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MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy

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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences

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Vol. 7, No. 3, May 2016


Supplement 1

Rome, Italy 2016

Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences

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Editor in Chief
Prof. Dr. Bidzina Savaneli
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Executive Director, MCSER


Prof. Francesco Tarsia
Editing
Dr. Lisa Licata
Editorial Assistant
Dr. Michela Gallo

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Scientific Coordinator
Prof. Bidzina Savaneli
Graphic Design
Dr. Elisabetta Tarsia
Editorial Managing
Dr. Sokol Pacukaj

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Copyright 2016 MCSER Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research

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ISSN 2039-9340 (print) ISSN 2039-2117 (online)

Index Copernicus Year 2012 Impact Factor 6.44

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Vol. 7, No. 3, Supplement 1, May 2016

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Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1

Publisher
MCSER Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research
Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5,
Cap. 00186, Rome, Italy
Tel/Fax: 039/0692913868
E-mail: mjss@mcser.org
Web: http://www.mcser.org

This journal is printed for MCSER


by Gruppo Atena.net Srl
Via del Lavoro, 22,
36040, Grisignano VI, Italy
Tel: 0039/0444613696
Web: http://www.atena.net

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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences

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ISSN: 2039-2117 (online)

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About the Journal


Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences (MJSS) is a double blind peer-reviewed journal,
published three times a year, by Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational
Research. The journal publishes research papers in the fields of Mediterranean and World
Culture, Sociology, Philosophy, Linguistics, Education, History, History of Religions,
Anthropology, Statistics, Politics, Laws, Psychology and Economics. MJSS is open for the
academic world and research institutes, academic and departmental libraries, graduate students and
PhD candidates, academic and non-academic researchers and research teams. Specifically, MJSS is
positioned as a vehicle for academics and practitioners to share field research. In addition to
scientific studies, we will also consider letters to the editor, guest editorials, and book reviews. Our
goal is to provide original, relevant, and timely information from diverse sources; to write and
publish with absolute integrity; and to serve as effectively as possible the needs of those involved in
all social areas. If your research will help us achieve these goals, we would like to hear from you.
MJSS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely
available to the public supporting a greater global exchange of knowledge. All manuscripts are
subject to a double blind peer review by the members of the editorial board who are noted experts in
the appropriate subject area.
Editor in Chief, Bidzina Savaneli
Tbilisi State University, Georgia

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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences

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Editor in chief Prof. Dr. Bidzina Savaneli


Tbilisi State University, Georgia

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International Editorial Board

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Vincent Hoffmann-Martinot
University of Bordeaux, France
Dimitri A. Sotiropoulos
University of Athens, Greece
Sibylle Heilbrunn
Ruppin Academic Center, Emek-Hefer, Israel
Anne Cross
Metropolitan State University, USA
Werner J. Patzelt
University of Dresden Germany
Mohamed Ben Aissa
University of Tunis, Tunisia
Emanuele Santi
African Development Bank, Tunis, Tunisia
Arda Arikan
Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey
Godfrey Baldacchino
University of Malta, Malta
Kamaruzaman Jusoff
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Hossein Vahid Dastjerdi
University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Gabriele Natalizia
Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Francisco J. Ramos
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
Igor Baglioni
Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Tarau Virgiliu Leon
Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Jos Snchez-Santamara
University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
Dorina Orzac
Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Slavko Burzanovic
University of Montenegro, Montenegro

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Aranit Shkurti
CIRPS Sapienza University / CIT University,
Albania
Gulap Shahzada
University of Science and Tecnology, Pakistan
Nanjunda D C
Universiy of Mysore, Karnataka, India
Nkasiobi S.Oguzor
Federal College of Education (Technical),
Omoku- Nigeria
Shobana Nelasco
Fatima College, Madurai-India
Jacinta A. Opara
Universidad Azteca, Mexico
Fernando A. Ferreira
Polytechnic Institute of Santarem, Portugal
Hassan Danial Aslam
Human Resource Management Research Society,
Pakistan
Muneerah Bader Almahasheer,
College of Arts, University of Dammam (UoD),
Saudi Arabia
Alice Kagoda
Makerere University, Kampala-Uganda
B.V. Toshev
University of Sofia, Bulgaria
Benedicta Egbo
University of Windsor, Ontario-Canada
Adriana Vizental
University Aurel Vlaicu, Romania
Florica Bodistean
University Aurel Vlaicu, Romania
Wei Zhang,
University of California, USA
Tutku Akter
Girne American University, Northern Cyprus

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Murthy CSHN
Tezpur University Napaam Assam India
Femi Quadri
Federal College of Education (Technical),
Omoku-Nigeria
Fouzia Naeem Khan
Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science
and Technology, Pakistan
Marcel Pikhart
University Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
Luiela-Magdalena Csorba
University Aurel Vlaicu, Romania
Hamdan bin Said,
University Technology Malaysia, Malaysia
Joan Garcia Garriga
Institut de Paleoecologia Humana i Evoluci
Social (IPHES) / Universitat Oberta de
Catalunya (UOC), Spain
Georgios A. Antonopoulos
Teesside University Middlesbrough, UK
Vennila Gopal
Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India
Eddie Blass
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Hanna David
Tel Aviv University, Jerusalem-Israel
Raphael C. Njoku
University of Louisville, USA
Ali Simek
Anadolu University, Turkey
Abel Gwaka Anyien,
Kenyatta University, Kenya
MW Lumadi,
University of South Africa, UNISA, South Africa
Gerhard Berchtold
Universidad Azteca, Mexico
Samir Mohamed Alredaisy
University of Khartoum, Sudan

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Austin N. Nosike
The Granada Management Institute, Spain
Lawrence Ogbo Ugwuanyi
University of Abuja, Abuja-Nigeria
Ridvan Peshkopia
American Unievrsity of Tirana, Albania
George Aspridis
Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece
Talat Islam
University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Sokol Paukaj
Aleksander Moisiu University, Albania
Federico Niglia
Libera Universit Internazionale degli Studi
Sociali (LUISS) Guido Carli, Italy
Isara Tongsamsi
Songkhla Rajabhat University, Thailand
S.E. Onuebunwa
Federal College of Education (Technical),
Omoku-Nigeria
Muhammad Abdul Wahid Usmani,
King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Shahram Fattahi,
Razi University, Iran
Santosh Kumar Behera,
Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University,
Purulia, West Bengal
Newman Wadesango,
University of Fort Hare, South Africa
Nuria Rodrguez Priego,
European Commision, Institute for Prospective
Technological Studies/University of Granada, Spain
Prof. Ravinder Rena
University of the Western Cape, South Africa
Enkelejda Shkurti
University of Tirana, Albania
Elena Popkova
Volgograd State Technical University

ISSN 2039-2117 (online)


ISSN 2039-9340 (print)

Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences


MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy

Vol 7 No 3 S1
May 2016

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology and Politics
Witnessing Violence Versus Experiencing Violence: Effects on Psychological Distress
Paul A. Muller
The Conversion of Muallaf to Islam in Selangor: Study on Behavior and Encouragement
Mariam Abd Majid, Syarul Azman Shaharuddin, Abur Hamdi Usman
Corruption in Nigerias Public Sector Organizations and Its Implications for National Development
U. E. Uwak, Anieti Nseowo Udofia
Functioning of the Parliamentary Groups in the Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo 2011-2014
Lavdim Terziu, Anton Gojani, Zemr Elezi
Social Tourism, Its Clients and Perspectives
Jana Jablonska, Mat Jaremko, Gejza M. Timak
Weaving Crafts on Muna Community (A Case Study of the Role of Human Capital and Social Capital in
Cultural Reproduction of Weaving at Muna Regency)
Jamiludin, Rabihatun Idris, Sulaiman Samad
Surveying Iranian Authorities Approach Toward Cyberspace Based on the
Three Dimensions of Power by Steven Lukes
Majid Malekan, Seyyed Javad Emamjomeh Zadeh, Hossein Masoudnia, Ali Alihosseini
Communication as a Component of the Quality of Life in the Integrated Care for the Dying
Mateja Beran, Marija Ovsenik
Impacts of Attitude towards Online Banner Advertisement on Brand Awareness:
Insight from Persuasive Hierarchy Model
Salem Mohamed S. Busen, Che Su Mustaffa, Mohamad Bahtiar
Blood Feud and Its Impact on the Albanian Criminality
Vera Kopsaj
Gender in Task Difficulty: Does It Make Difference in Macro-genres?
Yadollah Hosseini Asgarabadi
Human Motivational Behavior: From West and Islamic Perspective
Mariam Abd Majid, Syarul Azman Shaharuddin, Abur Hamdi Usman
Using of Selected Social Media in Slovakia and Poland Comparative Study
Sebastian Kot, Martina Ferencov, Luk Kakalejk
Routes to Remembering: Lessons from al Huffaz
Mariam Adawiah Dzulkifli, Abdul Wahab bin Abdul Rahman,
Jamal Ahmed Bashier Badi, Abdul Kabir Hussain Solihu
Challenges of Parenthood after Divorce in Albania
Jeta Shkurti (Toila)
Cybercrime - The Emerging Threat to the Financial Services Sector in Zimbabwe
Ishmael Mugari, Shingirai Gona, Martin Maunga, Rufaro Chiyambiro
Dawah Generate the Arts of Malay Heritage in Terengganu
Berhanundin Abdullah, Badlihisham Mohd Nasir, Ahmad Syukran Baharuddin, Aminuddin Hehsan,
Akmaliza Abdullah, Adibah Muhtar, Mohammad Azhar Mat Daut, Mohd Nasir Ripin, Abdul Basit Samat@Derawi
Hajj Service Management at the Department of Religious Affairs in Gowa Regency
Abdul Hafid, Rakhmat, Suradi Tahmir, Rifdan
Service Evaluation and Customer Orientation using Need Based Approach to
Enhance Effectiveness in Public Sector Marketing
Ahmad Nawaz Zaheer, Song We, Ghulam Nabi,
Mohamed Noureldin Attia, Kashif Ullah Khan, Fakhra Rashid

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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences


MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy

Vol 7 No 3 S1
May 2016

Western Balkan Integration to EU


Shkelzen Imeri, Marsela Sako
Determinants to Female Labor Income in the Vietnams Informal Sector
Loi Duy Nguyen, Ha Thi Tran
Old Threats, New Approach and National Security in Malaysia:
Issues and Challenges in Dealing With Cross-border Crime in East Coast of Sabah
Ramli Dollah, Wan Shawaluddin Wan Hassan, Diana Peters, Zaini Othman
The Protection of the Roma Communitys Rights and in Particular the Roma Childrens Rights in Albania
Stela Mecaj
Taxi Drivers Gestures in Jordan: A Sociolinguistic Approach
Wafa Abu Hatab
Recent Residential Mobility in Spain
Manuel Garca Docampo
The Relationship Between Self Efficacy and Readiness for Change:
The Mediator Roles of Employee Empowerment
Bagus Emsza P., Anis Eliyana, Wiwik Istyarini
Exploring the Key Principles of Hamas Foreign Relations
Abdalhakim Hanaini, Abdul Rahim Bin Ahmad
The Social Construction of the Commercial Sex Workers in Makassar City
Ridwan, T.R., Andi Lolo, Arlin Adam
Socio-Political Influence and Youths Leadership Participation in Malaysia:
A Conceptual Model Extending TPB
Isidore Ekpe, Mohd Rosli Mohamad, Norsiah Mat, Derweanna Bah Simpong
The Save KPK Movement: A Framing Analysis of Coverage in
Indonesian News Media Surrounding the KPK and Police Dispute
Achmad Jamil, Caturida Meiwanto Doktoralina
Adolescences Perspectives of Dealing with Syria Traumatic Events
Tatiana Pilishvili, Al' Massri Ismaeel, Natalya Karabushchenko, Alexandr Ivashchenko

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Language and Literature


Music and Music Ethnography as Reflexivity Tools in Adult Learning
Irene Theodosopoulou
Analyzing the Political Speeches of Obama on
Race and Economic Renewal in America in the Light of the Theory of Conversational Implicature
Igwedibia, Eugenia Adaoma
Metaphorical Modeling in Fictional Prose as a Reflection of Its Thematic Focus
Vladimir Andreev, Zhanna Fomicheva
Development of Standard Albanian after the Second World War
Manola Kai (Myrta)
On the Issue of Optimization of the Russian Language Study in a Foreign Audience
Natalya Nikolaevna Romanova, Magomed Gazilovich Gazilov,
Marina Robertovna Gozalova, Elena Sergeevna Loseva, Natalya Valerievna Mishina
Student's Strategies to Reduce Writing Apprehension (A Case Study on Zarqa University)
Ibrahim Fathi Huwari, Yasser Al-Shboul
Linguoculturological Analysis of the Concept of Health
Liudmila Kiseleva
Socialism and the Possibility of Utopia in Wesker Trilogy
Fazel Asadi Amjad, Mohsen Masoomi, Monireh Arvin

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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences


MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy

Vol 7 No 3 S1
May 2016

On the Investigation of Taste Adjectives in Linguistics


Laman Maharram Gasimli
Derivatives of Nostratic Root Morpheme *Ya - To Shine, To Glow, To Get Warm in Turkic Languages
Baba B. Maharramly

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Management, Sustainability and Cooperation


Efficiency Assessment of Jazan Port Based on Data Envelopment Analysis
Hanaa Abdelaty Hasan Esmail
Zoning of Public Offices, Liberal Democracy and Economic Development in Nigeria
Christian Ezeibe, Ifeanyi Abada, Martin Okeke
Critical Success Factors for Sustainable Entrepreneurship in SMEs: Nigerian Perspective
Lawal, Fatai Alani, Worlu, Rowland E., Ayoade, Omisade Ezekiel
Urbanization and Housing for Low-Income Earners in Nigeria:
A Review of Features, Challenges and Prospects
Egidario B. Aduwo, Patrick A. Edewor, Eziyi O. Ibem
Livelihood Vulnerability Assessment to Climate Change at Community Level Using Household Survey:
A Case Study from Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam
Phan The Cong, Dang Huu Manh, Hoang Anh Huy, Tran Thi Ly Phuong, Luong Thi Tuyen
Mechanisms in the Formulation of the Management Policy in the Informal Sector in Makassar
Rahman Bebasa, Chalid Imran Musa, Rifdan, Thahir, Gufran D. Dirawan
Development of the Regional Financial Centers in China:
A Quantitative Study Based on the Province-level Data
Zeyun Li, Sharifah Rohayah Sheikh Dawood
Federalism, Constitutionalisation, and Local Government Autonomy in Nigeria
Okey Marcellus Ikeanyibe
Methodology for Optimizations of Business Processes in
Macedonian Railways - Transport in the Republic of Macedonia
Elizabeta Mitreva, Elenior Nikolov, Biljana Nikolova, Nako Taskov, Nikola Dimitrov
Human Error in Medication Administration Process
Amr Zyoud, Nor Azimah Chew Abdullah
Local Community Development through Community-Based Tourism Management:
A Case Study of Mae Kampong Village
Pit Jitpakdee, Azhar Harun, Zawiyah Binti Mohd. Zain
Development of Regional Innovation System Model-Based Economic, Science and Technology,
Social and Cultural Factors To Improve Regional Competitiveness in
Malang East Java Province The Republic of Indonesia
Harmono, Nazief Nirwanto

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Online Only
An Appraisal of Housing and Neighbourhood Quality in Residential Estates in Akure, Nigeria
Abiodun Olukayode Olotuah
The Challenge of Housing Regeneration in the Core Area of Akure, Nigeria
Abiodun Olukayode Olotuah
Tawwabin Uprising: The Emergence, Development and Influence on the Arab World
Ahmad Lamei Giv, Leyla Falsafi
The Effective Reasons for the Rise and fall of Abbasids State
Ahmad Lamei Giv

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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences


MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy

Exchange of Linguistic Forms: Imperative Forms Indicating Interrogation and Declarative Statement:
The Instances in Quran
Ahmad Lamei Giv
Local Governance Units as a Public Manager in Albania
Aurora Ndreu
Transformational Leadership and Organizational Climate of
Educational Institutions Along Thai-Cambodian Borders
Poonsook Kitratporn, Vichian Puncreobutr
The United States National Interests and the Fight Against Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria
Michael I. Ugwueze, Vincent C. Onah, Chikodiri Nwangwu
The Appraisal, by Pupils in the 5th and 6 th Classes of Junior School, of the
Physical Education Manual Proscribed for them
Spetsotaki, R., Mountakis, C., Konstantinakos, P., Georgiadis, K., Kipreos, G.
A Study on the Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Job Satisfaction with
Organizational Commitment in Mellat Bank, Khoramabad, Iran
Sasan Mohammadpanah
A Glance at the Concept and Status of Employer Brand
Siroos Zakipoor Kargany, Leila Khosravi, Alireza Aboulhasani
A Critical Review of Some Contemporary Existentialists in the
Issue of Relationship between Religion and Science
Ali Almasi, Seyyed Mohammad Musavi Moqaddam, Shima Mahmudpur Qamsar

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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences


MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy

Vol 7 No 3 S1
May 2016

Witnessing Violence Versus Experiencing Violence: Effects on Psychological Distress


Paul A. Muller
Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, University of Mount Union
Email: mullerpa@mountunion.edu
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
Based on secondary analysis of data from a sample of 649 individuals attending one of three New England colleges in the
United States, this study examines the links between childhood exposure to violence and young adult depression. Assessment
of the relative impact on depression of adversity experienced through direct personal victimization and adversity experienced
through witnessing the violent victimization of others was made in an attempt to identify mechanisms by which each affects
psychological distress. It was hypothesized that childhood adversity exhibits effects on psychological distress in young
adulthood, at least in part, through its damaging impact on the development of social and personal resourcesspecifically, by
affecting a reduction in family support, peer support, self-esteem, and mastery. Further, it was hypothesized that the
importance of these mediators in explaining the link to depression of adversity differs between personally experiencing
victimization and witnessing the victimization of others. Findings indicate that witnessing the violent victimization of intimates
has effects on depression equal to personally experiencing the same type of victimization. Further, the most important
mediators of the relationship to depression of violence personally experienced were family support, peer support, and selfesteem; but the most important mediator of the relationship to depression of violence witnessed was mastery. Also, the
combined mediating effect of the resource variables is greater for violence experienced than it is for violence witnessed. These
findings suggest that the mechanisms involved in the translation of adversity to depression do vary somewhat by the type of
adversity experienced.
Keywords: violence, depression, social resources, personal resources

1. Introduction
The notion that the social environment has important consequences for psychological well-being is supported by a vast
body of research that extends back at least 30 years. Numerous studies have documented the harmful effects of
childhood exposure to adversity on adult psychopathology (e.g., LaNoue et al., 2012; Brown & Anderson, 1991).
Although experiencing stress as a child increases risk for adult depression, the relative impact of different types of
stress is less certain. Some traumas and adversities are likely more damaging to psychological well-being than others.
Perhaps in part because violent traumas and adversities experienced in childhood have been believed to be particularly
harmful, much attention--both popular and scholarly--has been paid to them. Considerable evidence exists to suggest
that experiencing violence in childhood can be particularly destructive to ones psychological well-being. Research shows
that a wide variety of specific forms of victimization put youth at risk for mental health difficulties such as posttraumatic
stress disorder and depression (Boney-McCoy & Finkelhor, 1995). For example, increased rates of psychopathology
have been observed among children who experience physical abuse (Sugaya et al., 2012; Kolko, 1992). There are also
serious long-term consequences of victimization. Adult mental health has been shown to be adversely affected by
childhood exposure to physical and sexual abuse (e.g., Brown & Cohen, 1999).
2. Literature Review
While many studies have clearly established that experiencing personal victimization as a child has harmful short- and
long-term consequences, less is known about the potential harm of other types of violence exposure. For example,
besides the effects on children of victimization, researchers have become aware of the potential harm of witnessing
violence. Most of the research in this area has focused on the effects of witnessing domestic violence. Edleson (1999)
identifies 84 studies that report an association between witnessing domestic violence and child development problems.
In addition to the myriad short-term consequences, witnessing domestic violence as a child has been shown to increase
adult risk for psychological problems such as depression (Silvern et al., 1995). More recently, attention has been paid to

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the effects on children of witnessing violence outside the home. In a review of 25 studies conducted between 1984 and
2000 that considered exclusively the effects of witnessing violence in the community (as opposed to domestic violence),
Buka et al. (2001) conclude that, existing research suggests that high levels of witnessing violence place youth at risk for
psychological, social, academic, and physical difficulties (p. 302). The problem with most of this type of research,
however, is that it does not consider separately the impact of each of the different forms of violence exposure, but rather
cobbles them together in various combinations to create an assortment of indices that are sometimes collectively referred
to as exposure to violence, or ETV (e.g., Buka et al., 2001). In other words, most of this research fails not only to
adequately distinguish among the various types of violence-witnessing, but also fails to make the perhaps more obvious
distinction between violence that is witnessed and violence that is personally experienced. Only by making direct
simultaneous comparisons in outcomes between witnessing and experiencing--and perhaps especially when these two
types of exposure are sufficiently similar in measurement--can the independent and relative contributions of each be
adequately examined.
Also, if there are differences in effect on depression between violence witnessed and violence experienced, then
those differences may be best understood in terms of differences in the mechanisms by which each works to affect
depression. It is well established that childhood exposure to violence increases the likelihood of experiencing subsequent
depression. Less understood, however, is why. To better assess the nature of the relationship between violence and
depression, it is important to consider the processes by which childhood and adolescent exposure to violence results in
adult symptomatology. The present study considers the mediating influence of family support, peer support, mastery,
and self-esteem.
While there is little doubt that social support from family and peers is beneficial to psychological well-being, both
directly and as a buffer against stress, some investigators have also noted that social support may itself be affected by
traumas and adversities (Turner & Butler, 2003). For example, some stressors may represent for children the actual
diminishment or loss of support resources, such as in cases of parental divorce or separation. Other hardships likely
upset the quality of interactions that one is able to develop and maintain with others, effectively reducing perceived
support. If traumas and adversities affect the development and maintenance of supportive networks (both familial and
peer), and the resulting lower levels of support help explain subsequent depression, then social support is a mediator by
which exposure to childhood adversity results in depression in young adulthood.
Similarly, while self-esteem appears to contribute to well-being (both directly and as a moderator of stress), there is
reason to believe that experiencing adversities in childhood may inhibit the development of self-esteem. An individuals
level of self-esteem is believed to arise in part out of social processes and contexts (Turner & Roszell, 1994). In other
words, social environments and experiences play a role in the development of self-esteem, and so it seems likely that
violence experienced in childhood would adversely affect the development of self-esteem. Furthermore, it is likely that
violent victimization and witnessing violence also affect ones sense of mastery. Many studies of the negative outcomes
associated with childhood victimization suggest a reduction in feelings of efficacy (Turner et al., 2015; Finkelhor, 1990). If
the development and maintenance of self-esteem and mastery are ongoing processes subject to external forces, then it is
reasonable to suppose that they can be diminished by stressful events and circumstances, including childhood exposure
to violence. And if lower levels of self-esteem and mastery help explain subsequent depression, then they are mediators
by which violence results in depression.
The primary objective of the present study is to examine the links between childhood exposure to violence and
young adult depression. Assessment of the relative impact on depression of adversity experienced through direct
personal victimization and adversity experienced through witnessing the violent victimization of others will be made in an
attempt to identify mechanisms by which each affects psychological distress. It is believed that childhood adversity
exhibits effects on psychological distress in young adulthood, at least in part, through its damaging impact on the
development of social and personal resourcesspecifically, by affecting a reduction in family support, peer support, selfesteem, and mastery. Further, it is believed that the importance of these mediators in explaining the link to depression of
adversity differs between personally experiencing victimization and witnessing the victimization of others.
3. Research Methods
3.1

Sample

This study represents secondary analysis of a survey, Childhood Adversity and the Mental Health of Adults, funded by
the National Institute of Mental Health (R03#MH56169; Heather Turner, Principle Investigator). It is based on a sample of
649 individuals attending one of three colleges in the New England area. These include: a university comprised largely of
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White, middle class students, many of whom come from small, semi-rural communities; a state college consisting of a
mixture of working class White, Hispanic, African-American, and Asian students living in a medium-sized urban
community; and an inner-city community college consisting of mostly lower-income African-American and Hispanic
students who live in a large urban center.
Twenty percent of the sample is non-White and 40% of respondents came from households where the main
provider had less than a college degree. The sample included students ranging in age from 18 to 29, although 95% of
the sample is under 25 (median age = 19 years). The sample is 41% male and 59% female. The majority of the sample
(approximately 65%) was obtained through a random sample of student registration directories. The response rate for this
part of the sample was 86%. The sample also includes students who were recruited through a variety of college classes
within the Liberal Arts. Response rates within classes ranged from 60% to 95%.
3.2

Measures

Symptoms of depression were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).
Respondents indicated how often over the preceding two weeks they had experienced each of 20 symptoms on a 4-point
scale ranging from 0 (rarely or none of the time) to 3 (most or all of the time). The specific items that constitute this
measure are presented in Appendix A. A summary of the 20 items was constructed. The validity and reliability of this
scale are well established (Radloff, 1977). In the present study, the reliability coefficient for the CES-D is .89.
Exposure to violence was assessed using measures designed to detect the extent to which subjects were exposed
to episodes of violence, both those that were directly experienced and those that were witnessed (see Table 2). Violent
episodes were coded 0 = never happened and 1 = occurred one or more times. Then, a summary count was used to
construct variables representing Violence Personally Experienced and Violence Witnessed. All reports of violent
episodes numbering 3 or more were collapsed, while the three other categories (0, 1, and 2) correspond to the actual
number of adversities experienced.
Perceived family support was assessed with a modified version of the Provisions of Social Relations Scale (Turner
et al., 1983). The scale was designed to reflect the provisions of social relationships conceptualized by Weiss (1974),
which includes attachment, social integration, reassurance of worth, reliable alliance, and guidance. Individuals
responded to each item (see Appendix A) on a 4-point scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. A
summary of the nine items was constructed. The alpha coefficient for this scale is .84.
Eight of the nine items used to measure family support were reworded to assess attachment, social integration,
reassurance of worth, reliable alliance, and guidance provided by friends rather than family (see Appendix A). As before,
subjects responded to each item on a 4-point scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. A summary of
the eight items was constructed, and the alpha coefficient for this scale is .91.
Self-esteem was measured with a summary score of an instrument developed by Rosenberg (1965). This scale is
well established in the literature. It is composed of seven items reflecting different "self-statements," or beliefs (items
presented in Appendix A). Respondents rate each statement on a 5-point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly
disagree. The internal reliability for this scale is .81.
Mastery was assessed using the summary score of an eight-item scale developed by Pearlin and Schooler (1978).
Respondents rated each item of a 4-point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. This scale has also
been used successfully in numerous studies, and its psychometric properties are well established. The exact wording of
each item is presented in Appendix A. In the present study the alpha coefficient is .71.
4. Analysis Results
4.1

Descriptive Analyses

Given favorable response rates and success in identifying and recruiting respondents with varied socio-demographic
characteristics, the sample is reasonably representative of a diverse New England college population. Both face-to-face
and telephone interview modes were used (18% in-person; 82% telephone). Table 1 shows key demographic
characteristics of the group of respondents.

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Table 1. Sample Characteristics


Age
18
19
20
21
22+
Sex
Males
Females
Race
White
Non-white
Parental education
Less than college degree
Associate degree or greater

167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174

Frequency

Percent

163
174
139
67
102

25.3
27.0
21.5
10.4
15.8

263
386

40.5
59.5

519
130

80.0
20.0

253
387

39.5
60.5

Frequency distributions of items measuring violence experienced and violence witnessed are shown in Table 2. The most
common type of violence personally experienced was being chased by a gang, bully, or someone you were frightened
of, when you thought you could really get hurt (n = 115). The least common type of violence personally experienced was
suffering injury with the use of a weapon (n = 30). The most common type of violence witnessed by these.
Table 2. Frequency Distributions of Items Measuring Violence Personally Experienced and Violence Witnessed
Violence personally experienced
Physically Assaulted by Family Member
Physically Assaulted by Non-family
Injured with Weapon
Threatened with Weapon
Chased by Someone
Violence witnessed
Witnessed Intimate Physically Assaulted
Witnessed Intimate Assaulted w/ Weapon
Witnessed Intimate Threatened w/ Weapon
Witnessed Intimate Chased by Someone

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Percent

49
86
30
69
115

7.6
13.3
4.6
10.6
17.8

135
44
72
71

20.8
6.8
11.1
11.0

Subjects was seeing an intimate physically assaulted, though seeing an intimate assaulted with a weapon was the least
common type (n = 135, n = 44, respectively). A total of 349 episodes of personally experienced victimization were
reported (by 218 subjects), and 322 episodes of witnessing the violent victimization of an intimate (by 203 subjects).
4.2

Regression Analyses

Table 3 shows results from a set of hierarchical regression analyses. This method was used because it provides the
ability to test for the independent effect on depression of one type of violence while controlling for the effect of the other
type of violence. This method also provides the ability to reveal the mediating effect of variables by detecting the extent
to which they attenuate the strength in relationship between antecedents and outcomes. In Step 1, depression is
regressed on violence experienced, violence witnessed, and the demographic variables. Both experiencing violence
directly and witnessing the violent victimization of others have similar direct, independent effects on depression (B = .131,
p < .01; B = .126, p < .01, respectively).
In Step 2, family support was added to the regression equation. Besides being directly related to depression (b = .176, B = -.112, p < .01), family support also affects reductions in strength to depression of both types of adversity.
Family support is a stronger mediator of violence experienced (reducing the strength to depression by 15%) than violence
witnessed (7%).
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Violence experienced is affected by the addition of peer support (Step 3) in much the same way as with family
support, reducing its strength to depression by 16%. However, adding peer support has an unexpected effect on the
relationship to depression of violence witnessed. It actually produces a small increase in strength (by 7%), suggesting
that peer support is suppressing some of the effect of witnessing on depression. It could be that people with high peer
support have a larger pool of peers that they consider close. This also represents a larger group of intimates whom one
has the potential to see victimized, increasing ones risk of witnessing the victimization of an intimate.
When self-esteem is added to the regression equation in Step 4, it affects a substantial reduction in strength of the
violence experienced coefficient (by 26%), and a moderate reduction of the violence witnessed coefficient (by 14%).
Therefore, self-esteem appears to be a stronger mediator of violence experienced than it is violence witnessed.
Interestingly, whereas each of the first three resource variables have a stronger mediating influence on the
relationship to depression of violence experienced than violence witnessed, the opposite is true of mastery. Adding
mastery to the regression equation (Step 5) affects a smaller reduction in strength to depression of violence experienced
(by 8%), and a larger reduction of violence witnessed (by 21%).
Table 3. Hierarchical Regression of Depression on the Predictor Variables: Violence Personally Experienced and
Violence Witnessed (Standardized Coefficients in Parentheses)
Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Age

.287*
(.105)

.283*
(.104)

.214
(.078)

.255*
(.093)

.248*
(.091)

.229*
(.083)

Sex

1.525**
(.122)

1.528**
(.122)

1.771***
(.142)

1.099*
(.088)

1.639**
(.131)

1.307**
(.104)

Race

-.389
(-.025)

-.463
(-.030)

-.441
(-.029)

-.319
(-.021)

-.599
(-.039)

-.434
(-.028)

Parent education

.180
(.073)

.193*
(.078)

.208*
(.084)

.156
(.063)

.152
(.062)

.157
(.063)

Viol. experienced

.954**
(.131)

.814*
(.111)

.800*
(.110)

.703*
(.095)

.881**
(.121)

.707*
(.096)

Viol. witnessed

.961**
(.126)

.891**
(.117)

1.030**
(.135)

.826**
(.108)

.763*
(.100)

.813**
(.106)

Family support

-.176**
(-.112)

.047
(.030)

Peer support

-.304***
(-.186)

Self-esteem

-.099
(-.061)
-.553***
(-.356)

Mastery
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Number of cases
*p < .05 **p < .01 ***p < .001

.063***
629

.075***
629

.095***
629

.186***
627

-.435***
(-.280)
-.485***
(-.288)

-.182*
(-.108)

.144***
624

.197***
622

5. Discussion
Analyses showed that personally experiencing violent victimization and witnessing the violent victimization of others each
negatively affect psychological well-being. A shortcoming of much previous research that attempts to attribute negative

