler trips
necessary quick care to be taken to re start the unit
as there is a high possibilities of faster bed cooling
and furnace blackout situation may happen.

2.2 Bed Level Control


1. During boiler operation, portion of ash
generated will be accumulated in the bed
and should be drained at regular intervals
to maintain required bed level & bed bulk
density (1250Kg/m3) for effective fluidisation
and good combustion to meet the required
steam demand.
2. Pressure drop across the bed will increase
with the accumulation of bed ash. This will
reflect on increase in windbox pressure.
Gradual increase in wind box pressure
(without increasing the FD flow) indicates
the accumulation of bed ash. Consequently,
quantity of air flow through the bed, wind
box pressure may have to be maintained at
higher level at the expense of high pressure
drop. This in turn will increase the power
consumption of FD fan.
3. In case if the bed bulk density increase more
than 1250Kg/m3, it also reflect in higher
windbox pressure for the air the required
airflow.
4. If the bed height is too low, boiler load cannot
be increased to the rated capacity. At this
condition sieved bed material as per the
size specified may be used as a bed make
up material to maintain the bed level to the
requirement.
5. Rate of bed ash accumulation depends
on ash in fuel and size distribution. With
higher percentage of fines in the fuel, ash
accumulation in the bed will be less. Coal
with very less percentage of fines contributes

Section C

for high bed ash accumulation. Apart from


sizing, ash content in the fuel also reflects the
ash accumulation levels in the bed.
6. Along with fuel stones/shales also enters the
furnace which accumulates in the furnace
bottom, and increase the bed bulk density
and warrants increase in wind box pressure to
maintain required air flow to the compartment.
During higher bed bulk density situations, bed
draining to be done frequently to remove the
accumulated stones/shells to maintain the
bed bulk density to the desired limit maximum
of 1250Kg/m3 to avoid de-fluidisation and
clinker formation. Also fresh bed material to
be added to maintain the required bed height
during bed draining.
7. Restrict shales/slates and stones entering
with coal before fed to the crusher/bunker.
Adequate arrangement to be made for picking
up these foreign particles in the conveying
system suitably. This is to avoid packing
of bed and air-lancing, which shall lead to
greater erosion of bed coils.
2.2.1
How
low
performance?

bed

level

affects

1. Coil exposure and leads to low loads


2. Elutriation & high unburnt carbon in fly ash.
3. Low bed level leads to high bed temperature
fluctuations
4. Low bed level leads to high excess air as this
is required to keep the bed under controlled
temperatures.

2.3 Bed Ash Alkali Control


Bed chemistry needs to be monitored as the fuel
bound alkalies like Fe2O3, Na2O, K2O etc may
cause fouling of heat transfer sections and result
in low heat pick-up and loss in efficiency.
Following are the guideline for the bed
chemistry control:
1. Regular analysis of bed ash for Fe2O3, Na2O,
K2O, Sieve analysis, bulk density etc.
2. Minimise the concentration of fouling alkali
constituents by frequent bed draining.
Analyse bed ash for following parameters
and decide on draining rate.
a. Iron Oxide : <4 %
b. Na2O + K2O : <4%
c.

Bed material agglomerate which is in


small egg shape 4 mm:<10%

40

Operation & Maintenance Manual

d. In case of high alkali content in the fuel,


bed-draining cycle should be strictly
adhered to maintain the limits, this is to
avoid agglomeration of bed.

2.4 Adequate Bed Temperature


Bed temperature is a function of
Operating load
No of active compartments
Bed height
Bed bulk density
Bed material chemical composition
Excess air
Moisture in fuel.
2.4.1 Low Bed Temperature Operation
1. Bed temperature varies depends on the bed
level, quality of fuel & boiler load. Fuel and
air should be adjusted to get the required
bed temperatures depends upon the load.
Apart from varying fuel feed rate, air flow and
bed level, boiler load also can be controlled
by slumping and activating compartments.
While operating with more compartments, for
lower load conditions, the bed temperature
may be operated at less than the MCR
values. However number off compartment
requirement may be decided in such a way
that the bed temperature should not drop
below 750 Deg C for safe / trouble free
continuous operation.

5. Similarly, if the bed material chemical property


is not as per the design recommendations,
the bed temperature may fluctuate during fuel
feed upset conditions. If the alumina content
in the bed material is lower than the limit, bed
may not retain the heat during interruption in
fuel feeding, also when ever the unit is trips,
the bed temperature drops quickly and cause
trouble for hot start-up.
6. Also if excess air is pumped into the bed, it
will cool the bed and warrant additional fuel to
maintain the bed temperature. Hence there
should be a balance between the air to fuel
ratio along with the bed height.
7. Whenever the moisture in the fuel increase,
bed temperature drops equally as additional
heat energy is required to evaporate the
moisture in the fuel. Similarly, if the moisture
is less than the design value bed temperature
increase for the same steam flow conditions.
High moisture fuel require increase in PA
pressure also, it may also leads to the erosion
of bed coils.

2.5 Fuel and Bed Material Sieve


Analysis as per the Designed
Conditions
FUEL
Quality of fuel plays an important role in the
availability and efficiency of the boiler. Hence it
is essential to maintain the fuel as per the design
limits.

2. Also the bed temperature should be controlled


to suit the fuel being fired, as it may leads to
clinker formation if it is exceed.

Following are the major factors are to be


monitored during operation

3. Along with the rise in boiler load, fuel feed


rate with combustion air also increased
to maintain the steam pressure. With the
additional fuel firing the bed temperature rise
subsequently. During operation if the required
bed level is not maintained, it may leads to
high bed temperature situations and leads
to clinker formation. Hence it is a must to
maintain proper bed level to control the bed
temperature.

Fuel moisture

4. Bed material also plays an important role to


maintain this parameter, if the bed material
bulk density is more than the desired limit, it
will warrant higher windbox pressure to lift the
material. If sufficient pressure is not available,
bed may not fluidise properly and leads to
clinker formation. If the windbox pressure is
increased more than the limit, it will erode the
inbed coils and may fail prematurely.

Section C

Fuel sieve analysis


Shales and stones
Alkalis in fuel
GCV
Ash
BED MATERIAL
As explained in the previous chapters, bed
material is an important element hence it is
mandatory to maintain the quality of bed material
to improve the availability and efficiency of the
boiler.
Following are the major factors are to be
monitored during operation
Sieve Analysis
Chemical Analysis

41

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Bulk Density
Shape
Fusion Temperature
Ensure bed material bulk density is always
between 1000 - 1100 kg/m3. .
Whenever the boiler is to be shutdown, it is
recommended to stabilise the boiler operation
with coal firing prior to slump the bed

Balance of Plant Start Up (Boiler)

ASH HANDLING:
Fly ash handling system shall be started one hour
prior to coal firing.
ESP
Rapping mechanism should be started one hour
prior to start the firing.
Hopper and insulation heater should be switched
on 4hrs prior to charge the ESP.
4hrs.
after attaining the required flue gas
temperature at ESP inlet, the ESP shall be
charged. However in case of disturbance in
normal operation of the boiler, it is advised to
switch off the transformer.

3.1 Deaerator Charging


The procedure for placing the deaerator in service
is outlined below:
1. It always recommended that the deaerator
have to be taken in line as soon as the
LP steam is made available or at lower
loads.
It would be easier to control
the parameters and there wont be any
hurry in stabilizing the system.
It is
also recommended to take deaerator in
operation, as the boiler is started and
steaming out, so that the risk of corrosion
and pitting will be minimised.
2. Open the vent valve at the vapour tank to
atmosphere.
3. Line up all the instruments on deaerator
system.
4. Fill the deaerator slowly through the makeup
water inlet connection by opening the
deaerator level control valve. Watch the water
level in the level gauges and ensure that the
gauges are indicating the correct water level.

Section C

Cross check with the level indication available


at control room through the level transmitter .
Stop the water supply to the deaerator when
normal water level has reached.
5. In the mean time charge the steam up to
the pressure control valve to warm up the
line and keep the steam readily available for
charging into deaerator. Once, water level
has attained NWL, then slowly admit the
steam into deaerator through the pegging
steam line. It will take minutes or one or two
hours to heat the water with pegging steam.
Whenever the water temperature reaches 60
to 70 0C, deaerator is ready for charging the
steam through main supply line.
6. Try to maintain a low water level before
admitting the steam through the main supply
line. Level may be maintained well above
the very low level and below the centreline
of the tank. Due to direct scrubbing of steam
with warm or cold water there may be little
hammering or vibration in the storage tank.
By keeping the low Water level the quantity of
the water in the storage tank will be less and
less steam will be required initially to heat it.
Thus vibration or hammering can be reduced
while pressurising the deaerator. Keeping
low water level will have to be done manually
watching the level in the direct level gauge
and by maintaining the water intake manually,
as the Level Transmitter will be out off its
range.
7. Start charging the steam gradually by opening
the Pressure control valve, water will be
heated up and steam will start coming out of
the vent. Whenever the steam vapour start
flows increase the steam flow (slowly) and
maintained the pressure as per the desired
value.
8. Along with steam, increase water flow
simultaneously but gradually.
Objective
is to maintain Normal Water Level and
to increase deaerator pressure up to the
required value. Once there is considerable
rise in temperature, admitting of steam in
more quantity will not cause hammering in
the deaerator.
9. Water and steam intake should be
synchronised so that at no point of time
deaerator pressure shall go beyond the
pressure above the desired limit and to
vacuum pressure. More steam flow will lead
to increase in deaerator pressure and less
steam flow than the requirement for the water

42

Operation & Maintenance Manual

10.

flow will lead to condensing of steam and will


result into reduction in deaerator pressure,
even to vacuum pressure.

may require to slump one or more beds depend


upon the situation.

As the deaerator pressure increases the


water temperature will start increasing. If the
water outflow from deaerator is faster, then
the temperature rise will be faster.

4.1 Bed Slumping Procedures

11. Once the level and pressure are reached the


set values the controllers can be put into auto.
Temperature will reach automatically to the
operating value.
12. Flash steam if any from the boiler system can
now be admitted into deaerator.
13. The vent valve on the vapour tank can be
throttled to optimise the venting steam flow.
14. In the event of taking the deaerator into line,
if abnormal hammering or vacuum situation is
created, stop admitting the steam and repeat
the whole charging process once again.

While slumping the bed, following procedures may


be followed1. Reduce coal feeding gradually and stop the
feeder of the compartment to be slumped.
2. Observe the dropping trend of bed
temperature, whenever the temperature
drops steadily stop the airflow to the
compartment by closing the compartment
damper.
3. Maintain air flow through the PA lines to clear
the lines.

3.2 Air Pre Heater

4. Due to slumping of the bed, FD outlet


pressure may increase, which is to be
controlled to maintain the required air
flow and wind box pressure for the active
compartments.

1. When the boiler backend flue gas


temperature increase above 160C, APH
to be taken in line. Opening of APH inlet &
bypass damper to be adjusted in such a way
to maintain the gas outlet of APH at 1640C.

5. Adjust / increase the fuel flow to the active


compartments to meet the steam demand.
Maintain the bed temperature and should
not increase more than 950C, or less than
750C during boiler operation depending on
the design condition.

2. APH Tubular heater elements are susceptible


to fouling due to fly ash accumulation,
particularly at the air inlet to the heater and
near the exit of gas from Air Pre Heater;
corrosion due to condensation of the flue
gas, acid constituents within the ash, which
become corrosive in the presence of moisture;
& fire occurring in the gas path by the
deposition of large quantities of unburned
combustible materials within tubes and on
the tube sheets. Above conditions can be
minimised by keeping the tube surface free
of deposits through proper combustion and
by maintaining safe flue gas temp. i.e. 160C
at APH exit.
FLY ASH SILO UNLOADING
Unloading dampers shall be kept ready and fly ash
silo shall be evacuated once in four hours. The
frequency of evacuation shall be determined as
per site conditions.

Part Load Operation By Bed


Slumping

Though it is better to operate the boiler with all


the compartments in service, at times for some
reason due to sudden drop in steam demand, it

Section C

6. After ensuring the coal feed lines are clear, PA


air to coal feed lines may be closed, depends
on the requirement.
7. Number of beds to be slumped can be
decided by the operating staff based on the
steam requirement.
8.

Accumulation of fly ash may lead to


problems like clinker formation and
sudden drop in bed temperature.
While slumping the bed it is
mandatory to activate the
compartment intermittently to
avoid accumulation of ash over the
idle bed. It also suggested to drain
the bed intermittently to remove the
collection of fly ash settled over the
bed.

4.2 Slumped Bed to Active Bed


While converting the slumped bed in to active bed
the following procedures may be followed:

43

Operation & Maintenance Manual

1. While converting the slumped bed in to


active bed the following procedures may be
followed:
2. Open gradually the slumped bed wind box
damper for few minutes to fluidise the beds,
by observing the furnace pressure.
3. Observe the bed temperature, and while
mixing the bed temperature will rise in the
slumped bed and the bed temp will drop in
the adjacent active bed, fuel flow needs to be
increased to the active bed, to maintain the
bed temperatures within safe limits, above
750 deg.c.
4. Meanwhile allow air to the coal feed P.A. lines
and clear the vertical line of the coal feed line
and keep ready the fuel feed system to inject
coal to the compartment.
5. Open / close the wind box damper of slumped
bed and increase the bed temperature more
than 600 deg. C. and allow steady air flow to
the bed.
6. At this point fuel flow to the new bed to
be initiated, which will increase the bed
temperature in the new bed.
7. Coal flow / air flow to be adjusted to get the
required bed temperature / steam flow and
other operating parameters.
N.B.:
1. It is advised to slump the extreme bed
instead of middle bed.
2. It is preferred to keep the start up bed
always in service and not recommend for
slumping.

Warm / Hot Start Up

5.1 Case-I (Bed Ash Temperature >


600C)
AFTER BOILER TRIPPING IF THE BED
TEMPERATURE IS ABOVE 600 C OR WITHIN
8 HOURS OF HOT BOXING UP OF BOILER.
FOLLOWING SEQUENCE MAY BE FOLLOWED
TO BRING BACK THE BOILER INTO SERVICE.
1. Open the start up vent valve 30%, normalise
drum level.

4. Start the ID Fan, FD Fan and PA Fan as per


fan start-up procedure.
5. Load the ID fan to maintain furnace pressure,
load the FD and PA fans with pressure
of 600 and 1300 mmWC at the fan outlet
respectively.
6. Open the PA compartment dampers and clear
the PA lines of the start-up compartment.
7. Once PA lines are cleared in the start up
compartment, start the fuel feeder without
delay otherwise bed may cool down rapidly.
8. Open the windbox damper such that the bed
is just bubbling, ensure that fluidisation is
uniform and satisfactory.
9. Gradually increase the fuel and airflow,
observing the rise in bed temperature.
10. Adjust the airflow and fuel flow to stabilise the
start up bed temperature.
11. Proceed
with
compartment
transfer
procedures mentioned earlier according to
steam demand.
12. Take feed water control and furnace draft on
auto mode.
13. Charge the ESP if the flue gas temperature is
OK.
14. Put the boiler into Auto mode.

5.2 Case-II (Bed Ash Temperature <


600C)
AFTER
BOILER
TRIP
IF
THE
BED
TEMPERATURE IS LESS THAN 600 C or
BOILER BEING OUT OF SERVICE FOR MORE
THAN 8 HOURS, FOLLOWING SEQUENCE
MAY BE FOLLOWED TO BRING BACK THE
BOILER INTO SERVICE.
1. Open the start up vent valve to 30%,
normalise drum level
2. Close all the Compartments air dampers, Fan
suction dampers and PA fan Compartment
dampers.
3. Bring back the fuel feeders to the minimum
speed setting.

2. Close all the Compartments air dampers, Fan


suction dampers and PA fan Compartment
dampers.

4. Start the ID Fan, FD Fan and PA Fan as


per fan start-up procedure. Load the ID fan
to maintain furnace pressure, load the FD
and PA fans with pressure of 600 and 1300
mmWC at the fan outlet respectively.

3. Bring back the fuel feeders to the minimum


speed setting.

5. Load the ID fan to maintain furnace pressure,


load the FD and PA fans with pressure

Section C

44

Operation & Maintenance Manual

of 600 and 1300 mmWC at the fan outlet


respectively.
6. If the bed level is too high drain the bed and
bring down the bed height to the required
level.
7. Start the start up oil burner as per burner light
up procedures.
8. Repeat the cold start-up procedures
mentioned earlier and stabilise the boiler with
coal firing.

Boiler Shutdown

Boiler shut down can be of two types:


1. Planned Shutdown, where the operator gets
advance notice and adequate time to shut
down the boiler in an orderly manner.
2. Boiler Trip on interlock protection
emergency shutdown by the Operator.

or

If the shut down is only for few hours, it is not


recommended to cool the bed material.
If the shut down is for few days, it is recommended
to cool the bed material.

6.1 Planned Shut Down


The following procedure for Planned or Normal
shutdown is based on the assumption that the unit
is operating at full load on automatic control and
the unit should be brought to zero pressure and
cool the boiler completely

11. Verify the IBD valve is closed.


12. Allow the boiler to cool naturally
13. Whenever the steam drum pressure drops to
2-kg/cm2 (g), open the steam drum vent and
the start-up vent.
14. If the unit is to be shut for a short period,
no personnel should be admitted to the
boiler.
If the operating personnel need
to enter the unit, the boiler, economiser,
air heater hoppers, and the ash collection
equipment hoppers (ESP) must be emptied
of any solids and the enclosure temperature
cooled below 50
15. All solids must be removed completely from
the boiler and the boiler temperature must be
below 50 deg C before personal are allowed
to enter for maintenance or inspection.
a) Use airflow to fluidise the bed.
b) Start the bed draining system
16. After the bed material flow from the bed drain
has stopped, a layer of dead bed material will
remain in the bed.
17. The bed material temperature must be less
than 50 dec Cor less before any attempt
to enter into the boiler. After the unit has
cooled to a safe temperature below 50 deg C,
shut the FD and ID fans, then evacuate the
remaining bed material from the furnace.

1. Reduce the boiler load gradually according to


the process requirement. ,

18. Shut down all the auxiliary equipment at this


time. This will include the feed water system,
make-up system, bed drain ash removal
systems etc

2. Stop the fuel feeders one by one and slump


the compartments as per slumping procedure.

6.2 Boiler Emergency Trip

3.

Whenever the load demand reduced below


30%MCR stop the firing, close the main steam
stop valve and open the start up vent valve
to maintain at least 10% MCR steam flow.
Continue the bed fluidisation and reduce the
bed temperature below 250 Deg C prior to
stop the fans .

Boiler may trip either by safety interlock or due to


a power failure or by an emergency trip command
by the operator causing the I.D Fan to stop and
abruptly stopping the firing.
Under such emergency trip conditions the
operator action is -

4. Stop the steam supply to the deaerator.

1. Protect the boiler

5. Stop phosphate dosing.

2. Investigate the cause of trip and if possible to


eliminate the cause

6. Close the CBD valve.


7. Close the sample lines
8. Stop the FD fan and close the suction damper.
9.

Stop the ID Fan.

10. Maintain normal water level.

Section C

3. If the cause is eliminated, restart the boiler


4. If the cause cannot be eliminated immediately,
continue the shutdown till the problem is
attended to safe and reliable operation.
6.2.1 Boiler Protection after a Trip

45

Operation & Maintenance Manual

1.

Close main steam stop valve immediately

2. Continue to feed the water flow, if the water


level requires to be maintained
3. Check that fuel feeders are stopped.
6.2.2 Boiler Shutdown during sudden Tube
Failure
1. In case of a sudden tube rupture followed
by a severe loss of drum water level, it is
advised immediately to stop the burners /
fuel feeders, and also isolate the steam &
feedwater system. This is to avoid undue
thermal stresses on pressure parts. The

Section C

drum vent & start up vent have to be opened


whenever the pressure falls to 2kg/cm2 (g).
Extent of the damage is to be ascertained
after cooling the boiler completely.
2. In case of a tube failure and if the water level
could be maintained though the fire is not
lost, it is recommended to stop the boiler
immediately to avoid major damage to the
pressure parts.
3. The impingement of steam & water from a
leaking tube on adjacent tubes can cause
additional failure of tubes. In such cases,
the normal planned shutdown procedure is
immediately implemented.

46

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Dos and Donts

15. Boiler surroundings and equipment must be


properly illuminated.

DOS
1. Maintain all instruments and interlocks in good
working condition.
2. Maintain the instrument air free from moisture
and oily matters and the pressure as
recommended.
3. .All dampers must be in smooth operating
condition.
4. Maintain fuel as per the recommendation 1. .