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outcomes to the effects of witnessing violence has been a failure to adequately control for the effects of experiencing
violence. Findings from the present study bolster the idea that witnessing does have effects independent of experiencing.
Further, this study used (versions of) the same set of items to measure both violence experienced and violence
witnessed. This provides greater control of one type of violence while testing for the independent effects of the other,
increasing confidence in the belief that witnessing has effects independent of experiencing.
Regression analyses reveal that the relationship between personally experiencing violence and depression is most
strongly mediated by family support, peer support, and self-esteem (and more weakly mediated by mastery). That
reductions in family support and peer support help explain the relationship to depression of experiencing violence likely
speaks to the impact of victimization on the ability to develop and maintain supportive relationships. Reductions in peer
support could be partially attributable to the tendency for earlier adversities to beget later adversities, causing wearied
friends to be reluctant to continue to offer repeated support. Reductions in family support could also be attributed to the
debilitating effects of victimization on social competencies. Although scant research has explicitly examined the impact of
childhood victimization on subsequent family support, there is reason to expect that reductions in ability to cultivate future
supportive relationships produced by victimization extend to lasting familial relations (Becker-Lausen & Mallon-Kraft,
1997). Perhaps an even better explanation, though, is that families are often the source of violence to which children are
exposed. Family ties represent permanent relationships. Experiencing victimization at the hands of a family member
might cause irreparable damage to that enduring association, manifested in lower levels of support.
Besides family support and peer support, self-esteem was also a prominent mediator of the victimizationdepression relationship. It is not surprising that reductions in self-esteem help explain the relationship to depression of
personally experiencing violence. There is much research demonstrating the severely detrimental effects that
victimization can have on feelings of self-worth (e.g., Briere & Elliott, 2003). The contribution made here is in
demonstrating that reductions in self-esteem are also partly responsible for the impact of victimization on later well-being,
improving our understanding of the hazards of violent victimization and the processes at work in the translation of stress
to depression.
Whereas the relationship to depression of personally experiencing violence is most strongly mediated by family
support, peer support, and self-esteem, the relationship to depression of witnessing violence is most strongly mediated by
mastery. It is not surprising that reductions in mastery help explain the impact of witnessing violence on later well-being.
There is much empirical evidence to suggest that children who witness violence are at increased risk for experiencing
numerous adverse consequences (see reviews by Buka et al., 2001; and Edleson, 1999), which can persist into
adulthood (Silvern et al., 1995). While reductions in mastery as a specific consequence of witnessing violence has
received less attention by researchers than many other outcomes, taken together, studies of the deleterious effects of
witnessing violence do justify the expectation that mastery would be adversely affected (see review by Horn & Trickett,
1988). It is once again important to note that witnessing violence as measured in the present study involves observing
the violent victimization of an intimate. Violence perpetrated in your presence against someone you were really close to
would immediately elicit feelings of helplessness, and would probably inhibit long-term the acquisition of feelings of
mastery. What this study adds is evidence of the mediating influence of mastery; reductions in mastery represents a
mechanism by which witnessing the violent victimization of intimates results in later depression.
These findings--that the most important mediators of the relationship to depression of violence experienced are
family support, peer support, and self-esteem, while the most important mediator of the relationship to depression of
violence witnessed is mastery--demonstrate variation in (the importance of) mediators across stress types. Further
evidence of this idea is found in the differences in combined mediating effects of the resource variables on the
relationship to depression between violence experienced (a greater effect) and violence witnessed (a lesser effect).
6. Conclusion
In conclusion, this study contributes to an improved understanding of several issues related to childhood adversity and
young adult depression. It has revealed variations in the impact on depression of different types of violence. It has also
demonstrated that the pathways by which childhood adversity affect depression may be different depending on the type
of violence to which one is exposed. Young adult mental health is an important issue. As stated by Chen and Kaplan
(2003), The peak onset of mental disorders...is between adolescence and young adulthood, and the prevalence of
mental disorders among this age group is startling (p 111). Because earlier mental health is an important predictor of
later mental health, young adult depression matters not only for current well-being, but has important implications far
beyond young adulthood. The current study could have intervention implications and would benefit from a programbased assessment. If, for example, reduced mastery does indeed offer the best explanation of the relationship between
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witnessing violence and depression, then intervention strategies intended to help those who experience this specific type
of adversity could benefit from this knowledge. Perhaps counseling offered victims could be designed to emphasize the
development of feelings of self-efficacy. Indeed, if variations in the causal pathways by which childhood adversity affects
young adult well-being can be more clearly identified, then resources and services aimed at helping those exposed to
violence can be allocated with more precision and to greater effect.
References
Becker-Lausen, E. & Mallon-Kraft, S. (1997). Pandemic outcomes: The intimacy variable. In G. K. Kantor & J. L. Jasinski (Eds.), Out of
the darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family violence (pp. 49-57). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Boney-McCoy, S. & Finkelhor, D. (1995). Psychosocial sequelae of violent victimization in a national youth sample. Journal of Consulting
and Clinical Psychology, 63, 726-736.
Briere, J., & Elliott, D. M. (2003). Prevalence and psychological sequelae of self-reported childhood physical and sexual abuse in a
general population sample of men and women. Child Abuse and Neglect, 27, 1205-1223.
Brown, G. R., & Anderson, B. (1991). Psychiatric morbidity in adult inpatients with childhood histories of sexual and physical abuse.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 55-61.
Brown, J., & Cohen, P. (1999). Childhood abuse and neglect: Specificity of effects on adolescent and young adult depression and
suicidality. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1490-1497.
Buka, S. L., Stichick, T. L., Birdthistle, I., & Earls, F. J. (2001). Youth exposure to violence: Prevalence, risks, and consequences.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71, 298-310.
Chen, Z., & Kaplan, H. B. (2003). School failure in early adolescence and status attainment in middle adulthood: A longitudinal study.
Sociology of Education, 76, 110-127.
Edleson, J. L. (1999). Childrens witnessing of adult domestic violence. Journal of interpersonal violence, 14, 839-870.
Finkelhor, D. (1990). Early and long-term effects of child sexual abuse: An update. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21,
325-330.
Horn, J. L., & Trickett, P. K. (1998). Community violence and child development: A review of research. In P. K. Trickett & C. J.
Schellenbach (Eds.), Violence against children in the family and the community (pp. 103-138). Washington, DC: American
Psychological Association.
Kolko, D. J. (1992). Characteristics of child victims of physical violence: Research findings and clinical implications. Journal of
Interpersonal Violence, 7, 244-276.
LaNoue, M., Graeber, D., Urquieta de Hernandez, B., Warner, T.D., & Helitzer, D.L. (2012). Direct and indirect effects of childhood
adversity on adult depression. Community Mental Health Journal, 48(2), 187-192.
Pearlin, L. I., & Schooler, C. (1978). The structure of coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 19, 2-21.
Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological
Measurement, 1, 385-401.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Silvern, L., Karyl, J., Waelde, L., Hodges, W. F., Starek, J., Heidt, E., & Min, K. (1995). Retrospective reports of parental partner abuse:
Relationships to depression, trauma symptoms and self-esteem among college students. Journal of Family Violence, 10, 177202.
Sugaya, L., Hasin, D. S., Olfson, M., Lin, K. H., Grant, B. F., & Blanco, C. (2012). Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a
national study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(4), 384-392.
Turner, H. A., & Butler, M. J. (2003). Direct and indirect effects of childhood adversity on depressive symptoms in young adults. Journal
of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 89-103.
Turner, H. A., Shattuck, A., Finkelhor, D., & Hamby, S. (2015). Effects of poly-victimization on adolescent social support, self-concept,
and psychological distress. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(10), 1-26.
Turner, R. J., Frankel, B. G., & Levin, D. M. (1983). Social support: Conceptualization, measurement and implications for mental health.
In J. R. Greeley (Ed.), Research in community and mental health, vol. 3 (pp. 67-110). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Turner, R. J., & Roszell, P. (1994). Psychosocial resources and the stress process. In W. R. Avison & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.), Stress and
mental health: Contemporary issues and prospects for the future (pp. 179-212). New York: Plenum.
Weiss, R. (1974). The provisions of social relationships. In Z. Rubin (Ed.), Doing unto others (pp. 17-26). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall.
Appendix A
Table A1. Items used to measure depression, family support, peer support, self-esteem and mastery
Depressive Symptomatology
1. I was bothered by things that usually dont bother me.
2. I did not feel like eating.

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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
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I felt that I could not shake off the blues.


I felt that I was just as good as other people.*
I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing.
I felt depressed.
I felt that everything I did was an effort.
I felt hopeful about the future.*
I though my life had been a failure.
I felt fearful.
My sleep was restless.
I was happy.*
I talked less than usual.
I felt lonely.
People were unfriendly.
I enjoyed life.*
I had crying spells.
I felt sad.
I felt that people disliked me.
I could not get going.

Family Support
1. You feel very close to your family.
2. You have family who would always take the time to talk over your problems, should you want to.
3. Your family often lets you know that they think you are a worthwhile person.
4. Your family is always telling you what to do and how to act.*
5. When you are with your family, you feel completely able to relax and be yourself.
6. No matter what happens you know that your family will always be there for you should you need them.
7. You know that your family has confidence in you.
8. You feel that your family really cares about you.
9. You often feel really appreciated by your family.
Peer Support
1. You feel very close to your friends.
2. You have friends who would always take the time to talk over your problems, should you want to.
3. Your friends often let you know that they think youre a worthwhile person.
4. When you are with your friends you feel completely able to relax and be yourself.
5. No matter what happens you know that your friends will always be there for you should you need them.
6. You know that your friends have confidence in you.
7. You feel that your friends really care about you.
8. You often feel really appreciated by your friends.
Self-esteem
1. You are able to do things as well as most other people.
2. You feel you do not have much to be proud of.*
3. You take a positive attitude toward yourself.
4. On the whole, you are satisfied with yourself.
5. You wish you could have more respect for yourself.*
6. You certainly feel useless at times.*
7. At times, you think you are a failure.*
Mastery
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

You have little control over the things that happen to you.*
There is really no way you can solve some of the problems you have.*
There is little you can do to change many of the important things in your life.*
You often feel helpless in dealing with problems of life.*
Sometimes you feel that you are being pushed around in life.*
What happens to you in the future mostly depends on you.
You can do just about anything you really set your mind to.
When you make plans you are almost certain you can make them work.

*These items were necessarily reverse-coded.

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The Conversion of Muallaf to Islam in Selangor: Study on Behavior and Encouragement


Mariam Abd Majid
Syarul Azman Shaharuddin
Abur Hamdi Usman
Academy of Islam, International Islamic University College Selangor (KUIS), Malaysia
Corresponding Author Email: aburhamdi@kuis.edu.my
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
This paper suggests a boost factor of muallaf behavior and some factors that motivate them to convert into Islam in Selangor.
The data obtained through the method of documentation, interviews, and questionnaire were analyzed using inductive and
deductive methods. The sample of study are selected using purposive sampling technique. This paper reveals the religious
factor, psychosocial and bio-psychosocial which had encouraged muallaf to convert to Islam. In Selangor contextually, the
dominant factor that prompted muallaf to embrace Islam was religion as they belief its truth and can be found directly nor for
research. Moreover, by observation and inspiration or dream had became major boost for muallaf to accept Islam. This study
found that the absence of information and do not receive accurate information about Islam were among the factors that causing
delay in dawah acceptance by non-muslim.
Keywords: Motivation, Behavior, Muallaf, Selangor, Malaysia

1. Muallaf (The Convert) In Selangor: An Introduction


Islamization is a huge movement toward a person due to its meaning to involve the migration of faith and principles which
undoubtedly requires variety of tests and sacrifices. In Malaysia, the term of muallaf is fondly called our brother, new
brother or Muslim brother. As muallaf or convert, they cannot run away from the challenges in the realm of life certainly
(Tarimin et. al, 2010).
Muallaf refers to those who tend to Islam by doing well to them (Anon, 1970: 45). Apostasy is often associated with
the muallaf due to their beliefs is still not very strong and they failed to adapt new situations, and in another case, they
disappointed with the foreign environment (Seng, 2009). The reality proves that muallaf among the targets of dawah
(propaganda) that must be addressed through counseling, support and assistance in various aspects, such as education,
emotional, social, and economic life to facing new challenges (Kose, 1996). Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966) an Egyptian author,
educator, Islamic theorist, poet, and the leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in his book Tafsir Fi Zilal alQuran categorizes muallaf into three groups of individuals; (i) Who embrace Islam and with charity they accepted is
expected to strengthen their positions towards Islam, (ii) Who have not yet converted to Islam and by receiving zakat
(charity) is expected can soften their hearts to embrace Islam, (iii) Who have converted to Islam and sticking with it and
through the provision of zakat, they are expected to appeal to people like them among their people to embrace Islam after
seeing his brother receiving lots of help. The giving of zakat reflects the fact perfection of wisdom of God in administering
the affairs of His servants at every aspect of the situation and the environment (Qutb, 1998; Dennet, 1950).
In addition, Wahbah al-Zuhaily (1932-2015) a prominent and Islamic scholar specializing in Islamic law and legal
philosophy on his Tafsir Al-Munir interprets muallaf as those who had converted to Islam but their intentions towards
Islam is still weak and their hearts must be tamed. This interpretation also refers to those who have the honor of giving
zakat due to this group will cause them to protect and defend Islam (Al-Zuhaily, 1998). This interpretation also clarifies
that muallaf are divided into two groups, those who had converted to Islam and who have not yet converted to Islam.
In Selangor, the titles of muallaf is used to someone who has embraced Islam for five years starting from the date
and year of his registration of their converts to MAIS (the Selangor Islamic Religious Council). By Selangor Fatwa which
dated on October 25, 2007, the convert will carry the name muallaf after 5 years by uruf (custom) provided that they has
been joining the religion classes that are recognized or organized by MAIS. Moreover, MAIS is responsible for financing
the cost of learning for this newly convert. Selangor Fatwa decided that in five years, a person muallaf can manage
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themselves if they are committed to follow each classes organized in each district, attend courses and programs which
organized by the MAIS.
2. Encouragement of Human Behavior: Literature Review
There are various theories that explain the relationship between motivation and the factors that drive the actions or
conduct of human (Piaget, 1970). Motivation can be understood as an attempt and motion of an action or behavior that is
oriented to a goal targeted. Motivation influences the behavior of the human person There is a significant, permanent or
ignored (Weiner, 1992; Maslow, 1943).
The theory of motivation has explained that every human behavior has a cause and not a coincidence (Redzuan,
2001). The process begins with the birth of motivation or desire that there is a need in the soul. The wanted and needs
that exist in a person is pushing for action to meet those needs. The feeling of satisfaction appears in person when its
requirements can be met (Huffman et.al, 1994). The need that exists can determine the goals to be achieved by a human
being. Clear goals capable of mobilizing peoples behavior in order to achieve a desired goal or expected (Husain, 1996).
Figure 1 explains motivation process towards human behavior.

Figure 1. Motivation process towards human behavior.


The achievement of a goal targeted by human is an end to a cycle of motivation as well as being able to put the individual
in the sense of complacency. Conversely, if a specified target cannot be met, the person will continue to strive to act so
as to achieve the goals that have been targeted (Moore, 2008).
2.1

Needs and Goals in Motivating the Human Behavior

Psychologists have argued that the motive in an individual is a goal to be achieved. The goal is realized by the action that
disclosed by its behavior (Harackiewicz et.al, 1997; Carlson, 2000). Normally, human would have committed itself in the
pursuit of a goal which gives meaning to him (Carver and Scheier, 2003). Psychologists explain among the goals that
exist within an individual that will provide motivation for the actions or behavior of an individual human being is
(Mohamed, 1992):
2.1.1 Motivation of fulfilling the biological needs
Human will always strive to meet their biological needs (Maslow, 1987). Among the requirements to meet the goal of
human biological needs is to meet the instinct requirement and maintain their stability (Millikan, 1984).
2.1.1.1

Meeting the needs of instinct

Instinct motivational theory suggests that human tends to do something to meet the needs or demands of his instincts.
Energy instinct is in an impetus to the action of the human being. Instinct is something that is not learned but acquired by
nature or natural. The goal is to meet the instinct requirements described as when a mother who tried to get a cure for her

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kids illness. Action to find a drug to treat a disease experienced by children was driven by love of a mother naturally
(Redzuan & Abdullah, 2002). Instinct is the impetus to meet the goal of any human is a biological need and become one
of the factors driving an individual behavior (Brunstein & Maier, 2005; Ekman & Davidson, 1994).
2.1.1.2

Self-Sustaining stability

Maintaining the stability is also among the goals that drive the behavior of human being (Markus & Kunda, 1986). Man
trying to reduce impulses emanating from him/her. The existence encouragement initiated when there is a deficiency in a
person. This impulse reduction process focused on the mechanisms of internal motivation. Encourage reduction in
motivation theory explains that any human being has the motivation to reduce the inner impulse that had happened.
Encouragement which sustained in themselves would be less if some requirement has been fulfilled (Redzuan &
Abdullah, 2002). Someone will try to fulfill his hunger for food. The drive to get food will increase as long as the food
looked undiscovered for reducing hunger impulse. Maintaining the stability is among other goals to fulfill the biological
requirement and become one of the factors that determine human behavior.
2.1.2 Motivation of fulfilling the psychosocial needs
Human sought to achieve psychosocial requirement just like to receive the award or gift (Oatley, 1992). Among the
psychosocial needs of the human person are;
2.1.2.1

Acquiring incentives

Incentive is an external stimulus that motivate of individual behavior (Staw, 1976; Kleinginna & Kleinginna, 1981). There
are several criteria of incentives that can stimulate ones actions. The needed incentive is more acceptable than which is
not necessary, and positive incentive more approachable than the negative. Someone who does not have friend will sit
and enjoy his meal prepared in an event, but person who has many friends will use the opportunity to chat with old friends
regardless of the dishes served as having friend for chating is more important to him at that time. Thus, the selection is
done by human by the pull of the current incentives and requirements. At the same time, a matter or event that has ever
hurt someone in the past was a sure negative incentives shunned by someone (Redzuan & Abdullah, 2002).
2.1.2.2

To Reach an internal satisfaction

Cognitive theory of motivation splits between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Vallerand, & Reid, 1984; Csikszentmihalyi,
& Nakamura, 1989; Graef, Csikszentmihalyi & McManama 1983). Intrinsic motivation prompts human to do activities to
achieve inner satisfaction, as the results of the implementation of these activities, while extrinsic motivation motivates
human to achieve satisfaction from outside such as reward. The research show human will work harder, diligently,
conscientious and produce good quality when the task motivation is intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivation (Desa, 2002).
Human who is compelled to implement an action due to intrinsic motivation will be able to feel the inner satisfaction after
completing a taste satisfaction or results of implementation (McClelland, et.al, 1976).
2.1.2.3

Achieving the targeted goals

Human is driven to execute an action when assuming that his target is actually can be achieved. This phenomenon is
explained in the theory of achievement motivation by McClelland. Based on this theory, human is motivated to do
something if he feel some goals can be achieved. Conversely, he would not do it if the targeted goals are presumably can
not be achieved. A person will feel satisfaction when the targeted goals are achieved (McClelland, et. al, 1976).
Feeling of satisfaction could reached when someone achieve the targeted goals or when the reality meets the
expectation. Victor Harold Vroom (b. 1932) a business school professor at the Yale School of Management in his
expectancy theory states that someones behavior is a reflection from decision he took (Hassan, 2001). There are three
factors that determine how much someone is willing to try to do a job; a hope, accomplishment and results (Mohd.
Dahlan, Baco & Chua, 2000). An individual will decide to get married for a good expectation resulted from the decision,
otherwise the marriage would not be continued
In lieu of this theory, human hope and predictions about what will happen in the future. Normally, all decisions
made by a person are based on what is expected and predicted to occur for the decision taken. When a completed act
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gave a lot of kindness, a sense of satisfaction will increase, conversely for an opposite situation; the human sense of
dissatisfaction will increase. Someones act or behaves are for its incentive inducement, inner satisfaction and the
confident of reaching the targeted goals.
2.1.2.4

Environment

There are some environmental factors that helped driving human behavior. Objects that surround a person like the
ecology, architecture, the situation of psychosocial and social factors such as position in the community, education levels
and political affiliation are elements of environment that also contributed to the behavior of an individual human being
(Mubarok, 1999; Frey, & Meier, 2004). Environment will also encourage actions and behavior of a human to adapt
according its surrounding (White, 1959).
2.1.2.5

Religious

Religion is the main focus as the need and goal of an individual behavior of (Schoenfeld, 1993). Religion is also a
guidance to determine the actions taken by someone. Aspects of faith in Allah, the existence of the Day of Judgment,
belief in fate and the provision of Allah and supernatural things are the main catalyst for the movement and behavior of an
individual human being (Mubarok, 1999). Human who have religious beliefs will have guidance and define the scope and
limits of human behavior and actions.
2.1.3 Meeting the Bio-psychosocial needs
Bio-psychosocial goal is one of theory in motivation that combines two objectives, namely the objective needs of
biological and psychosocial (Frankel, Quill & McDaniel, 2004). Abraham Maslows theory is a theory that explains the
goal of the bio-psychosocial human person (Sanford, 1965). Figure 2 below shows Abraham Maslows theory:

Figure 2. Abraham Maslows theory


According to Maslow (1987), people will try to meet the five requirements they are, physiological needs, safety, social,
esteem and love and self-realization. A failure to fulfill those needs can cause a person to feel uncomfortable and one will
constantly strive to meet them. The highlight of the needs of the soul is self-realization that someone is willing to be as
desired. If a person fails to comply with this requirement, otherwise he will suffer when someone is able to meet these
requirements, he will feel his life exactly meaningful and feel satisfied (Bakar, 2002).
Maslow (1987) also said that there are two motives that drive a man to seek the meaning of life, namely the
deficiency motive and the motive for growth. Deficiency motive impulse someone to seek something that is either needed
or not available within him. Someone who is alone and lonely needs others to help relieve his loneliness. The concept is
similar to the situation of a person who lacks food or drink will strive to reduce his appetite motives. Growing motive
pushes to get something useful and meaningful and not based on needs. One would have to study hard, driven by a

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sense to acquire knowledge to help community members in need. Assist members of the public who are in need will
produce satisfaction for services rendered will contribute to the more meaningful life. Someone who wants to reach
perfection will do something that has meaning to life and this will satisfy his heart and soul (Desa, 2002). Maslow theory
suggests the complexity of human needs and stressed it out that when basic needs have not been met, human is
relatively will ignore the other higher needs.
3. Methodology
The sampling is based on population set to comply with the research (Barreiro & Albandoz, 2001). The population of
muallaf in Selangor comprised 2432 people in both gender, but the total sample for this study comprised 418 people with
sampling error at level of 10%. Each respondent was given booklet of questionnaire containing statement on the issue of
their encouragement to embracing Islam. Through this purposive sampling the respondents were selected based on
criteria such as the following:
- Respondents were Muslim muallaf who registered in (MAIS) and a residence of the state of Selangor
- Respondents were Muslim muallaf who take the education and dakwah program provided and advised by
MAIS Human Development.
4. Encouragement of Muallaf to Convert to Islam in Selangor: The Findings
The study found that there are various factors that drive Muallaf in Selangor. The table 1 shows the factors stated by the
respondents:
Table 1: Encouragement of Embracing Islam
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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218
219
220
221
222
223
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Items
Discovering the meaning of life (Religious Factor)
Finding peace in themselves (Internal Satisfaction Factor)
As a result of observation (Religious Factor)
The results of studies on Islam (Religious Factor)
Islam can solve the problem (Biopsychosocial Factor)
Get inspiration / dreaming (Religious Factor)
The effect of mixing with Muslims (Biopsychosocial Factor)
Marriage of Muslim couples (Psychosocial factors)
Following the family / Family Converting to Islam (bio-psychosocial factors)
Easy to get financial aid / welfare ( biopsychosocial factors)

Frequency (Person)
176
138
111
100
88
74
70
62
38
9

The results show there are three factors driving a respondent to embrace Islam such as to find meaning in life, to find
peace with yourself, observations. Based on table 1 above, 176 respondents said they want to find a meaning in their
life, and 138 said they want to find peace within themselves, and 111 respondents said among the factor that motivate
them to embrace Islam was the result of their long observation towards Islam. The data obtained show the highest factor
that drives muallaf to Islam was to find the meaning of life (Ali, 1999).
Other factors which are preferred by respondents in the conversion to Islam was their studies of Islam. They
believe Islam can solve their problems, rather than inspiration or dream, and influence their interactions with Muslims
(Wohlrab-Sahr, 1999). Based on table 1 above, 88 people were found to be compelled to embrace Islam expressed the
belief that the problems encountered can be overcome, while 74 respondents stated their encouragement to embrace
Islam as inspiration or dream, and 70 respondents converted to Islam as a result of their friends hood with Muslim.
In relation to the table 1, this study found 38 respondents converted to Islam because of their family, and 9
respondents explained the purpose of their conversion to Islam was as easy to get financial / welfare (Kareena &
Naksewee, 2010; Ensminger, 1997). Moreover, some of them are converted to Islam due to marriage factor (Shatzmiller,
1996, Hassouneh-Phillips, 2001; Jawad, 2006). There are 62 respondents claimed to embrace Islam by marrying Muslim
partner. Table 2 shows the encouragement of marriage based on gender.

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Table 2. Gender and Encouragement of Marriage


No.
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2

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Item
Male
Female

Frequency (Person)
11
51

Percentage
17.74
82.64

(N=62)

Table 2 shows 62 respondents which consist of 11 respondents (17.74%) were male, while 51 respondents (82.26%)
were women and they stated that their motivation to embrace Islam because of marriage. This percentage shows that
female converts in Selangor more embraced Islam due to marriage than male. Regarding marriage as a factor to convert
Islam, the information obtained from the Department of Islamic Affairs State (JHEAINS) recorded that over 80% muallaf
were decided to convert to Islam to marry Muslim partner (Pg. Musa, 2010).
In another study that was done regarding the encouragement of muallaf to accept Islam due to their understanding
and the truth of Islam (Jusoh, 2001). This finding came close to the results above which show the highest factor that
encourages the conversion in Selangor was to discover the meaning of life. Similarly, in another study, which was
conducted entitled Embracing Islam: American Muslims Conversion Narratives of Living in Southern California, the
majority of respondents indicated that their main pull factors to convert to Islam is Islam itself as the true religion of Allah.
In other study regarding on factors of converts has concluded that reading media exposure and related Islamic
religious has been the biggest factor that encourages them to embrace Islam. This was followed by a second factor,
psychosocial that the Muslim community attracted them through example and way of life which also efforts of
organizations and missionary organizations that have shed light on Islam indirectly led to open their hearts to choose
Islam (Herman, 1998). The discovery matches with the study on religious factor, namely reading and research is the most
dominant factor of respondents they had embraced Islam (Taqiyah, 2004). A study was conducted on the factors of
acceptance of the converts to Islam found majority of respondents said the main reason they embrace Islam because
they are driven by the interaction of Muslims (Mohd. Nasir, 2006).
On the contrary, on a study in 2008 to the non-Muslims either in public Dusun and Murut in Brunei Darussalam to
identify the factors of the muallaf group on why it is hard to accept Islam. 68% of respondents said that Islam is not much
different from other religions, 30% said the family disagrees to convert to Muslim, 14% Islam is a difficult religion, 8% said
the customary practice cannot be conducted if converted to Islam, 7% said Islamic preachers can not win their heart, 5%
said that Islam is scary and 0% stated that is hard to become happy (Ahim, 2010).
Based on the studies it clearly show that in Selangor, the dominant factor why muallaf decided to embrace Islam
due to this religion to achieve the meaning of life, followed by the biological need for peace, the observation and study of
religion or to resolve the problem faced, followed by psychosocial factors such as mixing with Muslims, marriage and
family and lastly by a factor bio-psychosocial which is to gain the financial and welfare assistance.
5. Conclusion
Based on the encouragement factors for muallaf to convert to Islam, the truth in Islam can be gained directly or through
research, observation and inspiration or dream become major encouragement for Muslim converts to Islam in Selangor.
The absence of information and do not receive accurate information about Islam were the factors that delayed the
acceptance of dawah efforts by Islamic groups.
Attention and efforts should be intensified to attempt descriptions of Islam towards the people who are not
embraced Islam yet. These efforts also can remedy misconceptions or misunderstandings non muslim towards Islam that
causes them to abstain or be afraid to reach out to Muslims. Encouragement aspects in the form of Psychosocial and bio
psychosocial have been undertaken by MAIS in particular and all those involved should be maintained even can be
improved to encourage muallaf to choose Islam as their faith. Hence, letting those who are not embraced with Islam to
find Islam trough their natural instinct only, or just feeling of shortage when they are not convert to Islam will cause the
process of Islamization become stagnant.
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Corruption in Nigerias Public Sector Organizations and


Its Implications for National Development
Dr. U. E. Uwak
Department of Political Science and Public Administration
University of Uyo, Uyo

Anieti Nseowo Udofia


Department of Political Science and Public Administration
University of Uyo, Uyo; Email:aniudofia.owo@gmail.com
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
Corruption which ever dimension has tremendous negative implications for the development and growth of any society.
Corruption in the public sector involves the looting and embezzlement of public funds for personal use. On the political
dimension, it involves the corrupt manner in which political leaders ascend to positions of authority. Economically, corruption
involves the investment of public funds on projects that will line individual pockets rather than benefiting the generality of the
populace. On the social dimension, corruption destroys the social system and makes the citizens not to have trust on the
political system. The quest for self-preservation has superseded national interest and the absence of national interest manifest
in lack of national development in Nigeria. The objective of this paper was to establish the correlation between corruption and
national development in Nigeria. Findings revealed that corruption is albatross to national development in Nigeria. As a
remedial measure, the paper recommended among others that secondary schools and higher institutions of learning should
introduce corruption studies into its curriculum in order to inculcate in the students the act of discipline and educate them on the
ills of corrupt practices.
Keywords: corruption, public sector, implication, anti-graft and national development

1. Introduction
Corruption is a recurrent decimal in Nigeria and has contributed in no small measure to the underdevelopment of Nigeria.
There is corruption in high and low places ranging from embezzlement of public funds, diversion of monies meant for
infrastructure development to giving of bribes for contracts and bribe in public offices. It is a phenomenon that has led to
the backward and snail development in Nigeria. Everybody in the country sees the position he/she is occupying as an
opportunity to amass wealth thereby making them to put their personal and selfish interest first before the interest of the
nation.
The consequences of corruption in the country manifest in so many dimensions affecting all facets of human
endeavour in the country. As a result of corruption, we can categorically talk about weak leadership, poor service
delivery, inadequate infrastructure, poor public sector management, moral decadence and financial impropriety. The trace
of these entire anomalies adversely affects the political, economic and social life of the country.
In the past years efforts have been geared towards eradicating and totally eliminating corruption in Nigeria but
sadly little have been achieved in the fight against corruption. These efforts led to the establishment of such bodies like
the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), Independent Corrupt Practices and other Offences
Commission (ICPC) etc. These bodies are charged with the responsibility of arresting and prosecution of individuals
found misappropriating public funds. We can state clearly that the efforts of these institutions in fighting corruption have
yielded little result.
It is important to state that some times when individuals are found culpable of any offence because of their position
in the society such cases are swept under the carpet and they are allowed to get away with it or are given lesser
punishment compared to the offence committed. A good example is the petroleum subsidy saga involving a former
member of the Upper Chamber Senator Faruk Lawan and the CEO of Capital Oil Femi Otedola. Yet another high ranking
corrupt case was the one involving the former Speaker of the House of Representatives Dimeji Bankole who was
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arrested by the EFCC for corruption related case while he was the speaker of the House of Representatives. Sometimes
issues of corruption because of who is involved are decided based on technicalities and not on empirical evidences.
Development can only be achieved when there are strong and viable institutions. In Nigeria, our public institutions are
very weak owing to corrupt practices. Such include collection and giving of bribe, contract inflation, misappropriation of
funds meant for developmental projects.
Government institutions in the country have become so indifferent and have consistently neglected the general
well-being of the citizens Kayode, Adagba and Anyio (2013). The public sector is supposed to be the driver of the
economy which will propel national development but corruption has destroyed the society hence limiting the efficacy of
the public sectors contribution to the development of the country. Despite structural reforms in the public sector aimed at
combating the menace of corruption, it still prevails in Nigeria and has hindered good governance and has also robbed
the masses of the social welfare that is supposed to be provided by government through its institutions.
Apart from the institutional problem, poor leadership has also contributed to the underdevelopment status of
Nigeria. Ineffective leadership and corruption have impacted negatively on Nigerias democratic stability and her
economic development (Ebegbulem, 2012). It is instructive to note that majority of Nigerias elected leaders came into
office through corrupt and fraudulent manner. The aim of this paper therefore is to investigate the ignominious negative
effects corruption has had on Nigerias national development.
2. Conceptual Clarification
2.1

Corruption

The term corruption does not have a universally accepted definition. Several views have been put forward, standpoints
and framework about the concept. Corruption is a concept associated with unwholesome practices in the society with its
attendant negative influence. Corruption in Nigeria has been linked to the political and social problems that have
bedevilled Nigeria for decades now. It can be seen to be a dishonest and unacceptable behaviour of people occupying
public offices. Marriam-Webster (1990) defines corruption as inducement offered to someone which is wrong, improper or
unlawful means such as bribery. Corruption can be categorized as grand, petty and political depending on the quantity of
cash lost and where the corruption case occurs (Transparency International, 2015).
Corruption has many dimensions. It involves improper behaviour of public office holders such as enriching
themselves, friends and loved ones to the detriment of the general populace. It is common place to see public officers
divert monies that are meant for projects to their personal purse. Cases abound where public officers use public funds to
acquire private property. They employ relatives and friends into government ministries and agencies under the auspices
of replacement. Replacement is a situation where a new staff is employed to fill a vacant position after the death or
retirement of the original occupant of that position without approval from relevant recruitment authorities. We can go on
and on to mention many of such unwholesome practices in our public sector.
It is instructive to state that the current Transparency International Corruption Index (ICP) puts the country 136th
most corrupt country in the world out of 174 that were assessed in 2014. It is very disheartening to see Nigeria rise
geometrically in the corruption ladder instead of reducing. This rating is the worst in 6 years because in 2007 the
corruption index puts the country as the 32nd most corruption country out of 147 countries assessed. This goes to show
that corruption has really come to stay in the country and instead of reducing it is rather increasing and has eaten deep
into the political, economic and social fabrics of the country. In spite of the efforts by the anti-graft agencies, corruption
cases keeps increasing as the day passes by and this has posed serious problem to Nigerias development prospects.
According to Ogundiya (2009) since the return to civilian rule in 1999, corruption has proved to be an impediment
to Nigerias development. The resultant effect of this is seen in weak institutions and the decay in social and political
spheres of Nigerias national life. This position retards social and economic development as well as national development
in the long run. The negative effect of corrupt practices manifest in political; economic; social and environmental aspects
of Nigeria national engagement.
2.2

Causes of Corruption

Many theories have been advanced on the causes of corruption. From the stand point of this paper, the causes of
corruption revolve round poverty, greed, opportunity, unemployment and the general perception of corruption in the
country particularly the body language of the leaders. There are no generally acceptable causes of corruption as some
writers see it as the consequence of bad governance. Yet, some other writers places premium on the ethical and morality
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standpoints. On the basis of this, corruption is seen as the consequence of the cultural and weak social values held by
the people of a society. On the whole, the explanation of the causes of corruption in Nigeria is not far from the above
mentioned dynamics. The factors that encouraged corruption include amongst other:
1. Bad leadership in a country where the leaders are corrupt, the tendency for the followers to be corrupt is
very high. Hence, when the leadership is corrupt the political will may not be there to fight against corrupt
practices.
2. Military Rule from independence in 1960 comparatively, the military has rolled the country for 35 years out of
55 years of Nigerias independence. With the tendency for dictatorship, military regimes in the country
administered the state without adhering to the principles of rule of law and accountability. Decisions were
taken in a manner that neglected due process and accountability therefore giving avenue for corrupt practices
to prevail.
3. Lack of strong legal framework work and upright judicial system that gives opportunity for prolonged and
delayed legal processes in the judicial system also accounts.
4. Inequality in the society the desire for the poor to be like the rich in the society makes them to embezzle
public funds when they are in position of authority.
5. Jumbo pay for politicians - compared to what civil servants in both Federal and State governments receive
monthly, political office holders are heavily paid hence civil servants who have access to government finances
embezzle the funds of government in order to compete favourably with the politicians in the society.
6. The granting of office immunity to president, governors and other public office holders in the country
encourage them to steal from government treasury. Cases abound in Nigeria.
7. Extreme and excessive materialism, weak ethical environment, erosion of moral values and lust for power are
some of the factors that encourage corruption (Ogunlana 2007).
2.3

Development

The term development has many definitions as there are many authors and writers. This has resulted in the
unacceptability of a particular definition. There are many dimensions of development. We can talk of economic, political
and social development. Rodney (1972) corroborated this point and defines development beyond the individual or
peoples perception of development and conceived development whether economic, political or social to imply both
increase in output and changes in the technical and institutional management by which it is produced. Development is
basically the process of change in the society in all sphere of human endeavour. Development can also be seen as a
multidimensional process involving fundamental changes in social structure, population, attitudes and institutions Okoye,
(1997); Sahni & Vayunandan, (2010).
Development in the words of Nkem-Onyekpe (2004), is a generic term which encompasses the transformation of
the economy, state and society through the achievement of greater capacity to deal with the challenges of: (a) production
and its expansion (b) political administration and governance (c) organizing the civil society as a community of people.
Though the concept has been associated with such issues as economic growth, modernization, industrialization, nationbuilding, social justice and democracy; these are signs of development and not its essence. Yesufu (2000) articulated
development to embrace people-centred social change, when he stated succinctly that development means people and
that the essence of development is the welfare of people.
Seer (1977) gives us a guide on what development should consist when he stated that development should
satisfactorily address the three central problems of poverty, unemployment and inequality. In his words, if these three
societal problems are less, then there has been a period of development in a country. He stated further that if one or two
of these problems are growing worse or perhaps all of the problems, it would be strange to call that development. From
this standpoint, we support the views of these scholars that development should measured in terms of quality of life and
wellbeing of the people in the society.
3. Theoretical Frameworks
The analysis of corruption practices and its implications on Nigerias development can be explained using a mirage of
theoretical perspectives ranging from idealistic theory, the resource curse theory, theory of two publics and the low riskhigh benefit theory. Idealist is premised on the thesis that individuals ideas and preferences condition their culture,
behaviour and the structure of their society. We can therefore categorically say that corruption is therefore the prevalent
moral values in the society.
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Resource curse theory by Auty (2004) and Ross (2001) cited in Ijewereme (2015) holds that since 1960s, statistics
proved that countries that are poor in resources have performed better than countries with rich resources. Accordingly,
resource dependence (oil) results in the skewing of political forces. This also makes resources to be centred in one
geopolitical entity and puts power into the hands of selected individuals thereby reducing the tendency for spread of
development. This is a very classic case in Nigeria where the oil resources are being siphoned by top politicians for their
personal and selfish use with little or no effort geared towards the socio-economic development of the nation vis--vis
national development. The Low risk- high benefit theory is somewhat a model of deterrence to corrupt practices. It
believes that in a situation where punishment for corrupt practices are light (plea-bargain) individuals will feel less
bothered and corruption will continue to prevail (Ijewereme, 2013).
To have theoretical explication of our phenomenon under study corruption and national development we will
adopt the idealistic model as put forward by Nkom (1982). As noted early, the proponent holds the opinion that what
people see as the ideal influence their decisions, actions and inactions in the society. As a result of this, individuals in the
society who find themselves in positions of authority believe that their actions are the ideal and probably the best. It is
important to note that, the action of individuals could be best for the individual but not the best for the generality of the
populace. Idealism therefore is concerned with what is in opposition to realism which talks about what ought to be.
This theory sees corruption as the result of selfish ideals that are common in the societys value system. The
implication is that the perception of corruption by people in the society leads to the suppression of morality and realistic
values in the society. This suppression of morality in the society leads to the rising tide of immoral activities which does
not promote or encourage development and it manifest in the embezzlement, siphoning and looting of monies meant for
public use for personal gains. This argument sets the stage on which two positions viz the traditional and the modern
schools are built.
The traditional perspective sees corruption and other unwholesome activities as the perversion of traditional
African culture, values, norms, ethnics and belief system by the Western culture through Indirect Rule and Policy of
Assimilation respectively. The Europeanization of Africa led Africans to embrace European culture thereby subverting the
African culture and resulting in weakening of traditional values. But with time the Western values have proved capable in
curbing corrupt activities.
The modernist perspective of the idealistic theory sees corruption in Nigeria as the institutionalization of African
traditional societies (traditional institutions). The idea behind the idealist is that corruption is associated with several
traditional practices in our society like presentation of gifts, ethnic loyalty and other parochial tendencies which are
prevalent in our African society. All these tend to influence individuals in the society to look at the ideal as against what
should be which is the real.
On the whole, the applicability of this theory to the work is hinged on the fact that, it x-rays those principal factors
that influences individuals actions in public realm like peoples ideas which conditions their behaviour and culture
including social and moral values prevalent in the society. These inadvertently conditions the way and manner individuals
behave and act in the society
4. Public Sector and Corruption in Nigeria
Corruption has proved to be one of the problems seriously confronting Nigeria since the return to civil rule in 1999. In fact,
considering various cases of financial corruption being perpetrated in governance since 1999 till date, we can
categorically say that corruption has actually been institutionalized in the country. This is so because institutions of
government bribe legislatures in order to pass budgets of their organization and ministries collect bribe before contracts
are awarded, politicians give money to electorates to vote them into power, contract inflation, lecturers collect money from
students before they can pass examination. The dimensions of corruption are so numerous that this paper will not be able
to exhaust. This therefore means that the negative impact of corruption are also countless and this has inadvertently
affected the political, economic and social development of Nigeria.
The First and Second Republics in Nigeria came to an abrupt end because of corruption. During this period, people
in ministries, departments and agencies of government in the First Republic stole funds and there was no policy position
to stamp out corruption menace in the country. The 1964 and 1965 elections witnessed rigging by the Northern Peoples
Congress (NPC) (Ajayi, 2008). The party in power (NPC) went against electoral guidelines and procedures and that
caused the failure of other political parties most especially Action Group (AG). This led to the rejection of the outcome of
the election culminating in widespread violence and outright destruction of lives and property especially in the Western
part of the country. According to Ijewereme and Dunmade, (2004) corruption, massive rigging of the elections, arson,
killing and violence in the Western, were reasons why the middle-ranked army officers staged coup to sack the Nigerian
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First Republic politicians from power in January 15, 1965.


General Gowons administration did not do much to end or bring corruption to the barest level in the country as
corruption acts were not hidden in the public perspective. His promise to establishment anti-graft agencies to fight
corruption was not actualized. However, the administration of Murtala Mohamed exposed the corruption level and
activities that was perpetuated during Gowons regime when he set up Assets Investigation Panel to probe the governors
and other public office holders who worked under Gowon. The investigation led to the indictment of 10 out of 12 military
governors and their assets frozen. The anti-graft exercise led to the purge of the civil service whereby over 10,000 civil
servants were sacked for corrupt practices (Anazodo, Okoye and Chukwuemeka, 2012).
However, during the Second Republic, it was thought that the anti-corruption war that Murtala started would have
been sustained by Shehu Shagaris civilian regime. But on the contrary, there was no deterrence on corruption acts in the
public service as the politicians seriously engaged in various forms of corrupt practices without reflecting on what befell
corrupt individuals during Murtalas administration.
When General Muhamadu Buhari snatched power from Shagari from the word go, he was extremely determined to
stamp out corruption in the Nigerian public sector. This was done through the programme he tagged War Against
Indiscipline (WAI). Many investigative tribunals were put in place to probe public officials of the Second Republic.
Despite the anti-corruption fight of the Buharis administration, the Babangidas administration did not key into the anticorruption campaign of his predecessor. The probe of General Babangida led to the discovery of over N 400 million
wasted on the Better Life Project. Massive corruption was also revealed in the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation
and many others.
The corruption spree still continued when Abacha took over from the Interim National Government headed by Chief
Ernest Shonekan. The Administration of General Abacha looted government treasury and within 5 years as the head of
state, he amassed wealth that is more than that of countries in Black Africa put together (Ebegbulem, 2012). Abacha
became so corrupt and dictatorial to the extent that anybody or group of persons that opposed his actions were either
jailed or assassinated. Till date, Abachas loots are still being recovered from accounts in foreign countries. But the big
question is where are the recovered funds.
When Abacha died in 1998 and Abdulsalami Abubakar became the head of state with the promise to hand over
power to a duly elected civilian president, government treasury was also looted through contract inflation, licenses and
appointments. The Christopher Kolades Panel put in place to review contracts awarded during Abdulsalamis tenure
made some shocking revelations. The panel submitted that the 4,072 contracts cost Nigeria N 635.62 billion as against
the N 88 billion budgeted in 1998 (Anazodo, Okoye and Chukwuemeka, 2012).
In like manner, with the return to civilian regime, one would have thought that the leaders having been duly elected
by the electorates would have acted according to the principles of rule of law and in the best interest of the general
populace that voted them into office, but unfortunately, the actions and inactions of Obasanjo showed no departure from
the trends in previous administrations. When president Obasanjo assumed office, he stated that corruption is the major
problem confronting Nigerias development that his administration will do everything possible to eradicate corrupt
practices in the society. But on the contrary, president Obasanjo for the two terms of eight years he ruled the country did
not match his words with action despite the establishment of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and
Independent Corrupt Practices and other Offences Commission (ICPC) to fight corruption in the country.
It is instructive to note however that when Nuhu Ribadu was appointed to pilot the affairs of EFCC, Nigerias
corruption profile gradually declined according to Transparency International rating scale. In a 10 point scale rating in
2004, Nigeria was in 1.6 level, 1.9 in 2005, 2.2 in 2006, 2.2 in 2007 and 2.7 in 2008 (IT. 2008). The administration of
Chief Obasanjo was characterized by obvious neglect to the principles of rule of law, lack of due process in the award of
contracts. While passively fighting corruption, President Obasanjo in the quest to prolong his stay in power paid huge
amount of money to legislators to amend the constitution to allow him contest for a third term. This therefore means that
apart from corruption practices by appointees during Obasanjos administration, he also perpetuated and encouraged
corrupt practices in the country.
According to Aderonmu (2009), the administration of Obasanjo witnessed unthinkable dimensions of corrupt
practices, selective investigation of corrupt public officials and inefficient handling of the economy. It has been revealed
that after the expiration of Obasanjos tenure that he bought some government property and even awarded contracts to
himself (Aderonmu, 2009).
When YarAdua came in as Obasanjos successor, he showed the commitment to fight corruption but his body
language revealed that he was not committed to what he stood for. This was evident in his effort to stop the prosecution
of James Ibori former governor of Delta State and the subsequent removal of Ribadu as the EFCC chairman. After the
death of YarAdua, President Goodluck Jonathan who took over from him did not show courage to fight corruption as
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most of his political appointees were corrupt. They looted government treasury without conviction. The likes of the former
Aviation minister Miss Stella Odua who used the ministrys finance to buy bullet proof cars for her personal use. The
immediate past minister of Petroleum Resources Mrs. Diezani Allison Madueke has been accused of stealing a whooping
sum of $9.3 billion under the watch of President Jonathan. In the words of Melaye (2003b), the government of President
Goodluck was unable to prosecute corrupt political office holder even those that were exposed. Jonathan showed a total
lack of political will to fight corruption in Nigeria. It is instructive to note that since the inception of the current
administration of President Muhammadu Buhari in May 29, 2015, efforts have been geared towards tackling corruption in
the country. So many strategies have been employed by the current administration like the single treasury account for
ministries, agencies and departments of government that are revenue generating.
From the foregoing, it is clear that corruption is endemic in the Nigerian state and each government despite efforts
and commitments to fight it usually fail in its bid to eradicate or reduce it to the minimal level. This has led to argument as
to why corruption still persists in Nigeria. Some reasons have been deduced for this to include: greed; poverty,
unemployment and poor youth empowerment. Conversely, the resultant effect and implications of these anomalies leads
to poor investment; rise in poverty; national crises and ultimately poor national development.
5. Corruption and Its Effect on National Development in Nigeria
Corruption has had political, economic and social implications in the developmental process in Nigeria. It is a clog in the
development and progress of any nation because it results in high cost of project, widespread poverty, poor quality
service delivery, poor access to public goods. All these undermines the concept of development and put Nigeria in a
stage of underdevelopment. We shall make attempts to x-ray the implications of corruption in the various spheres of
Nigerias national life. The impacts include:
i. Implication of Corruption on the Political System: the Nigerian political system is so corruption to the extent
that elections are seen as do or die affair where political office seekers use every means possible to win
elections. Stolen monies are used to pay delegates in the case of primary elections; voters are bribed to vote
for a particular political party. In recent times, the electorates no longer regard government as theirs and the
acceptability of government is usually contestable because a greater number of the eligible voters are
sometimes not part of the electoral process because to them, their participation will not change anything. It is
instructive to note that out of 68,833,476 million registered voters in the 2015 general election in Nigeria, less
than half of those who registered voted in the presidential election representing 29,432,083 million. This clearly
shows the level of apathy prevalent in the countrys political system. The electoral institutions in the country
are manipulated to favour certain persons especially the government in power and this weakens the opposition
to the disadvantage of the citizen.
ii. Negative Effect on Economic Development: in every society, the economic structure is usually assumed to be
the superstructure. Hence every other structures rest on the economic structure for survival. The decline of
economic base of a country inadvertently results in the decline of every other sector. The diversion of public
funds by politicians and public office holders will result in incapacitation of the government to embark on huge
projects that would have alleviated the sufferings of the masses. This explains why we have uncompleted
projects scattered across the country. Also some of the government revenue generating agencies
misappropriates the resources that would have been channelled into government account resulting in loss of
government revenue. More worrisome is the fact that these stolen monies are not always invested in Nigeria
as most of them transfer the money to foreign accounts and acquire property outside the country with no
attendant benefit to the domestic economy. These activities continue to retard development in Nigeria.
iii. Implications on Security: the act of corruption has the tendency to instigate insecurity challenges. The
militancy in the South-South region of the country comes as a result of the embezzlement of the funds meant
for the development of the region by political office holders prompting the youth of the area to take up arms in
order to take part of the resources. This act has degenerated to the extent of disrupting gas supply thereby
resulting in poor electricity supply across the country. Some youths have decided to take their destiny in their
own hands by engaging themselves in kidnapping, political thugery. All these are crises which corruption has
promoted.
iv. Decline in Social Services: the infrastructural decay in our society is sometime not due to lack of budgetary
allocations but due to diversion of funds appropriated to institutions of government. Persons in position of
authority in the quest to enrich themselves divert government resources meant for development to their
personal purse. For example contracts are awarded to contractors and they end up abandoning the project
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halfway. Sometime government policies and programmes are not fully implemented because those
implementing the programmes are corrupt minded individuals. It is important to state that, there is a case
scenario where a road contract was awarded for the construction of eight lanes road but the awarding
institution connived with the construction company and siphoned the money and ended up constructing just
two lanes. Aside from the diversion of funds, materials purchased for specific projects are also diverted for
personal use by those in charge. All these act as impediments and obstacle to development in Nigeria.
6. The Fight Against Corruption in Nigeria: The Way Forward
From our discourse, it is very clear that there is a correlation between corruption and the level of development in Nigeria.
Development cannot thrive where corruption is the order of the day. To achieve development and growth, Nigeria must
fight corruption head-long, most importantly political and economic corruptions. Though some efforts have been made
towards the fight against corruption, much has not been achieved despite the establishment of anti-corruption agencies
like EFCC and ICPC. It is very worrisome to note that even those who are in-charge of these anti-graft agencies are also
corrupt. We now find ourselves in a situation where a corrupt person fights another corrupt person. This results in a
scenario where corruption fights corruption.
In order to fight corruption effectively in the country, there is need to review the anti-graft laws in the country to suit
the current political situation. It is instructive to note that corrupt individuals in the country are sometimes given less
punishment for severe offences committed thereby giving others the morale to also loot governments purse. To serve as
deterrent therefore, stiffer punishments like long jail terms should be applied so as to serve as deterrence to individuals
who have the intention to embezzle funds of government.
Also, the agencies of government fighting corruption in Nigeria are not independent of the executive. Since they
are the creation of the executive arm of government, they tend to work according to the dictates of the executive. A case
in point was that of Nuhu Ribadus tenure as the EFCC chairman during President Obaanjos civilian regime. During this
period, persons convicted were political opponents of the president hence the prosecution was selective in nature. To
have effective anti-graft agencies, these bodies must be independent of the executive arm of government to guard
against interference.
As a matter of national importance, corruption studies should be introduced into the curriculum of our institutions of
learning right from the secondary to higher institutions to inculcate in the minds of students who are the future leaders of
the country the ills and negative effects of corruption on national development and progress. With this in mind, the young
people will grow and become disciplined individuals in their places of assigned responsibilities in the society.
As a principle, the concept of separation of powers should be carefully and diligently pursued. The issue of checks
and balances which is the offshoot of the concept of separation of powers should be practiced to the later by the three
arms of government whereby the executive checks the activities of the legislature, the legislature through its oversight
functions checks the activities of the executive and the judiciary that is the court system discharges its functions of
prosecuting those found guilty of corruption cases without interference from the legislature or the executive respectively.
Another measure to combat corruption in the country is to ensure that leaders of the country lead by example. It is
usually held that he who must go to equity must go with clean hands. This therefore means that any leader who is bent
on fighting corruption must not engage in corrupt practices. For example, during the President Obasanjos era though he
fought corruption, he was also engaged in corrupt practices e.g. during his third term bid, he bribed the legislators with
huge sum of money to amend sections of the constitution to give him legal backing to contest for a third term. Leaders
must therefore lead by example.
On a very important note, the widening gap existing between the poor and rich contributes in no small measure to
the corruption index in the country. This is so because the poor when they find themselves in position of authority will
always want to amass wealth in order to level-up with wealthy individuals in the society. With this in mind, an individual
does everything possible to steal their own share of the national cake. The gap between the rich and the poor in the
society does form the basis for social vices and can result in revolution as the case may be. Bridging the gap will help to
curb corruption in our society.
According to Ali (2015), in three months, the anti-corruption war by President Buhari has yielded positive outcomes
owing to the commitment and the political will on the side of the president. Since taking over in May 2015 the EFCC has
filed 71 high profile cases and has also seized over $6.55m and 248,248,340 from 55 money laundering suspects at the
airports in Lagos, Kano and Abuja. In a bid to recover some of the stolen government money, the Nigeria National
Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), the Niger Delta Amnesty programme and the National Maritime and Safety Agency
(NIMASA) and many others are under investigation for alleged diversion of government funds. This commitment has
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received commendations within and outside Nigeria.


It is believed strongly that everything that has a beginning must have an end. Has corruption came to be part of
Nigerian political, economic and social system, it can also be eradicated if strategic and stringent measures are adopted
to combat it. As John Nooanan in his book titled Bribe cited in Otaru (2012) opined: as slavery was once a way of life
and now has become obsolete and is incomprehensible, so the practice of bribery in the central form of the exchange
of payment for official action will become obsolete. With sincerity of purpose and commitment, Nigeria can overcome the
scourge of corruption.
7. Conclusion
It is no exaggeration that corruption as a phenomenon has impacted negatively on the political system, economic
development, peace and security as well as resulted in the decline in social services in the country. The position of this
paper therefore is that development cannot be achieved if concerted efforts are not taken to curb the scourge call
corruption. To eradicate or at the minimum reduce corruption, the paper recommends policy programmes to include the
inclusion of corruption studies on the curriculum of secondary schools and institutions of higher learning across the
country.
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Functioning of the Parliamentary Groups in the Assembly of the


Republic of Kosovo 2011-2014
Lavdim Terziu1
Anton Gojani2
Zemr Elezi3
2

1Doctoral student at the South East European University Tetovo; Email: lt19135@seeu.edu.mk
Doctoral student at the South East European University Tetovo; Email: antoni.gojani@gmail.com
3South East European University, Tetovo, Macedonia; Email: z.elezi@seeu.edu.mk

Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
The parliamentary groups are formed after free and democratic elections by political parties or various political coalitions under
the Rules of Procedure of the Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo. They play an important role by providing a great
contribution to the functioning of parliamentary life, representing their voters in the realization of their interests. There are three
diversity parliamentary groups, parliamentary groups formed by position, the ones formed by the opposition, and those which
do not belong to any party (independent deputies). In democratic systems, members of the parliamentary groups express freely
their opinions and interests in order to realize their political programmes. This study aims to reflect the functioning of the
parliamentary groups of the Republic of Kosovo during the period 2011-2014. A better functioning of the parliamentary groups
would contribute in enhancing the effectiveness of decisions undertaken in the parliamentary sessions on various political
issues. The study includes the President of the Assembly of Kosovo, heads of the parliamentary groups, representatives of the
parliamentary groups and the person who monitored the Assembly during the last legislation. Among the applied methods used
in this study were: qualitative methods and semi-structured interviews; whilst the sourcing techniques (means) used to achieve
the interview were: semi-structured questionnaire and a recorder with multimedia tools. Results show that the parliamentary
groups in the previous legislation lacked the quality debates, professional assistance, genuine parliamentary democracy, etc.
From these results we can conclude that the parliamentary groups of the last legislation did not function at the satisfactory
level, and did not use all the legal mechanisms in their strengthening and the independence of their decisions.
Keywords: Assembly, parliamentary groups, political parties, heads of parliamentary groups, the President of the Assembly of
Kosovo, the plenary sessions.

1. Introduction
The parliamentary groups comprise of deputies of political parties, independent deputies, etc., joining at least six deputies
to form a parliamentary group.
According to Heidar and Koole (2003) the parliamentary party groups (PPGs), make up the linkage between mass
suffrage, parties and parliaments, and are today generally accepted as necessary instruments of parliamentary business.
The role of the parliamentary groups in the Assembly of Kosovo is considered as very important and influential not
only in making laws, but also in promoting representative democracy. The fourth legislation of the Assembly of the
Republic of Kosovo emerged from the early parliamentary elections on 12 December 2010 and a partial repetition of the
election process on 9 and 23 January 2011, due to the irregularities identified by the Central Election Commission. The
inaugural session of the fourth legislation of the Assembly was held on 21.02.2011. This paper contains both the
theoretical and empirical aspect; on theory it elaborates the legal basis of the formation and functioning of parliamentary
groups, the use of literature related to the functioning of the parliamentary groups, and the empirical point of view
contains the report by KDI (Kosovo Democratic Institute) after monitoring of the Assembly of Kosovo in the previous
legislation, as well as the results of the interviews with key people related to the study.
Although the last parliamentary elections in Kosovo were held in June 2014, our study focuses in 2011 2014
state legislatures.

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2. The Value of Democracy


The word 'democracy' derives from the Greek word "demos" meaning "people" and "kratis" meaning "power". It refers to a
political system in which the interests of people prevail. Democratic concept is used with different meanings. In American
concept, democracy refers to a political system - a way to get power, while from the standpoint of control, democracy is a
system in which ordinary people exercise a high degree of control over their leaders. Democracy does not consist only of
the processes and procedures (e.g., rule of the majority, etc.), but it consists of important cultural values, typical for
democratic governance. Individualism, equality, and freedom shaped the American idea of democracy. (Denhard &
Denhard (2010). p. 2-3)
From the perspective of representative democracy, the need to study PPGs has only gained importance. Debates
on contempt and apathy towards politics and politicians (Politikverdrossenheit in German), in which an alleged gap
between voters and representatives, a supposed decline of trust in the political elite, and complaints about partitocrazia
figure prominently, have put PPGs in the limelight. (Knut Heidar & Ruud Koole (2003). p. 2)
3. The Legal Basis of Forming and Functioning of Parliamentary Groups
The Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo as the highest legal act in the country, according to the Article 76 defines the
internal organization and the method of procedure of the Assembly by applying the Rules of Procedure of the Assembly
by two-thirds (2/3) of votes of all deputies, while the Rules of Procedure of the Assembly under Article 20 regulates
forming and functioning of the parliamentary groups:
1. Deputies may form a parliamentary group on their political affiliation or program determination.
2. The deputy is entitled to participate equally in a parliamentary group, to withdraw from the group, to form a
new group, to join another group or to act as an independent deputy. For each case, the deputy is obliged to
notify the President of the Assembly for his/her decision.
3. Establishing a parliamentary group requires 5 percent of deputies of the Assembly or at least six (6) deputies.
In cases the number of deputies, members of a parliamentary group goes below this minimum, then the group
no longer exists.
4. The new group, formed later, cannot have the same name with another parliamentary group.
5. A deputy may not be a member of more than one parliamentary group.
6. Parliamentary groups are provided with necessary and proportionate space, necessary conditions and
equipments, as well as a political staff. The political staff of the parliamentary groups will be remunerated for
their performance in accordance with the Decision of the Presidency.
The largest parliamentary group PDK (Democratic Party of Kosovo) of the fifth legislation, after the parliamentary
elections of 8 June, led by Xhavit Haliti addressed the Constitutional Court with a request concerning the election of the
President of the Assembly of Kosovo of 17 February 2014. They considered that a constitutional violation, not respecting
the Article 67 (2) [Election of the President and Vice-Presidents of the Asembly] of the Constitution took place. This
Article stipulates that, "The President of the Assembly is proposed by the largest parliamentary group and is elected by
the vote of the majority deputies of the Assembly". After the Constitutional Court reviewed the application, it was
considered that the decision no. 05-V-001 of 17 July 2014 was unconstitutional, both by the followed procedures, as well
as by the content, because it was not the largest parliamentary group who proposed the President of the Assembly, and
as a consequence it was invalid. Haliti, Xh. et al. (!7 July 2014). Constitutional Review of the Decision no. 05-V-001,
voted by 83 deputies of the Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo on the election of the President of the Assembly of the
Republic of Kosovo. Taken from http://www.gjk-ks.org/repository/docs/gjk_ko_119_14_shq.pdf
4. The Parliamentary Groups in the Assembly of Kosovo from 2010 to 2014
The parliamentary groups cooperate with the Presidency of the Assembly in the preparation of plenary sessions; they
accord to have a common approach in making decisions about the priority issues which need to be addressed in the
parliament, they also play a key role in establishing a so-called government, "the coalition government " where the largest
parliamentary group gives its proposal to establish a coalition and constitute the government. There are three
parliamentary groups, the parliamentary groups formed by the position parties, by the opposition parties as well as those
groups that do not belong to any party (independent deputies). (Bajrami A. (2005), Parliamentary Democracy , p. 126127)
An analysis done by the Kosovo Democratic Institute and published by the Forum in January 2015, indicated that
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the parliamentary groups of the last legislation in the Assembly of Kosovo were divided into seven groups: the first
parliamentary group comprised of 32 deputies from the Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK) led by Adem Grabovci, the
second parliamentary group comprised of 29 deputies from the Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK) led by Ismet Beqiri,
the third parliamentary group comprised of 13 deputies from the Alliance for the Future of Kosovo (AAK) led by Ardian
Gjini, the fourth parliamentary group comprised of 13 deputies from the Movement Vetevendosje (VV) led by Visar Ymeri,
the fifth parliamentary group comprised of 8 deputies from the Independent Liberal Party (SLS) led by Sasa Rasic, the
sixth parliamentary group comprised of 8 members from the Coalition for New Kosovo (AKR) led by Myzejene Selmani,
the seventh parliamentary group comprised of 6 deputies from the group 6+ led by Myfera Ainik of KDTP party, and 11
deputies who were not part of any parliamentary groups, one deputy from SDSKIM, three deputies from JSL, two
deputies from LB, four of SLS and one deputy from PD. ((Archive of the Republic of Kosovo Assembly)
The Assembly of Kosovo in the fourth legislative period 12.12.2010 - 07.05.2014, consists of 120 seats: 100 seats
for all the political subjects directly voted, 10 seats set aside for the representatives of the Serb community, 10 seats set
aside for the representatives of other communities: 4 seats for the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian communities (RAE), 3
seats for the Bosnian community, 2 seats for the Turkish community, 1 seat for the Goran community. (Kuvendi i
Republiks s Kosovs (2011). Grupet politike n Kuvendin e Kosovs n periudhn 2010-2014. Taken from
http://www.kuvendikosoves.org/?cid=1,107)
5. Functioning of the Parliamentary Groups
Regarding legislative observation or structural control, in Public Administration of the authors Denhard, R. dhe Denhard,
J. (2010), many government programmes (and agencies) first arise in legislative programmes. In response to public
requests, executives, the state legislature, city council, or the board of directors approve legislation in order to correct the
problem.
How do caucus members deal with the fact of being between a representative of their voters and a member of a
political party ? Are they able to fulfil their task based on representative democracy by representing the real will of their
voters?
From the series of analyzes done by the Kosovo Democratic Institute on the topic, Over 10 years of
parliamentarism in Kosovo published in January 2015, and from the analysis conducted for the parliamentary groups and
their operation in the Assembly in the last 12 years, and from the results obtained it appears that parliamentary groups
have not been able to make a strong basis to build up a higher representative and legislative institution, as a result of
political circumstances and often short-term interests of political parties, the lack of internal party democracy, bad
coalitions among political parties, the lack of a culture of parliamentary debate, the unwillingness to provide alternatives
for solving problems, etc. Also a great influence on not strengthening the parliamentary groups had the lack of adequate
professional assistance in providing advice to deputies who represent their group in parliamentary committees, where for
many of the deputies, their first professional work is being a deputy of the Assembly of Kosovo, therefore, you can find
him/her sitting in a parliamentary committee without any professional support. Likewise, the functioning of the
parliamentary groups represent a problem, because they usually hold their meetings only five or ten minutes before the
plenary session takes place, where they get instructions on how to vote, while lacking internal debate. (Kosovo institute
democratic (2015) Mbi 10 vjet parlamentarizm n Kosov. p. 29-31)
6. Data Analysis
Data analysis were done through interviews, by recording then transcribing and reading them several times. We have
highlighted elements that we thought are related to the research question and then analyzed them.
7. Results
Interviews regarding the functioning of the parliamentary groups in Kosovo for the period 2011-2014 were not easy to be
done, knowing the commitments and positions of respondents. Interviews were conducted with former President of the
Parliament of the Republic of Kosovo, heads of parliamentary groups, representatives of political parties and civil society
representatives in January and February 2015 in Kosovo, while the qualitative part of the research is based on the
achievements of modern societies in the parliamentary field and in the Kosovo experience as the new parliamentary
democracy.