16. Cleared the bed material immediately to make


room for emergency.
17. Use genuine spares.
DONTS
1. Dont by pass any instruments and safety
interlocks.
2. Dont run the Boiler
pressurized condition.

with

furnace

in

5. Use the bed material as per the specification.

3. Dont throttle the feed water pump balancing


leak off valve while the pump is in operation.

6. Maintain bed chemistry as per the design


limits.

4. Dont operate the furnace wall header drain


valves while the Boiler is in operation.

7. Maintain feed and boiler water as per the


design limits.

5. Dont leave the furnace door open while the


boiler is in operation.

8. Use proper lubricants as per the manufacturer


recommendation.

6. Do not open the furnace manhole without the


permission from control room.

9. Clean all Ash hoppers, feed water and


transfer pump suction strainers, Oil gun
regularly.

7. Do not reuse the drained bed material.

10. Operate the boiler within the recommended


operating limits and Maintain proper operation
log sheets regularly.

9. Dont leave the Instrument Control Panel


unattended.

11. Operation & Servicing of individual equipment


should be done as per the manufacturers
schedule.
12. Carry out regular cleaning of Direct water level
gauge glass on Feed water tank, Deaerator
and Boiler drum.
13. Keep the stand by auxiliaries ready for
operation.
14. Chemical
dosing
recommendation.

Section C

systems

as

per

8. Do not operate the boiler with clinker.

10. Dont allow unauthorized persons to operate


the boiler and associated equipment.
11. Avoid continuous operation of boiler at low
loads (low back end temperature) to protect
economizer and air preheater corrosion.
12. Do not dose chemicals into the boiler in batch
wise, they should be done on a continuous
basis.
13. Do not slump the in-between compartments,
it must be from the last compartment.
14. Do not slump the start-up compartment.

47

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Controls

FURNACE PRESSURE CONTROL:


1. Operate Furnace pressure in auto mode
with (2 to -5) mmWC as set point. Can
be switched over to auto mode after
the stabilisation of coal firing in start-up
compartment. During bed activation and
slumping control may be taken into manual
mode as the air and gas flow may vary
drastically during these operation.

till the boiler is connected to steady load.


Whenever the steam flow is increased more
than 30% MCR control can be switched over
to three-element control mode.
O2 CONTROL:

DRUM LEVEL

1. Whenever the boiler load increase above


60% and the operation is stable, O2 control
can be taken into service. However close
observation may be required as any upset
condition like heavy bed, moist fuel and
fluctuating steam demand, it will be difficult to
maintain the O2 as per the predicted values.

1. During start-up level can be maintained


in auto mode with single element control,

Please refer Volume-3 , Section-6 for detailed


Control Schematic drawings and write-up.

Section C

48

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Troubleshooting Chart

This section to be used for solving problems


arising during operation.
1. Indication: Unable to maintain boiler water
concentration
Check the probable source Tube
Leak or Hideout
Probable Cause: Check Slight
leakage from pitting or cracking of
tube or tube seat leak.
The repair method and preventive
measures involves the following
Remove boiler from service at first
convenient time. Hydrostatic test
to be done to locate leak. Repair
by welding or splicing as indicated
and as approved by insurance or
State Inspection. Determine cause
of failure and correct it. Operation
at normal loads should put chemical
back in solution.
2. Indication: Sound of steam blowing in furnace
or seeing visible steam from the stack.
Check the probable source Tube
Leak
Probable Cause: Substantial leak
from tube/tubes. Over-heating as
from scale or tube seat leakage.
Repair method and preventive
measure The same as above plus
tubes re-rolling.
3. Indication:
Steam explosion in furnace
followed by inability to maintain water level.
Check the probable source Tube
rupture
Probable Cause: Failure of tube from
low water, tube blockage or erosion
of exterior metal surface.

Repair method and preventive


measure Remove boiler from
the line immediately. Inspect or
determine whether tube splicing
or wholesale tube replacement is
necessary.
4. Indication: High conductivity.
Check the probable source Solids
carry over in the steam or high CO2
or NH3 in boiler water.
Probable Cause: High boiler water
concentrations, excessive water
level fluctuation drum baffle leakage
or deposits on scrubbers.
Repair method and preventive
measure Check for baffle leaks in
steam drum when out of service, or
boiler water contamination. Check of
degasified steam sample will indicate
if CO2 or NH3 is high.
5. Indication: High gas temperature.
Check the probable source High
excess air.
Probable Cause: Improper control /
adjustment of airflow.
Repair method and preventive
measure Check excess air at
furnace boiler outlet, and correct
airflow if required.
6. Indication: Excessive water level fluctuation.
Check the probable source Water
load or control conditions
Probable Cause:High boiler
concentrations, extreme load swings,
varying supply pressure or control
loop adjustment.
Repair method and preventive
measure Correct condition leading
to the problem.
7. Indication:
tubes

Section C

Bowed water wall generating

49

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Check the probable source


Overheating
Probable Cause: Internal deposit or
low water. Usually internal deposits
result in tubes bowing away from the
furnace & low water /starve results
bowing toward the furnace.
Repair method and preventive
measure Severity of bowing
will determine extent of tube
replacement. Internal scale will call
for internal cleaning. If low water is
indicated a thorough inspection for
drum damage and tube seat leakage
must be made. Take steps to prevent
recurrence or low water condition.
8. Indication: Tube blisters
Check the probable source
Localised overheating
Probable Cause: Internal deposit.
Repair method and preventive
measure Repair by re-tubing or
welding in tube section or by heating
and driving back blister depending
upon insurance carrier or State
Inspectors approval. Clean internally
by turbining or acid cleaning.
9. Indication: Internal pitting sharp edged and
covered with barnacles in drum or tubes.
Check the probable source
Corrosion
Probable Cause: Oxygen in Boiler
water.
Repair method and preventive
measure Depth and extent of
pitting determines need and extent of
tube replacement. Extensive drum
pitting can be welded but is subject to
approval by either the manufacturer
& insurance carrier or State. Source
of oxygen must be located and
eliminated.

Section C

10. Indication: Internal loss of metal not sharply


defined and accompanied by black iron oxide
(Fe 3 O4 ).
Check the probable source
Corrosion
Probable Cause: Overheating
resulting in breakdown of water into
H & O2 Cause is usually from sludge
letdown or pluggage.
Repair method and preventive
measure Individual inspection will
determine extent or replacement,
internal cleaning and correction of
water conditions are required.
11. Indication: External pitting.
Check the probable source
Corrosion
Probable Cause: From corrosive
ash deposit and moisture either from
dew point or external source such as
leaking soot blowing tube.
Repair method and preventive
measure Extent of repair must be
determined by individual inspection.
In emergency tubes out of high
heat zone can be plugged, being
sure they are cut to vent and to
prevent differential expansion with
adjacent tubes. Proper external
cleaning can prevent out of service
corrosion. Locate and eliminate
source of moisture. If dew point is
from inservice corrosion, take steps
to raise metal temperature.
12. Indication: Tube cracking
Check the probable source
Mechanical stress or a combination
of stress corrosion or tube variation.
Probable Cause: Interference
with expansion or differential
expansion with adjacent parts to give
mechanical stress or this stress plus
corrosion attack. Vibration set up
by turbulent gas flow characteristics
over tubes.

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

Repair method and preventive


measure When accessible and
with insurance or State approval,
the cracks can be ground out and
welded, otherwise splice in section
or replace tube. Locate & eliminate
source of expansion difficulty by
inspection or hot to cold expansion
measurements. Using tube spacers
can stop vibration.
13. Indication: External metal loss.
polished area

Highly

Check the probable source


Erosion
Probable Cause: Mechanical
abrasion from soot blower action.

14. Indication: External metal loss. Oxidised fire


scale area.
Check the probable source
Overheating
Probable Cause: Prolonged or
repeated overheating.
Repair method and preventive
measure Extent of metal loss will
determine extent of tube or tube
section replacement. Inspection
or a thermocouple installation will
determine cause of overheating.
Using tube spacers can stop
vibration.

Repair method and preventive


measure Where accessible and
with insurance or State approval
pad weld or splice in a tube section.
Eliminate channeling of steam
from soot blowers or use tube
shields. Using tube spacers can stop
vibration.

Section C

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

10 Walkdown Checklist during


Operation
1. Check for unusual noises from steam / water
leakages.
2. Check for unusual traces of water on floor,
buck stay or leakage from casing joints.
3. Check for oil Spills around burner
4. Look for valve and gland leakage.
5. Discoloration, hot spots and bulging etc. on
casing, ducts and hoppers
6. Check for steam and water leaks from
connections and fittings to the drum.
7. Watch the furnace for any clinker formation.
If possible inspect the slogging condition
of furnace walls and super heater coils (if
provided) through the observation ports.
8. Walk around the furnace exterior and observe
for any hot spots or gas leaks.
9. Listen for any unusual noise around
economiser which may indicate economiser
leak (i.e. hissing noise)

Section C

10. Inspect penthouse for gas leakages.


11. Inspect windbox corners welded joints for any
air leakage.
12. Inspect all ash hoppers to make sure they are
being emptied properly.
13. Check around all air/flue ducts for signs of
leakage.
14. Check position of fan and field dampers.
15. Check for any gas leakages from refractory
sealing.
16. Check for leakages from safety valves at
normal operating pressure. Also note the
safety valve blow off and shut off pressure.
Check that the drain lines and drip pans are
not plugged.
17. Make note of any leaky valves and prepare
maintenance schedule to repair them.
18. Check to see that proper water level is being
shown by the direct water level gauge. Check
for water or steam leaks from ports or drain
connections, which will cause a false water
level in the gauge glass. Inspect the glass for
discoloration or fouling.

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

11 Boiler Safety

1. Feedwater control malfunction

11.1 Emergency Procedures

2. Operator error

Low Water Level

3. Instrument air supply failure


4. Foaming

Causes

Action

1. Feedwater control system failure.

1. Take the drum level control loop into manual


mode

2. BFP failure
3. Tube leak
Action
Compare control room indication with gauge
glass level. If the water level falls out of sight due
to momentary failure of water supply system, due
to negligence of the operator, due to momentary
fluctuations that might occur with extraordinary
changes in load, appropriate action should be
taken at once to trip the fuel. Any decision to
continue to operate, even if only for a short time
at a reduced rating would have to be made by
someone in authority who is thoroughly familiar
with the circumstances that led to the emergency
and positively certain that the water level can be
restored immediately without damaging the boiler.
In the absence of such a decision
1. Stop the fuel feeders and Fans immediately.
Shut off the main steam stop valve .
Simultaneously, if feedwater has become
available and the operator is assured that no
pressure part has been damaged
1. Take the feedwater control system into
manual mode
2. Allow the water flow to boiler gradually to
normal water level. (Do not hurry up which
may lead to sudden quenching and tube leak)
if pressure part damage is suspected
3. Reduce the steam pressure gradually
4. Open the drum air vent when the pressure
drops below 2 kg/cm2

2. Reduce the water level immediately by


operating the intermittent blow down to
maintain the drum level
3. Reduce the
necessary

steam

discharge

Furnace Puffing & Back Firing


Causes
1. Uncontrolled feeding of fuel into the furnace
2. Sudden increase in FD fan air
3. Tube rupture
4. Foaming
Action
1. Take airflow control system into manual mode
and maintain the furnace pressure
2. Never increase fuel / air flow suddenly.
Always increase air first then fuel / oil / gas
while taking boiler on load
3. In case of tube failure take the boiler out of
service immediately
4. Keep the water wall tubes clean by monitoring
the combustion conditions.
Boiler Explosion
Causes
1. Accumulation of fuel in the furnace due to
incomplete combustion
2. Loss of ignition
3. Fuel oil valve leakages

6. Drain the boiler after cooling

5. In-sufficient purging of furnace

8. If any tube leakage were observed ,rectify /


repair the leaking tubes and after the repairs
conduct hydrotest
9. Determine the cause of low water
High Water Level
Causes

Section C

if

4. Start the stand by compressor if required

5. Cool the boiler so as to examine the extent of


damage
7. If any tube rupture and bulging is observed
rectify the same

rate,

4. Frequent unsuccessful startups


With the mixture of unburned fuel with air in
explosive proportions and the application of heat
sufficient enough to raise the temperature of the
mixture to ignition point.
Action
1. Trip the ID Fan immediately
2. Analyse the reasons for explosion and rectify
the system

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

3. Evacuate or clean the furnace to the possible


extend
Conditions for Boiler Restart after Furnace
Explosion
After a case of furnace/ boiler explosion, the
restart of the boiler has to be carried out only
after a thorough and detailed investigation
& understanding of the cause of explosion.
Following necessary actions have to be
completed to prevent the repeat incidence of
explosion and before restart of the boiler.
Find out the root cause for the explosion and
rectify the same.
1. Inspect the furnace for any signs of bulging or
damage to the tubes.

Section C

2. Inspect the furnace refractory for damages


3. Inspect the air and flue ducts for any signs of
damage
4. Inspect the expansion bellows in the air and
flue ducts for damages
5. Inspect the economizer casing for damages
6. Assess the damage if any and rectify the
same.
7. Carry out the hydro test of the boiler. In the
event of a failure of the hydro test, identify the
tubes that have failed and proceed to rectify
the same as explained in the maintenance
section.

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

12 Operational Precautions for


Safety
Introduction
The handling and burning of any fuel is potentially
hazardous. Some fuels ignite more readily than
others. Safe handling and operation demands
knowledge of the characteristics of the fuel and
careful observance of necessary precautions.
1. Operating the boiler with low feed water
temperature along with high excess air will
result in exceeding metal temperature. There
should be no hesitation to bring down the
load on the boiler if this temperature cannot
be brought under control by other means.
2. In the case of tube failure which can be
identified by hearing the noise in the boiler
gallery and cross checked by difference
in steam and water flow, gas and steam
temperature, the boiler should be shut-down
at the earliest by regular procedure for
maintenance work. Otherwise large number
of tubes may fail due to steam erosion and
impingement.
3. Entry of wet steam into superheater and
first row or after desuperheaters will result
in removal of oxide film due to thermal
shock. Boiler salt in the steam will accelerate
corrosion.
Austenitic steel is the worst
affected due to stress corrosion in this case.
Hence temperature after the desuperheater
should be maintained well above the
saturation point in the case of direct spray
type.

prevented by keeping a watch on economiser


outlet water temperature.
9. Carryover of salts in steam occur either due to
mechanical or vapour carry over from steam
drum. Efficient drum internals can only reduce
mechanical carry over. Silica is always carried
over in vaporous form. Continuous monitoring
of sodium and silica in steam is desirable.
10. Before operating a boiler, ensure complete
knowledge of water chemistry.
11. Whenever boiler is started after a shutdown of
more than 3 days, check all safety interlocks
before boiler start up for proper functioning.
12. Superheater drain valve should be operated
as per recommendations.
13. The steam drum should normally be filled upto
the point when water is showing in the bottom
part of the gauge glass. This is to allow for the
swell on heating and to reduce any blowing
down resulting from this cause to a minimum.
14. Firing should be maintained having regard to
the instructions for protection of superheater,
which will limit the maximum gas temperature
in the superheater zone.
15. Once the boiler is boxed up, the water level
in the steam drum must be raised to the very
top of the drum. Filling the drum like this will
prevent excessive temperature differentials
along the drum wall. The water is then
shut-off and the boiler is allowed to cool.
16. When staring from cold, the drains on both the
inlet and outlet superheater boxes should be
wide open (if applicable)

4. Boiler washing (when the unit is shut down)


can be done effectively by using hot water.
Immediately after washing, the surfaces
should be dried.

17. While raising pressure on boilers, a technique


of continuous firing should be developed if
possible, since intermittent firing may result in
recondensation in the tube loops.

5. Always use deaerated, de-mineralised water


for boiler feeding with the recommended feed
water quality.

18. Where spray type attemperator are fitted,


it is very important that control of steam or
superheater tube metal temperature is not
attempted by the use of the spray during
pressure raising. This can lead to the entry of
spray water into the secondary superheater
tube loops.

6. Feedwater temperature must also be


maintained at the highest level possible
either with the help of feedwater heaters
or heating the water in the feed tank. Low
feedwater temperature obtained during low
load operation will result in external corrosion
of economiser.
7. The economiser circulation system if provided
should be kept in service when there is fire in
the boiler with no feed flow.
8. Steaming in economiser is harmful to
economiser unless otherwise it is designed as
steaming type and hence steaming should be

Section C

19. Ensure the availability of fuel / bed material /


recycle ash in the bunkers.
20.

Never allow oil or gas to accumulate


anywhere, other than in a tank or lines which
form a part of a fuel supply system.

21. Purge the furnace completely before


introducing any light or spark. On a multiple
burner unit, burners may be ignited without a
purge if one or more in service already.

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

22. Have a lighted torch or spark producing


device in operation before introducing any
fuel into furnace.
23.

Maintain a positive airflow through the


burners into the furnace and up the stack.

24.

Maintain adequate oil pressure and


temperature for atomisation & also adequate
steam or air pressure in case of steam or air
atomisers.

25. Ensure operation staff alerts to all abnormal


conditions. To observe the above rules,
automatic control instruction may include :a. Purge interlocks e.g. requiring a specified
minimum airflow for a specific time period
sufficient to purge the setting before the
fuel trip valve can be opened.
b. Flame Detector: Each burner should
have its own flame detector connected to
an alarm and interlocked to shut-off the
fuel to the burner, it serves upon flame
failure.
c.

Closed position switches for burner


shut-off valves, requiring that all shut-off
valves be closed to permit opening the
fuel trip valve.

d. Shut-off of fuel on failure of draft fan (s).


e. Shut-off of fuel in the event of low fuel
pressure and low atomising steam or
air pressure, and low instrument air
pressure.
f.

Shut-off of fuel in gas fired units in event


of excessive fuel gas pressure.

g. Shut off of fuel in the event of electric


power failure.
26. The raising and lowering of steam parameters
should be restricted to the value given in the
starting diagram. Exceeding these values will
result in reduced fatigue life of pressure parts.
27. Entry of wet steam into superheater and
first row or after de-superheaters will result
in removal of oxide film due to thermal
shock. Boiler salt in the steam will accelerate
corrosion.
Austenitic steel is the worst
affected due to stress corrosion in this case.
Hence temperature after the de-superheater
should be maintained well above the
saturation point in the case of direct spray
type.
28. Carryover of salts in steam occur either due
to mechanical or vapour carryover from steam
drum. Efficient drum internals can only reduce
mechanical carry over. Silica is always carried

Section C

over in vaporous form. Continuous monitoring


of sodium and silica in steam is desirable.
29. Before operating a boiler, ensure complete
knowledge of water chemistry.
30. The threaded portion of the burner tip
should be covered with a non-hardening
high temperature lubricating compound.
This facilitates easier subsequent removal.
(Please refer burner manual)
31. Lapped burner tips must be kept in a plastic
container to prevent damage for atomising
steam with internally mixing type steam
atomisers.
32. Whenever boiler is started after a shutdown of
more than 3 days, check all safety interlocks
before boiler start up for proper functioning.

Proper Handling of Access Door


1. Never open an access door while the unit is
operating.
2. Any access door can have large amount
of material built up behind it even after the
bed has been drained. This material will fall
out when the door is opened. Bed material
can stay hot for many days even after boiler
shutdown.
3. Open the door slowly and always stand to the
side of the opening.
4. Look at the cavities through the door before
entering into the boiler. have sufficiently bright
light available at all times when personnel are
in the furnace and or in convection pass.

Proper Handling of Thermocouples


1. Repair or changing of thermocouple /
thermowells during boiler operation is
absolutely prohibited, particularly in the
positive pressure zone of the boiler. However
if the need arises, always recall that the
furnace is pressurised and that the thermowell
may be an open path to the pressurised
furnace. slowly and carefully disconnect the
thermocouple from the well
2. If you encounter resistance in removing the
thermocouple, it is an indication that the
thermowell has eroded and is packed with
ash and bed material. abort the attempt to
replace the thermocouple and refasten it until
the boiler is off the line and cooled.
3. If no resistance is encountered then carefully
remove the faulty thermocouple and replace
it.
4. Never look into the thermowell opening.

56

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Handling of Secondary Air Ports

2. Always use a full-face mask with tinted glass.

1. The hand-operated dampers in the secondary


air nozzles will be very hot.

3. Do not stand directly in front of open ports or


doors especially when they are opened.

2. While handling the dampers / ports protective


gloves should be worn and enough attention
to be given.

4. Use sealing air when opening the doors /


observation ports.

Handling of Solid Piles


1. Always be cautious of piles of bed material.
2. The surface of piled material may be cool in
the surface while just below the surface still
may be very hot.
3. Bed material in a pile can stay hot for several
days.