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Qualitative data

According to the former President of the Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo of the last legislation Jakup Krasniqi, the
parliamentary groups of the opposition parties were in greater numbers, because in the coalition with the position party
were the minority groups which have 20 reserved seats, but even though it was a strong opposition, it did not play a great
role, because it was not united, and even sometimes a part of the parliamentary group of the opposition supported the
government in many decisions, while the most vocal group was the parliamentary group of Vetevendosje. Always,
according to him it is the parliamentary groups who make politics in parliament and govern the Assembly; there were
several occasions when the opposition parties were united and entailed the position parties to leave the Assembly. This
does not happen in other countries. Mr. Krasniqi also said that there were no genuine debates between the parliamentary
groups in order for debates to lead in a joint decision making. The reason why the position parties left the parliament,
according to him, is because whenever they lost their numbers to take any decision, they left the Assembly, while this
does not happen in another country. The weakness of political parties being transferred to the parliamentary groups, then
transferred to the institutions is democratic malfunctioning of political parties, parliamentary groups and suffocation of
debates, making decisions without any debate, pressuring the deputies to vote a decision out of their will.
According to Adem Grabovci, the parliamentary group of PDK has been operating under the Rules of Procedure of
the Assembly conform the legislative and administrative procedures as well as and under the rules of procedure of the
group for internal operation; it has also been represented in the Presidency of the Assembly of Kosovo and has taken
decisions in accordance with the decision of the Group, and it has cooperated with the Presidency of the Assembly, and
with other parliamentary groups of the Assembly on importance issues.
According to the parliamentary group of PDK, there were regular consultation between the deputies of the group,
and weekly meetings - at least twice a week. The group has also held regular meetings every Tuesday in order to discuss
the agenda of the plenary session which was going to be held every Thursday, or of the extraordinary sessions. The
group met also regularly one hour before the plenary session took place, to get to know the course that the sessions will
have. The group and the head of the group also had frequent contacts with the heads of parliamentary groups, especially
with the Coalition Partner. According to the head of the parliamentary group of AKR, there was a lack of professional
assistance especially in legal terms. She says that on one occasion the opposition parties pressured them not to stay in
session and there were cases when the parliamentary group of AKR left the session although this proposal was from the
parliamentary group of PDK, whose part of the coalition AKR is. According to the representative of the parliamentary
group of LDK Salih Morina, the opposition parliamentary groups have greater involvement than the position. He further
claims that there was not enough democracy between the parliamentary groups of the opposition and position, and they
have not been honest and accurate in their decisions. According to the head of the parliamentary group of AAK of the last
legislation Ardian Gjini, the lack of ideological basis made deputies to behave regionally, each one trying to benefit.
According to him, politicians are opportunist (trying only to get votes). He says that there must be other ways of gaining
votes, without buying it, and our society should reach the stage of being irritated when an elected deputy by them does
not vote Kosovo Forces just because of his/her own interest. As long as this logic is absorbed in society, it is very hard to
take the politicians out from the opportunism they have. Also, according to him, the deputies lack the achievement of
democracy. According to Arbulena Haxhiu, representative of the parliamentary group of VV, there was pressure on
deputies, not allowing them to exercise their will freely, but asking them to become the machine of the government or of
the orders and directives of the government. She further says that there havent been quality debates on important issues
and good parliamentary monitoring by the deputies of the Assembly of Kosovo. There was a lack of legal experts and
advisors in order to perform better; there had not been a serious approach towards the drafts, by taking copies without
reviewing, then asking once again to review them.
According to the person who monitors the Assembly of Kosovo, Driton Selmanaj from KDI, the parliamentary
groups are the view of political parties; yet in Kosovo, a culture of internal democracy is not installed; still the power of the
leader is undisputed, therefore, according to him we have only leader parties. He also says that the parliamentary
groups most of the time meet 5 minutes before the session begins and there are no debates, they do not engage experts
who support the parliamentary groups even though they have a lot of money they receive from the fund of
democratization in Kosovo. They do not use this fund for the engagement of experts, therefore, parliamentary groups
often do not have clear attitude towards certain issues in the absence of professional expertise. Also according to him,
the parliamentary democracy lacks even though the deputy according to the constitution of Kosovo, at the moment
he/she takes his/her mandate, he/she is free, independent in the form of thought, action; still he/she is directed by their
leader and act upon the decision of the party leader. He further says that there is a lack of professional assistance for the
parliamentary groups on all issues, not only for the law, but also for political issues which are discussed there. If these
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two improved through debates within the group and the possibility of having the expertise, parliamentary groups would
consolidate and reflect in the democratization of the Assembly. He also says that there is not a clear ideological profile
among the parties, therefore political parties suddenly become left-wing and right-wing parties.
8. Conclusion

There is a lack of professional assistance on all matters related to the functioning of the parliamentary groups
and the Assembly.
There is a lack of proper debate within groups where the voice of each deputy should be heard.
There is a lack of parliamentary democracy as a result of sufficient democracy within the parliamentary groups
and the political parties themselves.
There is a lack of ideological basis to the deputies as a result of non existence of a clear profile of political
parties.
Deputies are being pressured from their leaders to vote according to the request of the leaders and not to their
free will which is guaranteed by the Constitution.
There is a presence of Leader Parties where only one person speaks whereas the others are but voting
mechanisms.
There is a lack of expressing their opinion freely by the deputies on issues that may have different views from
the head of the party to which they belong.
There is a lack of an ideological profile of political parties.

9. Recommendations

There should be professional assistance to all parliamentary groups in all matters by using the budget line
dedicated to the parliamentary groups.
Genuine meetings of parliamentary groups, as well as debates and consultations before the plenary sessions
take place should be intensified.
Leader parties should not exist where only the leader decides whereas the others approve his/her decisions
without proper debate within the party.
Deputies should express their will freely, with no pressure from the others.
The political parties should have ideological profiles.

References
Bajrami, A. (2005), Parliamentary democracy, 4th edition, Prishtina: ADEA.
Denhard, R., B & Denhard, J., V. (2010). Public Administration. Vol 6. Translated from: Blerta Selenica. Tiran: U.F.O Press
Knut Heidar & Ruud Koole, Parliamentary Party Groups in European Democracies, Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2003
Kosovo institute democratic (2015) Over 10 years of parliamentarism in Kosovo. Kosovo: KDI
The Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo.
The regulation of the Assembly of Kosovo
Sources from the Internet
Haliti, Xh. et al. (!7 July 2014). Constitutional Review of the Decision no. 05-V-001, voted by 83 deputies of the Assembly of the Republic
of Kosovo on the election of the President of the Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo. Taken from http://www.gjkks.org/repository/docs/gjk_ko_119_14_shq.pdf (till 9 December 2015)
Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo (2011). Political groups in the Parliament of Kosovo in 2010-2014. Taken from http://www.kuvendi
kosoves.org/?cid=1,107 (till 28 December 2014)
Interviews
With the former President of the Parliament of the Republic of Kosovo of the last legislation, Jakup Krasniqi (09.02.2015).
With the head of the parliamentary group of PDK of the last and current legislation, Adem Grabovci (03.02.2015).
With the head of the parliamentary group of AAK of the last legislation, Ardian Gjini (03.02.2015).
With the head of the parliamentary group of AKR of the last legislation, Myzejene Selmani (21.01.2015).

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With the representative of the parliamentary group of LDK of the last and current legislation, Salih Morina (05.02.2015)
With the representative of the parliamentary group of VV of the last and current legislation, Arbulena Haxhiu (02.02.2015).
With the person from KDI who monitored the Assembly, Driton Selmanaj (22.01.2015).

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Social Tourism, Its Clients and Perspectives


Jana Jablonska
Mat Jaremko
Gejza M. Timak
Assoc. Professor, Dept. of Mountanous- and Geotourism, Technical University in Kosice, Letna 9, 042 00 Kosice, Slovakia
Manager, Hilton Prague, Pobrezni 1, Prague, Czech Republic
Associate Professor, Technical University Ostrava, Mining College, 17- Listopadu 15, Ostrava, Czech Republic
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
This article analyzes the definitions, contents and implementations of the concept of social tourism. Social tourism is also
called tourism for all, because its aim is to involve the whole society in tourism, including disadvantaged people, whether
disadvantaged for economic or health reasons. The paper also proposes a definition of social tourism that can effectively set
social tourism apart from other forms of tourism and defines the added social benefits. For this population segment it is a
substantial problem to travel. It is designed for low-income families, who have the right to travel, but they cant fully exercise
this right. In addition to the financial aid of the state, various organizations and associations involved in social tourism contribute
to the promotion of social tourism. The region of study vas defined as Slovakia. The paper investigates which organizations
search for grant possibilities, create products for social tourism, bring together the objects of social tourism and assist in the
promotion and improvement of living and social tourist conditions. The paper reflects the very actual need for securing holiday
possibilities for the unprivileged people, and also for migrants and new-settlers. The aim of the paper is to show the strong and
weak aspects of social tourism in Slovakia and possible areas of improvement.
Keywords: social tourism, disadvantaged persons, low -income families, migrants, asylum.

1. Introduction
Social tourism is an area where those in risk of poverty could get a possibility to have a vacation at price levels accessible
for them. But neither the general public, nor the potential recipients are usually aware of such a possibility. The paper
analyzes the available structures and constructions under which people at risk of poverty usually suffering from social
exclusion can participate on social tourism constructions and indicates ways how to improve the efficiency of social
tourism provision. Apart from statistical data, the results of a survey are also analyzed. As social tourism is a low
preference area for service providers, not infrequently due to cultural habits of the underprivileged segments of
population, or in case of people with disabilities for the need of higher intensity of customer care, possible areas of
service improvement to the underprivileged segments of population had to be mapped and their contribution to the
analyzed problem researched. The present intensity of help through social tourism is being shown and proposals for
increasing this intensity are shown.
2. Origins of Social Tourism and Its Definition
Tourism in its present form appeared only in the 19th century. At that time, it was accessible to high society elite only,
since the laws ruling labour did not include holidays for employees, who had to go to work every day, including
Sundays. Therefore, possibilities for most of the population to go on holidays were very limited. The actions for social
tourism started in 1936, when the International Labour Organization (ILO) agreed on the Holiday with Pay Convention
(Convention No. 52). The substance of this convention has also been mentioned in the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights in 1948, where it is said everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working
hours and periodic holidays with pay.
Social tourism is in a way tied to the concept of poverty. Poverty as such may have a number of origins it may be
tied to economic crisis of the society or of an individual or a family. In every country the reactions of governments tend to

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be different (Romano 2014) and also the ways taken to alleviate poverty may be different. The social net may be dense
or loose - as defined by the adopted economical strategy. In any case social tourism in Central European countries is
very much needed.
The concept of social tourism has been defined in different ways, it is worth to remind some basic definitions and
principles recognised by the main stakeholders. In its new statutes adopted at its last General meeting in September
2010, International Social Tourism Organization (ISTO 2011) states that social tourism can be defined as the
connections and phenomena related to the participation of people in the countries of destinations as well as of
holidaymakers, of disadvantaged layers of society or those unable to participate in tourism, holidays and their advantages
for whatever reason. The statutes also mention this participation is made possible or facilitated by a combination of
policies, clear social measures and the commitment of social players.
The above description explained enhanced perception from the approach that ISTO adopted initially in 2006 by
European Economic and Social Committee, where is the social tourism explained and defined in narrow way, as an
activity that constitutes social tourism whenever listed conditions are met. Conditions listed included e.g. real life
circumstances described as such that is totally or partially impossible to fully exercise the right of tourism (either caused
by economic conditions, physical or mental disability etc.) following by condition of definition of someone- in being
someone as public or private institution, that decides to take action to overcome obstacles preventing from exercising the
right to tourism. The third and final condition described action and its effectiveness in helping the group of people to
participate in tourism with strong consideration of values of sustainability accessibility and solidarity.
Although social tourism has been seen in a number of countries as having potential to counter social exclusion,
formulating a definition for the term is difficult. "Social tourism" is used to describe a variety of initiatives for a variety of
different social groups. The emphasized shift opened borders towards redefining social measures, and newly defining
commitment of social players (Minnaert et al. 2006).
3. Government as Social Tourism Defender
According the World travel and tourism council (WTTC) and their main mission in rising the awareness of Travel &
Tourism, as the one of the worlds largest industries, that supports 260 millions jobs that generates 9 per cent of world
GDP (WTTC, 2014) government of each state realizes its increasing importance. Looking at social tourism not only from
perspective of care for disadvantaged traveller, but also as their potential employer, we must realize that is only through
government and its institution we are able to secure existence and development of social tourism. Especially when in
nowadays economic terms, and capitalistic profit oriented companies, represented in form of tourist agencies or any type
of accommodation, transportation companies are looking for quick returns of their investment, high number of visitors,
average daily rates, revenues per available room and other monetary key performance indicators that measure their
dollar existence, are not interested or not willing to attract traveller with low buying power or disabled ones, where their
premises are not modified towards their needs and handicaps. We observed increased awareness in attracting those
travellers falling under social tourist category, in off-seasons. Whatever other example we would try to present in attempt
to defend current tourism product professional deputies, as the one interested in social tourist, we would only found
common denominator of all in source of money during the time, when tourist with no restriction is not likely to travel.
Business units and institutions with solely profit interest simply cannot be defending and representing interest of
social tourist welfare, who by its definition falls into category of financially low performing accounts and this way falling
out of category source or the feeding market. Consequently it is possible to conclude, that it can only be the government
and non-governmental or not for profit organizations, which genuinely care for disadvantaged social tourist, with no profit
drive in their minds.
4. Professional Bodies of Social Tourism Aiming for Welfare of all
There would not be any tourism for all without the ones taking care of welfare of all. History of travelling started during
establishment of the right to travel and free time. It has finally reached professional expression in the form of
organizations covering genuine interests of the weaker ones. The International Social Tourism organization (ISTO) can
be considered as the foundation stone of similar professional bodies.
ISTO as an international non for profit organization founded on 7 June 1963 aims at favouring the development of
social tourism in the international framework. ISTO being in charge of coordinating the tourist activities of its members,
as well as informing them on all matters concerning social tourism, its cultural aspects as well as regarding the economic
and social consequences of social tourism. ISTO aims at promoting access to leisure, tourism for all social levels of
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youth, families, seniors, disabled people, and implementing this objective through the medium of state, social actors and
operators. The focus on accessing and performing right of travel for all social levels is exercised in accordance with
sustainability principles, securing income for the host population and respecting the cultural and natural heritage.
ISTO currently records 165 members organizations in 35 countries (ISTO, 2014). ISTO divided its focus into
following main interest groups: young adults, families facing financial challenges, people with disabilities, seniors that
cannot afford travel or are daunted by the challenges connected with organizing trips.
5. Social Tourism Development Drivers and Transnational Facilitator Exchange Platforms
The Social Tourism European Exchanges Platform (STEEP) project was launched in April 2012 and its main objective is
to create an informative and transactional platform connecting the supply and demand behind social tourism throughout
the European Union. The STEEP Platform aims at facilitating transnational travel & tourism in Europe for four target
groups: seniors, youth, families and people with disabilities. The Project is now carried out by a consortium of seven
European Organizations active in Social Tourism and led by the International Social Tourism Organization (ISTO).
The platform seeks to support organizations, groups and operators who plan, organize and provide travel
experiences to the specific target groups by offering them quick and easy access to offers and packages across Europe.
The STEEP platform also serves to educate and inform stakeholders interested in shortening the low seasonality or
attracting new market segments through multiple references on Social tourism. It also contains publications, best
practices, and news. It is the meeting and sales place for the large community of European social tourism stakeholders.
The STEEP platform is divided into 2 distinct areas:
Public comprised of useful data regarding best practices, Social tourism research, Calypso initiative actions,
news and current information on holiday offers (available for sale in the Private area) and other useful resources and
calls.
Private open to members it aims at bringing the offer & demand within social tourism into one location. The tools
allow for quick and simple transactions between buyers & sellers. It is an info and sales point.
Ecalypso.eu represents the STEEP as B2B platform and as part of above described goals and objectives provides
the opportunity for parallel tourism services providers to find and cooperate with each other. One service provider can
promote their tourism packages completely detailed with prices and attract groups, organizations, and operators to
purchase and/or promote the offers. Ecalypso.eu also helps tourism industry fill the low seasonality through creating
packages for specific niche of social tourist needs. (www.ecalypso.eu)
6. Slovakia and Social Tourism
In the following, social tourism will be investigated in one of the regions, where the number of people and families who
would need social tourism is increasing Slovakia. Here, social tourism is in still very early development stage. Having in
mind, that Slovakia with its Social Progress Index in 2014 reached 24th position out of 130 measured countries (78.93 SPI
index-http://www.socialprogressimperative.org, EU-Policy department Economic and scientific Policy), it reflects large
diversity of standard of living across the country. The government and private sector should be aware of benefits coming
from established social tourism, but unfortunately, even in such a basic guideline document as New Tourism
Development Strategy of the Slovak republic until 2013, one will not find a single note about social tourism. We can see
that the first pillars for building social tourism in Slovakia, is the Act No. 313/2005 Coll. as amended on Social Fund where
it is possible to provide an employee with a contribution to a vacation from the social fund which is created from gross
wages and salaries of all employees totalling to 0.6 to 1% of the initial bulk sum. As mentioned in tourism development
strategy it would be necessary to increase the minimum rate of creation of the social fund and modify the rules of the use
of the financial funds for vacation of employees for purpose of supporting the domestic tourism. (New Tourism
Development Strategy of the Slovak republic until 2013, Ministry of Economy of Slovak republic)
The Calypso national report on Slovakia assesses the current stage of social tourism development as relatively
new subject in Slovakia (Calypso study on Social tourism for Slovakia, 2010, page 1-1). Calypso in its common approach
towards evaluating current stage of social tourism development in EU member countries defines four main focus areas in
senior citizens, young people, families facing difficult circumstances and adults with disabilities. As report concludes none
of the focus group has sufficient statistical data and or specific studies carried on defined segmentation profiles in social
tourism are available. Main stakeholders Ministry of Economy of Slovak republic, Slovak tourist board (SACR) and
Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic, separately identified need for clear vision and
implementation of social tourism in its development strategies. Currently most active facilitator is Ministry of Labour,
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Social Affairs and Family (MPSR), which financially contribute for seniors stays. National non-government organizations
committed working on improvement of living conditions of the Slovak people facing difficulties also integrated tourism
projects but usually as secondary objective. Most of them are grouped together in national networks such as Club of large
families (Klub mnoho detnych rodin) Youth council of Slovakia (Rada mladeze Slovenska) Forum for help to age
(Forum pre pomoc starsim) Legislative perspective currently does not prevent social tourism and from its development
in any way. MPSR and its Council for disabled citizens formed document called National program for improvement of life
conditions of disabled citizens in all aspects of life (Narodny program rozvoja zivotnych podmienok obcanov so
zdravotnym postihnutim vo vsetkych oblastiach zivota) which sourced its direction from applying standards from United
Nations for creating equal opportunities for handicapped persons. Rule 11 UN Relaxing activity and sports says: Nations
will take such a measures that will secure, handicapped people with equal opportunity for relaxation and sports activity.
Further on directions covers detailed definitions of steps needed for accessing the recreational and sports properties,
further provides directions for tourist agencies, clubs, hotels and other creators of tourist packages to always take into
consideration needs of disadvantaged travellers and similar ( http://www.nrozp.sk/files/soc_turizmus.pdf). In 2001, the
following tasks have been assigned for certain sectors: mapping of current readiness of accommodation units for
accessing the disabled ones, provide the services with special discounted rate for disabled citizens and to create new
recondition packages stays for them, with aim of integration of disadvantaged ones (Country regional directors and
mayors have been assigned for those tasks).
6.1

Why is social tourism important in Slovakia

The number of handicapped people as well as people cum households at risk of poverty represents a significant portion
of Slovakian population. The Statistical Office of SR (2013) analysis has shown (Tab.1a) that if out of 9 indicators only 3
or 4 are used, before social transfers, material deprivation rate can be as much as 54,3%. The number after social
transfer (equalised disposable household incomes defined in the EU SILC survey) gives approximately 13%. The data for
V4 countries are shown in Tab.1b (EUROSTAT 2015). It can be seen that Slovakia comes second after Hungary in this
respect. Figures 1 and 2 show the wide client basis for social tourism in Slovakia.
Table 1a. Material deprivation rate in Slovakia (2013) (Statistical Office SR 2013)

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Three items
below
above
poverty threshold

Total

Four items
below
above
poverty threshold

22,7
21,5
23,9

54,3
55,1
53,4

17,9
16,4
19,3

10,5
10,1
10,8

34,8
36,2
33,3

6,7
6,2
7,3

23,9

52,9

15,7

11,9

34,9

5,5

21,5
20,8
22,3

53,9
55,2
52,7

17,0
16,1
17,9

10,1
10,0
10,1

35,3
36,4
34,3

6,5
6,4
6,6

Material deprivation rate


Total population
Total
Male
Female
Age group 0 - 17 years old
Total
Age group 18 - 64 years old
Total
Male
Female
Age group 65 years old and over

Table 1b. Material deprivation rate in V4 countries (2012-2014). The table shows the relevant per cent of population
(EUROSTAT 2015).
Country
Czech Republic
Slovak Republic
Hungary
Poland

2012
6,6
10,5
25,7
13,5

198
199
200

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6,6
10,3
25,8
11,9

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9,9
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Organizations creating products of social tourism in Slovakia

Among the most active institutions in social tourism are the Slovensky zvaz telesne postihnutych (Slovak association of
handicapped people), the Narodna rada obcanov so zdravotnym postihnutim v Slovenskej republike (National league of
disabled citizens in Slovakia) and Rada vlady pre problematiku obcanov so zdravotnym postihnutim. (Government league
for disabled people). (Lacna, 2014). Legislation providing directions and advice in creating disabled access is explained in
the Bezbarierove zivotne prostredie document (Barrier free access environment document). (NROZP, 2014).

Figure 1. Measure of risk of poverty of Slovakian households according to EU SILC 2011 method ( Statistical Office
2015)
The first Slovak association of social tourism institutions, non-profit and for profit business units is the Zdruzenie Socialny
turizmus (Social tourism association). Zdruzenie Socialny turizmus (ZST) is a new institutional body, born in 2011 as a
brainchild of non-profit organization Domovinas founder Mr. Juraj Bena. ZST is based in the Zehra part of Hodkovce in
the area of historical Csaky castle. ZST in its mission and objectives declares its interest in making accessible the
historical castles and other historical monuments and monasteries in the Spis region of Slovakia to the wide public.
Activities are not meant to compete with any type of traditional sightseeing, but are designed to offer additional emotional
value, where one can not only expand ones knowledge about history or geography, but also recognize, and support the
work of people with mental or physical handicap. Visitors can contribute by buying products, usually souvenirs, made
directly by those people. This example of social tourism is not only a product of leisure business with reasonable pricing,
but also a form of sightseeing in Slovakia. It is also a revenue generator for units accommodating disabled people. In
addition, here we can further consider social tourism as an employment generator. ZST also claims to be active in
defending social tourism and is a potential warrior against social discrimination of the disabled by the society. Its mission
includes minimizing the gap and removing any barriers between people representing the majority in society and the disadvantaged ones.

Figure 2. At risk of poverty rate distribution in Slovakian counties ( Statistical Office 2013)
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Example of coeducation facility with whole year form of stay is Domov socilnych sluieb sv. Jna z Boha in Spiske
podhradie (DSSSPP) The social house that offers services to adult persons, whom by reason of discomforting health
stage of organism or heavy handicap are dependent on help of other persons. The social house is located in two
addresses with total capacity of 109 clients. Employees in total represent 59 persons out of which the majority are
specialists for social care. Organizational structure is divided into three sections: economic, social work and nursing care,
and restaurant. Hotel unit for supported accommodation is independent. The social house provides various supported
rehabilitating therapies, where accepted person can meaningfully spend his or her time, and in meanwhile to integrate
into normal life. Persons have opportunity to work in ergo-therapeutical work stations, enjoy their free time in form of
active therapy and in different type of interest groups. Apart from basic sport facilities, there are special rooms with multisensory environment, stress-free focused. Hippo-therapy and physiotherapy are also available. DSSSPP apart form
services provided within house areas, also organizes trips in Slovakia, an abroad to Austria Hungary, and Croatia. Worth
mentioning is also part of integration process in form of different socially useful activities (from cleaning works, gardening
etc) which offers certain form of income.
Other social tourism provider showing success in case of young people is CKM 2000 Travel. CKM is tour
operator which main mission is in increasing quality of life of young people, students and teachers, through special
discounts of flight bus train tickets, students exchange states, work and study programs, summer study programs and
individual tourism. CKM is part of EYCA (European youth cards association and IYHF (International Youth Hotel
Federation) IATA (International Air Transport association) Its services provides from 1999 and belongs to most sought
after tour agencies among students (https://www.ckm.sk) .
6.3

Refugees - new aspect of social tourism and its potential in Slovakia

Refugees and migrants are at present within the focus of all European nations, mainly due to the unprecedented influx of
Near-Eastern, Asian and African migrants. It is not understood yet, what triggered this massive flux of both political and
economical migrants, but it created a need for accommodating those, who fall within the legally acceptable category. The
migrants have a number of problems different culture, religion, social skills (including language ones), labour skills,
education, etc. When a society understands better the deeper aspects of social tourism one can see increased activities
in accessing and inviting public and social travellers to visit refugee camps.
In this perspective we are not approaching social tourism created by traveller the socially disadvantaged one,
but rather a general traveller visiting the socially disadvantaged ones. It is too soon to divide what is active and what
would be passive part of social tourism and it might be in conflict with ethics of social tourism, to drive tourism industry
into including this tourism attracted by human sufferings as a sources of income but it cannot be excluded as it may
simultaneously bring help to migrants. Such tourism may even help to prevent activities leading to migration, as seeing
the outcome of such actions and the problems it causes also at the level of receiving countries, makes it inacceptable.
Refugee camps, asylum houses, where human beings who found themselves in great life challenges is slowly
becoming visible to travellers that do not seek only luxury destinations or artificial environment visited by chosen ones.
The migrants, when entering a new country, have to accept fully the culture of the country and also less glittering
buildings. The travellers to refugee camps usually are confronted with faces marked by tragedies and past harsh life
conditions. Sometimes refugees with different cultural background can also be hostile to each other.
On example of such tourism is the Western Sahara region as described by Malainin Lakhal (Tourism watch, 2015).
The Saharawi refugee camps in the South-West of Algeria are visited every year by thousands of foreigners from all over
the world: politicians, NGO members, students, researchers, artists and journalists, even individuals and families from all
walks of life to participate in events organized by the different Saharawi organisations and authorities, or international
actors. (http://www.tourism-watch.de/en/content/tourism-western-saharan-refugee-camps) Cultural events such as film
festivals are directly organized within the refugee camp. When visiting refugee camps, Lakhal points out the importance
of getting the opportunity to get to know people and their life conditions, their stories and human vanity, greed and
egoistic behaviour forcing them to leave their home.
Refugee camps and asylum houses in Slovakia do not currently offer such an opportunity to experience guided
visits, as the total numbers of refugees are still low and the country itself is not a very attractive destination to start a new
life.
In Tab.2 one can see a low interest in asylum request in the last 5 years. The most recent rush of refugees into
Europe is still in progress and thus is lacking a statistical evaluation.

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Table 2: Evolution of Asylum requests in Slovakia for the period of 2011-2015; Statistical report; (Ministry of Interior of
Slovakia, http://www.minv.sk/?statistiky-20)
Year/month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
2011
33 43 29 22 37 39
2012
36 24 28 34 62 92
2013
30 34 30 36 54 48
2014
22 13 52 22 18 31
2015
16 12 36 10 23 12

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JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC Total


43 41
49
73 52 30 491
115 70
75
79 65 52 732
33 48
21
41 38 28 441
14 22
22
32 39 44 331
13
8
10
14
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7. Public Awareness Regarding Social Tourism


The above mentioned organizations and institutions actively present in field of social tourism, still have not managed
sufficiently to spread and increase the awareness of definition of the social tourism. According to a survey performed by a
Lacna (2014), which focused on examining 19 questions investigating the level of awareness on social tourism and other
selected types of tourism, only 17% of respondents were aware of social tourism (Fig.3).
Lacna`s research investigated further the main communication channels, or different types of media coverage and
their share, where it is clearly visible that Internet remains the largest contributor and as second comes television (Fig.4).
It means that Slovakian society is still not sufficiently aware of the needs of the at risk of poverty families and thus the
wealthier segments do not support the at risk families sufficiently. This is important, as in areas, where the central
sources are not able to help, the grassroot initiatives could be the best solution.

Figure 3: Best known form of tourism in Slovakia as shown in the given survey

Figure 4: Promotion of Social tourism, media types coverage


8. Social Tourism Accommodation Providers in Slovakia
In Slovakia there is currently no profit oriented accommodation provider, that is within the Calypso initiative / STEEP (The
Social Tourism European Exchange Platform) thus part of one location platform communicating the demand and offer for
social tourism. Still two major hotel chains formed offer that falls under the social tourism provider definition. First one is
the biggest and the oldest SOREA chain of hotels.
SOREA hotels established in 1993, and with its 13 hotels and total capacity of 3800 beds is the biggest hotel chain
in Slovakia. SOREA created portfolio with majority of hotels located in nature of High and Low Tatra mountain, one spa
city Piestany, and the capital - Bratislava, where offers different type of holiday packages e.g. for skiing, spa tourism,
congress tourism are available. It serves around 100 000 visitors per annum, where over 50% are local clients and rest
foreigners mainly from surrounding countries, discovering Slovakian mountains. SOREA in cooperation with the Ministry
of Labour, Social Affairs and Family created special week- packages for seniors, where government is contributing 50
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EUR per stay. This state contribution is applicable one time per year per senior, and special senior package includes 6
room night including breakfast, lunch and dinner. It is worth mentioning that this amount has been decreased from 70
EUR in 2012 into the current 50 EUR.
Other hotel chain establishment focusing on social tourism is a joint stock company HOREZZA, where the main
shareholder is the state. The company name is an abbreviation of Hotel, leisure and medical establishment, where in 4
hotels and hospitals focus is given to make mountain hotels, spa hotel, and hospital accessible for all social levels.
Accommodation is being provided with very low rates also to soldiers and ex soldiers, disadvantaged people - to people
with low income.
9. Social Tourism Grants and Current Calls for Projects
Grants as a form of financial support in social tourism, are usually provided by the Government on national level of each
country, or on European level. From the perspective of EU strategy, European Commission supports social tourism e.g.
trough Enterprise and industry section, through contracts and grants subsection which announces calls for proposals.
The support in Tourism section is divided into following subcategories:
1. Support for Tourism (Tourism business portal, ICT & Tourism business initiative, Professional skills,
Accessible tourism )
2. Promoting Tourism in EU (Calypso, Tourism for senior, Low season tourism: 50000 tourists - Encouraging
international tourists flow to Europe, Cultural Tourism, Cycling tourism , Promoting Europe internationally,
conferences)
3. European Tourism policies ( EU Policy background, Sustainable tourism)
4. Knowledge base (Virtual tourism observatory, Stakeholders, Eurobarometer surveys, tourism data)
New calls were published in October 2014 and are covering two initiatives: The report facilitating cooperation
mechanisms to increase senior tourists travels within Europe and from third countries in the low and medium seasons
and Annex 1 "Demographic change and the rise of senior tourists", drafted by a group of experts, gathers knowledge on
the senior tourism market. Its objective is to set up recommendations for strategic actions, identifying the role that
different actors might play in their implementation. The senior initiative is a follow up of the Calypso initiative which clearly
highlighted how senior tourism can contribute to combat seasonality, strengthening the notion of European citizenship
and promoting a regional development (http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/tourism)
9.1

Successful examples of good practices

Calypso - as mentioned - being the STEEP platform, in its mission and objectives defines its roles also in communicator
and an advisor on best practices in supporting and further development of social tourism. This is presented in Calypso
study compendium of good practices, where reports is divided based on target groups of social tourism in predefined
format with standard structure of informants through target group and description of exchange, support and funding
mechanism, concluded in lesson learned field. Tab.2 shows the implementation of international tourist exchange, that
has potential to be transferred to European / Calypso level.
Table 3: Holidays for Latvian low-income families to Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary
Holidays for Latvian low-income families to Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary
Name of expert conducting research Gunita Kakteniece
Country
Latvia
Respondents/informants
Tourism company IMPRO CELOJUMI (Impro travels) Ltd. Ms.Arta Mende
Target group involved
Families with children facing difficult circumstances, namely, with having a limited income
Description of exchange
Three travel packages to the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary have been offered to
families with low income. These have been initiated and specifically tailored for this target group
in terms of price by the private tour company Impro Travels in 2008 and offered in summer and
during other school holidays. The tour operator did not profit from organising these tours,
whereas it positioned itself as an affordable and socially active tour operator.
A total of 20 three to six days trips were organised involving 350 families and a total of 800
persons. The trips were organised during the peak season and they were open to all families
that were interested in low budget travels for families.
Handling of target group needs
The proposed itinerary was tailored to the interests of both children and their parents;
The trip was planned a bit shorter than usual to make it cheaper and bearable for children;

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The price for the trip was made equal to its actual costs thus making it affordable for low-income
families.
Description of support mechanisms Organisation of these trips has been solely the initiative of Impro Travels and did not involve any
state or other public funding. The tourism product did not bring any profit to the company. It can
be considered as a good marketing tool for communicating the image of socially responsible
touroperator instead.
Description of funding mechanisms
Other funding- not
Subsidy
Own contribution- from participants
state/public
Mechanism
Participants covered alternate expenses of
The company covered all the
(state/publc): N/A the tour packages
fixed costs
Lessons learned
Private initiatives play an important role in stimulating social tourism and therefore need to be
encouraged. Good example of the supply matching the demand.
This initiative can definitely be transferred to European/Calypso level. It would require initiative
of the tour operators and strong motivation for organising tours without any profit. In principle,
this margin can be subsidised by other public- state, municipal or EU funding although might be
a subject of conflict of interest.