Handling of Furnace
Observation Doors

Ports

and

1. Ports and observation doors are open to the


positive pressure in the furnace.
2. Never stand directly in front of the ports.
3. Do not leave the poking rod in the furnace for
long. It will heat up quickly making the rod hot
to handle and hazardous when it is removed
from port.
4. Never look directly into the port or stand
directly in front of the open port. If there
is a pressure pulse in the furnace, hot bed
material can suddenly and unexpectedly
spurt out.
5. Never use anything that may burn or melt,
such as plastic or rubber, to temporarily blow
the port.
6. Properly dispose of all combustible material
from the port area. If any hot material blows
out from the boiler it presents a potential fire
hazard.
7. Be sure aspirating air is on before you open
the port door. If the air is not on, a stream of
hot furnace gas, ash and bed media will blow
out of the boiler. Open the port cap slowly.
8. When inserting a probe in the port, stand as
far back as you can. Due to pressure some
bed material can blow out.
9. When extracting the probe, again stand well
back.
10. Never leave the port unattended ever for short
time while working.

5. Use ear protection devices, whenever it is


necessary.
6. Wear protective gloves when working around
the boiler.
7. Do not use open-ended pipes for rotting
observation doors or ports.
8. Never enter drums, ducts etc. until all the
steam and water valves including the drain
and blow down values have been closed to
check and tagged.
9. Do not enter a confined space until it has been
cooled below 30 C and property ventilated.
10. Completely drain the solids from the bed,
hoppers etc. while entering.
11. Always use low voltage extension cords and
light bulbs with properly connected ground.
12. Never open or enter the rotating equipment
until it has come to a complete stop and circuit
broken i.e. open
13. When entries the furnace ducts etc.
prepared for falling.

be

14. Never step into fly ash or bed material. It


can be cold on the surface yet remain hot
and smoulder underneath for extended period
of time. Always secure the drive mechanism
of dampers, gates and doors before passing
through them.
15. Watch for hot water in drum and headers
when removing manhole and manhole
covers.
16. Never use toxic fluids like CTC in confined
spaces without adequate ventilation.
17. Never direct an air or water stream into an
accumulation of fly ash in a confined area. If
the fly ash is smouldering the asatation could
result in an explosion.

Safety Tips
1. All scaffolding materials are removed and
cleaned.

Safety Precautions

2. Check any observation for expansion and


dampers operations.

1. Do not attempt to open the boiler doors


or observation ports without observing the
proper safety procedure.

3. Ensure that all inspection doors, access doors


and openings are closed and pad locked as
required.

Section C

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

4. Disconnect and isolate the nitrogen purge if it


was used during the outage.

Section C

5. Open the steam drum vents and the vents.

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section-D
Topics Covered in this Chapter
Section Overview
Recommended Maintenance Practice
Conditioned Based Maintenance
Boiler Annual Maintenance and Overhaul
Boiler Preservation Procedure
Tube Failures
Water Chemistry
Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS)

Section Overview

Preventive maintenance mostly condition


based
Annual Boiler overhauls to clean and inspect
pressure parts.
The shutdown period of the overhaul is also
utilized to attend to systems and parts which
cannot be attended during short shutdowns or
when the boiler is in operation
The vendor manuals of the fans, motors, control
valves with their positioners and actuators,
instruments and controls, power cylinders
etc., prescribe certain minimum maintenance
requirements which are to be carried out in one
of the above two maintenance categories.

This section describes the various maintenance


practices,
overhauling
and
preservation
techniques. Also discussed are failures and
repair techniques.

It is suggested to maintain a defect register in the


control room to register all the items, which need
maintenance.

This section covers the following

2.1 Preventive Maintenance

RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE
PRACTICES

The objective of the preventive maintenance


program is to obtain trouble free service from the
component till the next maintenance.

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM


CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE
Maintenance check list for daily, weekly,
Monthly and Annual inspection
SHUTDOWN AND COOLING THE BOILER
INSPECTION AFTER COOLING
PRESSURE PART & EQUIPMENT CHECKS
BOILER PRESERVATION
TUBE THICKNESS SURVEY
WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS
TUBE FAILURE INVESTIGATION
PLUGGING TUBES
REPAIRED AND NOT PLUGGING TUBES
REPLACEMENT OF SECTIONS OF TUBES

Recommended Maintenance
Practice

Systematic maintenance is essential to keep


the boiler and its auxiliaries in good condition
and to obtain reliable operation of the boiler with
high availability and plant load factor. Effective
maintenance aims at timely inspection of parts
to repair or replace defective components and to
prevent their failure when the boiler is in service.
Maintenance can be classified as -

Section-D

Vendor manuals for various equipments suggest


inspection periods, checks to be done and
recommended spares. The true objective of the
maintenance program can only be realized, if a
master plan of maintenance of all the components
is prepared as per vendor instructions.
Full benefits of maintenance can be obtained only
if proper parts are used. Mandatory spare part
list covers most of the spares required. It may be
found that in the first two years of operation due
to variations of site conditions, some additional
spares not included are also required. Action has
to be initiated to procure such spares.
Some equipment have 100% reserve standby
units. (Feedwater pumps etc.). Maintenance of
such equipments can be organized even when
the boiler is in service, although some minimum
risk is involved. Equipment such as igniters,
scanners have replacement spares which can be
utilized when the working equipment are to be
maintained without affecting the boiler operation.
The prepared master plan for maintenance should
be periodically reviewed during the first three
years of the boiler operation.
It may be found that due to varying site conditions,
the frequencies and quantum of work scheduled
as per vendor manuals are either too much or too
less. Based on site experience, the frequencies
and work schedules can be modified.
A
scientific method of preparation of the preventive

59

Operation & Maintenance Manual

maintenance schedules is to make them condition


based. In condition based maintenance, the
equipment and components of the plant are
inspected daily, weekly monthly etc., as per
a suggested schedule by the local operators
and deteriorating conditions if any observed are
reported. Suggested inspection program is given
in this section. Based on operator reports of such
inspection, maintenance works are planned for
the next available planned shut down. Mandatory
inspections prescribed by the vendors are also
taken care of, irrespective of the equipment
condition.

In condition based maintenance, the equipment


and components of the plant are inspected
daily, weekly, monthly etc. as per suggested
schedule by the local operators and the
deteriorating conditions if any observed are
reported. Suggested inspection program is given
in this chapter. Based on operator reports of such
inspection, maintenance works are planned for
the next available planned shutdown. Mandatory
inspections prescribed by the vendors are also
taken care of, irrespective of the equipment
condition.

2.1.1Preventive Maintenance Program for


Valve

A preventive maintenance program for valves


once in two years can be done with one or more
of the following works:
Dismantle the bonnet, clean the trim and valve
seat, lapping them if necessary.
Cleaning the valve stem and re-lubrication of
the operating threads

Conditioned Based Maintenance

The schedule of daily, weekly and monthly


inspections given in the following pages do not
require a boiler shutdown and in fact can only
be done when the boiler is in service. Three
and six monthly inspections are done utilizing an
available planned shutdown approximately in the
specified time period.
Objective of these inspections is to ensure that:

Renewing the bonnet joint, and assembling the


trim on the valve seat

1. The components are in trouble free condition.

Renewing the gland packing

2. To carry out any minor repairs or adjustments


which can be done with the boiler in service.

Renewing the valve flange joint, if necessary.


2.1.2Preventive Maintenance Program for
Spares

3. To plan for repair of such items, which cannot


be attended when the boiler is in service,
during the next available shutdown.

It may be found that in the first two years of


operation due to variations of site conditions,
some additional spares are also required. Action
has to initiate to procure such spares.

4. To collect a database to determine optimum


service life of the systems and components
before maintenance if required.

The prepared master plan for maintenance should


be periodically reviewed during the first three
years of the boiler operation.
It may be found that due to varying site conditions,
the frequencies and quantum of work scheduled
as per vendor manuals are either too much or too
less. Based on site experience, the frequencies
and work schedules can be modified.
A scientific method of preparation of the
preventive maintenance schedule is to make
them condition based.

Section-D

The schedule can be expanded, curtailed or


modified based on experience in the first two
years of operation.

3.1 Daily Checks


To be done once a day by the local operator during
his walkdown checks. Such walkdown checks are
to be encouraged to be done in each shift by the
local operators. Only those operational checks,
which require maintenance work for correction,
have been included.

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

EQUIPMENT

CHECK

Local level gauges on steam


drum

WORK TO BE DONE

Check illumination is proper.

Replace fused bulbs.

Leaking valve glands.

Isolate level gauge and tighten


leaking glands.

leaking ports

Blurred level

Replace leaking ports.


Steam wash mica as suggested
by vendor (not to be done
too frequently)

Comparison
of
levels
indicated by local level gauge
with that of remote level
indicators in the control room

Compare the levels after verifying


there are no leaks from valves,
glands etc. of the level gauge and
indicators. Report discrepancies.

If there are serious discrepancies


calibration of the remote level
indicators has to be planned
immediately.

Traces of water, oil spots on


boiler floor, buck stay beams,
boiler cladding etc.

Such spots are indicative of valve


leaks, instrument tapping leaks
etc., Trace the source of leak.

Maintenance to be planned
to eliminate the source either
immediately or during next
planned shut down (depending on
the source and quantity of leak)
and accessibility for maintenance.

Lubricating oil levels of Fans,


& feed pumps bearings,
dosing pump gear box etc.

Check adequacy of oil level.

Top up if required (immediately)

Fans, BFW pumps dozing


pumps

Check bearing temperatures .

If leakage through oil seals,


gaskets drain plugs etc.
are
noticed plan for maintenance
during next planned shutdown.
Check for Vibration Levels

If higher than normal bearing


temperatures are noticed check
for cause proper oil level, correct
grade and quality of oil or grease,
abnormal sound or vibration.
If bearing temperatures are very
high, start the reserve equipment (
if avl.) and plan for a maintenance
checks .
If vibrations are above the
satisfactory limits.
Check for
mechanical looseness and start
the reserve equipment ( if avl.)
and plan for a maintenance check.

Drum and super


safety valves.

heater

Check for passing of safety


valves (noise or wisp of steam
through silencer)

Hand pop the affected safety


valve one or two times to
clear any dirt sticking to
the valve seats
Lightly tap on the stem of
the safety valves.
If these measures do not
succeed, if request for check
of the safety valve during next
planned shutdown.

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

EQUIPMENT
Purity of instrument air

CHECK

WORK TO BE DONE

Check by visual observation


that the instrument air is oil and
moisture free.

Oil and moisture in the instrument


air is likely to clog the positioners
of
pneumatic
controllers
/
solenoids
and
make
their
operation sluggish or unreliable.

(Oil and moisture content can


also be checked by laboratory
examination as per standards)

Open drain valves of air receivers


for short time to drain condensate
if any.
If
these
measures
not successful,
inform
Maintenance group.

are
the

Fan suction damper linkages


and their power cylinders

Check for their proper operation

Sluggish
operation
of
fan
suction damper may be due to
stuck linkage, stuck damper,
faulty power cylinder and faulty
positioner.
Sluggish operation
of air register dampers may be
due to stuck air register vanes,
faulty power cylinders and faulty
positioner. Check for possible
cause. Maintenance works have
to be planned.

Steam or water leakages


from valves and from flange
joints

Loose valve gland

Tighten the gland nuts.


If the leakage not getting
arrested, plan for maintenance
during shut down.

Tighten the bolts. If the


gasket failed then plan for the
maintenance during shut down.

Boiler cladding, air duct or


flue gas duct.

Loosened bolts of flange joint


and / or failed gasket.

Check for hot spots

3.2 Daily Maintenance

Maintenance
Operation

Check

5. Check for unusual noises for steam / water


leakage.

List

During

1. Check the correctness of water level in the


control desk with direct level glass.
2. Check the
illumination.

level

Hot spots may be due to leakage


of flue gas or hot air. Source of
leakage has to be located after
selective removal of insulation (to
be planned for the next planned
shutdown)

indicators

for

proper

6. Check for unusual noises for from fans /


pumps.
7. Check for vibration in rotary equipments.
8. Check for unusual traces of water on floor,
buck stays or casings
9. Check for valve & gland leakages.

3. Check the combustor for proper fluidization


through peep holes

10. Check for air / gas leakages from ducts and


flue.

4. Drain the bed and check for unusual


combustibles in the bottom ash.

11. Check for any coal / dust / ash leakages from


chutes and hoppers

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

12. Check for hot spots, bulging etc. on casings,


ducts etc.

17. Check all alarm annunciation with respect to


set points.

13. Check the


cleanliness

18. Check for water, oil along with instrument air

positions

of

dampers

and

14. Check for safety valve steam leakages.

19. Check the field instruments for its proper


indications.

15. Check the bearings for lubrication and cooling


water systems.

20. Check the stack for any unusual smoke


conditions.

16. Check the fan damper linkages for lubrication


and cleanliness.

3.3 Weekly Checks

At Least once a week each


ignitor must be tested for
its performance by manual
command from BMS local panel.
If an ignitor fails to light up on
command the Ignitor requires be
servicing and keeping in working
condition.

Remove the spark device,


clean and check spark gap.

Fans, Dosing pumps,

With the vibration analyser record


vibration, sound levels and
measure bearing temperature
Note the pressure, flow of
air, suction damper opening,
(Capacity of the FD Fan)
pressure (seal air blowers, HP
dosing pump)

By monthly recording of data,


establish a data base for
deciding the overhaul time of
the equipment.
An overhaul
once in two or three years may
be adequate.
Database will
help in deciding the time frame.
Sharp increase in vibration levels
bearing temperatures or sound
levels may call of early scheduling
of overhauls.

BFW pumps

Check for coupling alignment


between motor and pump. Check
the impeller is not rubbing with
pump body. Check operation of
NRV at pump discharge.

By monthly recording of data,


establish a database for deciding
the overhaul time of the
equipment. An overhaul once
in two or three years may be
adequate.
Database will help
in deciding the time frame.
Sharp increase in vibration levels
bearing temperatures or sound
levels may call of early scheduling
of overhauls.

Safety valve operation

Increase the boiler pressure and


check the operation of valves.

If necessary do the adjustments.

Feed water tank / internals

Deposits of foreign particles

Clean with normal water

Igniters

Check insulation resistance


of the spark device.
Check healthiness of the
HT transformer.
Check BMS sequence for
energizing HT transformer and
opening of block valve

3.4 Monthly Checks

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

Dosing system

Cleanliness of dosing tank,


operation of pressure relief valve,
lubrication oil level in pump.

Clean dosing tank with normal


water, Adjust relief valve ,if
required Fill lubrication oil , if
required

D P Manometer

Choking of impulse tubes Liquid


level in manometer

Clean impulse tube with air Keep


liquid level at zero

Level switch for steam drum


water level very low

Close the steam out let valve and


gas by pass damper. Open blow
down valve and check for level
switch very low alarm.

If switch or alarm is not working,


do the rectification work.

3.5 Checks Every Six Months


During a planned shut down of the boiler, the
following checks can be done.
EQUIPMENT

CHECK

WORK TO BE DONE

Boiler
safety
interlocks,
start permissive, boiler trip
protection.

Coinciding with a planned


shut down of boiler, carry
out the checks to identify
malfunctioning
or
sluggish
pressure, temperature switches,
solenoid
operated
valves,
positioners, proximity switches,
actuators etc.,

Plan
for
maintenance
or
re-calibration of defective items if
any noticed, during the shut down
period.

Combustor
/
refractory work.

Visual check that there are no


loose bricks, spalling or cracks

If any abnormalities are seen


repair works to be planned during
next available shut down

Burner

3.6 Checks Every Year


(See also jobs listed under Boiler overhaul)
EQUIPMENT

CHECK

WORK TO BE DONE

Pressure temperature, Flow


level, differential pressure
controllers

Utilizing the boiler annual shut


down for overhaul, recalibrate all
pressure, temperature, flow, level
and d/p controllers as per vendor
manuals

Carry out any maintenance


replacement
or
adjustment
needed to secure initial calibration
values as per commissioning
records

Pressure
gauges,
temperature
gauges,
Pressure/temperature
Switches

Recalibrate, Verify functioning of


pressure/temperature switches
as per design

Repairs or
necessary

Positioners, actuators

Verify functioning of positioners


and
actuators
by
feeding
current inputs to positioners and
measuring the air pressure output
of the positioners and opening
closing of actuators

Repairs or adjustments as
necessary as per vendor manuals
to obtain performance as per
Verify
commissioning records.
functioning of proximity switches
where provided. Clean filters of
air regulators. Check functioning
of air regulators. Verify tightness
of air connections.

Section-D

adjustments

as

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

3.7 Annual Maintenance Check Sheet


COMPONENT NAME
Drums (water side )

INSPECTION REQD FOR


Corrosion
Scale / deposits
Pitting
Metal reduction
Manhole seat
Process / instrument tappings
Internal cleanliness

Steam purifier Assly in steam Drum

Corrosion
Deposits
Erosion
Tightness
Pittings
Sealings
Baffles

Feed water pipe in steam drum.

Plugging
Tightness
Holes orientation
Corrosion
Piping

Chemical dosing

Plugging

Pipe in steam drum

Tightness
Holes orientation
Corrosion / Pitting

Continuous blow down

Plugging

Pipe in steam Drum

Tightness
Hole orientation
Corrosion / pitting

Furnace tubes

Corrosion

(water side)

Scale
Pitting
Metal reduction

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

COMPONENT NAME

INSPECTION REQD FOR

Furnace tubes

Corrosion

(gas side)

Build up
Blisters
Sagging
Over heating
Fly ash erosion
Sealing
Supports
Cracks
Expansion clearance
Steam impingement
Refractory status
Insulation
Erosion

Inbed evaporator coils

Erosion

fire side

Corrosion
Build up
Blisters
Sagging
Over heating
Sealing
Cracks
Steam impingement
Refractory status

Super heater if provided.

Corrosion

(steam side)

Erosion
Scale
Pitting
Metal reduction
Flare cracking
Deposits

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

COMPONENT NAME

INSPECTION REQD FOR

Super heaters if provided.

Corrosion

(gas side)

Build up
Sagging
Over heating
Fly ash erosion
Sealing
Supports
Cracks
Exp clearance
Steam impingement
Refractory status
Insulation

Economiser

Corrosion

(water side)

Scale
Pitting

Economiser

Corrosion

(gas side)

Build up
Blisters
Sagging
Over heating
Fly ash erosion
Sealing
Supports
Cracks
Expansion clearance
Steam impingement
Tightness of access
Doors

Refractory

Looseness
Missing pieces
Erosion
Sealing
burner throat
Refractory
Flame impingement on refractory
Refractory holding arrangements.
Baffle tile status

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

COMPONENT NAME

INSPECTION REQD FOR


Corrosion
Erosion
Leakages
Clearance between
Rotor and casing
Damper operating
Mechanisms
Bearings conditions
Bearings clearances
Lubrication argt.
Cooling water argt.
Fly ash deposits
Shaft seals conditions
Coupling alignment

Air preheater

Cooling discs.
Gas side plugging/Sealings
Gas side cleanliness
Air side cleanliness
Gas side corrosion
Air side sealing
Drive mechanisms ( if any)
Soot blower status (if any)

Dampers

Blades rigidity
Open/ close positions
Expansion clearance condition of blades
Erosion of blades
Bearing freeness
Lubrications
Damper linkages
Interlock mechanisms.

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

COMPONENT NAME
Convection pass

INSPECTION REQD FOR


Erosion and material accumulation.
Signs of gas channeling.
Water walls for erosion patterns.
Economiser support beams for erosion.
Lower water wall headers for erosion / cracks.
Seal at economiser and superheater
piping penetration.
All penetration for erosion.
Superheater supports Furnace rear wall
Riser roof
For penetrations
Sealing and cracks.
Walls for erosion at the top of the tube
/ refractory interface.
Roof refractory for erosion or damage.
Erosion coupons and pins for the
Refractory thinning.
Refractory on furnace rear wall outlet header
for erosion or damage.
Thermocouples and pressure taps for
erosion / corrosion.

Pressure taps for plugs

All penetration for sealing and erosion.


All penetration and plates for warpage or damage.
Casing

Bent
Bulging
Gas leakages
Access door tightness
Corrosion
Erosion

Water level gauges

Cleanliness
Leaks
Visibility
Illumination
Reflectors
Mirrors
Gauge cocks status
Expansion clearance

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

COMPONENT NAME

INSPECTION REQD FOR


Internal deposits
Insulation
High/low water alarms/tripping

Valves

Erosion
Corrosion
Leakages
Spindle movement
Handle rigidity
Drive mechanisms
Lubrications

Safety valves

Valve nozzle conditions


Disc seat conditions
Corrosion of internals
Pitting
Cracks
Valve spring status
Spring stiffness
Corrosion of spring

Silencer status

Spring stiffness
Drain line status
Drain line rigidity
Discharge pipe rigidity
Expansion clearances
Valve settings

Remote level gauges

Cleanliness
Leaks
Visibility
Illumination
Gauge cocks status
Internal deposits
Insulation

Fuel mix nozzles in the pA line

Liquid status (if any)

Erosion
Alignment
Sealing

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

COMPONENT NAME
Fuel feed nozzles in the combustor

INSPECTION REQD FOR


Erosion
Divertor ring condition
Alignment
Sealing

Feed water pumps

As per manuals

Dosing pumps

As per manuals

Power cylinders

As per manuals

Deaerator

Feed pipe/dosing pipe status


Spray nozzles status
Sediments
Corrosion

Combustor

Missing nozzles
Erosion
Plugging

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

Boiler Annual Maintenance and


Overhaul

In addition to the check and inspections listed


under preventive maintenance, the boiler requires
an annual shut down of about 10 to 15 days
for cleaning, inspection ad overhaul of boiler
pressure parts. The shut down period is restricted
to a minimum by deploying adequate resources.
If required, Field Engineering department of
Thermax Ltd. can assist the customer in carrying
out the boiler overhaul.
The annual shutdown is utilized for cleaning and
inspection of the pressure parts and to collect
data on the wear pattern of boiler, superheater
and economizer pressure parts. The shutdown
opportunity is also utilized for overhaul of safety
valves, regulating and isolating valves and
components, which can not be attended when the
boiler is in service. (The valve overhauls need
not be done every year).

4.1 Planning Before Overhaul


1. Prepare a list of jobs to be done during the
overhaul based on earlier inspection reports
and the jobs listed below.
2. Ensure availability of spares required for the
proposed jobs.
3. Ensure tools, tackles, scaffolding materials
required for the job.
4. Ensure availability of manpower required
for the job (Own sources, contract labour
etc) services of Thermax is also available
for carrying out annual overhauls and
inspections.

4.2 Shutdown and Cooling the Boiler


1. Shutdown the boiler in a planned manner.
2. Dont force cool the boiler.
3. Open all access and inspection doors.

4.3 Inspection after Cooling


1. Carry out a preliminary inspection after
cooling to check cleanliness and sign of
deposition on water wall panels and needs
any cleaning.

2. Allow the drum to ventilate for about 8 hours.


If necessary a fan cooler can be fitted over
temporary stand to force air through the drum.
3. From the time the drum manholes are opened
till they are closed after inspection, the
area around the drum must be cordoned to
restrict entry only to specifically authorized
personnel.
4. The names of persons who are entering the
drum for inspection, along with tools they
carry must be entered in a register. Persons
coming out of the drum after inspection
should be asked to account for the material
they carried into the drum. This precaution
is to prevent accidental dropping of foreign
material through the water wall tubes, which
may block water circulation through them and
can cause tube failures.
5. Carry out a preliminary inspection of the drum
to check for deposits on the water side of the
drum.
6. Using nylon brushes, the deposits (which are
normally soft) are cleaned, collected on trays
and disposed off outside the drum. Washing
down the deposits to the boiler tubes is not
recommended.
7. In case of excessive deposits, the chemist is
asked to analyze the nature of the deposits.
Incase of excessive deposits, a review
of phosphate concentrations (higher than
10ppm) and boiler water quality control ( high
conductivity ?) may be made to reduce the
deposit in the next year of operation.
After cleaning the following examinations can be
made.
1. Examine the boiler drum metal for scale,
pitting, corrosion and metal wastage. (Drum
thickness is measured at a few selected spots
using ultrasonic instruments and compared
to design thickness).
2. Inspect fastenings of the baffles, cyclones,
and demisters to see that they are intact,
without corrosion pitting or holes. Eroded or
corroded drum internals can be patched by
welding. No welding however is permitted on
the drum metal. The cyclones and demisters
can be examined in position. They need not
be dismantled. Reasonable water tightness
of the baffles and cyclones are to be ensured.

4.4 Drum Inspection

3. Examine that feed water pipe is intact with


flange connections tight and discharge exit
correctly oriented.

1. Open the access doors at either side of the


drum.

4. Examine that the continuous blow down pipe


and dosing pipes is not plugged or corroded

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

their supports are normal, their holes have


been correctly oriented.
5. Examine that there are no cracks in the stub
welding s of the drum.
After the inspection, clean the manhole seats
and provide new gaskets. Sometimes the boiler
inspector may like to inspect the steam drum.
After this inspection and after verifying that all
men and material have been removed from the
drum, close the manholes and bolt them tight.

4.9 Feed & Boiler Water Conditioning


1. INTRODUCTION
The successful use of boiler is dependent on
proper water conditioning and treatment. The
quality of water must have accurate for trouble
free operation of boiler.
The water as available to industry is not suitable
for boiler use. A complete pre-treatment and
internal chemical treatment is necessary to make
raw water suitable for boiler feed.

4.5 Inspection of Screen, Primary


& Secondary Superheater,
Evaporator I/ II & Economiser

The objective of the water treatment is:

Check the above mentioned sections for any

Control corrosion of boiler system, which cause


failure of boiler tubes, leading to unscheduled
shutdowns.

1. Suspicion of abnormalities. If yes, consult


M/s THERMAX LTD or a metallurgist for
necessary advice
2. Evidence of pitting / erosion / corrosion on
tube outer surfaces (exposed to the flue gas
path)
3. Evidence of overheating (bulging of tubes,
blue color of tubes, blisters, disturbed vertical
alignment of panels)
4.

4.6 Expansion Joints


Examine the expansion joints. Eroded / corroded
parts can be patched by welding. When severe
erosion is noticed (after several years of service)
the expansion joints are to be replaced. Collapse
or stretching of the expansion joints is usually
due to forces exerted by the connecting ducts.
Readjustment of duct supports will solve the
problem and will assist the expansion joints to
regain their original dimensions.

4.7 Insulation and Cladding


1. Verify insulation as per drawings and correct
wherever necessary.
2. Inspect cladding for damages due pitting,
hotspots, dislocation etc.
Repaired as
necessary.

4.8 Other Equipment


Overhaul of fans, pumps, fuel feeders, control
valves, actuators etc., is scheduled as per vendor
instructions and condition monitoring described
under preventive maintenance

Section-D

Eliminate scaling - deposition in boiler which


cause tube over heating leading to accidents.

Reduce carry over of water with steam, which is


the cause of deposition on super heater/turbine
blades, leading to the expensive failures.
To maintain peak boiler efficiency by keeping
complete boiler water system clean.
In order to meet above objectives, it is necessary
to maintain certain chemical conditions in boiler,
condense and feed water systems. A brief review
of important factors is given in this section to assist
those taking charges of new boiler equipment. It is
not possible to cover the subject fully, there fore, it
is recommended that the care and control of water
quality be entrusted to water treatment specialist.
2. NEED FOR WATER TREATMENT
A. CORROSSIVE CONTROL
Water is corrosive to boiler metal. Typically
corrosion due to water will reduce thickness of
tube @ 1 mm/year. Thus the life and safety of
boiler entirely depends on the rate of corrosion
of boiler metal. In order to protect boiler from
corrosion, pre-treatment is done to remove
excessive corrosion ions like chloride, sulphate
etc. However, further chemical conditioning is
required to protect boiler and auxiliary systems
from corrosion.
Tri sodium phosphate, caustic, ammonia and
amines are used as corrosion inhibitors. These
chemicals form a protective film over metal
surface and reduce corrosion. It is necessary
to maintain prescribed concentration of these
chemicals in boiler water systems continuously.
B. OXYGEN CORROSION INHIBITOR:
Oxygen is present in dissolved form in water.
At high temperature, oxygen reacts with metal

73

Operation & Maintenance Manual

to cause pitting corrosion. Thus prevention of


oxygen lead to pin holes in economizer, steam
drums and steam tubes.
Most of the oxygen is removed externally by
deaerator and preheating of feed water. However,
traces of residual oxygen must be removed by
chemical conditioning.
Sodium sulfite, hydrazine and amines are
recommended for oxygen removal.
These
chemicals react with residual oxygen making
it inactive and protect metal against pitting
corrosion. Catalyzed oxygen scavengers are
used for quick reaction.
C. SCALE / DEPOSIT CONTROL:
Raw water contains dissolved solids, hardness
salts and suspended matters.
External treatment is used to remove such
impurities.

Therefore, inspire of elaborate external treatment,


internal chemical conditioning is always
recommended as additional safety. Following
chemical methods are used for internal treatment.
PHOSPHATE CONDITIONING
Trisodium phosphate is commonly used.
Hardness salts react with trisodium phosphate
to form calcium phosphate precipitate. This
precipitate above pH of 9.5 colloidal in nature
and therefore do not allow for form hard scale
of carbonate and silicates. The precipitated
hardness salts are then removed through blow
down as sludge and boiler tubes are kept scale
free.
Trisodium phosphate,
apart from acting
as hardness conditioning agent, also is a
good corrosion inhibitor.
The recommended
concentration in boiler water is given in Table -1

Dealkaliser - To remove hardness salts and


excessive alkalinity

Note 1 : TSP will act as hardness conditioner,


only when boiler pH is above 9.5 . Below 9.5
pH TSP may cause hard scale formation of Ca3
(PO)2.
Therefore, coordinated or congruent
phosphate treatment is recommended. The water
treatment experts can advise you right treatment
after studying your water quality and operation
conditions.

Demineralization - To remove residual salts


and silica

Thermax Chemicals can provide services for


arriving at right chemical treatment for your boiler.

Mixed bed - To remove residual salts and silica


from DM water.

Chelant- Polymer treatment:

Clarification - To remove suspended matters.


Filtration - To remove residual turbidity
Softening - To remove hardness salts

A combination of above equipments are used to


remove undesirable impurities in raw water.
SCALE CONTROL
Hardness salts in feed water cause formation in
boiler. Under temperature and pressure inside the
boiler and due to concentration, hardness salts
precipitate in tubes as calcium carbonate, calcium
sulphate and Ca/Mg silicate scales.
External
treatment
like
softening,
demineralization or de-alkalisation removes most
of the hardness salts from boiler feed water.
However, malfunctioning of this equipment,
occasional bypassing of the softener/DM plant or
contamination of condensate or feed water with
raw water often led to ingress of hardness in the
boiler.
All hardness salt precipitate inside boiler leading
to hard scale formation on tubes. Such scale
has lower conductivity causing increase in metal
temperature, leading to bursting of tubes in
extreme conditions.

Section-D

Hardness scales do not precipitate in presence of


chelant like NTA/EDTA The chelant treatment is
recommended when hardness ingress in boiler is
experienced regularly.

Excessive chelant dosing cause


corrosion of boiler
Hence balanced chelant program as
recommended by experts should be
used.
Organic polymer conditioners are used to
prevent hardness scales. Such organic polymer
disperse scale forming compounds like CaCO3
& Ca(PO4)2 in colloidal form facilitating their
removal through blow down.
Polymer and
copolymer of acrylic, methacrylic, styrene maleic
acrylics are commonly used. Most of the polymers
are proprietary in nature and therefore dosage is
best recommended by manufacturer.
D. FOULING CONTROL

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

Suspended matter, oil/grease /oxygen & iron


salts commonly cause fouling inside the boiler.
Most of the suspended matter and iron salts are
removed by external treatment. However due to
mfg. of these equipment, contamination through
condensate and concentration in boiler cause
fouling of boiler tubes.
Similar to hardness scales, such foulants are
poor conductor of heat. Thus fouling causes
overheating of tubes.
Fouling can best be avoided by maintaining quality
of feed water as per norms. In case of upsets
or occasional contamination, polymeric disersent
help to prevent fouling due to turbidity and organic
matter. Iron is picked up mostly in condensate
system due to corrosion of condensate line. In
such case, condensate corrosion inhibitor like
ammonia cyclohexylamine and filming amine is
recommended.
E. TURBINE / SUPERHEATER DEPOSITION
CONTROL:
The solids in boiler feed water get concentrated
in boiler. The concentration of solids in boiler is
decided blowdown and feed water quality. The
carryover of boiler water with steam depends on;

Thus severity of scaling and fouling of superheater


and turbine depends on boiler water quality and
steam purity.
Maintaining boiler water quality as per norms and
maximum steam purity is the only way to prevent
deposition due to carryover of water with steam.
Antifoam agents help to some extend to improve
steam purity in case of excessive in boiler.
F. SILICA DEPOSIT CONTROL:
Silica is volatile under high temperature
and pressure inside boiler.
In turbines, the
evaporated silica precipitates during pressure
and temperature reduction and form hard scales.
Maximum allowable concentration of silica
depends on water analysis. Experts best decide
the maximum permissible concentration after
striding the operating parameters.
G. CONDENSATE CORROSION CONTROL:
The carbon dioxide is present in boiler feed water
in dissolved and combined from as carbonate.
Under boiler pressure and temperature it is
liberated and carried over with steam as CO2
gas. This gas re dissolves in steam condensate
to form carbonic acid.

Mechanical Factors:

CO2 + H2O = H2CO3

Boiler load - Higher the load, lower is the steam


purity

H. MAINTENANCE OF PEAK EFFICIENCY:

Water level in boiler - Higher the water level in


drum, lower is steam purity.
Load Variation - Sudden increase in load
reduce steam purity for short time.
Separation efficiency - Higher efficiency, better
is steam purity.
Chemical Factors:

Corrosion, scaling, fouling carryover and


condensate corrosion can cause unscheduled
shutdown, accidents and deterioration of system
efficiency.Therefore for trouble free operation
and maintenance peak operation efficiency,
a combination of various internal chemical
treatments is essential along with a good control
over boiler water quality.

Total Alkalinity - Higher alkalinity as % of TDS


lower is steam purity

Maintaining boiler water quality by using


commodity chemicals likes TSP, Hydrazine, and
Sodium sulfite. However, it is recommended
that the care and control of water chemistry be
entrusted to specialist.

Organics - Higher the organic contamination,


lower is steam purity.

4.10 Fans

TDS - Higher TDS in boiler, lower is steam


purity.

Foaming - Higher the foaming character of


water, Lower is steam purity.
The water carried over with steam due to
above reasons is exactly similar in quality to
blow-down or boiler water. In superheater or in
turbines, water evaporates, leaving dissolved and
suspended matter as scales or deposits.

Section-D

Equipment such as a fan is said to be under


preventive maintenance, when it is stopped after
some period of operation.
1. De-coupled from its drive,
2. Bearing housing oil (for oil lubrication) is
drained,

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

3. Top cover of the housing is opened and a


visual examination of the bearing is done.

17. The motor coupling is aligned to the fan


coupling.

4. The access door of the impeller housing is


opened and the impeller blades are cleaned
and examined for wear.

18. Trial run of the fan is taken.

5. Defective or worn parts noticed are repaired


or replaced.

19. Bearing vibrations, temperatures, noise levels


are measured and compared to previous
values.

Oil seals O rings if any, are replaced.

20. Adjustment if any required (alignment,


bearing clearances etc.) are done.

7. The tightness of the bolts and nuts, which fix


the fan casing to the foundation, are checked
with a torque wrench.

21. The maintenance exercise is successful, if the


observed values are better than the values
before the shutdown.

6.

8. The fan bearing housing cover is assembled


and recommended lubricant is filled to the
correct level.

22. Another variant of the maintenance can be


disassembling the fan to its components level,
taking out the bearing, impeller etc.

9. The expansion joints at the discharge end are


checked to see that they are not compressed
or expanded

23. Checking the trueness of the shaft, checking


bearings etc. before re-assembly.

10. Damages if any to the bellows are corrected


by patch up. Discharge duct supports are
checked and adjusted to their design value.

24. In the drive motor also, the rotor is taken out


and the rotor and stator coils are examined for
tightness.

11. The suction damper bearings / bushings are


checked for wear and repaired or replaced
as necessary. The travel of the damper is
checked and corrected where required.

25. The coils are cleaned by air blowing and re


varnished.

12. The end shields of the drive motor are


opened.
13. The stator-rotor spaces are cleaned blowing
a jet of warm air.
14. The bearings are cleaned and re-lubricated.
15. The insulation resistance of the stator coils
is measure and compared to their previous
values.
16. The end shields are assembled.

Section-D

4.11 Safety Valves, Start Up Vent


Valves And Other Isolating Valves
These valves require regular overhauls, normally
once in three years even if condition reports do not
indicate any abnormality. Earlier overhauls can be
scheduled if condition reports warrant. Overhauls
of the valves can be staggered after the first two
years of operation in a manner that certain number
of valves are overhauled every year. Overhauls
of the valves are as per their vendor manuals
enclosed.

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

Boiler Preservation Procedure

INTRODUCTION
Both the gas and waterside of a boiler should be
protected against corrosion during out of service
periods. It is known that many of the corrosion
problems of boiler and auxiliary equipment have
their inception during storage. Rusting of tube
surfaces, as indicated by the formation of the red
hematite (Fe2O3), not only cause a roughened
tube surface but also results in attack of parent
metal.
The advantages of efficient feedwater and boiler
water treatment during operation may be lost if
the same diligence is not applied to protect heat.
Transfer surfaces during idle periods. Protection
from corrosion during storage becomes vitally
important considering the number of times during
the life of a boiler when it and its auxiliary
equipment are idle.
To minimize the possibility of corrosion, boiler to
be placed into storage must be carefully prepared
for the idle period and closely watched during
the outage. There are two methods available
for storing the unit dry storage and wet storage.
Although the wet storage procedures is preferred
such factors as availability of good quality water,
ambient weather conditions, length of storage
period, auxiliary supply of heat, etc may dictate
that the dry storage procedure is more practical.

5.1 Definitions OF Water Quality


Some cleaning procedures, hydrostatic testing
and storage require water of higher quality
than others. For the purpose of economy and
convenience the lowest water quality consistent
with requirements is specified in these various
procedures. The terms that identify the different
water qualities along with their definitions are list
below: Station service water - Water normally
used for drinking, fire protection, etc.

final concentration of 10 ppm (or a pH of 10.0).


In this procedure, condensate is considered to be
treated demineralised water.

5.2 Dry Storage Preservation


When it is known that a boiler is to be idle for
a considerable length of time and that a brief
period will be allowed for preparation to return it to
service, the dry storage method is recommended.
In this method the unit is emptied, thoroughly
cleaned internally and externally dried, and then
closed up tight to exclude both moisture and
air. Trays of lime, silica gel, or other moisture
absorbent may be placed in the drums to draw off
the moisture in the air trapped by the closing up
of the boiler.
The following general procedure is recommended
when placing a unit into dry storage.
1. Fire the boiler according to the normal
start-up procedure and establish upto
3.5-kg/cm2G-drum pressure.
Stop firing.
Secure the boiler and when the pressure
decays to 1.3 kg/cm2G, immediately drain
the boiler and headers under air. As soon
as possible, open the drums to allow air to
circulate for drying of all internal surfaces.
This step is included for a unit that has been in
service and is to be placed into storage. For a
unit that has never been in service, start with
Step 2.
2. If the unit is full of water and cold, drain the
unit under air. All non-drainable boiler tubes
should be blown with compressed air. If an
external source of heat is available such as
a steam coil air heater, portable heaters, etc.,
operate these heaters to assist in drying the
internal boiler surfaces.

Mixed bed demineralised water - Water that has


been passed through a mixed bed demineraliser.
Water from an evaporator is considered to be of
equal quality.

Install trays (of non-porous construction


and capable of passing through the drum
manhole) containing the moisture absorbent
(silica gel is preferred) into the drums. Insert
the trays into the drum being certain that
none of the absorbent comes into contact
with the metal surface of the drum. To
insure against an overflow of corrosive liquid
after the moisture has been absorbed, the
trays should not be more than full of dry
absorbent. The amount of absorbent can
vary but the recommended minimum is one
pound of absorbent per 1000 pounds per
hour steam flow capacity of the unit.

Treated demineralised water - Mixed bed


demineralised water that has 200 ppm of
hydrazine and enough ammonia added to give

3. Open the isolation valve for nitrogen


connection, on the steam drum, close all
other vents and drains and pressurize the

Softened water - Filtered, sodium zeolite softened


water with total hardness less than 1 ppm.
Two- bed demineralised water - Water then
has been passed through cation and anion ion
exchanges in series.

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

boiler to 0.3 to 0.6 kg/cm2G with nitrogen.


The amount of nitrogen required will vary
according to the volume of the unit.
4. With the boiler pressurized, alternately open
all boiler drains to purge air from the unit until
pressure decays to zero. It may be necessary
to repeat this process several times to reduce
the amount of oxygen left in the unit to a
minimum.
The unit should now be stored under 0.3 to
0.6-kg/cm2G nitrogen pressure maintained
at the steam drum. To maintain the nitrogen
pressure, all connections and valves should
be blanked or tightly closed. Check gas
pressure daily to ensure protection.
We would recommend that periodic
inspection of the unit be performed every 3
months to assure that no corrosive action is
taking place and to replenish the absorbent
as required. Since air will enter the unit during
this inspection, it will be necessary to repeat
Steps 3 & 4 to expel the air.