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Source: Calypso Study Compendium of good practices, DG Enterprise, March 2010


http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/tourism/files/docs/calypso/calypso_compendium_of_good_practices_en.pdf
10. Benefits of Social Tourism
Recognition of benefits of social tourism has been a frequently discussed topic on all social levels. Professional
institutions have been mentioning and monitoring its impact from 1970s ( e.g. de Kadt, 1979; Lea 1988; Smith &
Eadington 1990) where with time, new forms of tourism have been identified within sustainability mission such as
ecotourism, pro-poor tourism, where economic benefits received by destination communities became of big concern
(Murphy 1994, Ashley C. & Goodwin H. 2000). Further on, in the report of the UN General secretary report from 2003, it
was stressed that: expression of freedom by nature and an international phenomenon by definition, tourism has
everything to gain from the conquest from extensive new territory in the realm of freedom (Secretary General, UNWTO,
2003:2).
Well-being enhancement or benefits, coming from social tourism can be divided into several subcategories. From
the point of ISTO which clearly identified them in its Montreal Declaration Towards a humanist and social vision of
tourism adopted in 1996, benefits are explained in following categories:
Social tourism is a shaper of society and it is clearly stated that holidays and travel can provide particularly
occasions for personal enrichment, through the discovery of new places, cultures and civilizations, through physical,
artistic, sport and leisure activities, by meeting people across educational or generation divides, and by other
responsibilities taken on freely by tourists.
Social tourism is a promoter of economic growth: tourism for all is a key to economic strength which generates a
continuous flow of people and investment, which contributes to regional development, produces national and international
wealth and stimulates the transfer of resources from the richer economies to the poorer countries.
Social tourism participates in the regional and local development: long before its promotion by international
organisations, the concept of sustainable development had been adopted by social tourism and expressed in the
following aims: reconcile tourism development, environmental protection and a respect for the identity of local
communities; bring fresh resources into neglected resources; promote development without depletion of resources;
generate local and economic, social and cultural benefits.
Social tourism is a partner in global development programs: tourism, when it is controlled and when it respects the
natural and cultural environment and local communities, constitutes one of the economic, social and cultural hopes of
many developing countries. (The social and economic benefits of social tourism, ISTO 2011)
Other approach to defining and categorizing benefits of social tourism would be based on the subject of applied
effects of social tourism.
Here we can talk about an individual with intangible benefits such as the socio-cultural benefits, mainly described
by realization of valuing different cultures, endogenous products, arts and tradition, minimizing social exclusion, material
deprivation and health benefits found in stress escape and rejuvenation.
The second category would represent tangible benefits found in economic benefits, mainly described by prolonging
the one season in tourism, increasing the product and service income, creating employment opportunities, and state
income.

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11. Transition from Social Tourism To the Tourism for All Redefined
Understanding better the current society, observing deeper all aspects of distances in wellbeing of all individuals and
nations in todays world, aiming for maximizing economical results in its product tool called globalization, corporations,
United states, European union; all bodies created with common effort by a power of unifying, must see social tourism as
glue for its differentiated society, ascending into the desired strong and bigger One.
Ascent comes from Latin ascendere, in translation means to climb and has to do with physical or psychical
movement upwards. Ascent is usually associated with emergence, elevation, and sublimation, freedom from what
weights one down. Ascension often posits hierarchy of values. Something is seen as ascending from lower, heavier,
darker, more primitive state to something increasingly higher, lighter, more refined or more intelligent. In some symbolic
systems, ascent must be followed by descent and vice versa, in an equalizing of unequal opposites towards the goal of
self-integrity. Ascent is always paired with descent in initiatory rites and psychic processes of transformation. So this can
be observed also in case of the development of social tourism.
12. Conclusions
Social tourism is a tool for equalizing the physically or psychically wounded1 and at risk of poverty individuals as well as
households, with currently unwounded and above the risk of poverty majority of society. The ultimate goal of social
tourism is in the ceasing of having those in risk of poverty, what will appear in the moment, when the distance between
the wounded and unwounded ones would reach zero . Zero distance is the point of completed process of assimilation of
wounded and needy ones with unwounded and relatively wealthy part of the society, where perception and manifestation
of reality will ascent to a point where the hierarchy of values will not be measurable and segregated. In current terms it
means the old ones from young ones or poor ones from rich ones, disabled ones from healthy ones. Here the an
individual would be understood as an integral part of the society. Key performance indicator of successful implementation
of social tourism apart from statistics - will be the peoples barometer measuring the state of freedom, defined and
perceived by how obstructive are the unwounded and wealthy ones towards the wounded and at-risk-of-poverty ones.
All the above described initiatives form a tool for achieving the above mentioned goal. The need for social tourism
could emerge also from the fall of social programs of European governments due to debt restructuring or due to
increased number of seekers of employment. In Europe the influx of refugees could create an even greater need for
social tourism if the refugees are to be integrated into the receiving societies.
As the number of people in risk of poverty increases both in Slovakia and the surrounding V4 countries, project
based actions initiated by the government and NGOs, with EU support should help to make tourism for all available for
the underprivileged at a proportion that would be visible also through national statistics.
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Weaving Crafts on Muna Community (A Case Study of the Role of


Human Capital and Social Capital in Cultural Reproduction of Weaving at Muna Regency)
Jamiludin
Doctoral Student, Department of Sociology, Universitas Negeri Makassar

Rabihatun Idris
Associate Professor, Social Science, Universitas Negeri Makassar

Sulaiman Samad
Associate Professor, Social Science, Universitas Negeri Makassar
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
There were some problems that the researcher formulated in this study. The first was how the functions of human capital as the
main actor in reproduction, development, and preservation of the weaving craft in Muna community? The second was how the
functions of social capital in building and developing the business relationships of weaving craft in Muna community? This
study used a qualitative approach as a research strategy that generates information or data to describe social reality and
events related to weavers lives, history, kinship, and social activities. The main target of this study is to explain or describe the
cultural reproduction of weaving craft in Muna community. The data were obtained from 15 informants purposively. The data
were obtained through observation and in-depth interviews and were analyzed inductively. There were some results that the
researcher found. The first was human capital (knowledge, experience, abilities, skills, creativity, and innovation) as the main
actor who affects the reproduction of weaving craft. The quality of manufactured products showed that knowledge and
experience combined with the skills created creativity and innovation. The entrepreneur implicated to the increase of quality
and quantity of production. The second was the function of social capital from the aspect of trust has been well preserved
because of the weaving craftsmen and entrepreneurs consider trust as the most important in business relationships. In the
aspect of values and norms, it was necessary to maintain the values and norms in society. In networking aspect, the craftsmen
have formed a marketing network in the district, provincial, and also national area.
Keywords: Weaving Crafts, Cultural Reproduction, Human Capital, Social Capital

1. Introduction
Weaving craft is a form of local wisdom. Local wisdom is defined as a wealth of local culture containing life policies;
outlook on life (way of life) which accommodates the policy (wisdom) and the wisdom of life. In Indonesia, local
knowledge does not only apply locally on a particular culture or ethnic origin but can be said to be a cross-cultural or
cross-ethnic thus forming a national cultural values. For example, almost every local culture in the archipelago, there was
a local wisdom that teaches cooperation, tolerance, work ethic, and so on (Suyanto, 2012). Although there was no
guarantee that local knowledge would remain the strong face of globalization that offers a lifestyle that is more pragmatic
and consumptive. In fact, it can be seen how the local wisdom with policies and philosophies of life barely been
implemented in the practice of life that was more pragmatic.
Weaving skills have been known in the Muna area that existed since about 14th century, during the reign of Sugi
Manual, the sixth king of Muna. This weaving activity was a form of local wisdom that was still alive and thriving and still
maintained by the community. Weaving skill was owned evenly throughout the Muna area. However, nowadays, this skill
has been fading away and gradually began to be left by the supporters. Weaving skill was obtained from generation to
generation since long time ago, and now, it must be passed down from generation to generation.
Muna weaving craft is one of the local geniuses that have the potential to be developed into an industrial cluster
under the coordination of the Department of Economic Enterprises and also Small and Medium Enterprises, Department
of Tourism and Creative Economy, Department of Industry and Trade of Southeast Sulawesi and Muna Regency. The

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promotion was repeatedly done to various places (local, national, and international) and weaving craft festivals began to
be implemented from 2008 until today. There was the government policy in provincial and district that includes the use of
clothing that was made from woven once a week in all government agencies and the private sector. There was also the
use of woven garments in official events, but those were used in traditional ceremonies. The government's policy was a
fresh breeze for the growth of business opportunities of weaving craft in Muna.
The problem that was often faced in Muna weaving craft as a creative industry was the low quality of human
resources. The Head of Department of Economic Enterprises and SMEs in Muna Regency, Madi Joseph disclosed that
the main obstacle in weaving craft is the quality of human resources since the average education of craftsmen were only
graduated from elementary school or do not complete primary school. There was only a small part who graduated from
junior high school and high school. The implication of the education condition of these craftsmen was the low creativity
and innovation made by craftsmen, whereas consumer demands require diversification of products to compete with other
products of its kind. Therefore, a touch of art from the hands of artisans, creative and innovative motif designers were
needed to realize elegant, attractive, and not monotonous works.
Associated with social capital, people who have high social capital include a low rate of crime and the least amount
of formal policy, but if the social capital is low, cooperation between people can only take place in the system of laws and
regulations formally. High social capital will only be created when there is a strong reciprocity. It means that the
interaction is not solely in exchange for calculating, but the combination of altruistic short-term and long-term profit
expectations (Syahyuti, 2008). Then the economic value of social capital that can help individuals in a group, for example,
to access financial resources, get information, find work, pioneering efforts, and minimize transaction costs (Tonkins,
2000).
The components of social capital should be used for weaving craft entrepreneur in Muna optimally such as trust
that was utilized by the individual entrepreneur to build commitment with others in maintaining the cooperation that has
existed, the network that was used by individual entrepreneur to gain market, cooperation, supported equipment, and
other capital.
Based on the background above, then the problem can be formulated into two formulations. The first was how the
function of human capital as the main actor in cultural reproduction of weaving crafts in Muna community? The second
was how the function of social capital in developing business relation as a cultural reproduction of weaving crafts in Muna
community?
2. Research Methods
This research used qualitative research and followed the opinions of Ratna (2004); Chourmain (2008) that social reality is
considered as something that is holistic (whole), complex, dynamic, meaningful and interactive relationships.
According to the source, the data extracted can be divided into two kinds, namely primary data and secondary
data. Primary data was obtained directly from the field, either through in-depth interviews of woven tool and weaving
handloom, traditional leaders, village heads, district, the heads of each department, NGOs, and citizens that were
recruited randomly, participant observation, and focused discussion. Secondary data was obtained from the study of
literature in the form of books, the work of others or other sources of scientific information that was relevant to the issues
in this study.
In order to make this research works according to the plan, this study used some technical tools as research
instruments namely the cards of data, interview guidelines and observation guidelines. The cards were used as notes,
data categorization, and data classification. Interview guideline was used as a guide in interview progress, and
observation guideline was used to facilitate researchers in conducting observations of the research objects. In addition,
there were also a photo camera and a video camera to record the observations, and tape recorders to record the
interviews
The data analysis applied three stages namely data reduction stage, data representation stage, and data
verification stage. While the data validation stage was done by triangulation, observation extension, member checks, and
improved persistence.
3. Research Results and Discussion
3.1

Function of Human Capital in Reproduction of Weaving Crafts on Muna Community

In this section, the researcher would explain the information that was obtained from ten informants about the
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development of weaving crafts in Muna and the function of human capital in reproduction, the development and the
preservation of weaving crafts in Muna as the creative economy industry. The analysis of the information that was
obtained through interviews related to the human capital. Edwison and Malone (1977) said that "human capitals are the
individual knowledge, experience, capability, skill, creativity, innovation." it indicated that human capital was something
that owned by a person and it consisted of some aspects namely knowledge, experience, abilities, skills, creativity, and
innovation.
3.1.1 Knowledge Aspect
Knowledge is one of the factors that influence human activity. Knowledge in this research is that acquired by an
individual, whether acquired through formal education, non-formal and informal education that helps a person or group of
people in completing their daily work.
The findings of this research showed that knowledge was very efficient in reproduction, development and
preservation of the weaving craft as described by the informants. WN explained that her weaving skill was not acquired
from formal education, but she gained from informal education. According to WN, when she was ten years old, she began
to help her mother. At first, she did the task of rolling up the yarn, and then with her parents, she did stringy activities. At
that time, her parents did not give a chance to weave, but secretly she was doing weaving when her mother was not in
place. From doing weaving secretly, finally, she got weaving skill slowly but surely began to master and eventually
became the independent weaver.
Same as above informant, WI said that weaving skill was acquired from her parent. Her parent gained weaving skill
from her grandmother, and so on. In short, WI is a family of weavers, weavers descent, weaving skill was inherited from
generation to generation. In a chance, WI told that she began to weave when attending elementary school, her mother
always asked WI to help her stringy after school. The stringy habit was always performed by WI till she finished primary
school. After entering junior high school, WI began to weave at any time and replaced her mother. After finishing junior
high school, WI began weaving independently despite woven fabric was still made very simple. However, over time, she
began to master the weaving skill and then deliver it to her permanent job.
Different with other informants, WR was not born from weavers family. She said that there were none of her family
members who worked as a weaver. Her interest as a weaver began when she approached adolescence (around 15 years
old). She visited the house of a neighbor who was weaving, and WR interested in learning to weave instantly. Since that
moment, WR learned to weave from neighbors routinely, and she worked as a weaver. At first, she was weaving as a
wage laborer and then after feeling sufficient, then she became an independent weaver.
Knowledge is the result of the idea, and this occurs after someone did sensing to a particular object. Sensing
occurs through human senses, the sense of sight, hearing, smell, feeling and touching. The most of the human
knowledge was obtained through eyes and ears (Notoatmojo, 2007).
According to constructivist approach, knowledge was not the fact of a reality that is being studied, but as a person's
cognitive construction of the object, experience, or environment. Knowledge was not something that already available,
while others only received it. Knowledge was as a continuous formation by a person who at any time reorganized due to
new insights.

Figure 1. The craftsman was teaching her daughter to do weaving activities


Figure 1 illustrates that the craftsman is assisted by her daughter in the preparation process before she does the weaving
activities. It is called "menghani". This process is carried out hereditarily.

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3.1.2 Experience Aspect


Human capital theory focused on the individual as the unit of analysis. It is emphasized that employers investment as key
attributes (such as education, training, and experience) associated with the competencies and skills that were likely to
improve business performance (Becker, 1993). Entrepreneurs with competence and skills were more diverse tend to be
effective to regulate and manage the production process and tend to have a more successful business.
Based on the explanation above, the results of this study indicated that the informant WN has occupied weaving
crafts since 10 years old and now she was 59 years old, thus the informant has been weaving for 49 years. It was a long
and hard experience for a weaver. According to her, many things that have gone through, especially in her job as a
weaver that created woven products. According to the informant WN, weaving activities in Muna required patience,
persistence, thoroughness and high concentrations. Without those, the yarns that were woven could be broken, motifs
that were designed could be broken, and the quality of production was not also optimal and when the process was also
getting longer. The experience was certainly one factor that could not be ignored in increasing the number and quality of
production. The longer pursue weaving crafts, the more quantity and quality of goods were produced and of course
different from the inexperienced.
Experience is the best teacher, that's the classic quote that is often spoken by some people. This quote was also
applied to the informant WI. Her experience in occupying Muna weaving crafts for more than 50 years and that was not a
short time. she passed a lot of bitter-sweet businesses of weaving craft, but her experience has forge her became a
reliable weaver as stated that "I have been weaving since childhood until now, I cannot count anymore how many fabrics
that I produce, I can make a variety of motifs, I can design patterns according to the tastes of consumers, all I get
because of my long experience.
In line with the information above, WM experienced as a weaver approximately 37 years. She has done the
profession as a weaver since 15 years old. A long experience has forged her became a reliable weaver. To develop the
weaving skills that have been previously acquired, thus, there was a skill development training that related to the motif
design by the Department of Industry and Trade in Muna and other parties (LSM), she always followed. In 2004, the
informant followed motif design manufacture training and in 2012 trained to use handloom as a weaving production tool.
Someones experience in pursuing a job sometimes became a reference to look up how much the person master
and expert in a particular field of work. Weaving craft industry needed a special experience to be skilled and proficient in
designing motives and conducting new creations.
Studies on the achievement of the human resources quality began to get governments attention from various
countries as happened in the United States. Bates Research (2005) has shown that despite small industry got a large
capital to start a business (start-up), but it still failed because it was believed due to lower achievement in specific
education and experience based on the field work. It was the reason why the experience was regarded as one of the
factors that affect the human capital development of the weaving craft industry in Muna community. The involvement of a
person in an occupation or profession in periods or a certain time would improve skills and expertise in the field. The
experience aspect can be shown in the figure 2.

Figure 2. The traditional craftsmen were doing weaving activities


3.1.3 Capabilities Aspect
The results of this research indicated that the ability of a weaver acquired through education in the family, in the school
environment, and through school education. As stated by the informant WN that the basic ability to weave was obtained
from parents, but in providing a motive in woven sarong WN studied it alone. WN said that there was no one motives that
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could not be done. It was easy for example, or see the desired motif, and then WN can directly do it, probably WN was
weaver descent, so it was quick to grasp weaving motifs that consumers want.
Besides those mentioned above, one thing that is important in the craft of weaving is a skill aspect because after a
person has no knowledge that would be beneficial if they are not skilled in the use of it. Therefore, according to WN, skills
in weaving Muna woven fabrics with various motives and yarn types were necessary. There were 16 motifs of Muna
woven fabric successfully developed at this time. Each type has its own difficulty level, from the simplest, easy to work
and also the most difficult and complicated.
In line with the above informant, informant WT says that weaving skills were acquired from her parent that was
passed from generation to generation, not obtained from formal education, because at that time there are no special
schools for weavers. According to the informant WT, that to sharp and develop skills in weaving crafts, WT needs much
exercise to master the weaving skills. In addition, to develop design ability, WT followed the motif design development
training that was organized by the Department of Trade and Industry in Muna. From the results of the training, WT could
master how to make woven fabrics in different types and motifs, from the simplest to the most difficult and complex motif.
The results of the interview above showed that the weaving craft in Muna was influenced by the ability of the
weavers in their profession as a craftsman. Stokckey (2003) explained that human capital was a concept that described
the man in organization and business as a valuable asset and essential to contribute the development and growth as well
as physical assets such as machinery and working capital. Attitudes and skills and the ability humans have taken part in
the performance and productivity of the organization. Spending on training, development, health and support was an
investment.
The description above showed that human capital as other capitals was indispensable to improve the standard and
quality of life in many aspects of life, namely in the economic, social, cultural, political and religious. Human capital also
referred to the collection of knowledge and skills that inherent to the individual abilities in carrying out the work that
created economic objects (Wikipedia 2009).
Related to the ability or competence of Spenser in Anwas (2013), in the individual there were five types of
competence. The first type was motifs (motives), competence that related to the ability of individuals consistent and
action. The second type was traits (traits), the competence that related to the character or independent character that
made individuals do a certain act. This innate trait namely confidence, endurance, and others. The third was the concept
of self (self-Concept), competence that related to attitudes and values of the individual. The fourth was knowledge,
competence that related to information or knowledge of the individual in certain occupations. The fifth type was skills, the
competence of the individual that related to the physical work or mental individual.
3.1.4 Creativity and Innovation Aspects
Aspects of creativity and innovation in this study can be interpreted as a process and result of the development and
utilization of knowledge, experience, and skills. Those were to create and improve the quality and quantity of production
of goods and services that provide significant added value for the welfare of weaver community.
The findings of this study showed that creativity was very influential on the development of the weaving craft in
Muna, as stated by the informant WN that creativity became an important element in making the design or motif. The
more motifs were created, the more customers of weaving craft were interested. Motif became one of the allure of
weaving craft in Muna.
In line with the informant above, informant WT said that creativity in working woven fabric was crucial in weaving
craft industry. WT had no doubt in ability and creativity. WT never stopped to create new creations, especially in making
the motif design. It was intended to compete with similar products that began to explore the traditional markets. The motif
types were "leja, kumbaea, bhia-bhia, samasili", and then the types were developed into several patterns as ordered and
the buyers desire.
In otherwise, the technological innovation by WM was applied as a tool for producing handloom woven fabric.
According to WM, there was a significant difference between the products that use handloom and gedokan both in quality
and quantity. In quality of production, weaving handloom was more subtle than the production of woven gedokan. In t
quantity, the amount of weaving handloom production was more than the production of gedokan. One sheet of fabric was
done by using handloom between 1-2 days so that in one month could create between 20-25 pieces of cloth. While 1
sheet of fabric was done by using gedokan between 3-4 days, so in one month can produce between 8 -9 sheets of
woven cloth. Similarly, informant M admitted that if a craftsman wanted to tune its products by consumers, it must be
tested to make new creations mainly concerned with the motive. According to M, the advantages of Muna woven fabric
and the special characteristic of Muna was "Sobi" weaving (patterned weaving). Meanwhile, other woven fabrics that
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found in Indonesia was not patterned weaving called as flat weaving.


Based on the explanations and interviews with the informants in this study, indicated that the role of human capital
in the development and preservation of Muna weaving craft industry was crucial so endlessly from various parties in
fostering and developing human resources. Bates (2005) in his research in the United States had proven that although
small industry got a large capital (modal) when starting a business (start-up), it still failed because the lower achievement
of specific education and experience in business areas. Similarly, a study conducted in a small industry in Indonesia,
various forms of financial aid and incentives have been given by the Indonesian government, but all of them have not
given encouraging results (Thee, 2006). Although it must be recognized that human capital was believed to have an
important role in the economy and business, many studies failed to prove its significance.
Knowledge of Muna weaving was the average that obtained through inheritance from their parents or, in other
words, the knowledge they have acquired in the weaving stems from seeing their parents that over time they became
smarter. It was because in the area (Muna) there were no special schools to weave. Previously acquired knowledge was
deepened through non-formal education, namely training that was organized by various parties, whether it was committed
by governments, NGOs, or private parties. According to Suryadi in Damsar (2010), human capital referred to the labor
capital that was the holder of capital (capital holders) as reflected in the skills, knowledge, and productivity of a person.
Human capital was a blend of knowledge, experience, ability and skills that created creativity and innovation so
that the person or group of people can make creations and innovations as was done by weaving craftsmen in Muna that
did not only enhance the quality of goods but also to improve their welfare because the goods / woven that they increase
in value of production in terms of both quantity and quality of production.
The following figure 1 presents creativity and innovation aspects in weaving activities. The craftsman has used
weaving machine tool.

Figure 3. A craftsman was doing weaving activity using weaving machine tool
3.2

Functions of Social Capital in the Development of Business Network in Cultural Reproduction of Weaving Crafts on
Muna community

Arsyad, et al. (2011) stated that social capital was also a phenomenon that growth from the bottom (bottom-up
phenomenon), it was derived from a group of individuals that made up the pattern of the social fabric (social network) that
was based on the principle of mutual trust (trust), social reciprocity, action norms, and collective action.
The elements of social capital that were described above became the source of the emergence of interaction
among people in a community. The results from these interactions became social capital measurement parameters, such
as creating and maintaining trust between the various groups. In addition, such interactions might occur on the scale of
individual and institutional. Individually, the interaction occurred through the relationship between individuals and then
created the emotional bond between two individuals and in groups. Institutionally, the interaction could be born when the
purpose of an organization has in common with other organizations.
To measure these interactions, three parameters of the capital could be used to analyze the results of research.
The function of social capital in the development of business relationships and the preservation of the weaving craft in
Muna, namely confidence (trust), norms, and networks.
3.2.1 Trust Aspects
As explained by Fukuyama (1995), the belief was growing hope in a society that was shown honesty, orderly, and
cooperation based on norms.
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maintain consumer confidence. The first was maintained the quality of woven fabric. The second was the timeliness of
processing, if consumers wanted to turnaround time in 3 days then it should be observed. The third was competitive cost.
It indicated that should not be too much difference in price with other weavers.
Trust aspect became the main thing in business activities, including weaving craft business. Therefore, according
to the informant (interview, August 2015) that for 50 years as a weaver, consumer confidence was a top priority, the
principle was customer satisfaction. Trust and customer satisfaction became glue between the weaver and the customer.
In producing the woven fabric of customer orders, it was important to fulfill the quality, timeliness jobs and price offers.
According to the informant, there has never been a customer, both coming from the Raha city and from outside Muna
regency that complains to the woven fabric.
Trust was one of the principal capitals in starting a weaving craft business. This is due to a cultural product should
pay attention to the trust aspect of the consumer. WD said that if there were consumers who order woven goods, as far
as possible, the goods had a good quality standard, good timelines based on labor agreements.
According to WT, consumer trust was absolute to make her survive as a weaver for more than 60 years. Therefore,
customer trust must be the main priority. In addition, the informant also always established mutual trust with itinerant
merchants who marketed the woven goods. Trust must be the major capital because the fabrics they take were not
usually paid in cash, but sold the goods first and paid them later.
According to the informant S, the relation between weaving workers and entrepreneur was created by the
relationship of mutual trust and mutual benefit, so that their relationship was not a relationship between the worker and
the employer, but the relationship between colleagues. The relationship was created because of the interdependence
between the worker and the entrepreneur. The most interesting here was the tools used in weaving were not a business
owner, but weavers private property. Moreover, the process was not only at weavers home but also business owners
home.
Hasbullah (2006) explained that the trust was a form of willingness to take risks in social relations were based on
feeling confident that others will do something as expected and would always act in a pattern of mutual support. Trust
became a pillar of strength in social capital. Someone would do anything for the other person if she believed that the
person would take her in the direction she wanted. The trust could make a person act as directed by others because she
believed that the recommended action of others was a proof of trust given to him. Trust did not appear suddenly. Trust in
a person or group of people emerged from the ongoing conditions that happen naturally or conditioned (artificial). The
trust could be inherited, but it must be maintained and developed because the trust was not an absolute thing.
In relation to the description above, the level of weavers trust in Muna could be categorized as criteria for people
who had high social capital. That was because the results of interviews with all informants said that they trust with NGOs,
economic enterprises, employers, and the government. They had been very concerned about weavers life without seeing
their background where they from.
3.2.2 Aspects of Values and Norms
The norms consisted of understandings, values, expectations and goals that were believed and run jointly by a group of
people. The norms could be derived from religion, moral guidelines, and standards of secular as well as the ethical code
of professional. The norms were built and thrived based on the history of cooperation in the past and implemented to
support the climate of cooperation (Putnam, 1993; Fukuyama, 1995). The norms could be a pre-condition and also the
product of social trust
Aspects of values or norms of weaving craft became weavers attention. According to the informant WN, to begin
weaving there should be looking for a day and a good time (people in Muna called it kutika), it should not be done at any
time, because there was a belief among people in Muna that if it was done at any time, it would cause failure or the
results were not optimal. In addition, it was also not allowed if the neighbor was in mourning because the sound of
weaving could interfere neighbors who were in mourning. Those were related to values and norms in society.
Norm was always a concern for one informant, the prevailing norm in society was related to business ethics.
According to the informant WI, it was a common habit among weavers to appreciate the weaving work of others or
neighbors; they should not give wrong response each other. In addition, according to the informant, in weaving there was
aesthetic value and a moral message that must be obeyed by weavers, especially for teenagers. When researchers
asked the informant about the moral values in weaving, the informant said that when a girl went home from school, she
should be intensified herself to weave as a provision when married in the future and she became calmer when facing
problems.
Informant WMb said that norms were embedded in the life of society in general, and the lives of the weavers, in
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particular, were upheld. High work ethos became characteristic of the people in Muna. The spirit of mutual cooperation
remains well preserved. Moreover, according to the informant, the norm required that a girl is smart to weave, apparently
no longer as tight as in the past, though it was not abandoned entirely.
High and low of values and norms, Sidu (2006) divided it into three criteria. The first criterion was for people who
had a minimum social capital / lower among others or often did not obey the religious affiliations. They only obeyed to the
values and norms that gave benefit to themselves. They only obeyed the community leaders who had a family
relationship. They were less obedient to the outsider or NGOs; they were less obeyed with government regulations. The
second criterion was for people who had a basic social capital or just obeying the required course. They obeyed to the
values and norms that were agreed by the community and not give risk to them. They obeyed with the community leaders
who fight for the interests of families and groups. They obeyed to outsiders or NGO that was already known and fought
for interests of the family and group. They obeyed with the government regulations that had to do with the interests of
themselves and their group. The third criterion was for people who had a maximum or high social capital. They obeyed all
religious things either essential or not, obeyed to the values and norms in general and accommodate the interests of the
people, and obeyed to outsiders / NGO that aims to help many people. They also obeyed with regulations that address
the interests of the general public without seeing their family, group, tribe, race, and religion.
In the social life, the weavers could not rid themselves from the system of values and norms on Muna community
in general or in values and norms, among weavers in Muna regency.
3.2.3 Network Aspects
The dynamic infrastructure of social capital networks was cooperation networks among humans (Putnam, 1993). The
networks facilitated communication and interaction and also enabled the growth of trust and strengthened cooperation.
Healthy communities tend to have strong social networks. People knew and met other people. Then, they build a strong
inter-relationship, both formal and informal Putnam (1995) argued that close social networks would strengthen the feeling
of cooperation among its members and the benefits of that participation.
Network Aspects according to informants WN, that the network would be created by itself if a weaver gave
attention to the quality, accuracy, and competitive prices. Based on the experience so far, the customers would come
alone to buy fabrics at her home, both in the form of woven cloth or ordered by yourself based on the desired motif.
However, the informant also searched new networks especially sales agents contacted typical fabric of Muna in Raha
(Muna regency capital) and Kendari (Southeast Sulawesi provincial capital).
Similarly the previous informant, the next informant said that network did not become a problem for her. According
to the informant, based on the experience during 50 years as a weaver, a network formed by itself. Information spread
from one consumer to another consumer, so many buyers came at home. Regarding the promotion of the results of
woven, the informant was never involved in the promotion of woven results both by the government through the exhibition
of development and by the private sector. Thus, the network that was built over the years was a naturally network, not
planned, perhaps the outcome would have been different if the network was formed with good planning.
A network according to informants WT has been formed a long ago, because of the sales network was essential
for continuity of production. Marketing network always she did on every occasion like visiting Raha (the district capital) or
to Kendari (the provincial capital), and she always brings fabrics to be marketed in souvenir outlets. In addition, in order to
introduce products of woven were often involved in promotion through establishment exhibition at the district level and the
provincial level through the weaving studio "agreed". In addition, the marketing strategy of woven products was buyers
come to weavers home or she sold at her own home, and through middlemen or cooperatives.
The function and role of social capital emphasized the importance of the transformation of social relations and a
fragile moment like neighborhood, friendship, kinship into a long-term relationship that was characterized by the
obligation to others. Bourdieu (2012) confirmed that the social capital as something related to one another, whether
economic, cultural, and other forms of social capital in the form of local institutions and also the wealth of its natural
resources.
From the three aspects of social capital, as noted above, how it functions and the role of social capital on business
relation aspects to the development of weaving craft in Muna as presented in the previous study. It was evident that there
was an influence of social capital on the development and preservation of the weaving craft in Muna.
4. Conclusion
The purpose of this study was to investigate how the function of human capital and social capital utilization, in cultural
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reproduction, to develop and preserve the weaving craft in Muna. There were conclusions in this study explained below.
The function of human capital in cultural reproduction of weaving craft on Muna community could be seen from
various aspects. It showed that from the aspect of knowledge, almost all informants said that the skill they had as
weavers was obtained through inheritance knowledge of their parents, and only small part (one) people learn from
neighbors. However, all the weavers learn to weave on an informal basis. From the aspect of experience as a weaver, an
average of informants have been working for 20-60 years so that they were able to master all kinds of basic motif woven
fabric in Muna. In ability aspects, the average informants were not in doubt to weave because almost all the artisans have
been trained related to the diversification patterns and the use of natural dyes. However, there was an obstacle for the
weavers in weaving business management issues, even though they have been trained to become entrepreneurs in
weaving, but there was still a small part that was able to manage their business well. In terms of skills, the craftsmen
have had sufficient skills to become good craftsmen; even so these skills need to be improved in order to face the
challenges of an increasingly competitive era. Aspects of creativity among weaving craftsmen apparently became
attention to them, it was seen from the birth of new creations in fabrics that they manufacture.
The function of social capital in the development of business networks of cultural reproduction weaving craft in
Muna society viewed from three aspects. The first was tryst that indicated the level of trust between the weavers and
entrepreneurs, the weaver with the weaver, the weaver with the consumer, and the weavers with the government, NGOs,
Cooperative in establishing a high trust. It is not surprising that occurred synergy between the various parties mutually
supportive of creating a conducive business climate. The second aspect was the norm that indicated the weavers
attention to the social norms, customs prevailing in society, both between weaver with employers, among weavers, as
well as with consumers. The last was networking aspect; the craftsmen indicated that network was necessary. Therefore,
the craftsmen continue to strive to maintain the existing network, and establish new networks, so it has now established
sales network of the district, namely in Raha and Kota Bau-Bau, Kendari provincial, and national level in Jakarta.
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[Unpublished Dissertation], Bogor: Sekolah Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor.
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and Policy Development. Wellington: The Institute of Policy Studies, pp. 42-52.
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Development Bank, Paper No. 26, Published March 2006.
Tonkiss, F. (2000). Trust Social Capital and Economy in F. Tonkiss and A. Pasey (eds) Trust and Civil Society. New York: St. Martins.

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Surveying Iranian Authorities Approach Toward Cyberspace Based on the


Three Dimensions of Power by Steven Lukes
Majid Malekan
Seyyed Javad Emamjomeh Zadeh
Hossein Masoudnia
Ali Alihosseini
Department of Political Sciences,The University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
majidmalekan@yahoo.com, javademam@yahoo.com, hmass2005@yahoo.com,ali.alihosseini@gmail.com
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
Cyberspace has had a significance effect on the relationship between governments and their citizens. Due to having different
networks and its protest-like nature, the cyberspace challenges the power of governments, national governments and their
sovereignty; thus governments try to have as much control as possible over the cyberspace in order to manage it toward their
own benefits. Based on this, usage, partnership and policy making in the cyberspace is significantly affected by the approach
and attitude of authorities in the society. The current research has used Steven Lukess model of three dimensions of power as
its theoretical framework to explain the relationship between cyberspace and political power in Iran; and it has analyzed the
Iranian authorities attitude and approach toward the cyberspace and it surveys that which of these approaches and attitudes
are consistent with Steven Lukess model. Research findings indicate that most approaches have had a non-optimistic attitude
toward the cyberspace and only one approach has had an optimistic attitude toward the cyberspace. Also in Lukess model,
current approach of formal political power in Iran tends toward a two-dimensional approach and currently this policy is pursuing.
Keywords: Cyberspace, Political Power, Iranian Authorities, Steven Lukes.