The unit should be properly tagged


and the appropriate warning signs
attached noting that the boiler is
stored under nitrogen pressure and
that complete exhaustion of the
nitrogen must occur before anyone
enters the drum. Before entering
drums test to prove that the oxygen
concentration is at least 19.5%.
The above procedure is intended to include
the economizer.

5.3 Wet Storage Preservation


The advantage of employing the wet storage
procedure is that the unit is stored completely
wet with the recommended levels of chemicals
to eliminate a wet-dry interface where possible
corrosion can occur. It is suggested that volatile
chemicals be used to avoid increasing the level
of dissolved solids in the water to be used for
storage.

a pH of 10 (for demineralised water, this will


require approximately 10 ppm ammonia).
2. We strongly recommend pre-mixing of the
chemicals with the water to insure a uniform
mixture entering the boiler. This can be
accomplished by the blend-fill method. The
blend-fill method consists of blending the
chemicals with the demineralised water at a
continuous rate such that a uniform mixture
is entering the boiler. Simply introducing the
chemicals through the drum after establishing
water level will not insure adequate dispersion
of chemicals to all internal surfaces, unless
sufficient heat is delivered to the furnace (i.e.
firing the boiler) to induce natural circulation
throughout the boiler.
3. Fill the unit with the treated demineralised
water to the normal centerline of the steam
drum. Stop filling further.
4. Back-fill the with treated Demineralised
water until a rise in steam drum level is
noted.
Continue filling until water exits
from the steam drum vents. After filling,
all connections should be blanked or tightly
closed.
5. A source of low-pressure nitrogen should be
connected at the steam drum to maintain 0.3
to 0.6 Bar G to prevent air from entering the
unit during the storage period.

The unit should be properly tagged


and the appropriate warning signs
attached noting that the boiler is
stored under nitrogen pressure and
that complete exhaustion of the
nitrogen must occur before anyone
enters the drum. Before entering
drums test to prove that the oxygen
concentration is at least 19.5%.
If storage continues into winter, ambient
temperatures below the freezing point of water
create a real hazard to the boiler pressure parts
and it will be necessary to provide a means of
keeping the unit warm to avoid damage.

In preparing a unit for wet storage, the following


procedure is recommended.

At some later date when the unit is to be placed


into service, the boiler can be drained to normal
start-up water level and placed into operation.

1. The unit should be filled with deaerated,


Demineralised water treated with 200 ppm
hydrazine (N2H4) for oxygen removal and
sufficient ammonia (NH3) in order to attain

In some cases, an expansion tank or surge tank


(such as a 55-gallon drum) above the steam
drum elevation may be required to accommodate
volume changes due to temperature changes.

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

This tank is equipped with a tight cover and sight


glass and contains properly treated water. The
tank should be connected to an available opening,
such as a vent line at the top of the steam drum
in order to create a hydrostatic head. This tank
will provide a ready, visual check of water level or
in leakage during lay up.

5.5 Hot Draining

A source of low-pressure nitrogen should be


connected to the surge tank to maintain 0.3 to 0.6
Bar G to prevent air from entering the unit during
the storage period.

The shut down AFBC is allowed to depressurize


upto 2kg/cm2 (g) pressure on the drum. Water
level is maintained upto prescribed levels till that
time.

The treated demineralised water should be


analyzed weekly, and when necessary, sufficient
chemicals should be added through the
chemical feed line, to establish the proper levels
recommended. Samples of the treated water can
be taken at the continuous blowdown line or any
suitable drain connection.

When the steam drum pressure drops to 1.5


kg/cm2 (g), the air vents of the steam drum, Super
heaters, economizer are opened and the AFBC
is drained through the economizer, evaporator
(or only the sections required) by opening the
required drain valves.

No unit should be stored wet when there is any


possibility of a temperature drop to the freezing
point unless sufficient heat can be provided to the
unit to eliminate the danger of water freezing and
subsequent damage to pressure parts.

5.4 Nitrogen Blanket

If the AFBC shut down is for a short period of


less than seven days and during that period
maintenance work on pressure parts have to be
undertaken, the AFBC can be preserved by hot
draining

When all the water is drained, the residual heat


of the water wall, economizer, Super Heater and
steam drum, flash dries most of the moisture
present on the tube surfaces. As the pressure
parts remain dry, corrosion is prevented. This
method of preservation however is not effective
for move than a week.

Nitrogen can be introduced at the following


locations

5.6 Alkaline Water Dozed With


Hyderzine

1. Through the steam drum

If a AFBC has to be preserved for long periods


(two months or more) an effective method of
preservation is to fill the AFBC, Super Heater and
economizer with water treated with ammonia to
a pH of 10.5 and dozed with 200 PPM or more
hydrazine.

2. Through the main steam line


The nitrogen required to seal the drainable
components may be supplied from a permanent
nitrogen system or portable tanks located near
the vent elevations. Due to differences in plant
layout, the owner should choose his own method
of piping the nitrogen, either from their permanent
system or from portable tanks, to the vent (or
drain) locations listed.

The unit should be properly tagged and the


appropriate warning signs attached noting
that the boiler is stored under nitrogen
pressure and that complete exhaustion of
the nitrogen must occur before anyone
enters the drum.
Before entering drums test to prove that the
oxygen concentration is at least 19.5 %

Section-D

This water is completely filled in the water and


steam space of the AFBC and a pressure of 5
kg/cm2 (g) is maintained in the drum by a pump.
This method is effective but requires additional
equipment such as a tank, and a pump with a
connection to one of the drain headers.
All the possible methods of preservation of a shut
down AFBC , the nitrogen blanketing method is
simple and suitable for the type of preservation,
which may be ordinarily required.

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

5.7 Preservation Of External Surfaces


Of Pressure Parts During Long
Shut Down

Keeping inspection doors tightly closed (when no


inspection is being planned) may minimise such
corrosion.

During AFBC shut downs exceeding a few days,


the external surfaces of the pressure parts of
especially in a chemical plant environment, may
come under corrosive attacks by moisture, SO2,
SO3 vapors etc.

Water lancing with hot water or mild alkaline


water once a month may wash out the corrosive
components from the external surfaces of the
pressure parts. (See maintenance volume)

TYPE OF SHUTDOWN

5.8 Boiler Lay Up Procedures


PROCEDURE

SHORT OUTAGES
4 DAYS OR LESS. UNIT NOT DRAINED

Maintain the same hydrazine and ammonia


concentration as present during normal operation.
Establish 0.3 to 0.6 kg/cm2G nitrogen cap on the
steam drum

SHORT OUTAGES
4 DAYS OR LESS. UNIT IS DRAINED

Drain and open only those sections require repair.


Isolate remainder of the unit under 0.3 to 0.6 BarG
nitrogen pressure where possible. Maintain the
same nitrogen and ammonia concentration for water
remaining in the cycle

LONG OUTAGES
LONGER THAN 4 DAYS UPTO 15 DAYS.
UNIT IS DRAINED

Fill the boiler with Polish water having 200 ppm of


hydrazine and 10 ppm of ammonia to maintain pH
10.
Establish nitrogen cap of 0.3 to 0.6 kg/cm2G over the
steam drum.

LONG OUTAGES
MORE THAN 15 DAYS - UNIT IS DRAINED.

5.9 Preservation of Rotating


Equipments

Dry storage of boiler with nitrogen alone is preferred


procedure. Nitrogen cap of 0.3 to 0.6 kg/cm2G to be
maintained on the steam drum. Installed silica gel
tray in the steam drum to soak moisture if any present
in the drum atmosphere.

5.10 Preservation of Instruments


1. Cover all field instruments with plastic sheets

1. Put the rotating equipment in service once in


every 48 hours or atleast once in a week
2. If the equipment is going to be under long
shutdown
a. Fill bearing block full of oil to preserve the
bearing and rotate the Fan/Pump Shaft by
90o once in every 48 hours ( If bearing
housing is oil lubricated)

2. Power up the panel instruments and check the


operation
3. Keep the control room dust and moisture free
4. Operate control valves, power cylinders once
a week and check operation.
5. Operate quick shutoff valves frequently
(Twice a week)

b. Rotate the fan / pump shaft by 900 once


in 48 hours ( for bearing housings with
grease )

6. Ensure that O2 analyzer is powered up and


reference air supply is given when flue gas is
present.

c.

7. Check operation of Ignition Transformer once


in 2 weeks if burners are provided.

Cover the bearing block & uncovered


portion of shaft with plastic sheets to
prevent dust/water ingress

d. Ensure no dust/water accumulates on the


rotating equipment.

Section-D

8. Check operation of Flame Scanners & Flame


Amplifiers once in 2 weeks if burners are
provided.

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

5.11 Tube Thickness Survey


The following checks relate only to external
erosion / corrosion of the tubes and that too
qualitatively.
To make a quantitative assessment of wastage of
tubes (both internal and external) a tube thickness
survey using ultrasonic tube thickness gauges
is recommended. For a useful tube thickness
survey program, measurement locations on inbed
evaporators, Furnace water wall, superheaters
and economizer tubes must be specified and
indicated on a drawing. Vulnerable locations are
usually chosen. On request, the Field Engineering
Department of TL can establish such a program.
Each document should have the following
minimum vital information.
Tube thickness measurements at the selected
locations are made and recorded after water
washing and drying, during the first annual
overhaul. The base value is the design thickness
of the tubes. Subsequent measurements are
made at the same locations, every alternate year.
The tube thickness survey provides useful data
on corrosion / erosion rates and can alert the
owner when serious loss of thickness is noticed.
Details with sketches and drawings will give
more clarity for analysis
Date of inspection
Tube no / Coil no.
Inner coil / Outer coil details
Location. RHS / LHS
Clock position.
Reference points.
Thickness including decimals.
Visual observations
Condition of studs.

Tube Failures

Operating a boiler with a known tube leak is not


recommended. Steam or water escaping from a
small leak can cut other tubes by impingement
and set up a chain reaction of tube failures. Large
leaks can be dangerous. The boiler water may be
lost, the ignition may be lost, and the boiler casing
may be damaged.
Small leaks can some times be detected by the
loss of water in the cycle or system, a loss in boiler
water chemicals or by the noise made by the leak.
If a leak is suspected the boiler should be shut

Section-D

down as soon as possible by following normal shut


down procedures (If situation permits).
After the exact locations of the leak or leaks are
identified, the leaks may be repaired by replacing
the failed tube or by splicing in a new section of
tube, confirming to IBR code.

An investigation of tube failure is


very important so that the condition
causing the tube failure can be
eliminated and future failures can be
prevented. This investigation should
include a careful visual inspection of
the failed tube and in some cases a
laboratory analysis.
It is recommended that every effort be made to
find the cause of tube failures before operation
is resumed.
It should be ensured that, whenever a spool
piece is inserted in the failed zone, the weld
joint needs to be of proper weld quality.
Free from excess weld penetration to avoid
any obstruction in the water / steam mixture
flow inside the tube. Excess weld penetration
can cause internal tube erosion and results in
tube failures.
It is suggested to have all the joints are x-rayed
and interpreted by qualified / experienced
radiographer.

6.1 Tube Failure Investigation /


Analysis Method
Investigation / analysis methodology is listed as
follows, which needs to be followed to find the
actual root cause of the problems.
Please fill up the enlcosed form duly filled and
the same may be sent to Thermax along with
tube sample for analysis.

Objectives of Failure Investigation


Boiler tube failures are the largest cause of forced
outages experienced by a utility. To avoid or
minimize outages and the associated economic
penalties, it is important to identify the mechanism
and root cause of tube failures. Informed visual
inspection is often adequate for this purpose,
however failure analysis involving detailed
metallurgical investigation is necessary. Tube
failures may be due to overheating, corrosion,
erosion, fatigue, hydrogen damage etc. A failure
investigation and subsequent analysis should

81

Operation & Maintenance Manual

determine the primary cause of a failure, and


based on determination, corrective action should
be initiated that will prevent similar failures.

Stages of Failure Analysis


Although the sequence is subject to variation,
depending upon the nature of a specific failure, the
principal stages that comprise the investigation &
analysis of a failure are:
1. Collection of background & selection of
samples
2. Preliminary examination of the failed
part(visual examination & record keeping)
3. Nondestructive testing
4. Mechanical testing (including hardness &
toughness testing)
5. Selection, identification, preservation, and/or
cleaning of all specimens.
6. Macroscopic
examination
and
analysis(fracture surfaces, secondary cracks,
& other surface phenomena)
7. Microscopic examination and analysis
8. Selection & preparation of metallographic
sections
9. Examination and analysis of metallographic
sections

Collection of Background Operating


Data
Boiler operating data just before & at the time
of a tube failure is very important as it will give
information of the service conditions faced by the
tube at the time of failure. This operating data
should also be co-related with the past operation
data & abnormalities if any should be taken care
off. Water chemistry analysis, fuel analysis should
also form an important part of this data. This data
& the metallurgical analysis will help us in true
sense to arrive at the exact cause of a tube failure.

Investigation of Tube Failure in a


Boiler
1. Study the boiler log sheet & water chemistry
record prior to tube failure and after tube
failure. Preserve the copies of these log
sheets. Record, if any abnormality noticed,
such as mal operation, malfunction, very
high or low temp. / loads, fluctuating loads,
sudden increase in load or temp., poor water
chemistry, start up vent crack open / close
etc. etc. (if possible collect and send the
water samples, internal scale from drum &
tubes, external scale samples).

Section-D

2. After entering in boiler and before proceeding


to tube failure location inspect & record
the condition of boiler and pressure parts
without disturbing the evidence i.e. distortion
of pressure parts/coils, bulging of pressure
parts, scaling / lump formation on pressure
parts, blockage of flue gas path, other /
secondary failures etc. etc. In such case
taking photographs will help in great extent in
analyzing of the tube failure, boiler problem.
The failed pressure part tube should not be
hammered, any mechanical impact should be
avoided.
3. Inspect the failed tube and record all findings
on the same as well as its adjacent tubes.
Carry out dimensional measurement of failed
tube and affected adjacent tubes.
4. Number mark the failed tube for its location,
flue gas flow, steam flow with oil paint.
After completion of inspection, recording
and photography, cut the failed tube and
affected adjacent tube, if any, with the help
of HACKSAW only. Gas cutting of the tubes
should be avoided as much as possible.
The failed tube, keeping the failed portion
in middle should be cut for total length of
minimum 350 mm. Immediately after cutting
the tube sample both the ends should be
covered with plastic caps. While doing this
the internal or external scale of tube should
not fall down.
5. The failed tube samples nicely packed in
plastic bag / wooden case accompanying duly
filled format with water chemistry of boiler log
sheets should be sent to H.O Pune.

Removal of Failed Tube Sample


1. The tube sample should be cut with a
hacksaw blade.
Gas cutting should be
avoided.
2. The sample should be cut approx. 8-10
inches above & below the affected area.
3. & elevation should be marked on the tube
sample.
4. The direction of the fluid flow should be
marked on the tube sample.
5. Immediately after cutting the tube sample
both the ends should be covered with plastic
caps. While doing this the internal or external
scale of tube should not fall down.
The failed tube sample nicely packed in plastic
bag / wooden case accompanying duly filled
format as given below with water chemistry

82

Operation & Maintenance Manual

of boiler log sheets should be sent to H.O for


metallurgical investigations.

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

6.2 Tube Thickness Survey Data


Collection Format
(FURNACE / BOILER BANK / ECONOMISER TUBES)
CUSTOMER :
BOILER NUMBER :
UNIT NO :
DATE OF INSPECTION :
COIL NO

CLOCK
POSITION

TUBE
THICKNESS

STUD LENGTH

VISUAL
OBSERVATIONS

DATA COLLECTION BY

NAME & SIGNATURE

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

6.3 Failure Reporting Formats


THERMAX LIMITED
ENERGY BUILDING, D1 BLOCK, MIDC, R.D AGA ROAD,
CHINCHWAD, PUNE 411 019 - INDIA
TELEPHONE

020 66126464

FAX :

020 27479048

WEB SITE :

http://www.thermaxindia.com

EMAIL :

Yashwant1@thermaxindia.com
Uumale@thermaxindia.com

DEAR CUSTOMER,
WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU,
WE STRIVE TO CONTINUOUSLY IMPROVE THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF OUR
PRODUCTS. WE WOULD LIKE TO HEAR FROM YOU, SHOULD YOU EXPERIENCE PROBLEMS
WITH OUR EQUIPMENT OR SHOULD YOU WANT TO SUGESST IMPROVEMENTS,
JUST FILL IN THE INFORMATION NEEDED AT THE ENCLOSED FORMAT AND FAX / POST IT TO
OUR CUSTOMER SERVICE DEPARTMENT TO THE ABOVE MENTIONED ADDRESS.
KINDLY USE ADDITIONAL SHEETS IF REQUIRED.
PLEASE PROVIDE ADEQUATE INFORMATION / DRAWINGS REFERENCE / LOG SHEET
READINGS ETC FOR PROPER ANALYSIS & FEED BACK
WE WILL GLADLY REVIEW YOUR SUGGESTIONS AND REPLY TO YOU WITH IN A REASONABLE
TIME.
WE ARE AT YOUR SERVICES ALWAYS,

U.S. UMALE
DY GENERAL MANAGER (FIELD ENGG.)

Section-D

85

Operation & Maintenance Manual

CUSTOMER FEEDBACK FORM

CUSTOMER DETAILS:

COMPANY NAME
COMMUNICATION ADDRESS

TELEPHONE NUMBER
FAX NUMBER
E-MAIL ADDRESS
CONTACT PERSON
OTHER DETAILS (IF ANY)
BOILER DETAILS
BOILER NUMBER :
DATE OF COMMISSIONING;
BOILER CAPACITY MCR
STEAM PRESSURE
STEAM TEMPERATURE
FUEL FIRED
EQUIPMENT DETAILS
S.N

PROBLEM
DETAILS

OBSERVATIONS

CORRECTIVE
ACTIONS TAKEN

COMMENTS /
RECOMMENDATIONS

1.
2.

OTHER INFORMATION:
EXPECTATIONS FROM TBW :
REPLY AWAITED / SERVICE ENGINEER VISIT :

SIGNATURE & DATE

Section-D

86

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Water Chemistry

D) IRON:

INTRODUCTION
The natural water contains solid, liquid and
gaseous impurities and therefore, this cannot be
used for the generation of steam in the boilers.
The impurities present in the water should be
removed before its use for steam generation.
The necessity for reducing the corrosive nature
and quantity of dissolved and suspended solids
in feed water has become increasingly important
with the advent of high pressure, critical and
supercritical boilers.
The impurities present in the feed water are
classified as given below
1. Un dissolved and suspended solid materials.
2. Dissolved salts and minerals.
3. Dissolved gases.
4. Other materials (a soil, acid) either in mixed
and unmixed forms.

7.1 Undissolved and Suspended Solid


Materials
A) TURBIDITY AND SEDIMENT:
Turbidity in the water is suspended insoluble
matter including coarse particles (mud, sediment
sand etc,) that settle rapidly. Amounts ranges
from almost zero in most ground waters and
60,000 ppm. in muddy and turbulent river water.
The turbidity of feed water should not exceed
5 ppm. These materials can be removed by
settling coagulation and filtration. Their presence
is undesirable because heating or evaporation
produces hard stony scale deposits on the
heating surface and clog fluid system. Both are
objectionable as they cause damage to the boiler
system. A standard of measurement of hardness
is taken as being the amount of calcium carbonate
(CaCO3) in the water and is referred to in part per
million (ppm) or grains per gallon (grain/gallon) X
17.1 = ppm.
B) SODIUM AND POTASSIUM SALTS:
These are extremely soluble in water and do
not deposit unless highly concentrated. Their
presence is troublesome as they are alkaline in
nature and accelerate the corrosion.
C) CHLORIDES:
Majority of the chloride
corrosive action of water.

Section-D

causes

increased

Most common soluble iron in water is ferrous


bicarbonate.
The water containing ferrous
bicarbonate deposits becomes yellowish and
reddish sediment of ferric hydroxide if exposed
to air. Majority of ground surface water contains
less than 5 ppm but 0.3 ppm, can create trouble
in the feed water system by soft scale formation
and accelerating the corrosion.
E) MANGANESE:
It also occurs in similar form as iron and it is also
equally troublesome.
F) SILICA:
Most natural water contains silica ranging from 1
to 100 ppm. Its presence is highly objectionable
as it forms very hard scale in boilers and forms
insoluble deposits on turbine blades. In modern
high-pressure boilers its presence is reduced as
low as 10-50 ppm.
G) MICROBIOLOGICAL GROWTHS:
Various growths occur in surface water (lake
and river). The microorganisms include diatons,
molds, bacterial slimes, algae; manganese and
sulfate reducing bacteria and many others. These
can cause coating on heat exchanger and clog
the flow passages and reduce the heat transfer
rates.
H) COLOR:
Surface waters from swampy areas become
highly colored due to decaying vegetation. Color
of feed water is objectionable as it causes foaming
in boilers and may interfere by chlorinating of
absorption by activated carbon.

7.2 Dissolved Salts and Minerals


A) CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM SALTS:
The calcium and magnesium salts present in the
water in the form of carbonates, bicarbonates,
sulfates and chlorides. The presence of these
salts is recognized by the hardness of the water
(hardness of water is tested by soap test). The
hardness of water is classified as temporary and
permanent hardness. The temporary hardness
is caused by the bicarbonates of calcium and
magnesium and can be removed by boiling. The
boiling converts the soluble bicarbonates into
less soluble carbonates, which can be removed
by simple blow-down method. The presence
of chlorides, sulfates and nitrates of calcium

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

cause the permanent hardness of the water and


magnesium and they cannot be removed just by
boiling because they form a hard scale on heating
surfaces.

7.3 Dissolved Gases


A) OXYGEN:
It presents in surface water in dissolved form with
variable percentage depending upon the water
temperature and other solid contents in water. Its
presence is highly objectionable, as it is corrosive
to iron, zinc, brass and other metals. It causes
corrosion and pitting of water lines, boilers and
heat exchangers. Its effect is further accelerated
at high temperature.
B) CARBON DIOXIDE:
The river water contains 50 ppm & well water
contains 2-50 ppm of CO2. It also helps to
accelerate the corrosive action of oxygen.
The other gases are H2S, CH4, N2 and many
others but their percentage are negligible
Therefore their effects are not discussed here.

7.4 Other Materials


A) FREE MINERAL ACID:
Usually present as sulfuric or hydrochloric acid
and causes corrosion. The presence is required
by neutralization with alkalis.
B) OIL:
Generally the lubricating oil is carried with steam
into the condenser & thorough the feed system to
the boiler. It causes sludge, scale & foaming in
boilers. Strainers and baffle separators generally
remove it.
The effects of all the impurities present in the
water are the scale formation on the different
parts of the boiler system and corrosion. The
scale formation reduces the heat transfer rates
and clogs the flow passage and endangers the
life of the equipment by increasing the temp
above the safe limit. The corrosion phenomenon
reduces the life of the plant rapidly. Therefore it
is absolutely necessary to reduce the impurities
below a safe limit for the proper working of the
power plant.

7.5 pH Value of the Water and its


Importance
The pH value of the feed water plays very
important controlling the corrosion. pH is a

Section-D

number denoting the degree of acidity or alkalinity


of a substance. It does not indicate the quantity
of acid or alkali in a solution as found by filtration
method. It is derived by measuring the amount of
hydrogen ion (H+) in grams per liter of solution.
The greater the amount of hydrogen ions present
in solution its acid reaction becomes stronger.
Therefore, pure water is being neutral solution,
any solution producing more hydrogen ion than
pure water will be acidic and degree is governed
by difference and other solution producing less
hydrogen ions than pure water will be alkaline and
the degree is also governed by the difference.
THE ROLE OF pH IN CORROSION:
The role of pH in corrosion of metals is extremely
important. The corrosion rate of iron in the
absence of oxygen is proportional to pH up to a
value of 9.6. At this point, hydrogen gas formation
and dissolving of iron practically stops. This is
the came pH produced by a saturated solution of
ferrous hydroxide Fe (OH) 2.
The Oxygen in the water unites with ferrous
hydroxide to form ferric hydroxide. This reaction
lowers pH of the solution and levels to stimulate
corrosion.
Alkalinity adjustment and film formation are
closely related. The pH value of feed water should
be maintained greater than 9.6 to reduce the
corrosion effects caused by the reason mentioned
above. The required alkalinity of feed water is
adjusted by adding soda ash caustic soda or
trisodium phosphate. The calcium hardness,
alkalinity and pH are inter-related variables in
scale control. Calcium carbonate is one of the
most troublesome deposits responsible for scale
formation.

7.6 Effects of Impurities


The major troubles caused by the feeding of
water of undesirable quality are scale formation,
corrosion, foaming, caustic embrittlement,
carry-over and priming. The details described
below: 1. SCALE FORMATION
Feed water containing a group of impurities in
dissolved and suspended form flows into the
Boiler for continuos generation of Steam. With
conversion of water into steam in Boiler, solids
are left behind to concentrate the remaining
water. The scale formation tendency increases
with the increase in temperature of feed water.
Because, the solubility of some salts (as calcium
sulphite) decreases with the increase in feed
water temperature. Calcium sulphite has solubility

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

of 3200 ppm. at 15 Deg. C and it reduces to 55


ppm. at 230 Deg. C and 27 ppm. At 320 Deg. C.
Scale formation takes place mainly due to salts
of calcium and magnesium. Sometimes, it is
cemented into a hard mass by Silica. Among all,
calcium is the principal offender and particularly,
Calcium sulphate, magnesium sulphate and other
Chlorides are sufficiently soluble in water and are
not much troublesome. Sodium salts are highly
soluble in water and are non-scale forming.
The scale formation takes place mainly in feed
water piping and Boiler Tubes. Its first effect on
the piping system is to choke the flow of water by
reducing the flow area and increases the pressure
required to maintain the water delivery. Another
effect of scale formation is to reduce the transfer
of heat form the hot gases to water. Real dangers
of the scale formation exist in radiant heat zone
where boiler tubes are directly exposed to the
combustion. The scale formation retards the flow
of heat and metal temperature increases. Even a
thin layer of scale in high heat zone can over-heat
the metal enough to rupture the tubes. The metal
tubes weakened due to over-heating yield to
pressure providing a protrusion known as bag.
Such bag provides a pocket for the accumulation
of sludge and scale, which eventually causes
failure. The over-heating of metal causes layer of
metal to separate and form a blister.
2. CORROSION
The corrosion is eating away process of boiler
metal. It causes deterioration & failure of the
equipment, eventually this cause for major repairs
or expensive shut -downs or replacements.
The corrosion of boilers, economizers, feed
water heaters & piping is caused by an acid or
low PH in addition to the presence of dissolved
oxygen & carbon dioxide in the boiler feed water.
The presence of oxygen is mostly responsible
for corrosion among all other factors.
The
permissible limit of oxygen content varies with the
acidity of water. Generally it should not should
exceed 0.5 cc per liter .O2 generally enters
into closed system through make up condenser
leakage and condensate pump packing.
CO2 is next to O2, which is responsible for
corrosion. The CO2 comes out of bicarbonates
on heating and combines with water to form weak
acids known as carbonic acid. This acid slowly
reacts with iron and other metals to form their
bicarbonates. The newly formed bicarbonates of
metals decompose by heat once more and CO2 is
again liberated. This gas again unites with water

Section-D

to form carbonic acid and the cycle is repeated.


Adding alkali solution to neutralize acids in
water and raise the PH value can minimize the
corrosion. The effect of CO2 is minimized by the
addition of ammonia or neutralizing the amines in
water. This is necessary because CO2 lowers the
PH of the boiler feed water and dissolved solids
to leave the boiler.
The priming is a violent discharge of water with
steam from the boiler. It can be compared to the
pumping of water that frequently accompanies
rapid heating in a open vessel. In priming the
water level in the boiler undergoes rapid and
great changes and there are violent discharges
of bursting bubbles. Therefore sludge of boiler
water is thrown over with the steam.
The priming is caused due to improper boiler
design, improper method of firing, overloading,
sudden load changing or a combination of these
factors. The priming effect is reduced by installing
steam purifier, lowering water level in the boiler
and maintains constant load on boilers.
The foaming is the formation of small and
stable bubbles throughout the boiler water. The
high percentage of dissolved solids, excessive
alkalinity and presence of oil in water are
responsible for foaming.
Boiler water solids are also carried over in the
moisture mixed with steam even when there is
no indication of either priming or foaming. This
is known as carry-over. The carry-over of boiler
water solids is partly a mechanical and partly a
chemical problem. The amount of suspended
solids and alkalinity in the boiler water is also
important in addition to other reasons like boiler
design, high water level, and overloading and
fluctuating loads on boiler.
3. CAUSTIC EMBRITTLEMENT
The caustic embrittlement is the weakening of
boiler Steel as a result of inner crystalline cracks.
This is caused by long exposure of boiler steel to
combination of stress and highly alkaline water.
The course of embrittlement takes place under
following condition:
a) When boiler water contains free hydroxide,
alkalinity and some silica. It has been always
found that the feed water was high in sodium
bicarbonate, which broke down into sodium
carbonate in the boiler and partially hydralized
as shown by the following reaction in case of
embrittlement.

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

Na2CO3 + HOH = CO2 + 2 NaOH


b) Slow leakage of boiler water through a joint or
seam.
c) Boiler metal is highly stressed at the point of
leakage. This may be caused by faulty design and
expansion etc.
The prevention of caustic embrittlement consists
of reducing the causticity or adding inhibiting
agents to the feed water. The most practical
method of preventing caustic embrittlement is to
regulate the chemical composition of the boiler
water. The obvious solution to embrittlement is
to eliminate all free NaOH from feed water by
addition of Phosphates.

7.7 Feed & Boiler Water Conditioning


1. INTRODUCTION
The successful use of boiler is dependent on
proper water conditioning and treatment. The
quality of water must have accurate for trouble
free operation of boiler.
The water as available to industry is not suitable
for boiler use. A complete pre-treatment and
internal chemical treatment is necessary to make
raw water suitable for boiler feed.
The objective of the water treatment is:
Eliminate scaling - deposition in boiler which
cause tube over heating leading to accidents.
Control corrosion of boiler system, which cause
failure of boiler tubes, leading to unscheduled
shutdowns.
Reduce carry over of water with steam, which is
the cause of deposition on super heater/turbine
blades, leading to the expensive failures.

boiler entirely depends on the rate of corrosion


of boiler metal. In order to protect boiler from
corrosion, pre-treatment is done to remove
excessive corrosion ions like chloride, sulphate
etc. However, further chemical conditioning is
required to protect boiler and auxiliary systems
from corrosion.
Tri sodium phosphate, caustic, ammonia and
amines are used as corrosion inhibitors. These
chemicals form a protective film over metal
surface and reduce corrosion. It is necessary
to maintain prescribed concentration of these
chemicals in boiler water systems continuously.
B. OXYGEN CORROSION INHIBITOR:
Oxygen is present in dissolved form in water.
At high temperature, oxygen reacts with metal
to cause pitting corrosion. Thus prevention of
oxygen lead to pin holes in economizer, steam
drums and steam tubes.
Most of the oxygen is removed externally by
deaerator and preheating of feed water. However,
traces of residual oxygen must be removed by
chemical conditioning.
Sodium sulfite, hydrazine and amines are
recommended for oxygen removal.
These
chemicals react with residual oxygen making
it inactive and protect metal against pitting
corrosion. Catalyzed oxygen scavengers are
used for quick reaction.
C. SCALE / DEPOSIT CONTROL:
Raw water contains dissolved solids, hardness
salts and suspended matters.
External treatment is used to remove such
impurities.
Clarification - To remove suspended matters.

To maintain peak boiler efficiency by keeping


complete boiler water system clean.

Filtration - To remove residual turbidity

In order to meet above objectives, it is necessary


to maintain certain chemical conditions in boiler,
condense and feed water systems. A brief review
of important factors is given in this section to assist
those taking charges of new boiler equipment. It is
not possible to cover the subject fully, there fore, it
is recommended that the care and control of water
quality be entrusted to water treatment specialist.

Dealkaliser - To remove hardness salts and


excessive alkalinity

Softening - To remove hardness salts

Demineralization - To remove residual salts


and silica
Mixed bed - To remove residual salts and silica
from DM water.

2. NEED FOR WATER TREATMENT

A combination of above equipments are used to


remove undesirable impurities in raw water.

A. CORROSSIVE CONTROL

SCALE CONTROL

Water is corrosive to boiler metal. Typically


corrosion due to water will reduce thickness of
tube @ 1 mm/year. Thus the life and safety of

Hardness salts in feed water cause formation in


boiler. Under temperature and pressure inside the
boiler and due to concentration, hardness salts

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

precipitate in tubes as calcium carbonate, calcium


sulphate and Ca/Mg silicate scales.
External
treatment
like
softening,
demineralization or de-alkalisation removes most
of the hardness salts from boiler feed water.
However, malfunctioning of this equipment,
occasional bypassing of the softener/DM plant or
contamination of condensate or feed water with
raw water often led to ingress of hardness in the
boiler.
All hardness salt precipitate inside boiler leading
to hard scale formation on tubes. Such scale
has lower conductivity causing increase in metal
temperature, leading to bursting of tubes in
extreme conditions.
Therefore, inspire of elaborate external treatment,
internal chemical conditioning is always
recommended as additional safety. Following
chemical methods are used for internal treatment.
PHOSPHATE CONDITIONING
Trisodium phosphate is commonly used.
Hardness salts react with trisodium phosphate
to form calcium phosphate precipitate.
This
precipitate above pH of 9.5 colloidal in nature
and therefore do not allow for form hard scale
of carbonate and silicates.
The precipitated
hardness salts are then removed through blow
down as sludge and boiler tubes are kept scale
free.
Trisodium phosphate,
apart from acting
as hardness conditioning agent, also is a
good corrosion inhibitor.
The recommended
concentration in boiler water is given in Table -1
Note 1 : TSP will act as hardness conditioner,
only when boiler pH is above 9.5 . Below 9.5
pH TSP may cause hard scale formation of Ca3
(PO)2.
Therefore, coordinated or congruent
phosphate treatment is recommended. The water
treatment experts can advise you right treatment
after studying your water quality and operation
conditions.

Excessive chelant dosing cause


corrosion of boiler
Hence balanced chelant program as
recommended by experts should be
used.
Organic polymer conditioners are used to
prevent hardness scales. Such organic polymer
disperse scale forming compounds like CaCO3
& Ca(PO4)2 in colloidal form facilitating their
removal through blow down.
Polymer and
copolymer of acrylic, methacrylic, styrene maleic
acrylics are commonly used. Most of the polymers
are proprietary in nature and therefore dosage is
best recommended by manufacturer.
D. FOULING CONTROL
Suspended matter, oil/grease /oxygen & iron
salts commonly cause fouling inside the boiler.
Most of the suspended matter and iron salts are
removed by external treatment. However due to
mfg. of these equipment, contamination through
condensate and concentration in boiler cause
fouling of boiler tubes.
Similar to hardness scales, such foulants are
poor conductor of heat. Thus fouling causes
overheating of tubes.
Fouling can best be avoided by maintaining quality
of feed water as per norms. In case of upsets
or occasional contamination, polymeric disersent
help to prevent fouling due to turbidity and organic
matter. Iron is picked up mostly in condensate
system due to corrosion of condensate line. In
such case, condensate corrosion inhibitor like
ammonia cyclohexylamine and filming amine is
recommended.
E. TURBINE / SUPERHEATER DEPOSITION
CONTROL:

Thermax Chemicals can provide services for


arriving at right chemical treatment for your boiler.

The solids in boiler feed water get concentrated


in boiler. The concentration of solids in boiler is
decided blowdown and feed water quality. The
carryover of boiler water with steam depends on;

Chelant- Polymer treatment:

Mechanical Factors:

Hardness scales do not precipitate in presence of


chelant like NTA/EDTA The chelant treatment is
recommended when hardness ingress in boiler is
experienced regularly.

Boiler load - Higher the load, lower is the steam


purity

Section-D

Water level in boiler - Higher the water level in


drum, lower is steam purity.

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

Load Variation - Sudden increase in load


reduce steam purity for short time.
Separation efficiency - Higher efficiency, better
is steam purity.
Chemical Factors:
TDS - Higher TDS in boiler, lower is steam
purity.
Total Alkalinity - Higher alkalinity as % of TDS
lower is steam purity
Organics - Higher the organic contamination,
lower is steam purity.
Foaming - Higher the foaming character of
water, Lower is steam purity.
The water carried over with steam due to
above reasons is exactly similar in quality to
blow-down or boiler water. In superheater or in
turbines, water evaporates, leaving dissolved and
suspended matter as scales or deposits.
Thus severity of scaling and fouling of superheater
and turbine depends on boiler water quality and
steam purity.
Maintaining boiler water quality as per norms and
maximum steam purity is the only way to prevent
deposition due to carryover of water with steam.
Antifoam agents help to some extend to improve
steam purity in case of excessive in boiler.

F. SILICA DEPOSIT CONTROL:


Silica is volatile under high temperature
and pressure inside boiler.
In turbines, the
evaporated silica precipitates during pressure
and temperature reduction and form hard scales.
Maximum allowable concentration of silica
depends on water analysis. Experts best decide
the maximum permissible concentration after
striding the operating parameters.
G. CONDENSATE CORROSION CONTROL:
The carbon dioxide is present in boiler feed water
in dissolved and combined from as carbonate.
Under boiler pressure and temperature it is
liberated and carried over with steam as CO2
gas. This gas re dissolves in steam condensate
to form carbonic acid.
CO2 + H2O = H2CO3
H. MAINTENANCE OF PEAK EFFICIENCY:
Corrosion, scaling, fouling carryover and
condensate corrosion can cause unscheduled
shutdown, accidents and deterioration of system
efficiency.Therefore for trouble free operation
and maintenance peak operation efficiency,
a combination of various internal chemical
treatments is essential along with a good control
over boiler water quality.
Maintaining boiler water quality by using
commodity chemicals likes TSP, Hydrazine, and
Sodium sulfite. However, it is recommended
that the care and control of water chemistry be
entrusted to specialist.

Welding Procedure
Specifications (WPS)

The pressure part of the boiler is made of several


types of steel of varying thickness. Welding is
the basic technique used in the fabrication of the
boiler. The joints produced by welding should
have strength not less than that of the parent
metal. In the weld joint, the parent metals should
fuse together, without cracks, blowholes, slag
inclusions or defects of any kind. The weld joint
apart from proving its mechanical strength in
tension must also be able to resist bending without
cracking. Such requirements can only be met if
the welding process used is strictly controlled.
ASME (and other organizations) classify materials
into categories (P1 P2, P3, ... P9) as per carbon
content and alloying metals (chromium, Nickel,
Molybdenum etc.) and specify the procedure
to be used for welding materials of the same
category or one category with another category.

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

A specification of the materials and shapes


adopted by Thermax can be obtained on request.
The welding procedure distinguishes between
welding of thin and thick material. The welding
process specification defines the following for
each category of welding.

of Thermax will be glad to provide a WPS for any


site repair weld jobs required for maintenance.

Edge preparation (angle, shape)

The purpose of the window patching method is to


allow the welding of tubes that could not otherwise
be welded because of limited access to part of the
tube diameter. This procedure is restricted to that
use.