1. Introduction
The current research main issue is surveying the Iranian authorities approach and attitude toward cyberspace and its
mechanisms. Regarding the cyberspace we encounter many different attitudes. Technological approach considers
components such as hardware, software, quality and quantity of data transfer; whereas ,psychological approach analyzes
components such as mentality, human and computer memes, identity and personality. Sociological approach considers
online communities, social networks and social effects of human-computer interactions. Moreover, with emphasizing on
cultural aspects and studying human behavior, anthropologists consider cyberspace as the product of interactions within
the cultural system. But also there are other approaches such as political approach. In this framework explaining the
relationship between cyberspace and the concept of power and especially imposing power are focused.
In cyberspace, evidences of power and the reaction of power applications are found. The first aspect of power is
an actors ability to force others to do things unlike their interests or their main strategies. Arresting dissident bloggers in
2009 in China is one of these events. Also an individual or organization may try to convince others to change their
behavior.
The second aspect of power in cyberspace is developing or determining a plan in which an actor ignores the
strategies of other actors and eliminate their upcoming options. Political censorship and imposing filtering in many
countries around the world could be included in this framework.
The third aspect of political power in cyberspace is that an actor forms the main interests of other actors so that
some strategies do not have the time to be emerged. Governments could also use advertisement for illegitimating some
particular ideas.
Cyberspace significantly affects the relationship between governments and their citizens. The effect of internet on
public sector policy is a dialectical effect: which means in one hand it decreases the individuals dependence on
traditional power references and it increases the citizens power for making a wiser decision against these references and
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on the other hand this trend continues within the framework of the same patterns of dominating cultural system and
power inequality.
Cyberspace and internet network challenges the power of governments, national governments and their
sovereignty; this feature of cyberspace helps grow and promote anti-government forces, decreases the acceptability of
governments by citizens, increases the power of anti-government forces in citizenship scale and global scale and
generally it leads to threatening, weakening, destroying and substituting governments, national governments and their
values and replaces rival forces and also decreases their authority.
Thus, the governments try to cope with this challenge and decrease or eliminate these threats against themselves.
Sometimes they interpret the threats against themselves as threats against the national security and use it against their
enemies and rivals; therefore, governments and the anti-government forces (whether with national scale or with global
scale) compete with each other in cyberspace and challenge each other.
Along with this, determining the relationship between cyberspace and political power is very important in any
society. For understanding this relationship it is possible to survey the approach and attitude of political power and its
users toward the cyberspace in one hand and also it is possible to focus on the users interactions in cyberspace and
their attitude toward the concept of political power application. In this research, some indicators and components are
extracted based on Lukess theory and the viewpoints of political, cultural, judicial and military authorities on the
cyberspace in this framework are analyzed. To address the issue, qualitative content analysis has been used; because
there is a need for choosing samples and specific population in order to determine the type of relationship and the best
data analysis method based on the existing statistical population is qualitative content analysis. This is because it is tried
not to have any pre-assumptions of samples comments, to have exploratory final data analysis and so that previous
judgements do not have an effect on research procedure.
The most important objectives of this research are as follows:
1- Investigate the approach and views of the Iranian authorities toward cyberspace
2- Analysis of the imposing of political power in cyberspace and its consequences
3- Explanation of accepted pattern by political system in relation to cyberspace
4- Matching the agreed pattern with three dimensions of power by Steven Lukes
2. Theoretical Framework
In the current research Steven Lukess theory of power is used for surveying the Iranian authorities approach toward
cyberspace. Lukes believes that in analyzing political power three different aspects of it could be displayed. Each one of
these faces or dimensions considers a special mechanism for power application including: 1- one dimensional view which
is pluralist and people such Dahl support this view. In this approach it is tried to study the specific works and results in
order to designate individuals who have the main role in decision making and they can choose a suggestion among the
proposed suggestions and make others accept those suggestions (Dahl, 1957: 15). Pluralists emphasize on objectivity of
interests and they are against any claims saying that interests could be unclear or invisible and/or more importantly
people could make mistakes regarding their interests or they may be unaware (Lukes, 1996: 17-20). If we consider one
dimension for power then media is a tool that could be used by all individuals and groups for expressing their viewpoints;
in such conditions, there is a market full of different media, messages, receivers and senders. Senders could transmit
their messages through different media and receivers could choose from different messages based on their own
interests. Although practically some groups have more access to media and have more facilities for sending their
messages, this does not mean monopoly and other groups could also compete in this market and could change the
situation in case of support of the audience. 2- Two-dimensional view: people such as Bachrach and Baratz are the
representatives of this view. This is stated that the pluralists analysis emphasizes on the exterior and public appearance
of political power, whereas, a more complete analysis surveys two dimensions of decision making and non-decision
making (Bachrach & Baratz, 1962: 52). In fact ,the second face or personal face of power could be observed in hidden
elimination of individuals or special groups interests (Hindes, 2001: 20). These two theorists believe that onedimensional view of power has ignored the non-decision making matter which means the power to control subjects that
are included in the political agenda and especially it has ignored eliminating some subjects from the political agenda
(Bachrach & Baratz, 1970: 7). In two-dimensional view, media is considered as a tool in the hands of powerful groups of
the society by which they selectively broadcast their messages. In this view, media reports news and reports demanded
by that powerful group. In such condition every message and piece of news threatening the benefits of sovereignty are
censored and are not allowed to be broadcasted. 3- Three-dimensional view of power. Lukes criticizes one-dimensional

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and two-dimensional views and proposes the three-dimensional view. According to him power also acts in a third
dimension and he calls it real benefits. Lukes distinguishes between intellectual benefits (what individuals think they want)
and real benefits (what individuals may have wanted if they could have experienced the results and/or if they could have
become aware of the alternative methods). Lukess radical view states that human beings demands may be the product
of a system acting against their real benefits; thus detecting norms and institutionalized methods based on which
intellectual benefits are replaced by real benefits shows the real face of third face of power. If we consider power as a
three dimensional thing then media is a tool in the hands of powerful groups by which they institutionalize their values in
the mind of people and convince the audience to voluntarily respect these values. In other words, instead of showing the
reality and real benefits to the audience, media distort and manipulate their minds. According to this view, the main
function of media is education and internalizing the lifestyle determined by authorities.
In this research, according to Lukess theory, it is tried to determine that what view is chosen by the political power
as its strategy to interact with the cyberspace. For evaluating this, a research model is considered based on which the
indicators and models of political power application are categorized and then at the next stage these components and
indicators are surveyed. In this framework the comments of senior authorities on Iranian cyberspace are analyzed
(content analysis).
Power application methods in cyberspace by the government, features of desirable cyberspace policy, filtering or
anti-filtering, attitude toward the users freedom in cyberspace, authorities attitude toward the cyberspace in terms of
threats and opportunities and governments efforts for promoting thoughts and persuasion are components and indicators
based on three dimensions of power by Lukes and they could be included in this theory and analyzed.
3. Methodology
Qualitative content analysis has been used for surveying the Iranian authorities attitude toward cyberspace; because
there is a need for choosing samples and specific population in order to determine the type of relationship and the best
data analysis method based on the existing statistical population is qualitative content analysis. This is because it is tried
not to have any pre-assumptions of samples comments, to have exploratory final data analysis and so that previous
judgements do not have an effect on research procedure.
Qualitative content analysis is one of the research useful qualitative techniques. Qualitative content analysis along
with methods such as ethnography, grounded theory, phenomenology and historical research are some of the methods of
content data analysis. Since late 20th century when resistance against face analysis without paying attention to hidden
content was raised, qualitative approaches in content analysis were developed (Mayring, 2000: 3).
Up to now different procedures and approaches have been proposed for qualitative content analysis. Hsieh and
Shannon (2005) have shown three different qualitative content analysis approaches: Conventional content analysis,
Directed content analysis and Summative content analysis. Conventional content analysis is usually used with study
design and its aim is explaining a phenomenon. This method is useful when the theory or literature review about a
phenomenon is limited. In this approach researchers stay away from pre-conceived concepts and let their concepts and
titles be branched from data. Meyring has called this approach as inductive development. Directed content analysis has a
structural process and its aim is conceptual validation of a theoretical framework or theory. In this approach the
researchers use a theory or literature and start the procedure by determining concepts or key factors as the innovative
coding variables. Summative content analysis starts with detecting and counting the words or specific content for
understanding the content application of word or content (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005: 1281-1284).
Based on the categorization provided by Hsieh & Shannon, the current article approach is using conventional
content analysis because our aim is explaining the content dimensions of authorities comments and since there are no
theories or literature review in this regard, it is better to let contents and titles be branched from data.
The current article main question in content analysis is that what kinds of theories discussed by Lukes about the
dimensions of power include the authorities approach regarding the cyberspace?
4. Statistical Population & Sample Selection
The article case study includes the authorities comments regarding internet and cyberspace. In this framework, all
comments of senior authorities regarding internet and cyberspace are analyzed from 23/09/2009 to 22/09/2015 (5 years).
The sampling method is purposive sampling and the ending time for sampling is when the contents are theoretically
satiated and there are no new data during collection and further data analysis. The current research analysis unit is
content.
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20 political figures including the Supreme Leader, leaders of mid-day congregational Friday prayers, authorities of
the executive branch, legislature, the judiciary and military and police officials are chosen and their thoughts and
comments about internet and cyberspace are analyzed. Surveying the comments of authorities, one of the important
barriers of this research was choosing figures that firstly had a highly position and secondly they were selected by the
authorities and thirdly had completely discussed their ideas. Based on this many important political figures that have not
clearly and fully explained their ideas about internet and cyberspace (such as the president and former ministers) were
eliminated from the analysis.
5. Introduction to Analyzed Sample
In this research, 20 political, cultural, and military figures are chosen and their names along with their positions are
brought:
1- Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei ,The supreme leader
2- Ayatollah Ahmad Khatami, current leader of mid-day congregational Friday prayers in Tehran
3- Ayatollah Ahmad Alam Al-Hoda, leader of mid-day congregational Friday prayers in Mashhad
4- Ayatollah Ibrahim Amini, leader of mid-day congregational Friday prayers in Qom
5- Hojat Al-Islam Dr. Hassan Rouhani, president of the 11th government
6- Ali Jannati, minister of culture of the 11th government
7- Mahmoud Vaezi, minister of communications of the 11th government
8- Hojat Al-Islam Seyyed Mahmoud Alavi, minister of intelligence of the 11th government
9- Hojat Al-Islam Heydar Moslehi, minister of intelligence of the 10th government
10- Mohammad Hassan Entezari, former secretary of the supreme council of cyberspace
11- Ayatollah Sadegh Amoli Larijani, head of the judiciary
12- Hojat Al-Islam Gholam Hossein Mohseni Ejei, the deputy and spokesman of the Judiciary
13- Hojat Al-Islam Abd Al-Reza Tarazi, special cybercrime judge
14- Dr. Gholam Ali Hadad Adel, member of Islamic consultative assembly
15- Hojat Al-Islam Ahmad Salek, chairman of the Cultural Commission of Islamic consultative assembly
16- Hojat Al-Islam Nasr Allah Pejmanfar, member of Cultural Commission of Islamic consultative assembly
17- Commander in chief Ismaeil Ahmadi Moghadam, former chief of police
18- Commander in chief Mohammadreza Naghadi, Basij commander
19- Commander in chief Hossein Nejat, cultural deputy of Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution
20- Rouh Allah Nowbakht, cultural deputy of Mohammad the prophet of Allah Army
6. The Main Axes of Analysis of Authorities Approaches
Comments of 20 top figures are categorized within 7 axes and analyzed:
6.1

Inevitability and the necessity of using cyberspace

One of the important issues in evaluating the authorities view about the internet and cyberspace is inevitability and
necessity of using it; in the Castellss network society theory it is also stated and it is considered as one of the indicators
being analyzed in the research. In fact, internet and cyberspace have entered Iranian community as a new technology
and tools and authorities view regarding the necessity of using it and the reason to this necessity is an issue that is
significantly indicates the attitude and approach to decision-making and planning regarding this communicational tool.
The inevitability and necessity of using cyberspace is reflected in views of 11 surveyed figures. Lack of pointing out
to this issue is also either because of disbelief in the necessity or caused by sampling problems and requirements of the
surveyed speeches. In other words when a senior authority does not point out to the necessity and inevitability of a
subject it means that he/she either does not believe in it or the requirements of the speech does not include that subject.
Deeper survey on the authorities speeches shows that some of them do not clarify on the necessity and
inevitability of this subject but other evidences show that they believe in this necessity. For instance, the atmosphere
dominating the speeches of Mohammad Hassan Entezari indicates his belief in necessity of using cyberspace although it
is not explicitly implied.
On the other hand, some of the conducted emphases (on necessity) are only slogans in a way that they are only
stated for rejecting political labels and their arguments are not provided. For instance, Ayatollah Khatami and Ayatollah
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Alam Al-Hoda propose the necessity of using cyberspace but they do not imply its reasons. Some other figures also have
not stated the necessity and inevitability of using cyberspace and their attitude is negative and focused on threats; under
such conditions lack of belief in necessity of cyberspace is not a very irrational perception.
In general, 4 types of reasoning are proposed by the surveyed figures in favor of necessity and inevitability of using
cyberspace:
1- There is no possibility of restricting and eliminating cyberspace and depriving people of using it. This
reasoning has been used by the Supreme Leader and commander in chief Ahmadi Moghadam.
2- Cyberspace is a requirement of the current era for promoting religion and politics and using its capacities is a
must. This reasoning is usually used by the Supreme Leader, commander in chief Mohammadreza Naghdi
and commander in chief Hossein Nejat.
3- Cyberspace is a necessity for the progress of the country, serving people and its an important leading factor
for development. This reasoning is usually used by the Supreme Leader, Dr. Hassan Rouhani, Ali Jannati and
Mahmoud Vaezi.
4- Using cyberspace and internet is one of the citizenship rights and also a communication right. This reasoning
has been used by Dr. Hassan Rouhani and Mahmoud Vaezi.
6.2

Position and role of powerful figures in cyberspace

Based on two-dimensional power model, media is a tool in the hand of powerful group of the society by which they select
their own messages. In this model, media discuss the news and reports in favor of that powerful group. Thus, one of the
important issues regarding the analysis of political figures approach toward cyberspace is their attitude toward the
position and role of owners and operators of communicational tools and media.
The issue of position and role of powerful figures in cyberspace is reflected in speeches of 18 figures. This issue is
one of the most important issues discussed by political figures and authorities and it forms a significant part of their
speeches. In fact ,this issue is one of the most important concerns of the authorities and lack of implying to this issue by
Dr. Hassan Rouhani and Mahmoud Vaezi shows lack of paying attention or emphasizing on this issue by these two
figures. In such conditions when most political figures point out the important role of global powers in internet and
cyberspace management this lack of mentioning indicates a significant meaning in the approach analysis of these two
figures.
In general ,it could be said that political authorities have pointed out 4 essential issues regarding the position and
role of powerful groups toward the cyberspace:
1- Westerns countries pursue a cultural invasion or soft war against the beliefs, values, religion and morals of a
community through cyberspace and internet. This view has been surveyed by 14 individuals (the Supreme
Leader, leaders of mid-day congregational Friday prayers, Ali Jannati, Mohammad Hassan Entezari, Ayatollah
Sadegh Amoli Larijani, Hojat Al-Islam Gholam Hossein Mohseni Ejei, Dr. Gholam Ali Hadad Adel, Hojat AlIslam Ahmad Salek and military and police authorities).
2- Western countries monitor the data transferred through cyberspace and they use this information for
espionage. This view is surveyed by 7 authorities (Hojat Al-Islam Mohammad Alavi, Hojat Al-Islam Heydar
Moslehi, Mohammad Hassan Entezari, Ayatollah Sadegh Amoli Larijani, Hojat Al-Islam Gholam Hossein
Mohseni Ejei, Hojat Al-Islam Abd Al Reza Tarazi and commander in chief Esmaeil Ahmadi Moghadam).
3- Cyberspace is a tool serving the western countries for overthrowing and changing the independent
governments in the world. This view is surveyed by 6 authorities (The Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ahmad
Alam Al-Hoda, Hojat Al-Islam Heydar Moslehi, Hojat Al-Islam Tarazi, Hojat Al-Islam Ahmad Salek, and
commander in chief Ahmadi Moghadam).
4- Western countries dominate the cyberspace and have occupied it. This view is surveyed and proposed by 3
authorities (Ayatollah Ahmad Alam Al-Hoda, Mohammad Hassan Entezari and Rouh Allah Nowbakht).
6.3

Freedom and power of choice of users in cyberspace

Based on one-dimensional power model, media is a tool which could be potentially used by all individuals and groups for
pointing out their views. In fact, media help the diversity of the society and it increases the individuals power of choice.
Explaining the relationship between political power and the power of networks, Castells emphasizes on this freedom and
considers it as one of the primary tools of the cyberspace. Thus , one of the important issues regarding the analysis of
political figures approaches toward the cyberspace is analysis of their approaches toward cyberspace users freedom
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and power of choice.


In comments of 11 political figures some issues are proposed that could be relatively related to the issue of
cyberspace users freedom and power of choice. Lack of pointing out this by the figures either means that they do not
believe in freedom and power of choice of users or it is caused by the sampling problems and requirements of the
analyzed speeches. In other words, when a political figure does not refer to freedom and power of choice in speeches it
means that they either do not believe in that or the requirements of the speech do not include this subject. But deeper
survey of the comments of these 9 figures shows that they either do not believe in the freedom and power of choice of
users or they are against it.
In general, it could be said that political figures have adopted three different approaches regarding the cyberspace
users freedom and power of choice:
1- Some of the authorities have openly stated their opposition against users freedom and they have considered
it to be traumatic. This group of authorities has inexplicitly accepted the possibility of freedom and power of
choice by users in cyberspace but they believe that this subject has negative outcomes and cultural experts
must try to stand against it. This view has been discussed by 4 surveyed authorities (Ayatollah Ahmad
Khatami, Ayatollah Ahmad Alam Al-Hoda, Ayatollah Sadegh Amoli Larijani and Hojat Al-Islam Gholam
Hossein Mohseni Ejei).
2- The second approach is visible among authorities (that despite their negative attitude toward cyberspace) who
limitedly emphasize on the necessity of education, civilization and self-protection; thus, they have a slight
difference compared to the first approach and they inexplicitly approve the users power of choice. This view is
proposed by 4 authorities (Hojat Al-Islam Mohammad Alavi, Hojat Al-Islam Abd Al-Reza Tarazi, Hojat Al-Islam
Ahmad Salek and commander in chief Hossein Nejat). It must be noted that this approach is also followed up
by Mahmoud Vaezi (whose view is generally categorized in the third category).
3- Among the surveyed authorities, only three individuals have explicitly accepted and approved the users
freedom and power of choice. Members of the 11th government which means Dr. Hassan Rouhani, Ali Jannati
and Mahmoud Vaezi believe that the era of one-way messages is ended and there is no possibility of
restricting users freedom.
6.4

The most important threats and concerns regarding the cyberspace

One of the important issues regarding the analysis of authorities approach toward the cyberspace is that what are the
concerns of these individuals toward this new phenomenon? And that what aspects of this phenomenon are considered
to be a threat? Surveying this issue is very necessary because it gives the researcher a view regarding the attitude of
application of political power toward the cyberspace in the framework of two-dimensional power proposed by Lukes.
In the comments of 19 political authorities some issues are discussed that indicate their concerns regarding
cyberspace and internet. In general, it could be said that 8 types of concerns are proposed by political authorities and
some of them are also related to each other:
1- Lies and incorrect information
2- Propaganda against the Islamic beliefs and spreading doubts
3- Invasion against cultural and family values
4- Promoting corruption and immoral actionsss
5- Lack of security and abusing information and espionage
6- Western tools toward overthrowing and changing governments
7- Political propaganda against the system and its political figures
8- Internet and cyber crimes
6.5

The most important opportunities and benefits of cyberspace

One of the important issues regarding analysis of senior authorities approach toward cyberspace is that in their
perspective what are the opportunities of cyberspace and internet for the society and in other words, what are their
benefits. The importance of this attitude is more perceived when we pay attention to this issue that if authorities consider
cyberspace as an opportunity rather than a threat then they are less strict toward the cyberspace while making decisions
and they reject making decisions about filtering and they will have more interaction with the users.
In comments of 12 senior authorities the opportunities and benefits of internet and cyberspace are discussed. In
general, it could be said that in comments of political figures, 3 types of opportunities and benefits are discussed:
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1- Possibility of using it as a propaganda against the enemies


2- Possibility of using it for advertising Islam and revolution in the world
3- Possibility of using it toward development and progress of the country
The authorities attitude toward cyberspace benefits and opportunities is very general and is not clearly defined; on
the other hand, it is at a minimum level and it is based on an ideological intellectual order and they pay less attention to
the technological aspects and the interactional capacities in the cyberspace.
6.6

Efficiency and necessity of filtering in cyberspace

Filtering in cyberspace is one of the most controversial political and social arguments in the country that has a close
relationship with attitude toward cyberspace and internet. Based on two-dimensional power model, cyberspace is not only
an equal communicational opportunity and the logic of this model is accompanied by the political power plus filtering,
censorship or control. On the other hand, if we deal with internet and cyberspace based on the one-dimensional power
then filtering is significantly meaningless and inefficient.
10 political figures have stated the filtering in their speeches. In this regard two main approaches are observed:
filtering supporters and filtering opponents. Among the surveyed figures, the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ahmad Khatami,
Ayatollah Ahmad Alam Al-Hoda, Ayatollah Sadgh Amoli Larijani, Hojat Al-Islam Gholam Hossein Mohseni Ejei and Hojat
Al-Islam Abd Al-Reza Tarazi (Supreme Leader, leaders of mid-day congregational Friday prayers, authorities of the
Judicial branch) have explicitly supported filtering. Metaphors such as separating thorn from flowers, poisonous syrup and
comparing freedom of internet with freedom of drugs are used by this group of political figures.
On the other hand, there are authorities of the 11th government, the president, minister of culture and minister of
communications that talk about the uncontrollability of the internet and the harm of this policy and believe that the main
solution of the harms existing in the cyberspace is culture promotion.
6.7

Features of a desirable cyberspace policy

Surveying the comments of political figures regarding the cyberspace and internet shows that a kind of desirable political
approach is pursued in dealing with it. In fact, all politicians have provided recommendations or orders regarding dealing
with phenomenon based on their analysis of inevitability and necessity, position and role of the powerful people, users
freedom and power of choice, opportunities and threats of the cyberspace.
In general, it could be said that 20 political figures have proposed 10 types of policies for dealing with cyberspace.
It must be noted that some of these policies interfere each other and/or have a relationship with each other. On the other
hand, some of the proposed issues are general and they have no clear example; thus, they are not included in this
analysis.
1- Training the audience, culture promotion and promoting awareness
2- Filtering, blocking and clearing
3- Localizing the communication infrastructure of cyberspace
4- Judicial approach toward offenders
5- Producing Islamic and revolutionary content
6- Increasing the presence of faithful and revolutionary forces
7- Protecting the privacy
8- Informational and security approach toward the enemy in cyberspace
9- Using this tool for advertising and increasing the effect
10- Using it toward development and progress of the country
7. Conclusion
Surveying the views of 20 political figures regarding the cyberspace and internet indicates that there are 4 main
approaches regarding dealing with this phenomenon. Naturally it is inevitable to provide general categorization about
views without considering some minor differences; but providing this categorization brings about important analysis
results for this research. These 4 approaches include:
1- Quite pessimistic approach: this approach is explicitly against cyberspace and internet. It introduces
cyberspace as a set of threats and considers its opportunities to be very little. This type of people do not
accept the necessity and inevitability of using cyberspace and consider it as a poisonous syrup that although a
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very little part of it is poisonous, drinking it is equal to death. Naturally, this approach does not pay attention to
the role of peoples awareness while dealing with the harms of cyberspace, and people demands and needs
and it considers filtering as the best solution for dealing with this phenomenon.
2- Separating thorn from flower approach: This is a very common approach among the authorities of the country
and it does not explicitly resist against cyberspace. The supporters of this approach do not declare their
resistance against cyberspace and prefer refinement and separating thorn from flower. In this approach a
special emphasis is on existence of filtering and censorship in other countries. This approach has some
similarities with the first approach and especially it emphasizes on threats of the cyberspace (and not its
opportunities) but it tries to hide the negative and passive attitude.
3- Double-edged knife: the main idea of this approach is balance between opportunities and threats in
cyberspace and the method using this is highly important. Supporters of this approach consider cyberspace
and internet as an undeniable reality and they declare their explicit approach against the negative and passive
attitude. In this approach also the necessity of opponents awareness and political propaganda are
emphasized. This approach is mostly visible among the non-authorities of cyberspace policy making.
4- Optimistic approach: supporters of this approach consider cyberspace as a special feature having more
opportunities compared to threats. This approach has a special emphasis on this issue that filtering is
inefficient and quarantining the society is impossible. The supporters of this approach also pay attention to the
necessity of filtering in some cases that are examples of obscene, espionage and anti-religious contents; but
they pursue the intelligent filtering and are against the general filtering and they also consider it a political
issue. Education and culture promotion are emphasized in this approach and are considered as an alternative
solution in public space.
Surveying different aspects of political power in cyberspace and also after explaining the features and general
specification of the research framework, the researcher has extracted indicators in a conceptual model from Lukess
theories that could be a base for analyzing data achieved from qualitative content analysis of the population. Power
application methods in cyberspace by the government, desirable policy features of the cyberspace, filtering or antifiltering, attitude toward users freedom in cyberspace, attitude of authorities toward opportunities and threats and
governments efforts for promoting and enriching indicators and components were all based on Lukess theory of threedimensional power.
Regarding the content analysis of comments of the authorities on cyberspace and its application it could be
concluded that most approaches are pessimistic toward the cyberspace and only one approach is optimistic. Thus ,the
political system in Iran tends toward having an influence and direct control over the cyberspace and it approves filtering
and content control. In this regard in the framework of Lukess categorization, the official approach of political power in
Iran tends toward the two-dimensional approach and right now this approach is being pursued. Also from the perspective
of authorities, complete freedom of users in cyberspace is unacceptable and adopting solutions such as censorship and
filtering are appreciable.
References
Davaran, B (2007). Social identity and cybernetic space. Tehran: Culture, art and communication research center.
Lukes, S (1996). Power, a radical attitude. Translated by Afrough .E, Tehran: Rasa cultural service institute.
Minavand ,M.GH( 2006). Internet and political development, Public domain in cybernetic space. Journal of political science research. No.
2. Spring and Summer.
Holsti, L.R (1994). Content analysis in social sciences and humanities. Translated by Salarzadeh Amiri .N, Tehran:Allame Tabatabaei
University.
Hindes ,B( 2001). Speeches of power (from Hobbes to Foucault). Translated by Younesi .M, Tehran: Shirazeh publications.
Bachrach , Peter & Baratz , Morton ( 1962 ). The Two Faces of Power .American Political Science Review , 56 .
Bachrach , P & Baratz, M.S ( 1970). Power and Poverty,Theory and Practice. New York : Oxford University Press .
Dahl, Robert ( 1957 ). The Concept of Power. Behavioral Science , 2 .
Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang and Sarah E.Shannon (2005 ). Tree Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis. Qualitative Health Research,
November.
Krippendorff , k (2004). Content Analysis: An Introducrion to its Methodology. London: sage .
Lukes ,Steven (2005). Power, A Radical View. Harvard University .
Mayring, Philipp (2000). Qualitative Content Analysis. Qualitative Social Research, Volume 1, No 2 .
Oni (2013 ) .Open Net Initiative. Retrieved from : http://opennet.net/about-filtering/.
Rader, s (2007). Qualitative Methods of Data Analysis. Zurich: Federal Institute of Technology.
Suler, John (2004).The Psychology of Cyberspace. http://truecenterpoint.com/ce/index.html.

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Communication as a Component of the Quality of Life in the Integrated Care for the Dying
Mateja Beran, RN, spec, MSN
Alma Mater Europaea - European Centre Maribor, Slovenia; mateja.bercan@siol.net

Prof. ddr. Marija Ovsenik


Alma Mater Europaea - European Centre Maribor, Slovenia
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
In Slovenia, a half of all people still die at hospital or care institutions. Therefore, our intention was to find out about
communication as one of the basic component of life quality in the process of palliative care. The aim of the research was to
determine how communication skills and knowledge of 181 community nurses, members of the primary and specialist palliative
team, affect implementation of the integrated care of the dying at home. The data collected by an interview questionnaire were
analyzed by relevant quantitative statistical methods. It was found out that communication and knowledge statistically
significantly effect knowledge about disease and palliative care plan of patients and their families. Communication builds trust
and is foundation for overcoming obstacles in providing quality care for the dying.
Keywords: palliative care, community nursing care, domestic environment, team work

1. Introduction
Great puzzle of human life is not suffering, but death (Weil, 1985, p.78). Puzzle is also a disease that brings suffering,
which paralyzes life and converts it into an image of death. The role and function of integrated care is therefore directed
to mitigate this process.
Growing elderly population and increasing number of chronic diseases, consequently increases the need for
palliative care. In Slovenia, more than 50 percent of people still die in health care facilities (Statistical Office of the
Republic of Slovenia, 2012). Authors (Burge, Lawson & Johnston, 2003; Higginson, Astin & Dolan, 1998) note that in the
future the share of the people dying at home environment will have to increase. Consequently, it will be necessary to
intensify palliative care the home. A leader in the field of palliative care in Europe - Great Britain - in the last six years has
for the first time, since 1974, when the proportion of dying in hospitals was in steady increase, achieved tendency of
increase of the proportion dying at their homes (Gomes, Calanzani & Higginson, 2012).
In order to enable patients to stay at home even during the progression of incurable diseases, and especially at the
time of death, it is necessary to ensure the continuity of primary health care, community nursing, social work,
occupational therapy, physiotherapy, dietetics and pharmacy. It is palliative care, which offers care to patients and
support families and also informal care providers. Palliative care provides optimal physical, psychological, spiritual and
social support to the patient and his family at all stages of dying. Target orientation of palliative care is therefore focused
on providing high-quality of the dying in domestic environment. In Slovenia, model of integrated care of the dying in the
domestic environment has not been implemented yet. Dealing with this problem, we are again and again encountered
with a communication problem. So, our intention was to carry out a research on communication between members of the
palliative team and knowledge of how to offer quality care to palliative patients, according to community nurses, and how
it statistically significant effects patient and familys familiarity with the course of a disease and palliative care plan.
2. Theoretical Standpoints
We are looking for the reason why the death disappeared from public life; why it has become a taboo subject and is being
moved to institutions. Awareness of the fact that each of us prefers dying where we feel safe - at home, has lost its
weight. But we know that an individual, as well as their closest, deal with death easiest if they experience it together, in
interaction, in the domestic environment.
But the adoption of dying is a long way, although limited in time. Therefore, palliative care is not just an idea; it is a
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need, an urgent reality. There is no consent of the professionals regarding this issue. It is stated that the implementation
of palliative care at the patient's home in Slovenia, in compliance with regulations, is based on the palliative team. The
team includes health care and nursing providers, medical staff and other professionals, non-professional trained
providers - volunteers and patient's relatives (Ministry of Health of the Republic of Slovenia, 2010). A patient and their
close relatives participate as equal members of the team. Their attention is focussed to relevant and unique things from
the patient's perspective and preserving their normal way of self-care, helping them maintain a sense of self (Corner,
2003).
There is almost nothing written or defined about communication in this team, but communication is a central driving
force of the relationship between the teams, and dying relatives, which establishes quality co-operation, or, reduces it to
only impersonal urgent chores, not allowing development of the quality relationship.
Hospitals intended for the treatment are becoming the place of dying. This transformed role has brought a
spectrum of problems. Most doctors prescribe treatments to prolong life, even though they know that a man is dying. Fear
and incompetence in matters of dying implies fear of possible criticism. Even the family is looking for an excuse for
perhaps not entirely appropriate care for the dying, before dying, asking for new therapies to be applied. Our tendency to
overcome this prejudice is certainly a sign that we are impregnated with it. The patient, who is dying, becomes/is a
reminder of the failure of medical approaches. The dying becomes unnecessary foreign body, consequently feeling
impersonal and alienated in hospitals and nursing/care homes. The dying just cannot be helped. More than services, they
need closeness. Relationship/attitude. The relationship is at the heart of communication, especially with the dying.
3. Reasons for Dying at Home
Kleviar (1996) presents three reasons why so few people die at home nowadays:
most often cause lies in the lack of experience related to dying, causing fear of dying;
too high expectations of health professionals regarding the appropriate functioning of the family;
families actually do not have possibility to monitor the dying at home, because they are at work or at schools.
The reason may also be physical and financial barriers.
Idyllic seems to be a look back, when the children had the opportunity to accompany the dying next to their bed.
They were present at the time of their death. They experienced a death as a part of life, understood it as an important
signal/mile stone. Today, people have no contact with the death until their late age, and they fear and try to run
away/escape dying. They are not aware that medicine remains without power when dealing with progressive, incurable
diseases. Delegating care of the family into the hands of experienced professionals is one of the obvious symptoms that
indicate death as a taboo and only increases fear of it.
Modern science is more and more prone to emphases development of palliative care in the domestic environment.
Not only because the patient can stay at home and active role in care is taken over by families, but mainly because the
emotional connection is being thorn spontaneously, because home is a space where we have time for genuine
communication which the dying need. During the treatment of the patient and active involvement of relatives in the care,
enable loved ones and the patient to prepare them for the final farewell and avoid the feeling of helplessness. Therefore,
the main focus of the implementation of palliative care is to enable dying and death at home, among their loved ones.
Relief of accompanying symptoms is not limited to physical symptoms, psychosocial and spiritual distress and problems
have to be relieved, too (Peternel, 2008). When its desires were robbed, when its secrets were robbed, body sensitivity
itself becomes something general. (Weil, 1985, p. 59).
4. Social Environment
The population in developed countries is aging rapidly. Slovenia is also at the top of statistical tables of demographic
aging. Long-term population projections, prepared by the Eurostat for the EU Member States, on the basis of a uniform
methodology for the period till 2050, indicate a further increase of the elderly in Slovenia. Their forecast says that the
proportion of the elderly population 64+ will be significantly increased; especially the population aged over 80 years.
In the recent decades, in the countries of Western Europe, organized palliative care has expanded enormously,
both, within and outside the health care system, mainly due to the accelerated aging of the population and increase in the
proportion of patients with severe chronic diseases and cancer, which will, according to the projected demographic
statistics, escalate in the future (Murayama & Lopez, 1997). Palliative care, as defined by the World Health Organization
(WHO), should be part of public health care, and accessible to all. Or otherwise an access to palliative care is a human
right under the United Nations Convention (WHO, 2004).
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Access to care should be based on patients needs and preferences, regardless of the place of residence, financial
status, type of disease, age, sex or any other criterion. If the aim of palliative care is quality of life for patients with
advanced incurable chronic disease, we must be aware that the disease has, along with human experience, far exceeded
the boundaries of the field of medicine. Quality of life reached the socio-gerontological field, where relationship and
communication are in the centre and the key forces of the quality of human life in palliative care.
4.1