Joint preparation (cleaning, gap) and tagging


Joint pre-inspection before welding
Pre-heat of the weld joint, if any required
(method of pre-heating, temperature method of
checking temperature)
Root weld (gas welding, TIG or Arc, size of
electrode, type of electrode)
Radiographic inspection of root weld if required
Subsequent runs of welding (TIG, Arc or other
methods, size of electrode, type of electrode,
number of runs)
Post weld heat treatment if any required
(temperature, rate of increase of temperature,
method of increasing temperature, holding
time, rate of cooling)
Radio graphic examination of the weld joint,
indicating defects if any to be corrected
Correction of weld defects
Final acceptance of the weld joint
The WPS indicates compatible categories of
materials that can be welded. The WPS also lays
down the type of electrode to be used for each
category of welding. As the electrode deposits
materials, the composition of the electrode must
be compatible with the material welded and add
strength. The coating of the electrode also must
meet specific requirements.
The WPS must be used not only during fabrication
of the boiler, but also when any repair or
maintenance works are to be done. Thermax
has WPS to cover every welding job connected
with fabrication of the boiler in the factory and
erection of the boiler at site, conforming to IBR
requirements. The Field Engineering Department

8.1 Window Patch Welding


PURPOSE

PREPARATION
1. The area to be patched shall be cleaned to
bare metal.
2. The patch shall be made from tube material
of same type, diameter and thickness, as the
tube being welded
3. The area of the tube to be removed shall be
carefully marked out as close as possible to
contour of the patch. The tube section may
then be removed using an oxyacetylene gas
cutting torch or by mechanical means
4. The weld preparation shall be made as per the
Figure #1. The fit up of the patch weld gap
shall be 2.4 0.8 mm
Welding
1. A welder qualified to the requirements
of ASME shall make the tube and patch
welds in accordance with an approved weld
procedure.
2. The root pass shall be done with GTAW
process. The weld may then be completed
with either SMAW or GTAW process. Some
acceptable weld procedure specifications are
listed in Table below
TESTING
All the tube and patch welding shall be subject
to close visual inspection and 100% radiography
in accordance with the requirements of ASME
section V. The standard for accepting /rejecting is
specified in ASME section I
Completed welds are subject to hydrostatic test

Base Material

Filler Metal

P1 TO P1

Carbon Steel To Carbon Steel

ER 70S.2

E7018

P3 TO P3

Carbon Moly To Carbon Moly

ER80S.B2

E7018A1

P3 TO P3

Cr Moly To Cr Moly

ER80S.B2

E8018B2L

P4 TO P4

1-1/4 Cr TO 1-1/4 Cr

ER80S.B2

E8018B2L

P5 TO P5

2-1/4 Cr 1 Moly To 2-1/4 Cr 1 Moly

ER90S.B3

E9018B3L

P8 TO P8

Stainless To Stainless

ER308

ER308-16

Section-D

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 5

8.2 General Principle of Weld Repairs


FURNACE AND BOILER TUBES
The minimum replacement tube length should
be not less than 150 mm. A damaged tube
should be cut at least 75 mm each side of the
defective area.
Backing rings must not to be used in welding
heat absorbing tubes carrying water or mixture
of steam and water.
If a backing ring is not used, the first pass of the
weld must be made with inert gas-arc or oxy
acetylene. The weld passes may be completed
by either process, or by a manual metal arc.
Pre heat or post heat is not required for welding
carbon steel furnace or boiler tubes.
Prior to welding, clean the tube ends to bright
metal inside and outside for at least 40 mm
from the weld area. Remove all deposits of
oxide, boiler water salts and slag to avoid gas
or slag inclusions in the weld.
Fit-up of the weld joints is important. It is
difficult to obtain accurate cuts on furnace
tubes especially those in welded furnace walls.
However, it is worth to spend extra time to get
the existing tube ends squared and correctly
chamfered and to cut the replacement tube
to the correct length. Poor fit-up increase the
possibility of an unsuccessful weld.
Allow for shrink in the welding, remember, the
weld metal and parent metal are melted in the
welding process and the molten metal shrinks
as it solidifies. A butt weld in the tube will
shorten the total tube length about 1.6 mm.
Use a clamp or guide lug to hold one end of
the replacement tube alignment while the first
weld is made. Do not tack weld both end of the
replacement tubes particularly if the existing
tubes are rigidly supported
As a general rule, first complete the welds at
the lower end of the replacement tube. Do not
start welding the upper end of the replacement
tube until both the replacement and the existing
tubes have cooled to ambient temperature.
WELD REPAIR OF SMALL CRACKS IN TUBE
In the interest of saving time and cost, it is better
to weld small cracks rather than replace a length
of the tube. The crack must be ground out to form

Section-D

an acceptable welding groove. The groove should


continue well beyond the ends of the crack. Inert
gas arc or oxy acetylene process must make the
first pass of the weld.
Note
This type of the repairs entails some
risk. Internal deposits. Particularly
copper, may exist under the crack
which will result in damaging the parent
and/or weld metal causing failure in a
short period of time.
Over-heating the tube may have
caused the longitudinal crack. In this
case, the tube has swollen and the
weld thickness reduced. In the modern
welded wall construction, it is difficult to
accurately measure the tube diameter
or circumference to detect the minor
swelling. If visual indicates swelling
and reduction of wall thickness at
the crack, a complete replacement of
the damaged tube length is the best
solution.
A circumferential crack indicates a
failure due to excessive stress applied
by expansion restriction, bending or
fatigue; welding can repair such cracks.
However, unless the cause of failure
is diagnosed and corrected, another
similar failure could occur at or near
the original crack.
Also the tube cannot be cleaned from
inside and there is always a possibility
internal deposits will contaminate the
weld.
PLUGGING TUBES IN DRUMS & HEADERS
Often after a tube failure, it is desirable to plug
the failed tube in the drum or header shell so
the boiler may be returned to service with the
least possible delay. It is recommended that the
failed tube be replaced whenever possible in lieu
of plugging. If the leak is remote from the tube
seats and accessible, the faulty section of the
tube should be cut out and replaced rather than
plugging.
Water wall tubes (space tube) should be replaced
if possible and plugged only as a last resort. The
plugged tube must be free to expand and distort
with respect to the adjacent tubes. Membrane
tubes must be repaired and not plugged.
When tubes are plugged, the old tube should be
removed from the boiler setting since it probably

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

will burn off due to lack of cooling and could


become displaced and obstruct gas lanes, foul
up soot blowers, be dangerous to personnel after
shutdown, and etc. If the tube is not removed from
the setting, a definite hole must be punched or
drilled in the tube to prevent a possible dangerous
buildup of pressure between the tube plugs.
A expanded tube leaking at the seat should be
removed from its seat and
1. a new tube rolled in,
2. a new short stub rolled in and plugged,
3. the tube end seal welded to the shell or, if
the drum shell is internally counter bored, a
cylindrical plug must be installed and seal
welded to the drum shell.
Note
No. (1) is the preferred fix with No. (3)
the least preferred.
Seal welding of tube ends, tapered plugs, or
cylindrical plugs to the shell should be done in
such a manner as to minimize the heating of
adjacent tube seats, which may become loose.
It is essential that the welding process should be
as per standard procedure for carbon steel shells
and tubes to be followed very closely to ensure
success. Deviations from these parameters will
normally result in unsatisfactory connections.
The major welding parameters for shells or tubes
other than carbon steel may be obtained from
qualified welding procedures.
Ensure that welders are qualified in accordance
with ASME Section IX and local provincial
requirements. They must also ensure that the
welding is done to the applicable qualified weld
procedure.
It also to be ensured that the proposed repair has
been approved by the Boiler Inspection Branch of
the local jurisdiction.
Machined tube stubs and plugs are used where
the old tube can be removed from its seat without
seat damage and for new construction that is
drilled for future addition of tubes. The rolled-in
tube stub extends into the shell and a solid plug
is installed and seal welded to the stub. These
stubs and plugs are standardized to have only
one tube stub and one plug for each standard
tube hole.
Before rolling stubs in, they should be cleaned
inside and outside with a wire brush, abrasive
paper, or a liquid cleaner until the metal is free of
all foreign substances. In general, stubs do not

Section-D

require cleaning beyond the removal of dirt, rust,


scale or foreign material.
The stub seat (tube hole) should be similarly
cleaned. If a liquid solvent is used to clean either
the stub and/or tube hole, care must be taken to
dry the metal completely. Liquid trapped between
the stub and its seat prevents contact of the two
metal surfaces.
Before the expanding tool is inserted, the inside
of the stub should be lubricated with a suitable
compound.
The compound selected should
be water soluble to facilitate cleanup.
The
rolling process should not be rushed since heat
generated during rolling is detrimental to the
strength of the rolled joint. The tube stub is
properly expanded when the wall thickness in the
seat is reduced by 6 to 10 percent for generating
tubes and 10 to 14 percent for other boiler tubes.
The tube stub wall reduction for thin shells should
be less than that for thicker shells. This is to
prevent over rolling which could cause adjacent
tube seats to leak. Since the stub wall itself
cannot be measured after it is rolled in its seat,
the only alternative is to calculate the increase
in the stub ID that is necessary to prove that the
wall has in fact been reduced by the required
percentage. This depends upon the tube seat
ID (hole diameter), tube stub OD, the clearance
between these two and also the stub wall. An
example of this conversion for a 2 " OD by
0.150-inch wall tube stub for a 10% wall reduction
is as follows
Measure =
Hold Dia

2.531

Measure =
Stub OD

2.500 / 0.031 Clearance

Measure =
Stub ID

2.200

Clearance =

0.031 / 2,231 Stub ID @


Contact

Stub
ID
@
Contact

2.231

10% of
0.150 x
2

0.030 / 2.261 Stub ID after


expanding

Plug all internal counter bored holes in the field


with the cylindrical plug when the tube is still in
the seat. Some counter bores may be shallow
enough that the tube ends are exposed sufficiently
to permit seal welding to a tapered plug. See
Figure 2. If the tube seat is leaking, then the tube
must either be seal welded to the drum shell or the

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

counter bore can be plugged with the cylindrical


plug and seal welded per Figures 3 and 4. It
may be necessary to machine the tube ends back
in order to provide a seat for the cylindrical plug
installation. See Figures 3 and 4.
Figure 5 shows the details of this cylindrical plug
and gives instruction for the specific plug size
desired.
Tapered plugs are used to plug existing tubes
where it is not practical to remove the tube from its
seat and there is no internal counter bore. These
plugs must be tailor made for each tube diameter
and tube wall thickness. Figure 6 shows the
details of this tapered plug and give instructions
for a plug to fit tube diameters from 1-3/4" through
4 " OD and any wall thickness. Figure 7 shows
the arrangement of the tapered plug seal welded
to the tube.
The plugs and seal welds described above are
designed for the boiler pressure to be on the head
(seal weld side) of the plug only. The inch
diameter by 1/8-inch thick button weld on the plug
is to eliminate leakage through the piping which
can occur at the center of some bar stock.
Figure 8 shows a tube seal welded to the shell.
This arrangement may be used when the tube
seat is leaking and it is not practical to replace or
remove the tube and use a rolled stub and plug.
Economizer headers and superheater headers
may be plugged as shown in Figure 9 & 10
where external access is available and the
conditions shown on the figures are met. If those
conditions cannot be satisfied, tube replacement
is recommended.
In these two figures, the
pressure is on the internal end of the plug and the
external strength weld restrains the plug.
Plugged tubes that are below the horizontal
centerline of the shell will not drain. Therefore,
after chemical cleaning it is necessary that the
plug to be removed and the stub swabbed out to
remove the chemicals in these stubs. The plug
can then be welded back in or in some cases it
will have been destroyed in the removal process
and anew one will have to be installed. Care
must be taken in the plug removal process to not
damage or thin the tube stubs wall.
REPLACEMENT OF SECTIONS OF TUBES
Experienced personnel must do the replacement
of a section of failed tube. The length of the
replaced section should be a minimum of 12
inches. Usual practice is to cut out the defective
section with an oxyacetylene torch, but it is

Section-D

preferable to use a saw or wafer disc. Care must


be taken to prevent slag from entering the tube.
The ends are prepared for welding by grinding or
with special tools.
The root pass of the joint should be deposited
with the gas tungsten arc process. A 3/32-inch
diameter shielded metal arc-welding electrode is
recommended for the remainder of the joint. The
welding parameters for tubes may be obtained
from qualified Welding Procedures.
REMOVING TUBES FROM DRUMS, HEADERS
& TUBE PLATES
The removal of tubes from their tube seats must
be done very carefully to prevent damage to the
tube seats. If the tube seat is damaged, it may
be impossible to ever roll another tube in and
make a tight seal. Gouging of the tube seat could
also affect the ligaments between tube holes and
integrity of the shell. Tubes can be removed from
their seats without seat damage if the following
procedures are carefully followed.
With light- gage tubes, it is often possible to cold
crimp the tube end to loosen it in its seat, then
drive or "jack" the tube out. When the tubes are
too heavy for cold crimping, the two-stage heating
method may be used. Heat is applied to the inside
of the tube end with a torch. Heat is first applied
for a short period - not long enough for it to be
transferred to the tube sheet.
When the tube end cools, the joint will have
loosened enough so that the second heat will
not be transferred readily to the tube sheet.
The tube end can then be heated sufficiently for
crimping and the tube can be pushed out of its
seat. If neither of these methods is applicable,
the following methods may be employed.
To remove light tube tubs, it is advisable to cut
grooves about 3/4 inch apart with a round nose
chisel. When the tongue (the metal between the
two grooves) is knocked free, the tube can be
collapsed and removed.
To remove heavy gage tubes, the type of grooving
tool shown in figure 12 is used to prepare the
tongues without damage to the tube seat. It is
used with a pneumatic hammer, but it is necessary
that the tool be suited to the tube thickness so
that it will cut the grooves as deep as possible
and yet leave a minimum thickness of metal over
the tube seat. In very heavy gage tubes, a third
groove is often cut, as nearly opposite the tongue
as possible, so that less heavy pounding will be
required to collapse the stub. These latter two
methods require that the flare on the end of the

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

tube be crimped straight before starting, to cut the


grooves for collapsing the tube. Of course, the
seal weld around the end of any tube must be
ground or machined off before attempting to cut

Section-D

the grooves for collapsing the tube. This must


be done carefully to prevent damage to the drum
shell.

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

8.3 Weld Repair of Small Cracks in


Tube
In the interest of saving time and cost, it is better
to weld small cracks rather than replace a length
of the tube.The crack must be ground out to form
an acceptable welding groove. The groove should
continue well beyond the ends of the crack. Inert
gas arc or oxy acetylene process must make the
first pass of the weld.
Note
1. This type of the repairs entails some risk.
Internal deposits. Particularly copper, may
exist under the crack which will result in
damaging the parent and/or weld metal
causing failure in a short period of time.
2. Over-heating the tube may have caused the
longitudinal crack. In this case, the tube
has swollen and the weld thickness reduced.
In the modern welded wall construction, it
is difficult to accurately measure the tube
diameter or circumference to detect the minor
swelling. If visual indicates swelling and
reduction of wall thickness at the crack, a
complete replacement of the damaged tube
length is the best solution.
3. A circumferential crack indicates a failure
due to excessive stress applied by expansion
restriction, bending or fatigue; welding can
repair such cracks. However, unless the
cause of failure is diagnosed and corrected,
another similar failure could occur at or near
the original crack.
4. Also the tube cannot be cleaned from inside
and there is always a possibility internal
deposits will contaminate the weld.

8.4 Plugging Tubes in Drums &


Headers
1. Often after a tube failure, it is desirable to plug
the failed tube in the drum or header shell
so the boiler may be returned to service with
the least possible delay. It is recommended
that the failed tube be replaced whenever
possible in lieu of plugging. If the leak is
remote from the tube seats and accessible,
the faulty section of the tube should be cut
out and replaced rather than plugging.
2. Water wall tubes (space tube) should be
replaced if possible and plugged only as a
last resort. The plugged tube must be free
to expand and distort with respect to the
adjacent tubes. Membrane tubes must be
repaired and not plugged.

Section-D

3. When tubes are plugged, the old tube should


be removed from the boiler setting since it
probably will burn off due to lack of cooling
and could become displaced and obstruct gas
lanes, foul up soot blowers, be dangerous to
personnel after shutdown, and etc. If the tube
is not removed from the setting, a definite
hole must be punched or drilled in the tube
to prevent a possible dangerous buildup of
pressure between the tube plugs.
4. A expanded tube leaking at the seat should
be removed from its seat and
a. a new tube rolled in
b. a new short stub rolled in and plugged
c.

the tube end seal welded to the shell or, if


the drum shell is internally counter bored,
a cylindrical plug must be installed and
seal welded to the drum shell.

Note: Point. (a) is the preferred fix with Point.


(c) the least preferred.
5. Seal welding of tube ends, tapered plugs, or
cylindrical plugs to the shell should be done
in such a manner as to minimize the heating
of adjacent tube seats, which may become
loose. It is essential that the welding process
should be as per standard procedure for
carbon steel shells and tubes to be followed
very closely to ensure success. Deviations
from these parameters will normally result
in unsatisfactory connections. The major
welding parameters for shells or tubes
other than carbon steel may be obtained
from qualified welding procedures. Ensure
that welders are qualified in accordance
with ASME Section IX and local provincial
requirements. They must also ensure that
the welding is done to the applicable qualified
weld procedure.It also to be ensured that
the proposed repair has been approved by
the Boiler Inspection Branch of the local
jurisdiction.
6. Machined tube stubs and plugs are used
where the old tube can be removed from
its seat without seat damage and for new
construction that is drilled for future addition
of tubes. The rolled-in tube stub extends into
the shell and a solid plug is installed and seal
welded to the stub. These stubs and plugs
are standardized to have only one tube stub
and one plug for each standard tube hole.
7. Before rolling stubs in, they should be cleaned
inside and outside with a wire brush, abrasive
paper, or a liquid cleaner until the metal is free
of all foreign substances. In general, stubs

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

do not require cleaning beyond the removal


of dirt, rust, scale or foreign material.The stub
seat (tube hole) should be similarly cleaned. If
a liquid solvent is used to clean either the stub
and/or tube hole, care must be taken to dry the
metal completely. Liquid trapped between the
stub and its seat prevents contact of the two
metal surfaces.
8. Before the expanding tool is inserted, the
inside of the stub should be lubricated
with a suitable compound. The compound
selected should be water soluble to facilitate
cleanup. The rolling process should not be
rushed since heat generated during rolling is
detrimental to the strength of the rolled joint.
The tube stub is properly expanded when the
wall thickness in the seat is reduced by 6 to
10 percent for generating tubes and 10 to 14
percent for other boiler tubes. The tube stub
wall reduction for thin shells should be less
than that for thicker shells. This is to prevent
over rolling which could cause adjacent tube
seats to leak. Since the stub wall itself cannot
be measured after it is rolled in its seat, the
only alternative is to calculate the increase in
the stub ID that is necessary to prove that the
wall has in fact been reduced by the required
percentage. This depends upon the tube
seat ID (hole diameter), tube stub OD, the
clearance between these two and also the
stub wall. An example of this conversion for
a 2 " OD by 0.150-inch wall tube stub for a
10% wall reduction is as follows
Measure Hold Dia
=
Measure Stub OD
=

2.531
-2.500
0.031 Clearance

Measure Stub ID =

2.200

Clearance =

0.031
2,231 Stub ID @
Contact

Stub ID @ Contact
=

2,231

10% of 0.150 x 2 =

0.030
2.261 Stub ID after
expanding

9. Plug all internal counter bored holes in the


field with the cylindrical plug when the tube
is still in the seat. Some counter bores may
be shallow enough that the tube ends are
exposed sufficiently to permit seal welding to

Section-D

a tapered plug. 8.7 See Figure 13, page


101. If the tube seat is leaking, then the tube
must either be seal welded to the drum shell
or the counter bore can be plugged with the
cylindrical plug and seal welded per Figures
14 and 15. It may be necessary to machine
the tube ends back in order to provide a seat
for the cylindrical plug installation. See 8.7
Figure 14, page 101 and 8.7 Figure 15, page
101.
10. 8.7 Figure 16, page 101 shows the details of
this cylindrical plug and gives instruction for
the specific plug size desired.
11. Tapered plugs are used to plug existing tubes
where it is not practical to remove the tube
from its seat and there is no internal counter
bore. These plugs must be tailor made for
each tube diameter and tube wall thickness.
8.7 Figure 17, page 101 shows the details of
this tapered plug and give instructions for a
plug to fit tube diameters from 1-3/4" through
4 " OD and any wall thickness. 8.7 Figure
18, page 101 shows the arrangement of the
tapered plug seal welded to the tube.
12. The plugs and seal welds described above
are designed for the boiler pressure to be on
the head (seal weld side) of the plug only. The
inch diameter by 1/8-inch thick button weld
on the plug is to eliminate leakage through the
piping which can occur at the center of some
bar stock.
13. 8.7 Figure 19, page 101 shows a tube seal
welded to the shell. This arrangement may
be used when the tube seat is leaking and it
is not practical to replace or remove the tube
and use a rolled stub and plug.
14. Economizer headers and superheater
headers may be plugged as shown in 8.7
Figure 20, page 101 & 8.7 Figure 21, page
101 where external access is available and
the conditions shown on the figures are met.
If those conditions cannot be satisfied, tube
replacement is recommended. In these two
figures, the pressure is on the internal end
of the plug and the external strength weld
restrains the plug.
15. Plugged tubes that are below the horizontal
centerline of the shell will not drain.
Therefore, after chemical cleaning it is
necessary that the plug to be removed and the
stub swabbed out to remove the chemicals
in these stubs. The plug can then be welded
back in or in some cases it will have been
destroyed in the removal process and anew

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

one will have to be installed. Care must be


taken in the plug removal process to not
damage or thin the tube stubs wall.

8.5 Replacement of Tube Section


Experienced personnel must do the replacement
of a section of failed tube.
1.
The length of the replaced section should
be a minimum of 12 inches
Usual practice is to cut out the defective
section with an oxyacetylene torch, but it is
preferable to use a hack saw or wafer disc.
Care must be taken to prevent slag from
entering the tube. The ends are prepared for
welding by grinding or with special tools
2. The root pass of the joint should be deposited
with the gas tungsten arc process.
A 3/32 - inch diameter shielded metal
arc-welding electrode is recommended for
the remainder of the joint.
The welding parameters for tubes may be
obtained from qualified Welding Procedures.