Relatives in the Process of Palliative Care

Change of generations changes attitudes to death. In the past, people used to be more familiar with death. Even children
were faced with dying relatives death in the neighbourhood. They were confronted with the customs and rituals related to
death, so that the fact of death was socialized. Families were larger in number, more generations used to live together.
Thus, the dying and the grieving were experienced together. Monitoring of the dying is one of the hardest things in life
and marks us, although we are enriched (Kleviar, 1997). Advanced chronic incurable disease that leads to death,
destroys family balance. It changes relations between family members, family roles are replaced, the patterns of decisionmaking and behaviour can be compromised, so as the development of certain family members (Slak, 2011). The outside
world (health workers and associates) penetrates into the intimacy of the family life. All these factors can cause
insecurity, anxiety, overload and severe distress in the family with a dying patient. For this reason, it is important to listen
to the needs of relatives, to provide them with emotional support and help them adapt to change. It is necessary to
encourage an informed openness in the relationship, because communication during the last days of life impact over
bridging barriers from the past and facilitates the recognition that there are no unsolved hardships from the past. This
prevents the development of any mental or physical symptoms. Open and calm communication with relatives is essential.
The World Health Organization argues that the inclusion of palliative care improves the quality of life not only for patients
but also for their relatives.
Studies found out that palliative care enables significantly better quality of life of patients and their family members.
It has a very strong impact on their mutual relations (Qaseem, Snow, Shekelle, Casey, Cross & Owens, 2008; Brumley,
Enguidanos, Jamison, Seitz, Morgenstern, Saito, Mcllwane, Hillary & Gonzales, 2007; El-Jawahri, Greer & Temel, 2011).
Various studies tried to find answers to questions of how the experience of long-term illness interferes with partnership. In
one study (Keller, Heinrich, Sellschopp & Beutel, 1996) patients reported that the partnership improved during and after
the disease, which is inconsistent with the survey (Joly, Heron, Kalusinski, Henry Amar & Allouache, 2002), where the
authors argue that the advanced malignant disease escalated conflict in relationships and lack of understanding of the
patient's partner. Certainly, single answer has not been found yet.
4.2

Greiving

Grief is an emotion that responds to the loss of an individual. The most common loss which triggers grief is the death of a
loved one. It is an emotional response to the loss, losing its intensity with the time. "It is a time-consuming and
multilayered process, in which the grieving processes their loss, and adjusts to the loss. It contains behavioural,
emotional, social, physical and spiritual components "(Tekavi-Grad in Marusic & Rokar, 2003). In the literature there
are different understandings of grief, some consider it as the period after the loss, the others as an experience of loosing
somebody. It does not matter whether a man was taken away by life or death - the consequences are the same:
emptiness, sadness, despair (Ovsenik, 2014).
In Slovenia, palliative care does not provide support for families and caregivers in the period of mourning process.
After the death of a patient, family members or primary caregivers are left to relatives, neighbours and to themselves. We
still do not provide formal support to families after the death of the patient in the domestic environment. Even the payer of
the services - Health Insurance Institute of Slovenia - does not cover costs for the visit of the primary caregiver or family
of the deceased. Field, Reid, Payne & Relf (2006) note that nurses are the ones who are most involved in supporting
families in the process of mourning, but (Chang, Bidewell, Hancock, Johnson & Esterbrook, 2012), they are only rarely
trained in this field. This can also be stated for Slovenia, where we can highlight the lack of personnel, funding problems,
and ignorance.
4.3

Professional Staff

Our performance is reflected in our actions. Giddens points out that the performance is not always conscious and
deliberate, as many actions arise from sub consciousness, habits and the like. However, large part of the performance is
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a result of thought, which means that individuals, in our case professionals, usually control consequences of their actions
in contact with the dying patients, and responses to the environment, and according to this acting, they are even more
efficient. In this respect, we are talking about the intention/aim and it is knowledgeability, which defines any action that
a performer takes along a path of a higher quality of performance (Giddens 1989). Regarding Giddens, individuals in the
course of their daily practices continuously monitor consequences of actions and correct them promptly, but at the same
time, a set of consequences are generated which actors had not predicted (Giddens, 1984), what means that the effects
became a frame of new actions. This concept in Gidden's theory is very important, because it shows how individual
action might lead to some structural changes, which go far beyond the original intent, and that in the course of everyday
events are shown as something "external", as something they cannot effect/have no influence on. Practitioners are still
clinging to the notion that life should be extended at any cost, even with the help of aggressive practices and health-care
interventions, which only prolong the pain and suffering of the dying. Death and dying are perceived as a failure of
medical science and our own helplessness, therefore, they are extremely reluctant to speak about these issues.
4.4

Integrated Approach in the Process of Palliative Care

Integrated care is a well-planned and well-organized set of services and processes of care, directed to the multidimensional needs and problems of individuals, or to the category of people with similar needs or problems (Nies &
Berman, 2004). Integrated care is trying to meet the long-term, complex and multiple needs of patients in the process of
palliative care, and offers them the opportunity to live their lives as they want. Wishes and needs must be arranged in the
interaction between professionals, patients and relatives. This interaction is at the heart of care.
Recently, concept of "integrated approach" is becoming very common (Gholve, Kosygan, Sturdee & Faraj, 2005;
Arnaert, Van Den Heuvel & Windey, 2005; Volkers, Nuyen, Verhaak & Schellevis, 2004; Schwenk, 2002; 158; Landi,
Onder, Russo, Tabaccanti, Rollo, Federici, Tua, Cesari & Bernabei, 2001). Integration is understood as reciprocity
between actors and collectivities in dealing with health and disease, and its ultimate goal is quality of life. Giddens, in his
theory of structuring, deals with social and system integration. Social integration is based on the actors and their relations
in the context of co-presence. He implicitly talks about communication, throughout all five channels of communication:
verbal, visual, olfactory, kinesthetic and gustatory. This concept can also be used in the treatment of the patient in the
process of palliative care. In the process of palliative care, an integrated approach is the one which enables a patient, his
family and friends to equally cooperate with the professionals of various disciplines, as palliative care is seen as the
integration of mental, physical, social and spiritual care, in the context of interaction in time and space. Central point in
the concept of nursing in palliative care becomes quality of life both, of the patient as well as families.
4.5

Team Approach in the Process of Palliative Care

The concept of team work in palliative care, based on the pioneering work of Cicely Sounders, included multi-dimensional
needs of patients and comprehensive multidisciplinary team approach (Gomez-Batiste, Martinez-Munoz, Blay, Espinosa,
Contel & Ledesma, 2012).
Thinking about physical, emotional and social challenges when living with the disease, gets a completely different
dimension in patients who are faced with the progression of the disease and approaching death.
In the interdisciplinary team, experts identify themselves with an identity of a team. The team members, depending
on the current task, take the lead in the team. In order to achieve the objectives, pieces of information are distributed
among team members and co-ordinated work is carried out competently.
The interdisciplinary team cooperates, which is vital for its success. Negotiation and debate are fundamental
elements of the interdisciplinary team; each member of the team is ready to take into account the views of other members
(Ovsenik & Ambro, 2010).
Despite the theoretical differences between multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams, their functioning over
lapses. Regarding patient's needs, negotiation and discussion become essential approach in providing high-quality
palliative care. Only with the empathic sharing of information about the patient's condition and the corresponding care,
interdisciplinary team can provide holistic palliative care to a patient in a terminal stage. Or, according to Giddens - it is
the ability of actors to explain to themselves as well as to others, the reasons for a particular direction of action, which the
author calls "discursive consciousness" (1984). It means that actors justify the reasons for their actions, suggesting a
fundamental feature of the operation, which can not be only a passive role played within certain structural relationships.

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Communication

Communication has one of the most important roles in palliative care. Patients and their family members state that
communication is one of the most important skills of all involved in the process of palliative care (Shanawani, Wenrich,
Tonelli & Curtis, 2008). Experts note that practitioners are obliged to talk in time and on emotionally-intelligent way to
patients about their health, psychosocial and spiritual needs at the end of their lives (Quill, 2000). Although, this is a
strong emotional and intellectual effort, patients and their family members want to be informed. Systematic scientific
review of 46 studies demonstrated that patients with chronic incurable disease have a high level of demand for complex
information in all phases of their disease (Parker, Clayton, Hancock, Walder, Butow, Carrick, Currow, Ghersi, Glare,
Hagerty & Tattersall, 2007). Patients ask questions about the end of life, namely:
about the process of disease:
about prognosis for survival and quality of life;
about projected symptoms and their management;
about the methods of treatment and how it will affect the length and quality of life;
about nursing care plan.
Researches have also shown a very low rate of effective communication skills among professionals, especially in
terms of communicating "bad news" (Reinke, Slatore, Uman, Udris, Moss, Engelberg & Au David, 2011; Buckman, 1984).
Bad news is any news about the patient's state of health, which a doctor or a nurse communicate to a patient or his loved
ones, and can have, due to the content or the conditions in which it is transmitted, a negative impact on the recipient due
to the nature of the medical condition, or the impact this condition has on the patient's ability to operate on the physical,
mental, social, family and existential field (Lunder & Kersnik, 2003). Psychologist, Cathy Heaven (1996) throughout her
researches on communication between health professionals and patients, found out that the health professionals most
often used strategies to avoid patient's problems. (Wilkinson, 1991).
4.7

Education

In the strategy of the care of the dying, (Department of Health, 2008) there is a special chapter devoted to education.
Health and social workers, who have completed formal education, must constantly renew and upgrade their knowledge.
This education should also cover a special area of knowledge - knowledge of communication. Assertiveness, which is
hard to detect at professional workers, is one of the issues which should be pointed out. Authors of the strategy found
that many doctors, nurses and other key experts, have neither professional nor communication competences in providing
high-quality care for the dying. In recent years, a model for improvement of the communication skills of the health
professionals who had not gained these skills in their formal education, has been developed. This model includes a threeday course that is entirely focused on the "participant". It is based on the problems and challenges at work, which the
participant recognizes as important and would like to learn about them more. Or, according to Giddens - individuals are
because of their knowledge, skills and reflexivity capable of creating always new solutions, which often, if not pull down,
but at least change the original structural relationship (Giddens, 1984).
4.8

Community Nursing in the Process of Palliative Care

In prehistoric times, a sick man was nurtured by his mother, wife or other relative, what is, in a family or a small
community, habit today if we get sick because of minor illnesses. A care provider in such circumstances is considered as
a care giver, but usually is not a professional. The beginnings of medicine date in ancient Greece and the Roman Empire,
where the personal hygiene, plumbing fixtures and quarantine gained in importance, when also caring for the patient
started gaining professional form. Nursing was in the domain of religious and monastic activities, but still there were not
necessary professional competences. The first organized systems of home visits began to operate in England in 1816,
with the creation of "Committee of Benevolent Ladies" (Committee of Charity Wives), who visited sick children at home
(Vuga, 1975). "The Ladies Health Society of Manchester founded in Manchester in 1862, in order to teach people about
a physical, social, moral and religious regime. In 1845, at the Crimean Front, Florence Nightingale cared for the wounded.
Florence Nightingale is considered as the initiator of the modern sisterhood. In 1860, she established the first nursing
school for civil nurses/sisters in St. Thomas Hospital in London. "District Nursing", as community nursing is called today in
England, began to work in Liverpool in 1867 (Vuga, 1975). With the development of medicine, school for "Health Visitors"
was established in England in 1892. Those were the first trained community nurses.
In 1914, in Vienna, Angela Bokin from Slovenia graduated as a civil nurse, professionally trained to work on field.
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Sister Bokin was appointed as the first caring field sister in Yugoslavia on 27/01/1919. The scope of her assignments
was to protect mothers and children and anti tuberculosis activities. Those were the predecessors of today's community
nurses and social workers (Vuga 1975, p. 19).
For the development of the community nursing activities is very important the establishment of the World Health
Organization (WHO) in 1948. The WHO in 1958 convened the European Conference of community nurses in Helsinki,
where concepts for home care were adopted, still valid today. The WHO defines community nursing as a special form of
health care, which includes active health and social care for individuals, families and communities that are due to
biological characteristics or certain diseases particularly susceptible to environmental influences.
In the document - Recommendation 24 (Council of Europe), Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, are
given adopted recommendations, inter alia, the need of integrating the content of palliative care into training programs for
health professionals. Palliative care should be an integral part of health care, which has comprehensive and specific
programs, which have to be designed interdisciplinary and include experts from various professional levels. The contents
are defined in the framework of the National Program of Palliative Care, which defines palliative care principles and
objectives of nursing at patients home, in care institutions, within providers of institutional care, part-time or full time, or in
hospice. A group of experts provides multidisciplinary treatment as a team (eleznik, Horvat, Panikvar lahti, Filej &
Vidmar, 2011). In the National Programme of Palliative Care, health care in community nursing has an important place.
Community nurses are, in the network of palliative care, listed as members of the basic, as well as specialist palliative
team of primary health care (Ministry of Health, 2010, p.14).
5. Research Problem
In palliative care, even if we hear about it, and even it is, in some environments, carried out at home, a number of
dilemmas can be identified. Problems arise already in the structure of the organizational model, which is supposed to
include, in addition to the real, also psychosocial level of care. A series of contradictions were identified when reviewing
the issue of the functioning of palliative team at the primary level. Communication dilemmas are caused by ignorance and
often fear. Lack of knowledge is recorded in the ways of experiencing death, in the monitoring of the dying patient and
family, and too weak awareness of the needs of the dying and their families. As the closest ones are afraid of death in
many environments, they are trying to push the dying into institutional environment. However, patients would like to die at
home, in an environment that is close to them and calm them down.
Although the National Program of Palliative Care (Ministry of Health of the Republic of Slovenia, 2010) has been
written, it still remains at the declarative level. Transfer into practice has not happened yet, especially nothing has
happened in the field of competent communication - not only communication with the dying, but also communication with
their relatives.
5.1

Research Model

As a sample, 181 community nurses working in community activities, representing 22.18 per cent of all employees in
community nursing in Slovenia, according to the National Institute of Public Health (2012) were selected. Deliberately
were chosen community nurses according to the regional areas and their organizational form of employment. The sample
was diverse, encompassing all regional areas of Slovenia and all organizational forms of community nursing (nurses
employed in public institutions or employed on the basis of the concession agreement).
5.2

Research Methods and Techniques

The choice of methodology was based on problem identification, since we find the populations of community nurses
perceive the palliative care process very differently, and with different emotional responses too. We decided to check
whether the established model satisfies the needs of the patients and their families. Our main aim was to optimize the
model based on our findings, especially in the fields we studied and which play one of the most important roles in the
palliative care process the fields of knowledge, communication, and information.
Data collection method in our study is a survey, which represents one of the fundamental research approaches in
social sciences. We surveyed community nurses who are privately employed and those, who are employed in the public
institution. As we wished to include the highest number of community care nurses possible, we used our own instrument,
a survey questionnaire.
We started collecting data at the end of year 2013. Survey participants were asked to participate both orally and in
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writing, and were ensured anonymity. The survey questionnaire was given to half of the survey participants in person, on
a symposium in Lako in September of 2013, and the other half received them by mail.
We transcribed the data collected with the survey questionnaires into a computer database and processed them
with the help of a statistical program SPSS. We used quantitative statistic methods method of analysis, synthesis, and
generalization. In the first phase of the analysis we analyzed the statements with the method of descriptive statistics and
presented them graphically in the form of descriptive statistics or frequency distributions, with which we interpreted each
individual question of the survey. After the Cronbach Alfa reliability test, factor analysis followed. With it, we aimed to find
whether the connections between the observed variables can be explained by a lower number of factors. These factors
were determined by the principal component analysis. Then, we searched for statistically significant correlations, using
Pearson rang correlation coefficient. After finding statistically significant correlations, we further used regression analysis
to determine relations between two independent variables and one dependent variable. With regression analysis, we
confirmed correlations, meaning that we confirmed the hypothesis. After hypothesis validation, we formed a regression
model.
6. Results
The study included 180 registered nurses and one graduate nurse. Majority 61.9% of them are community nurses
employed in public institutions, 37.6% are community nurses with concession, and one respondent did not answer this
question.
The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which community nurses believe that patients, their relatives
and other important people to a patient are informed about the stage of the disease and about palliative care plan.
Regarding their answers to the question "Are palliative patients, in your field of activity, familiar with the state of the
disease? most of them think 67.4% that palliative patients are often informed about the state of the disease. At least
10.5% believe that palliative patients are familiar with the state of the disease. From the above, it can be concluded that
the professionals, in most cases, avoid talking with patients about the state of their disease, especially in cases when it
comes to advanced, chronic disease, where recovery is no longer possible.
Regarding the answers to the question "Are palliative patients in your field of activity familiar with the plan of
palliative care? majority, i.e. 53.0% of them felt that palliative patients are rarely informed about the plan of palliative
care. Only six (3.3%) of them believe that palliative patients are never informed about the plan of palliative care. Out of
these data it is obvious how difficult it is for the practitioners to talk with the patient about their condition, and the fact that
the treatment is concluded, that the cure is no longer possible, further on only mitigation of the disturbing symptoms can
be provided.
Regarding the question "Are relatives of the palliative patients and other important people to a patient, in the field
you are in charge of, informed about the state of the disease?", majority respondents, 64.1% of them believe that families
are often familiar with the state of the patient's disease. There was no answer never.
Regarding the question "Are the relatives or important people to a palliative patients, in your field of work, familiar
with the plan of palliative care?", majority, 45.9% of them believe that relatives of palliative patients and other patients
VIPs, are often informed about the palliative care plan. Few of them, 3.3% stated that relatives were never familiar with
the plan. From the above, we can conclude that in most cases, relatives, or other important person to a patient are
familiar with the plan of palliative care. It means that the professionals easier speak with relatives than with patients.
In opinion of 65.7% respondents, patient's relatives are often included into patient's care in the context of palliative
care. There was no answer never. The smallest number of the respondents 6.1% answered that patient's relatives are
rarely included into the care of the patients in the context of palliative care.
To palliative patients of greatest importance are interpersonal communication, frequency and mode of
communication between members of the palliative team. Therefore, we wanted to get answers about these issues.
According to the 179 community nurses, all members of the palliative team have good interpersonal
communication, since 58.0% answered the question affirmatively; two of them did not know the answer to this issue. This
can be understood as the fact that the principles and functioning, and the importance of palliative care are not yet widely
known among the palliative care professional providers. Even communication, as the main element of teamwork in the
process of palliative care, in two cases was completely unknown, what means that there was no teamwork in dealing with
the patient in the process of palliative care.
Out of 174 respondents, 81.8% give negative answer to the question "Do you keep a regular meeting with the
members of the palliative team at the primary level about individual cases in your region?" Seven of them (3.9%), do not
know the answer. From the above, we can conclude that teamwork in the process of palliative care is rarely carried out in
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Slovenia. Finding that some of them do not even know whether their team hold meetings on this topic is concerning. It
opens a dilemma is it because of ignorance or lack of interest?
Following question was about the extent to which community nurses build their knowledge in the field of palliative
care throughout permanent education and how their upgraded knowledge affects their work in the field of palliative care.
According to the respondents, there are 45.3% of those who feel they have enough knowledge to provide quality
care for palliative patients. 34.8% of respondents state that their knowledge is insufficient. Having a sense of lack of
competence, this feeling seems logical. But this seems non-professional, to provide professional care for patients being
aware of the lack of knowledge. Non-professional attitude affects the care of patients and, on the other hand, the selfimage of a professional provider. At this level, regulations should be provided for the continuous education of nurses.
Their knowledge are not able to define 19.9% community nurses.
Communication and knowledge were chosen as the components/building blocks of the quality of life of patients
and their relatives, because a competent, sensible communication affects not only familiarity with the state of a disease
and palliative care plan, but also the motivation to deal with the disease.
Table 1: Correlations between familiarity, communication, community nurses activities, region and knowledge
You function as

Functioning as

Pearson Corr.
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Regional field of activity (more Pearson Corr.
answers possible)
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Familiarity
Pearson Corr.
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Do you think you have enough Pearson Corr.
knowledge to offer quality care Sig. (2-tailed)
to palliative patients?
N
Communication
Pearson Corr.
Sig. (2-tailed)
N

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Regional field of Familiarity Do you think you have Communication


activity (more
enough knowledge to
answers possible)
offer quality care to the
palliative patients?

1
180
0,197
0,008
180
0,064
0,393
180
0,084
0,263
180
0,135
0,078
171

1
181
-0,144
0,052
181
-0,152
0,041
181
-0,008
0,92
172

1
181
0,188
0,011
181
0,261
0,001
172

1
181
0,02
0,795
172

1
172

Weak relation is present between the regions of the participating nurses, as well as between combined indicators, named
familiarity and opinion, "Do you think you have enough knowledge to offer quality care to palliative patients?". The
relationship is also evident between the integrated indicators, called knowledge and communication, as the Pearson
correlation coefficient is 0.261.
In the study, following hypothesis was set:
H: Community nurses claim that communication between the members of the palliative team, and their knowledge
about quality care for palliative patients, have statistically significant impact on patient and family's familiarity with a
disease and palliative care plan.

Familiarity
Communication
Do you think you have enough
knowledge to offer quality care to the
palliative patients?

Pearson Corr.
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Pearson Corr.
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Pearson Corr.
Sig. (2-tailed)
N

Familiarity Communication Do you think you have enough knowledge


to offer quality care to the palliative
patients?
1
181
0,261
0,001
172
0,188
0,011
181

407

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0,02
0,795
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Pearson's correlation indicates a weak correlation (0.261) between the two variables familiarity of patient and family with
the state of disease and palliative care plan and communication between members of the palliative team. A weak
correlation (0.188) can also be seen between the two variables familiarity and opinion about community nurses
knowledge to offer quality care to palliative patients.
The regression model between familiarity, communication and knowledge
Model R
R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1
0,340a 0,116
0,105
0,42364
Note: a. Predictors: (Constant), communication, Do you think you have enough knowledge to offer quality care to palliative
patients
Model
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Regression
3,975
2
1,988
11,075 0,000a
1 Residual
30,331
169
0,179
Total
34,306
171
Note: a. Predictors: (Constant), communication, Do you think you have sufficient knowledge in order to offer quality care to
palliative patients?
b. Dependent Variable: familiarity
Unstandardized
Coefficients
B
Std. Error
1,37
0,17

Model

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(Constant)
Do you think you have enough knowledge to offer
1
quality care to the palliative patients?
Communication
Note: a. Dependent Variable: familiarity

Standardized
Coefficients
Beta

Sig.

8,069

0,128

0,042

0,219

3,021 0,003

0,327

0,092

0,257

3,547 0,001

The regression model shows a statistically significant relationship between communication between the palliative care
team, opinion Do you have enough knowledge to offer quality care to palliative patients? and the dependent variable
familiarity. Thus, hypothesis is confirmed.
It means, where there is a good communication between members of the palliative team, there is also appropriate
familiarity of patients and family with the state of disease and palliative care plan. Those community nurses who feel that
they have enough professional and communication knowledge to offer quality care to palliative patients, better inform
patients and their relatives about the disease and palliative care plan.
Model of Independent Variables and their Impact on the Dependent Variable Familiarity

Source: own
7. Conclusion
For the quality of life in the palliative care process is crucial to help patients satisfy their physical, mental, social and
spiritual needs.
This study shows that, according to community nurses point of view, communication is a critical component of
palliative care. Each component of "good death" depends primarily on the communication of all actors involved in the
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process. It greatly affects the quality of care and the quality of life of the dying and their family members. Apart from
supporting the patient and family, communication helps build trust and is the foundation for overcoming obstacles and
distractions, relieving the symptoms of advanced, incurable disease. Or, to cite the words of Dame Cicely Saunders: "Do
everything you can, not only for a peaceful death, but for life until death." This goal can be achieved throughout
communication which enables humans to have a genuine human relationship even in times of death or as Trstenjak says:
"Allow a man to be a man."
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Impacts of Attitude towards Online Banner Advertisement on Brand Awareness:


Insight from Persuasive Hierarchy Model
Salem Mohamed S. Busen
Dept. of Communication, Sch. of MultiMedia Technology and Communication,
Universiti Utara Malaysia; Debo_debo10@yahoo.com

Che Su Mustaffa
Professor at the Dept. of Communication, Sch. of Multimedia Technology and
Communication Universiti Utara Malaysia

Mohamad Bahtiar
Senior Lecturer Dept. of Communication, Sch. of Multimedia Technology and
Communication Universiti Utara Malaysia
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
Researchers have noted that the visible progress of online advertising is not as actual as compared to the substantial amount
of effort and resources advertisers have devoted into advertising through the digital medium. In view of these challenges,
attention has been drawn to the need to examine the role of the dynamism of the antecedents which shape the awareness and
performances of brand particularly in the Arab world. Therefore, based on this studys review, the importance and impacts of
attitude towards online banner advertisements as an antecedents were identified. Similarly, in situating the antecedent within
the model of persuasive hierarchy framework the study was able to explain the impact of awareness on brand performance. In
conclusion, the study reviews have highlighted the significance of information on where online banner advertising campaigns
should focus, which in turn affords for successful brand.
Keywords: Online banner advertisement, brand awareness, persuasive hierarchy