8.6 Removing Tubes from Drums,


Headers & Tube Plates
1. The removal of tubes from their tube seats
must be done very carefully to prevent
damage to the tube seats. If the tube seat
is damaged, it may be impossible to ever
roll another tube in and make a tight seal.
Gouging of the tube seat could also affect the
ligaments between tube holes and integrity of
the shell. Tubes can be removed from their
seats without seat damage if the following
procedures are carefully followed. With lightgage tubes, it is often possible to cold crimp

Section-D

the tube end to loosen it in its seat, then drive


or "jack" the tube out.
2. When the tubes are too heavy for cold
crimping, the two-stage heating method may
be used. Heat is applied to the inside of the
tube end with a torch. Heat is first applied for
a short period - not long enough for it to be
transferred to the tube sheet. When the tube
end cools, the joint will have loosened enough
so that the second heat will not be transferred
readily to the tube sheet. The tube end can
then be heated sufficiently for crimping and
the tube can be pushed out of its seat. If
neither of these methods is applicable, the
following methods may be employed.
3. To remove light tube tubs, it is advisable to
cut grooves about 3/4 inch apart with a round
nose chisel. When the tongue (the metal
between the two grooves) is knocked free, the
tube can be collapsed and removed.
4. To remove heavy gage tubes, the type of
grooving tool shown in figure 12 is used
to prepare the tongues without damage to
the tube seat. It is used with a pneumatic
hammer, but it is necessary that the tool be
suited to the tube thickness so that it will
cut the grooves as deep as possible and yet
leave a minimum thickness of metal over
the tube seat. In very heavy gage tubes, a
third groove is often cut, as nearly opposite
the tongue as possible, so that less heavy
pounding will be required to collapse the
stub. These latter two methods require that
the flare on the end of the tube be crimped
straight before starting, to cut the grooves for
collapsing the tube. Of course, the seal weld
around the end of any tube must be ground
or machined off before attempting to cut the
grooves for collapsing the tube. This must be
done carefully to prevent damage to the drum
shell.

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

8.7 Attached figures 13 to 21

Tapered plug application for shallow internal CTRB Tube end must be exposed sufficiently for seal welding.
Figure 6

Section-D

101

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 7

Section-D

102

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 8

Section-D

103

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 9

Section-D

104

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 10

Section-D

105

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 11

Section-D

106

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 12
Notes:
T1 is the greater of 1.25 x Nominal tube wall or 3/16
Plug Head O.D = nominal Tube I.d 3/32
Plug length is 1 up thru 3 O.D tube over 3 O.D
Tube use 2 Length
Plug of SA 181 Gr70 preferrred
SA 105 is acceptable.

Section-D

107

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 13
Notes:
T1 is the greater of 1.25 x nominal wall or 3/16
Plug diameter = Nominal tube I.D 3/32
Plug length is 1 up thru 4 O.D tube
Plug of SA 181 Gr 70 material preferred
Sa 105 is also accepted

Section-D

108

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 14

Section-D

109

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section E
This section holds the Lubrication Schedule and Spare Part List for the AFBC Single Drum
Bed Plate Boiler.
Lubrication Schedule
Lubrication Schedule
Spare Part List
Spare Part List for AFBC Boiler

Section E

110

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Volume 2 Drawings
Chapters Covered in this Part
List of Drawings

Volume 2 Drawings

111

Operation & Maintenance Manual

List of Drawings
01 G.A. OF Boiler _D11-0PD-07967_3
02 Foundation Plan & Loading Data_D11-1PD-44268_4
03 Boiler Auxillary Foundation Data_D11-1PD-47979_3
04 Pressure Part Assembly _D11-1PD-43038_1
05 Thermal Expansion Diagram_D11-1PD-49076_0
06 P & I D for Steam & Water _D12-1PD-6499P_2
07 P & I D for Fuel Air & Flue Gas System_D12-1PD-6500P_2
08 Fuel Feed Chute Assly_F28-1PD-48091_0
09 Fuel Feed Chute Details_F28-1PD-48092_0
10 Underbed Fuel Feeding System Layout & Details _F59-1PD-46483_0
11 Steam Drum _P21-1PD-43823_1
12 Steam Drum Internal Assly & Details_P21-1PD-43824_0
13 Internal & External Attachment of Steam Drum _P21-3PD-18383_0
14 Water Drum _P31-1PD-43928_1
15 Internal & External Attachment of Water Drum_P31-2PD-40150_0
16 Primary Super Heater Coil _PA1-1PD-45809_1
17 Secondary Super Heater Coil_PA22PD41254_1
18 Economiser Assly _PL4-1PD-45132_0
19 Integrated Economiser Module I, II & III _PL4-2PD-40868_1
20 GA OF Furnace Refractory_R11-1PD-47758_0

Volume 2 Drawings

112

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Volume 3 E & I Specifications


Chapters Covered in this Part

Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10

Volume 3 E & I Specifications

113

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 01
Electrical System Required for Motor Selection

Section 02
2.1 Electrical Motor Selection For FD Fan
2.2 Electrical Motor Selection For PA Fan
2.3 Electrical Motor Selection For ID Fan

Section 03
Instruments Hook Up Diagram

Section 04
Instruments Loop Diagram

Section 05
5.1 Logic Diagram For Drives
5.2 Control Schematic Write up

Section 06
6.1 DCS IO List
6.2 Alarm & Set Point List

Section 07
7.1 Specification for Motorised Actuator
7.2 Instruments Cable & JB Cable Schedule
7.3 Specification For Junction Box

Section 08
8.1 Instruments Specification for Transmitters & Analysers
8.2 Instruments Specification for Gauges & Switches
8.3 Instruments Specification for Valve & Actuator
8.4 Instruments Specification for Sensors

Section 09
9.1 Specification for CBD Valve
9.2 Specification for IBD Valve
9.3 Valve Schedule
9.4 Valve Schedule Add
Volume 3 E & I Specifications

114

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 10
ACVFD Panel Wiring Diagram

Volume 3 E & I Specifications

115

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Volume 4 Vendor Manuals


Chapters Covered in this Part

Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10

Volume 4 Vendor Manuals

116

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 01
Fan TLT Engineering
O & M Manual
ID_FD_PA FAN
Drawings
1. GA DRG FOR FD FAN
2. GA DRG FOR ID FAN
3. GA DRG FOR PA FAN

Section 02
H.P / LP. Dosing System - NM Enterprises
O & M Manual
HP Dosing System Manual
Drawings
1. H.P. Dosing System Drawing

Section 03
Level Gauge Hi Tech Systems (Tyco)
O & M Manual
LEVEL GAUGE MANUAL
Drawings
LEVEL GAUGE DRAWINGS

Section 04
Level Gauge Chemtrol
O & M Manual
LEVEL GAUGE MANUAL
Drawings
LEVEL GAUGE DRAWINGS

Section 05
Tight Shout off Damper Virgo
Manual
Manual

Volume 4 Vendor Manuals

117

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 06
Kniff Gate Valve Orbinox
O & M Manual
Kniff Gate Valve

Section 07
Process Valve KSB
O & M Manual
Process Valve

Section 08
Safety Valves Tyco Sanmar
O & M Manual
SAFETY VALVES (HC-HCA Manual)
Data Sheet a
Specification Sheets
Drawings
Drawings

Section 09
Motors Siemens
Manual
Motor Manual
Data Sheets

Section 10
Rotary Feeder - Nova Bulk
O & M Manual
Rotary Feeder Manual
Drawings
1. Rotary Feeder GA Sheet 1
2. Rotary Feeder GA Sheet 2

Volume 4 Vendor Manuals

118

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Volume 5 Vendor Manuals


Chapters Covered in this Part

Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10

Volume 5 Vendor Manuals

119

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 01
Pressure Transmitter Emerson
O & M Manual
PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS (MODEL 3051)

Section 02
Temperature Transmitter Emerson
O & M Manual
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTERS (MODEL 644H)

Section 03
I/P Converter ABB
O & M Manual
I/P Converter ABB

Section 04
Pressure Switch Switzer
O & M Manual
Pressure Switch Manual

Section 05
5.1 Orifice Plate General Instruments
Calculations & Drawings

5.2 Thermocouple General Instruments


Data Sheets

Section 06
Pressure Gauge Gages Bourdon
O & M Manual
Pressure Gauge Manual

Section 07
Local Indicator Nishko
Manual
Process Indicator Nichko

Volume 5 Vendor Manuals

120

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 08
Control Valves MIL
O & M Manual
MIL 21000 SINGLE PORTED TOP GUIDED CONTROL VALVES - MIL_MANUAL
MIL 41000 HEAVY DUTY BALANCED CAGE GUIDED CONTROL VALVES - MIL_MANUAL
MIL37 38 SPRING DIAPHRAGM PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR - MIL_MANUAL
MIL 776 Air Lock Valve MANUAL
8013 Electro pneumatic Valve Positioner - MIL_MANUAL
400 L Electric Position Transmitter- MIL_MANUAL
Data Sheet and Curves
CONTROL VALVE DATA SHEET

Section 09
Power Cylinder Keltron
Manual
Manual

Section 10
ACVFD Drives ABB
Manual
ACS 550 ACVFD Drives ABB Manual

Volume 5 Vendor Manuals

121

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Volume 5 Vendor Manuals

122

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Index
A
Adequate Bed Temperature........................... 41
Air and Gas System ...................................... 24
Air Ducts ...................................................... 25
Air Pre Heater .........................................24, 43
AirTemperature............................................. 13
Annual Maintenance Check Sheet ................. 65
Ash Drain ..................................................... 30
Attemperation Control Station........................ 17
Attemperator ................................................ 20

B
Balance of Plant Start Up .............................. 42
Bed Ash Alkali Control .................................. 40
Bed Drain System......................................... 30
Bed Level Control ......................................... 40
Bed Material................................................... 6
Bed Slumping Procedures............................. 43
Blowdown Tank ............................................ 23
Boiler Annual Maintenance and
Overhaul .................................................... 72
Boiler Blowdown System ............................... 21
Boiler Emergency Trip................................... 45
Boiler Lay Up Procedures.............................. 80
Boiler Preservation Procedure ....................... 77
Boiler Pressure Part Description .................... 17
Boiler Shutdown ........................................... 45
Boiler Start Up .............................................. 32
Boiler Water Recommended Quality ................ 7

C
Capacity Chart ............................................. 10
Case- II (Bed Ash Temperature < 600C)......... 44
Case- II (Bed Ash Temperature > 600C)......... 44
CBD Drain.................................................... 22
Checks Every Six Months.............................. 64
Checks Every Year ....................................... 64
Chemical Dosing & Sampling System ............ 30
Chemicals for Dosing ...................................... 8
Combustor ................................................... 29
Conditioned Based Maintenance ................... 60
Continuous Blowdown..................................... 6
Controls ....................................................... 48
Convection Bank .......................................... 21
Cooling Water................................................. 7
Crushed Refractory......................................... 6

Daily Maintenance ........................................ 62


Deaerator Charging ...................................... 42
Deaerator Level Gauge ..................................11
Description of Dosing System Skid ................ 30
Design Code .................................................. 3
Design Specifications...................................... 2
Dissolved Gases .......................................... 88
Dissolved Salts and Minerals......................... 87
Dos and Donts ............................................ 47
Down Comer Tubes ...................................... 18
Drain Header................................................ 22
Drum Inspection ........................................... 72
Drum Level ...................................................11
Dry Storage Preservation .............................. 77

E
Economizer .................................................. 17
Effects of Impurities ...................................... 88
Electrical Power.............................................. 7
Electrostatic Precipitator................................ 27
Emergency Procedures................................. 53
Expansion Joints .......................................... 73

F
Failure Reporting Formats............................. 85
Fans .........................................................8, 75
FD Fan ........................................................ 24
Feed & Boiler Water Conditioning .............73, 90
Feed Water Control Station ........................... 16
Feed Water Recommended Quality ................. 6
Feed Water System ...................................... 16
Flue Gas System .......................................... 27
Fuel ............................................................... 5
Fuel Analysis.................................................. 5
Fuel and Bed Material Sieve Analysis as
per the Designed Conditions........................ 41
Fuel Bunker.................................................. 28
Fuel Feeding & Firing System........................ 28
Fuel Mix Nozzles .......................................... 29
Fuel Size........................................................ 5
Furnace ....................................................... 19

G
Gas Temperature.......................................... 13
Gauge Glass .................................................11
General Principle of Weld Repairs ................. 94

Daily Checks ................................................ 60

Heating Surface Area...................................... 5

123

Operation & Maintenance Manual

HP Dosing System........................................ 30
HP Dozing System.......................................... 9

Procedure For Normal Operation ................... 36

R
I
IBD Drain ..................................................... 22
ID Fan ......................................................... 27
Inbed Coil .................................................... 20
Inspection after Cooling ................................ 72
Inspection of Screen, Primary &
Secondary Superheater, Evaporator I/ II &
Economiser ................................................ 73
Instrument Air................................................. 8
Insulation and Cladding................................. 73
Intermittent Blowdown..................................... 6

Recommended Maintenance Practice ............ 59


Removing Tubes from Drums, Headers &
Tube Plates .............................................. 100
Replacement of Tube Section...................... 100
Riser Tubes.................................................. 20
Rotary Feeders........................................10, 28

Main Steam Piping........................................ 21


Material Specifications .................................... 3
Monthly Checks............................................ 63

Safety Valves ................................................11


Safety Valves, Start Up Vent Valves And
Other Isolating Valves ................................. 76
Sampling System.......................................... 31
Section Overview.......................................... 59
Service Air ..................................................... 8
Shutdown and Cooling the Boiler ................... 72
Site Condition................................................. 8
Slumped Bed to Active Bed ........................... 43
Start Up Firing System .................................. 29
Start-up of a Cold Boiler ................................ 32
Steam Drum ............................................1718
System Description..................................24, 27

Operation Control ......................................... 39


Operational Precautions for Safety................. 55
Other Drains................................................. 23
Other Equipment .......................................... 73
Other Materials............................................. 88

Temperature Profile ...................................... 13


Tube Failures ............................................... 81
Tube Thickness Survey................................. 81
Tube Thickness Survey Data Collection
Format ....................................................... 84

PA Fan......................................................... 25
Part Load Operation By Bed Slumping ........... 43
pH Value of the Water and its Importance......... 88
Planned Shut Down ...................................... 45
Planning Before Overhaul ............................. 72
Plugging Tubes in Drums & Headers.............. 98
Preservation of Instruments........................... 80
Preservation of Rotating Equipments ............. 80
Pressure Parts ............................................... 3
Preventive Maintenance................................ 59
Preventive Maintenance Program for
Spares ....................................................... 60
Preventive Maintenance Program for
Valve.......................................................... 60
Primary Super Heater ................................... 20

Ultimate Analysis ............................................ 5


Undissolved and Suspended Solid
Materials .................................................... 87
Utilities........................................................... 7

L
Load Operation............................................. 39

W
Walkdown Checklist during Operation ............ 52
Water Chemistry ........................................... 87
Water Temperature ....................................... 13
Weekly Checks............................................. 63
Weld Repair Of Small Cracks in Tube ............ 98
Welding Procedure Specifications.................. 92
Wet Storage Preservation ............................. 78
Window Patch Welding ................................. 93

124

SUPER HEATED STEAM TO TURBINE


41000 Kg/hr
66 Kg/cm2 (g)
O
490 +5 C

38410 Kg/hr
74 Kg/cm2 (g)
O
130 C

FD
FAN

38410 Kg/hr
73.5 Kg/cm2 (g)
O
216 C

65610 kg/hr
250 OC
-80 mmwg

BOILER +
SUPER HEATER

AIR
PREHEATER

FLUE GAS

65610 kg/hr
160 OC
-105 mmwg

65610 kg/hr
O
160 C
-135 mmwg

FLUE GAS

ESP

ECONOMISER
SEC. AIR

BOILER

CO2 % BY VOL WET:

12.8

CO2 % BY VOL DRY:


O2 % BY VOL WET:
O2 % BY VOL DRY:

14.53
4.31
4.89

ID
FAN

FLUE GAS

65610 kg/hr
O
C
+5 mmwg

160

SUPERHETAER STEAM TEMPERATURE


AFTER 1

FD AIR
COAL

FLUE GAS

COMBUSTOR
6053 kg/hr

72.5 kg/cm2 (g)


O
290 C

FLUE GAS

HEAT TRANSFER
ELEMENTS

CONTINUOUS
BLOW DOWN
410 kg/hr

O
445 C
-40 mmwg

150 C
+650 mmwg

-5 mmwg

65610 kg/hr

45

3000 Kg/hr
74 Kg/cm2 (g)
O
130 C

41410 kg/hr
76 kg/cm2 (g)
O
130 C

60526 kg/hr

FEED WATER

SPRAY WATER FLOW

+726 mmwg

FROM FEED PUMP

ST

STAGE SUPERHEATER:BEFORE SPRAY

O
439 C

AFTER SPRAY

O
366 C

9600 kg/hr
60526 kg/hr
O
150 C
+650 mmwg
10200 kg/hr
O
150 C

PA
FAN

FUEL : TYPE OF FIRING : LOAD : G.C.V : % MOISTURE :-

+1400 mmwg

SYMBOL

SERVICE
STEAM LINE
FUEL LINE
AIR LINE

ALT.
NO.

ALTERATION

MADE
DATE

CHKD.BY
DATE

APP.BY
DATE

COAL
UNDERBED
100 %
3500 kcal/kg
8
%

PRODUCT :- BDF - 410 - 41TPH / 66 kg/cm2 g / 490 deg C


CLIENT :-

POWER A/C. HAREKRISHNA METALLIKS

TITLE :-

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM FOR


COAL

OC NO:
SCALE
NTS

DESIGNED
CHECKED
APPROVED

PD0161
07.12.07
07.12.07
JRV
07.12.07
JRV
GN

WATER LINE
FLUE GAS

THERMAX LIMITED

DRG.NO. / PART NO.

CHINCHWAD PUNE -411019

PD0161 0033

BOILER AND HEATER GROUP

( SHEET 1 OF 2)

ALT. NO

SUPER HEATED STEAM TO TURBINE


41000 Kg/hr
66 Kg/cm2 (g)
O
490 + 5 C

38310 Kg/hr
74 Kg/cm2 (g)
O
130 C

FD
FAN

38310 Kg/hr
73.5 Kg/cm2 (g)
O
218 C

69240 kg/hr
255 OC
-95 mmwg

BOILER +
SUPER HEATER

50%COAL

5250 kg/hr

50%CHAR

5250 kg/hr

AIR
PREHEATER

FLUE GAS

69240 kg/hr
160 OC
-125 mmwg

69240 kg/hr
O
160 C
-155 mmwg

FLUE GAS

ESP

ECONOMISER
SEC. AIR

BOILER

CO2 % BY VOL WET:

13.75

CO2 % BY VOL DRY:


O2 % BY VOL WET:
O2 % BY VOL DRY:

15.22
4.38
4.85

STEAM LINE
FUEL LINE
AIR LINE

ALT.
NO.

69240 kg/hr
O
C
+5 mmwg

160

150

SUPERHETAER STEAM TEMPERATURE


AFTER 1

PA
FAN

64572 kg/hr
O
150 C

ST

STAGE SUPERHEATER:BEFORE SPRAY

O
445 C

AFTER SPRAY

359 C

FUEL:- 50%COAL + 50%CHAR


TYPE OF FIRING : - UNDERBED
LOAD : - 100 %
G.C.V : - 3350 kcal/kg
% MOISTURE :- 5.61 %

715 mmwg

+1410 mmwg

SERVICE

ID
FAN

FLUE GAS

FD AIR

10200 kg/hr
O
150 C

SYMBOL

FLUE GAS

COMBUSTOR
6457 kg/hr

72.5 kg/cm2 (g)


O
290 C

FLUE GAS

HEAT TRANSFER
ELEMENTS

CONTINUOUS
BLOW DOWN
410 kg/hr

O
445 C
-50 mmwg

715 mmwg

-5 mmwg

69240 kg/hr

45

3100 Kg/hr
74 Kg/cm2 (g)
O
130 C

41410 kg/hr
76 kg/cm2 (g)
O
130 C

64572 kg/hr

FEED WATER

SPRAY WATER FLOW

+800 mmwg

FROM FEED PUMP

ALTERATION

MADE
DATE

CHKD.BY
DATE

APP.BY
DATE

PRODUCT :- BDF - 410 - 41TPH / 66 kg/cm2 g / 490 deg C


CLIENT :-

POWER A/C. HAREKRISHNA METALLIKS

TITLE :-

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM FOR


50%COAL + 50%CHAR

OC NO:
SCALE
NTS

DESIGNED
CHECKED
APPROVED

PD0161
07.12.07
07.12.07
JRV
07.12.07
JRV
GN

WATER LINE
FLUE GAS

THERMAX LIMITED

DRG.NO. / PART NO.

CHINCHWAD PUNE -411019

PD0161 0033

BOILER AND HEATER GROUP

(SHEET 2 OF 2)

ALT. NO

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