1. Introduction
The penetration of online activities into business and marketing dealing has being significantly changing and impacting
consumers and brand relationship. In view of this, the impacts of consumers flocking the internet for online shopping and
buying has become trending across the globe. Likewise, Benmamoun, Kalling and Cropf (2012) disclose that recent
development in the Arab countries among which are Arab Spring and buying behaviours have been prompted by growing
broadcast, Internet technologies and substantial absorption of shared information technologies by the Arab educated
middle class and majorly young population. Considerably also, there have been changes in the Arab business behaviours
mainly from the advertising sector. However, in recent time, expenses for online advertising are challenged by a
noticeable flaw in brand accomplishments (Pfeiffer & Zinnbauer, 2010). More importantly, online advertising has been
influenced with about 5.4 declinations in the generation of revenue. Similarly, researchers have recorded that the visible
progress of online advertising is not as actual (Cottle, 2011) as compared to the substantial amount of effort and
resources advertisers have devoted into advertising through the digital medium. Nevertheless, the transient declination of
the online advertising does not minimize the fact that online advertising is over taking the orthodox media in terms of
performance and interactivity. Meanwhile, in view of these challenges, the dynamism of the antecedents which shape the
awareness and performances have become imperative for further investigation. Consequently, there is a researchable
gap in the context of discerning and assessing the impacts of online advertisement on brand awareness, which is
relatively new particularly in the Arab world.
Stressing the impacts of some of the online advertisements antecedents, Choi and Rifon (2002) note that the
abundant online advertisement information available to consumers pose a possible challenge to brand credibility and the
eventual awareness. All the same, very little research on the rapidly changing advertising structure has been conducted
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in some parts of the developing society such as Libya. Up till the present, very little is known about the influence of new
media on business and advertising environment (Ghannam, 2011). There is also a dearth of data on how the changing
new media environment or landscape in Libya is affecting the public, and about public opinion concerning these
developments.
Though, substantial amount of works have been done to study the impacts of online advertising but very little
attention on the impact of consumers attitudes towards online advertising on the brand awareness, in view of the fact that
brand equity has emerged as a worthy concept to investigate when considering audience behavior change (Jarvis,
Rhodes, Deshpande, Berry, Chulak-Bozzer, Faulkner, & Latimer-Cheung, 2014). Also, the need for research attention
cannot be over stretched in view of the cluttered online advertising environment, increasing online advertising designs,
and the anticipated further progression of online advertising among consumers. Therefore, it becomes critical to
understand the factors that affect consumer response and awareness. An essential benefit for conducting this study is a
resultant absence of an in-depth (Cottle, 2011) and exhaustive research exploring and exploiting the effect of new
communication technologies. Based on this, the paper conceptually examines the impacts of attitude towards online
banner advertisement on brand awareness situating it within the model of persuasive hierarchy framework.
Therefore, this paper seeks to explore those mechanisms in the context of online advertisement that hold potency
for brand awareness. There is no doubt that online advertisement antecedents are important driving forces in achieving
brand success. However, the need to properly deploy the antecedents for brand awareness and customer purchase
intention requires theoretical exploration. Similarly, the recent increase in online advertisement expenditures especially in
the Arab world raises important questions on the importance of these driving forces as well as the need to understand
their dimensions. There are also concerns from scholars on the influence of these antecedents.
2. Overview of Online Advertising in Libya
Libya advertising activities have been experiencing stiff control and regulation especially in the previous regime that
limited its role in the economy. For instance, Libya had no Internet connections for most of the 1990s in spite of being
comparatively wealthy compared to the developed countries (Maslen, 1996; Twati, 2014). For this reason, it is fair to
conclude that online advertisement industry in Libya is still developing. Moreover, the use of technology (including
communications technology) in Libya for a long time was marginal (Twati, 2014). This poor penetration could be the
consequence of the strict regime control on media accessibility in other to limit public interactions.
However, currently the new trend among many young Libyans has shown that marketing has become an
honorable subject (Fernandes, & Pimenta, 2013). Currently Libya is gradually developing towards democracy and for that
it is expected to activate marketing activities. Similarly, a country that is stable democratically is with a high probability of
good penetration of communications media alongside freedom of the press and speech. Though, Libya is experiencing
political turmoil, nevertheless, the sudden and irresistible political changes within the Arab world conveyed by the Arab
Spring have covered the role of new media in other platforms such as advertising (Aouragh, 2012). Thereby in these Arab
world buyers are becoming more and more aware of advertising and the influence of multi-media platforms. Meanwhile
as a response to the growing and appealing online advertisement in some developing countries, such as Libya, multinational corporations (MNCs) from developed countries are speedily competing to penetrate these countries so to exploit
the ever growing demands in emerging economies.
3. Online Advertisement and Brand Accomplishments
Online advertising was described by Bakshi and Kumar (2013) as a type of mass communication with premeditated
message contents which are understandable, suitable and publishable over the Internet. Therefore, online advertisement
is referred to as the broadcasting of advertisement messages on the Internet via websites, emails, ad-supported
software, and smart-phones (Keller, 2009). According to Hsu and Hsu (2011) contemporary studies of online consumers
now conceptualize them as active seekers of product related information. On the basis of this, online advertising was
described by Bakshi and Kumar (2013) as a type of mass communication with premeditated message contents which are
understandable, suitable and publishable over the Internet
In the study by Evans (2009) it was revealed that copious research has empirically identified the effects of online
advertisement and the assessment of online advertisement on brand development. Danaher and Mullarkey (2003) also
noted that the fundamental focus of these previous studies have emphasized the recall factors of advertisement, and
design implementation of advertisement copy which coincided with Spalding et al, (2009)s work. Similarly, several other
studies (such as Manchanda et al., 2006; Lin & Chen, 2009) have also contributed empirically to the comparative
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evaluation of the online advertisement and the conventional advertisement. As a result, Pfeiffer and Zinnbauer (2010)
urged future researchers to examine the role of online advertisement on brand development and brand equity.
Essentially, online advertising exemplifies interaction through a direct communication of information about a
product to a wide-ranging or precise audience. However, its efficacy is determined by several factors among which are:
its headline framing, inclusion of animation, interplay, flash and use of color. Therefore, the success of equity brand
depends on the product online advertising. This informs the reasons for the objective of this work which is to provide
empirical evidence to the effectiveness of online banner advertising and determining the role of online banner advertising
in developing brand equity.
4. Characteristics of Online Banner Advertisement
Considerably, many of the contents that are placed online are sustained by advertising (Goldfarb, & Tucker, 2011). As we
have it for television and radio, online resources also offer free access to contents through generation of revenue from
advertising. Feasibly the most productive form of online advertising is the banner advertising (TechTerm, 2014). Online
Banner advertisements are text and graphical displays that are hyperlinked to the uniform resource locator (URL) of the
advertiser. The purpose of the online banner advertising mainly is to create awareness and draw the attention of the
internet visitors on brand (Dreze & Hussherr, 2003). Online banners advert may be either horizontal or vertical (Burns &
Lutz 2006; Rodgers & Thorson 2000). These are the variety of online banner adverts sizes that are strategically used to
turn customers mind around: (a) Standard Banner Advert: 468 x 60 Pixels, (b) Leader Board Banner Advert: 768 x 90
Pixels, (c) Banner Advert: 234 x 60 Pixels, (d) Skyscrapers advert: 120 x 600 Pixels, (e) Vertical Banner Advert 120 x 240
Pixels.
Online Banner advertising as the dominant form of advertising online represents 55% of all online advertisements
(Faber, Lee, & Nan, 2004; Interactive Advertising Bureau, 1999) and 32% of all new media advertising revenue
(Interactive Advertising Bureau, 2002, marketingterms.com, 2014). Commonly, online banner advertising is limited to a
graphic image that characteristically appear as rectangular image shaped box that can be placed anywhere but usually
positioned at the top, sides, or bottom of the web page.
5. Attitude towards Online Banner Advertisement and Brand Awareness
Online banner advertisements which are mostly displayed advertisements that are typically hyperlinked to an advertisers
website are the main form of advertising on the Web (Li, & Bukovac, 1999). This popularity is because; the most
productive form of online advertising is the banner advertising (TechTerm, 2014). As a result, considerably, many of the
contents that are placed online are sustained by banner advertising (Goldfarb, & Tucker, 2011). Even though
predominantly used as Internet traffic builders, banner adverts have been presented to successfully raise brand
awareness, preference, as well as purchase intentions (Briggs, & Hollis, 1997). Similarly, Dreze and Hussherr (2003)
stressed that previous research has revealed that exposure to banner advertising leads to improved advertisement
awareness, brand awareness, purchase intention as well as site visits. Therefore, these findings indicate that banner
adverts serve functions of both image as well as direct response advertising. Meanwhile, as image advertising, banner
adverts can create brand equity. Also, as direct response advertising, banner adverts can stimulate traffic to advertised
Web sites (Allen, & Kania, 1997). In achieving this traffic, vibrancy is one of the unique innovational mechanisms of
banner advertising, carrying moving images as well as graphics to enhance the presentation of persuasive messages
(Ellsworth & Ellsworth, 1995). However, in achieving the interactivity of online banner advertising, a number of high-tech
developments which include JAVA script, plug-ins, Flash, in addition to streaming media have contributed (Yoo, Kim, &
Stout, 2004). Therefore, interactivity has become an important part of banner adverts for the reason that most animated
banner adverts are a sequences of images superimposed on one another to build an illusion of motion (Kalyanaraman &
Oliver 2001).
The Internet and other interactive media such as interactive TV have been given different accolade as the
powerful, responsive and customizable tool than the conventional media (Hoyer & Macinnis, 2010; Port, 1999). However,
indications from empirical studies support the uniformity of most audiences reactions among Internet advertising and the
more conventional advertising as regards the context of traditional measure of advertising usefulness. The study of Hoyer
and Macinnis (2010) indicate that attitudes are centred on the beliefs or cognitions which shows that attitudes can be
moulded based on beliefs and thoughts that we have about the information received. Once a consumer is exposed to the
online advertising, there is possibility of either forming positive or negative attitudes towards the advertising (Schiffman
and Kanuk, 2000).
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The study of Drze and Hussherr (1999) for example, showed that audiences response to Internet advertising is
similar to audiences response to other media advertising; just that Internet advertising is easier to ignore than others. In
the same way, it was disclosed by Lynch and Ariely (2000) that consumers are not price alert when online advertisers
offer different products as compared to that of identical products. This discovery nonetheless, completely refutes the
findings in more conventional retail situations. The conventional determinant of advertising usefulness like attitude
change, recall and brand choice are just a subcategory of the entire story of the effectiveness of online advertising.
However, these measures are unavoidable as they are involved in the tradition of advertising research that aims at the
effect of advertising on consumers; processes that make accessible little knowledge of what the audiences do with
advertising (Fall, 2000). For the moment, the usual research viewpoint involves a captivating exposure to a kind of
advertisement which is followed by several measure of receiver response. If the concept or belief that audiences respond
to advertising, then the distinct nature of the dependent as well as independent variables is unclear. Definitely in actual
fact, any kind of responses to any advertisement which include even just attending could be reliant on a number of other
factors (Yoo, Kim, & Stout, 2004). However, in a situation that audience select which they attend, then attending act turn
out to be a very relevant factor of advertising response (Goldfarb, & Tucker, 2011). Meanwhile, the predictable pattern for
assessing effects and effectiveness of advertising has appropriately availed in the field (Rosenkrans, 2009); however it is
increasingly confronted by the interactive context.
Online advertising can also generate warm feelings of friendliness, caring and hope (Solomon, 2009). Other than
that, the unfavorable or negative feelings such as offence, defiance and others can also be generated through
consumers cognitive capacities (Mehta, 1999). According to Aaker and Stayman (1990) and Brown and Stayman (1992),
the positive emotional response of consumers towards online advertising is the best indicator or criteria of effective
advertising. This is because the objective to create advertising is to form a positive attitude in consumers towards the
advertisement as well as the promoted goods and services.
6. Brand Awareness and Effectiveness of Advertisement
Brand awareness is the cynosure for measuring the effectiveness of an advertisement. It had been additionally
underlined by Kelly (1991) that basic fundamental purpose of the complete advertising endeavours is to make and
develop the awareness of a selected brand. Its solely cheap that buyers purchase product they're alert to. Inferably, an
advertisement may be understood to be effective if it creates the attention of a selected product or brand as is reinforced
by Macdonald and Sharp (1996). The most assumption in this study is on the utilization of the advertising of a brand in
generating brand awareness that is in line with the work of Macdonald and Sharp (1993). Within the work of Macdonald
and Sharp (1993), ninety four percent of their respondents believed that brand awareness is the measuring tool for the
effectiveness of communication. Within the creation and development of brand awareness, as was earlier said, the
foremost effective and renowned instrument is brand advertising. On another hand, the study of Peltier et al (1992)
discovered that the most strategic action of direct response advertising is exclusively to instigate noticeable response
from the recipients.
The proliferation of the IMC construct, has observed that some advertising messages duplicate the mixture of awareness
and response function, later recording an incredible rational and emotional audience happen as seconded by Peltier et al.
(1992).
Panel data was used by Robert, Ulrich and Michaela (2009) to analyse the influence of advertising on brand
awareness and perceived quality.
The authors geared toward empirical reflection structuring and appraising advertising effectiveness; underscoring
that organizations regard advertisement as a premeditated investment with the resolved of generating a good and
winning brand, in conjunction with generating a solid brand awareness. It was disclosed from their study that there was a
major positive and unwavering influence of advertising on brand awareness. In a similar study that was piloted in India,
Roshni (2012) disclosed that 86% of brand of awareness is generated and sent using advertisement and offered a
correlational table that portrayed a major association between advertising and brand awareness. It was again disclosed
within the study that advertising is the basic instrument for communication wherever recipients most preferred to get
information regarding their favourite brand. The study of Gan (2010) used a rather different from this studys, the
researchers however used simple regression to assess the effectiveness of advertisement and identified a good
significance of advertisement on the profit and worth of Malaysian corporations. The method procedure or approach
adopted in the study encouraged the method approach of the study. Variety of different studies is showing up in this
domain to empirically observe and appraise the impact of advertising or its relationships with brand equity and its
development. Also, the study of Zahra (2012) used the statistical procedure (i.e. Structural Equation Modelling) to
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measure the function of multifarious mixture of promoting within the development of effective brand equity. Furthermore,
Zahra (2012) in the study applied a broad range of sample size of household appliance users in Iran. The study showed
some major effect of advertisement on brand awareness.
There are innumerable quantity of literature in this domain that has studied the effectiveness of advertising that the
leading reason for developing advertising is to create awareness. A motivating index for effectiveness testing becomes, to
what degree an advert will influence awareness within the minds of the audience/consumers as supported by Wells
(1994), and Leavitt, Waddell and Wells (1970). Brand awareness as indicated by Rossiter and Percy (1991) isn't affected
by simply the brand alone however the whole thought that unfold across from the brands associated colours, shape and
package and so on. This according to findings has been the motive for the advertisement and brand awareness
development we have witnessed within the past studies as are often seen in the study of Romaniuk, Sharp, Paech and
Driesener (2004). These authors studied the consumers spontaneous and assisted brand awareness and advertising
awareness, disclosing a major influence of assisted awareness within the purchase decision of buyers. As regards the
awareness within the context of this study, the awareness could be a product of good advertising. Wells et al. (2003)
agreed that advertising is an important instrument in creation of brand name awareness that successively develops
effective brand equity.
7. Persuasive Hierarchy Framework and Advertising Campaigns Focus
For advertising scholars, the adaptation and applicability of the traditional advertising theories to online advertising has
been of great concern since the advent of online advertising (Yoo, Kim, & Stout, 2004). However, the traditional theories
approaches continue to be applicable to the online advertising environment, for the reason that not only do the
fundamental goals of online advertising are similar to the goals of traditional advertising (Pavlou & Stewart 2000), but also
the theoretical models advanced for traditional advertising have effectively been applied to online advertising (Cho 1999;
Rodgers & Thorson 2000).
Persuasive Hierarchy Frameworks are beyond any doubt the leading used models of persuasion (Dahl, 2012).
Meanwhile, the essential postulation of the model displays that cognition is trailed by an effect, behavior, coherent
thoughts turns to attitude growth that eventually ends up in purchase. The century-old advertising approach model, has
received extensive attention from both the academic communities and practitioner as an explicit explanation of the way
advertising works, as well as in turn, as a foundation for measuring the effects of advertising (Barry, & Howard, 1990;
Weilbacher, 2001). Because of its uncomplicatedness and logic, the persuasive hierarchy model offers information on
where advertising campaigns should focus, which in turn affords for good advertising planning since the model acts as a
theoretical tool to predict consumer behavior (Barry 2002).
Stimulating the active kind of cognition assumed within the Persuasive Hierarchy Models are Low-Involvement
Hierarchy Models, that assume that (a low level of) cognition, i.e. simply being conscious of instead of dynamically
deliberating a team of brand, ends up in associate expertise followed by effect on attitude formation.
The Persuasive models presented the thought of a hierarchy of effects, which is an order within which things occur,
with the consequence that the earlier effects are more important. Other multidimensional types of the persuasive
hierarchy paradigm have been anticipated by several researchers among who are Maclnnis, Moorman, and Jaworski
(1991), Bloom, Edell, and Staelin (1994).
The model with six levels of mental process (intermediate effects): (i) feature analysis resulting in mood generated
effect, (2) basic classification resulting in pure effect transfer, (3) meaning analysis resultingin heuristic analysis, (4)
information integration resulting in message based mostly persuasion, (5) role-taking resulting in empathy-based
persuasion, and (6) constructive processes resulting in self-generated persuasion.
Meanwhile, Batra and Ray (1985) recommend that customers might develop a "hedonic" impact supported on pure
feeling without an evaluation of exhausting product attributes. The multi spatiality in purchaser response, in line with Batra
and Ray's framework, is thus the results of the various ways in which attitudes might develop (utilitarian versus hedonic),
instead of the degree of elaboration. This implies that measures of affect ought to include utilitarian and hedonic
elements. The application of persuasive hierarchy models highlight the significance of its involvement as a moderator of
advertising effects. Cacioppo and Petty (1985) resolved that repetitions of various versions of an advert have a positive
impact on low-involvement persons however no impact on high-involvement persons. In other words, repetition of a
series of advertisements will forestall (or delay) wear-out. Therefore, the present study attempts to assess the
effectiveness of online banner advertising within the framework of the persuasive hierarchy model.

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8. Conclusions
This discussion is premised on the theoretical direction and impacts of online banner advertisement on brand awareness.
The approaches taken are that of a general review and secondary research.
The theoretical propositions of persuasive hierarchy model regarding the potentials of online banner advertisement
underlie this paper. Therefore, the paper responses to the initial proposition are in three-fold. Firstly, the importance of
online banner advertisement on the essential brand awareness was established. Secondly, the awakening in the attitude
of Libyan current generation on the online marketing and interactivity was identified. And lastly, the theoretical basis for
online advertisement imperative in the molding favourable attitude toward brand was discussed.
The study presented in this article explores the role of source credibility in determining Web advertising
effectiveness. Using traditional advertising effects theories, the study goes beyond recent investigations of vehicle effects
on consumer response to banner ads. Specifically, the study examined the effects of website credibility and advertising
credibility on ad credibility, ad and brand attitude, and product purchase intention. The effects of banner ad relevance
(i.e., product category advertised to website editorial content) on consumer perceptions of the ad. These contributions are
significant because they have enriched the analysis of Dreze and Hussher (2003), Rosenkrans (2009), who established
that the conventional measures for evaluating the effectiveness of advertisement are still appropriate, suitable and
reliable in line with online advertising. For instance, mainly procedures like establishing connection between online
advertising and brand equity, brand recognition and brand awareness.
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Blood Feud and Its Impact on the Albanian Criminality


Vera Kopsaj
PhD Candidate, Department of Social and Economic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome
vera.kopsaj@uniroma1.it
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
Blood feud in Albania still exists. It is spread throughout the country, but it is more alarming in northern Albania. The purpose of
this study is to explore and describe the phenomenon in order to know its impact on the Albanian criminality. The literature
review indicates that blood feud in Albania is adaptable to circumstances and it is associated with the weakness of the state.
The analysis is based on combining data from different sources. The data show that during the years 1992-2012, the 7
Albanian districts out of 36 where blood feud is more present have a higher crime rate. The district of Shkodra, where Kanun
has more influence, registers the highest crime rate. The results thus indicate that blood feud could be considered a significant
criminogenic factor. Comparing to other countries taken into analysis Albania has, after Montenegro, the highest crime rate
among Balkans. The data also show that blood feud does not have a great impact on a larger scale, since Albania ranks 14th
out of 26 analysed countries for years 2006-2010.
Keywords: Blood feud, Kanun, institutional trust, crime.

1. Introduction
Violence is one of the most debated issues in the international forum. The presence of a multiplicity of moral codes all
over the world makes violence a very sensitive issue. Its definition depends on actors and their purposes (Krug et al
2002). The Albanian Kanun of Lek Dukagjini is one of these moral codes. It legitimates violence under particular
conditions. A special section of Kanun pronounces that the blood never remains unavenged. It cannot be extinguished by
a fine (Il Kanun, art. 128, 917). This moral obligation has a relevant effect on people engaged in blood feud, making
them justify the committed homicides. If they kill for blood feud are considered heroes, not criminals. Although blood feud
is a longstanding phenomenon, Albania still has to deal with it. Kanun belongs to the 15th century, but still many people
put it into practice. Indeed, there are thousands of people in Albania who struggle every day against blood feud.
Moreover, there are hundreds of families locked in their houses turned into jails. The fear of being killed for blood feud
force both adults and children, especially males, to stay hidden or to move stealthily. Children cannot attend school, they
cannot play outside. They cannot live their childhood. They grow up in a context of hate, of violence, with the hope to
become old enough to kill in turn. Blood feuds thus generate ignorance, hate and violence.
Nevertheless, the blood feud phenomenon is underestimated by the Albanian government. It considers it a local
issue concentrated on a specific area, which has not got a significant impact on the whole society. The literature suggests
the contrary. It shows that blood feud is present throughout the country. Furthermore, blood feud is strongly associated
with the weakness of the state. The weakness of the state has pushed people to re-trust Kanun, the customary right,
since it has precise rules concerning every aspect of life.
In this study we view the phenomenon from a sociological perspective. The statistical analysis shows that blood
feud is a criminogenic factor: it significantly affects the Albanian crime rate.
2. Purpose and Methodology
The purpose of this study is to explore the uncontrollable nature of blood feud, in order to know the impact that it has on
the Albanian criminality. Through the literature review we also seek to explore the roots of blood feud and its several
aspects that has assumed during the years taken into analysis.
The limitation and the specific structure of the available data lead the analysis. That is, the fact that the available
quantitative data focus on only 7 Albanian districts out of 36, reporting data only for the years 1992-2012, limits the
freedom of choice of the methods to be used and consequently the analysis.
The descriptive analysis is based on the data drawn from the Albanian Committee of Nationwide Reconciliation, an
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Albanian NGO; the INSTAT database, the Albanian National Statistical Institute; and Worldbank. The Justice and Peace
Commission of Albania and Caritas Albania (JPCA), also offered accurate data concerning the trust of people in the
Albanian Justice Institutions and specific data for the district of Shkodra. The analysis focuses on 7 Albanian districts out
of 36, the ones in which blood feud plays a more significant part. It covers 21 years, 1992 to 2012. Furthermore, the
analysis is extended to a comparison on terms of intentional homicides between Albania and Europe and Central Asia.
Such a comparison has been done in order to know the relevance of the phenomenon outside the Albanian frontiers.
That is, the impact that the Albanian blood feud has on a larger scale.
3. Literature Review
There is a wide variety of literature about the Albanian blood feud and the Albanian customary right. Blood feud in
Albania, especially in northern Albania, has attracted the attention of several English, German, American and Italian
scholars.
The XIX-th century was the starting point of the interest about the Albanian customs right from foreign researchers
(Bevapi, 2012: 117). During this time period blood feud was interpreted in comparison with other Balkan countries,
focusing mainly on its historical and juridical aspects. At the beginning of the 20th century several significant fieldworks
helped to better comprehend the blood feud phenomenon, considering the fact that in that time Kanun was orally
transmitted. The studies concerning blood feud in northern Albania are essentially coming from anthropology.
In this section we are going to consider that part of literature that enlightens the perspective of our analysis. That
is, blood feud and the mythology; the organisation of the northern kinship and blood feud as a moral obligation; the
mistrust of the Albanian Justice Institutions; the static and the dynamic aspects of blood feud. Such an excursus will help
us to view the phenomenon over time, with its several aspects. It will also help to highlight the uncontrollable nature that
blood feud has assumed during the years taken into analysis.
3.1

Blood feud and mythology

Blood feud is strongly connected with the mythology. The centuries-old oral transmission has covered Kanun with
mythical charm, strengthening thus its legitimacy. On the one hand, a myth is important for a given community because it
gives to it a shared past and a shared future, both essential for its existence. It helps the community to construct its own
identity (Schpflin, 2002). On the other hand, a myth can become such independent, with its own structure, that might be
difficult to keep it politically under control. When myths become politically controlled there is little space for deviant
thought (Schwandner-Sievers; Fischer, 2002: 20). In contrast, when myths are not politically controlled, authorities have
little power on controlling deviant thoughts and actions. It seems that Albania presents a perfect case of the dichotomy
myth-deviance. On the one hand, Kanun protects and highly respects the persons. On the other hand, it describes
precisely why, how and when a person should be killed by another. Kanun thus shows to be self-contradictory.
3.2

The northern Albanian kinship and blood feud as a duty

Significant literature has stopped the attention on the organization of the northern Albanian kinship (Durham 1909, Coon
1970, Resta 2002; Vll 2002, De Waal 2004, Young and Mustafa, 2008). It focused on the northern Albanian fis as the
main source of authority, showing thus the impact that it has on blood feud. Gjini (maternal lineage) has no effect on
blood feud, since the legitimacy is given to the fis (patrilineage). The fis is the kinship unit which has a relevant impact on
blood feud (Young and Mustafa, 2008: 92). It is the nuclear family which feeds, manages the relationships and transmits
blood feud generation to generation. All this process is covered by the mythical charm of the duty. The one who avenges
gains the respect of its community. The Fis has its own structure and hierarchy, that intervenes in case of conflicts. The
Elders occupy the top of such a hierarchy. This way of kinship organisation, where the male is at the centre and blood is
avenged with blood, appears to be a community based on violence. Long ago1 blood feud has been placed within the
civilities based on violence. According to this standpoint, the increases of blood feuds is due to the admiration of these
1 Blood feud in Albania has been interpreted also under the light of biological, psychoanalytical and racial theories. In his book Criminal
man (Luomo delinquente), Cesare Lombroso, defines Albanians as an innate criminal race. [T]he Arab and the Albanian race are more
prone to crimes of blood, less inclined instead to crimes against property. (Lombroso, 1897: 15, my translation). Such an interpretation
has been since a long time outdated. And, as experience indicates, it can easily lead to stereotypes. Still, Lombrosos standpoint is
interesting regarding blood feud, as shown above.

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heroic actions, and the consideration of the revenge as a duty (Lombroso, 1897: 21). Other scholars also focused on the
moral obligation of the phenomenon. Blood feud was for northern Albanians a solemn duty, recognised by both sides
and guided by precise rules (Durham 1928: 16). Nevertheless the solemn nature of this phenomenon, blood feud was
one of the main reasons of males homicides. Their lives were affected by blood feud from birth to death (Durham, 1909:
41).
Blood feud is more present in the northern Albania because of the country-isolation. The literature suggests that
there is a strong association between feuding and isolation.
Merturi-Nikaj [region] is the more closely associated with isolation and intense feuding (Coon, 1970: 35).
Furthermore, the development of the structure of clans or tribes in Albania and Kosovo is due to the isolation from the
rest of Europe. In such an inaccessible context, where the nationally enforced system of justice couldnt be present,
predominated the customary laws, such as Kanun.
3.3

Blood feud and the mistrust of people in the Albanian Justice Institutions

The lack of an efficient law in Albania, during the years taken into analysis, and the failure of government authorities to
enforce the law, pushed people to re-trust and apply Kanun. This return made possible the emerging of old social
conflicts, resulting in numerous murders. Individual problems turned to be political. The individual need for protection
turned to be a collective request, which found an answer in Kanun (Lemel, 1998; De Waal, 2004). The land distribution to
the hereditary owners by 1992, in the aftermath of the collapse of the communist state, needed the precise rules of
Kanun (De Waal 2004). Also the collapse of the government during the Civil War, in 1997, reinforced the trust in Kanun.
In this light, blood feud is strongly connected with the security and the economic transition in Albania. In the absence of
an effective state the Kanun has been used to regulate society, economic relations and property rights (Lawson and
Saltmarshe, 2000: 138). Furthermore, the mistrust of people in the Albanian Justice Institutions (JPCA, 2010) due to its
failure to function, reinforced the trust not only in Kanun but also in the role of the Council of Elders (Pleqria) in resolving
conflicts. People involved in blood feud refer to Elders instead of the Albanian authorities, as they consider them more
experienced mediators (Young and Mustafa, 2008: 101). The small-scale face-to-face nature of village life and the
symbolic importance attached to the Kanun gave the pleqria a moral force that certainly did not exist at any other level
of government (De Waal, 2004: 26).
From this standpoint not much has changed compared to one century ago: The law in the Albanian mountains is
administered by a council of Elders (Durham, 1909: 27). The mistrust of people in the Albanian Justice Institutions
reveals the insufficient work done by these institutions (JPCA, 2010).
3.4

The static and the dynamic aspects of blood feud

Blood feud in Albania shows two different aspects: the static and the dynamic aspect. In the first case, blood feud can be
considered a habitus (Vll 2002). The internalization process of the Albanian customary right has come unconsciously, as
a consequence of habitus. Habitus are not the product of singular people, they have a collective nature (Bourdieu, 1977).
This nature gives to blood feud a real power. From such a perspective, blood feud seems to have socially-shared-roots.
The static aspect of blood feud is strongly connected with the mythology, also with the power of the patrialineage. For
what concerns this aspect of the phenomenon, it can be predictable since it respects the rules of Kanun.
The other aspect of blood feud is the dynamic one. It is more complex, since it has to deal with the deviation and
the changes of Kanun (Grutzpalk 2002). Blood feud is adapted to circumstances rather than closely aligned to the textual
tradition (Schwandner-Sievers, 2001: 97). When blood feud shows the dynamic aspect, it is difficult to control and to
predict it. Schwander-Sievens (1995: 123) quotes one of her interviewees: If they kill one of us we will kill 10 of them.
Such an affirmation highlights the split between Kanun and its practice. It is also stated by the Albanian studies: Kanun
nowadays has taken some distinctions or features which were neither described nor predicted in it (JPCA, 2010: 75).
4. Blood Feud in Figures
In this chapter we are going to consider two main points. First, the impact that blood feud has on the Albanian criminality.
Second, the trust of people in the Albanian Justice Institutions.
According to the Committee of Nationwide Reconciliation, during the so called transition years (from 1992 to
2012, i.e. from the Communist regimes end to nowadays) about the 15% of the Albanian total homicides (10.446) is due
to killings for revenge and blood feud. The Committee of Nationwide Reconciliation data are rejected by the Albanian
government as too high. We consider them since other studies conducted show approximately the same results.
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162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171

Table 1. Total Intentional Homicides in Albania by motivation (1992-2012)


Reasons of homicides
No. of death toll
Percentage
For revenge and blood feud
1,567
15.0
Trivial reasons
1,358
13.0
Property reasons
397
3.8
Suicides
864
8.3
Accidental killings
157
1.5
Unregistered*
6,103
58.4
Total
10,446
100.0
(*): According to the source, the 6.103 other killings are unregistered, mainly during 1990-91-92 and 1996-97-98.

Source: Committee of Nationwide Reconciliation


Out of the 36 Albanian districts, the 7 districts shown in table 2 constitutes 65% of the total death toll in Albania. That is, a
total of 6.864 homicides compared to 29 other districts, which constitute 34.3% of death toll (3.583 homicides). The sum
of the first two districts, Tirana and Shkodra, is more than the total amount of the other 29 districts altogether.
Table 2. Average and Rate per year of Intentional Homicides in the Albanian districts (1992-2012)
District
Name
Tirana
Shkodra
Fieri
Vlora
Berati
Durresi
Elbasani
Other 29
Districts
Total

172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
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187
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Abs. val. of Intentional Average per year of


Homicides
Intentional Homicides
(Total 1992-2012)
(1992-2012)
2,466
117.43
1,839
87.57
627
29.86
574
27.33
490
23.33
470
22.38
397
18.90

Average
Population
(2001-2012)*
679,918
238,285
349,852
188,263
168,329
254,343
329,149

Rate per year of


Intentional Homicide per
100.000 inhabitants
17.27
36.75
8.53
14.52
13.86
8.80
5.74

3.583

170.62

749,362

22.77

10,446

497.43

2.957.502

16.82

Source: Ibid. (*): INSTAT


As shown by table 2, the district of Tirana has more than double the number of the population (year 2001) and three
times more (year 2013) than the district of Shkodra. Nevertheless, between these two main districts there is a difference
of only 6% of intentional homicides death toll during the transition years. Instead, the district of Shkodra has
approximately the same number of population as the district of Durresi, but the rate of intentional homicides is far from
being equal: 17,6% compared to 4,5% (table 2). That is, the rate of Shkodra is almost four times higher than the rate of
Durresi.
As shown by the above tables the crime rate is higher in the districts of Tirana and Shkodra. In 2012 the population
of district of Tirana was four times that of Shkodra (it was two times in 2001). During the years of the transition it is
observed that the number of intentional homicides committed in Shkodra (1.839) is about three quarters that of Tirana
(2.466). This means that the incidence of intentional homicides in the district of Shkodra is much higher that of Tirana.
Considering that, according to the data, during the years of transition the 15% of the intentional homicides is due to blood
feud, it is likely that the incidence of the blood feud of the total intentional homicides committed in Shkodra is higher that
of Tirana. As demonstrated by the studies reviewed in the preceding paragraphs, this could be considered due to the
heavy roots that Kanun has in the society of northern Albania.
We consider now the data of Justice and Peace Commission of Albania (JPCA), that in 2010 made a very in depth
study on blood feud in Albania. Their study focused on twelve districts of the country, where the phenomenon is sharper
(JPCA, 2010: 15). The numbers about the district of Shkodra shown in table 3 and in table 4 are alarming.

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Table 3. Homicides for Blood Feud occurred in Shkodras district in 2006-2008


Year
2006
2007
2008

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Abs. val. of victims for


Blood Feud
11
13
21

Shkodras district
Population*
241,923
238,238
233,881

Rate in % of Homicides for Blood Feud per


100.000 inhabitants
4.55
5.46
8.98

Source: Justice and Peace Commission of Albania, Caritas Albania and France Caritas, (*) INSTAT
In 2006, in the district of Shkodra, there were 4 people out of 100.000 inhabitants killed for blood feud. In 2008 there were
9 people out of 100.000 inhabitants killed for blood feud.
As shown by table 4, the homicides for blood feud in the district of Shkodra constitute almost 13% of the total
number of intentional homicides in year 2006, 12% in year 2007 and almost 23% in 2008. According to these figures, the
impact that blood feud has on the entire Albanian criminality is very significant. During the years 2006-2008, the district of
Shkodra constituted the 7% of the entire Albanian population. On the other hand, the district of Shkodra produced almost
13% in 2006, 12% in 2007 and almost 23% in 2007 of the entire national homicides.
Table 4. Percentage of Blood Feud homicides occurred in Shkodras district in 2006-2008
2006
2007
2008
Albanias population
3.179.573 3.166.222 3.156.608
Abs. value of Intentional Homicides
88
105
92
% of No. Blood feud in Shkodras district/ No. of Intentional Homicides 12,55
12,39
22,76
% of Shkodras district population /Albanias population*
7,61
7,52
7,41

210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220

Source: Justice and Peace Commission of Albania, Caritas Albania and France Caritas, (*) INSTAT
As we discussed in the previous paragraphs, one of the main reasons of the increasing crime rate for blood feud could be
the weakness of the State. The weakness of the State leads people to mistrust the Justice Institutions. For such a
purpose, it would be useful to consider the trust and the mistrust in the Albanian Justice Institutions. The data regarding
the trust and the mistrust are based on a questionnaire drafted and applied to 20 high schools for youths in different
districts of Albania (JPCA, 2010: 15).
Table 5. The percentage of trust and mistrust in the Albanian Justice Institutions (2010)
Age group
Adults
Youth

221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236

Trust in percentage
12
20

Mistrust in percentage
88
80

Source: Justice and Peace Commission of Albania, Caritas Albania and France Caritas.
The general mistrust towards the Albanian Justice Institutions, and the high rate of homicides for blood feud per 100.000
people in the 2006-2008, show that blood feud is a well-rooted phenomenon that is apt to perpetuate crime.
5. Albanias Crime versus Other Countries
In this section we compare Albania with other countries, in order to consider the impact of blood feud on a larger scale.
The analysis focuses on other 25 Europe and Central Asia countries. Through this analysis we are trying to present the
situation regarding the intentional homicides in Balkan countries, and in some of the former Soviet Union countries. The
analysis considers also Italy and Ireland, where blood feud still exists in some parts of these countries. Kosovo is missing
in our analysis, due to the lack of a dataset. It could have been very interesting to compare Kosovo with Albania,
considering the fact that blood feud is also very common there.
The lack of data for all the 26 countries that cover years 1992-2012, doesnt permit us to make a more reflective
comparison. Nevertheless, the comparative analysis focuses on five available years, 2006-2010.
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As shown by table 6, after Montenegro, Albania registers the highest crime rate among Balkan countries. Albania
and Montenegro have a strong ethnic Albanian component, and blood feud is present in both countries. On the other
hand, Albania occupies the 14th place among the 26 analyzed countries. Albania is almost at the center. This ranking
shows that blood feud does not have a significant impact on a larger scale, since Albania occupies the 14th place.
Table 6. Rate per year of Intentional Homicides of 26 Europe and Central Asia Countries (2006 -2010)
Average population Average Intentional homicides per 100,000 people
Ranking
(2006-2010)
(2006-2010)
Albania
3,160,746
3.12
14
Belarus
9,537,800
6.17
6
Bosnia and Herzegovina
3,860,879
1.74
19
Bulgaria
7,620,319
2.19
16
Croatia
4,431,360
1.44
21
Cyprus
1,076,547
1.31
23
Estonia
1,341,265
6.08
7
FYR of Macedonia
2,098,392
2.00
18
Georgia
4,406,780
5.97
8
Greece
11,233,715
1.23
24
Ireland
4,395,250
1.38
22
Italy
59,765,010
1.00
25
Kazakhstan
15,776,608
10.45
3
Kyrgyz Republic
5,327,340
10.59
2
Latvia
1,341,265
4.39
10
Lithuania
3,350,818
7.93
4
Moldova
3,572,039
6.75
5
Montenegro
618,557
3.18
13
Romania
21,513,312
2.04
17
Russian Federation
142,169,800
12.24
1
Serbia
7,351,122
1.49
20
Slovenia
2,026,911
0.73
26
Tajikistan
7,283,104
2.52
15
Turkey
70,372,997
3.83
12
Turkmenistan
4,919,666
4.23
11
Ukraine
46,295,860
5.94
9
Country Name

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245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265

Source: World Development Indicators


6. Discussion
A specific data set regarding blood feud in Albania is not available. The information on blood feud we consider is drawn
from different sources. First, from the Annual Analyze of the Work of the Committee of Nationwide Reconciliation for the
year 2012, in collaboration with the police.
The data cover 21 years, 1992-2012. As far as we know, there is not any data available that covers previous years.
The information about the total Albanian population is drawn from the Albanian Statistical Institute (INSTAT) and the
World Bank. Furthermore, we utilized the data drawn from a study conducted in 2010, by the Justice Peace Commission
of Albania in collaboration with Caritas Albania and France Caritas.
There are three relevant perplexities concerning the utilized data. First, the data drawn from the Committee of
Nationwide Reconciliation have several ambiguities regarding the figures and the definition of several topics. A very
accurate revision is needed to be done. For instance, suicide is mentioned as a reason of homicides (table 1). But, there
is not any available data that connect suicides with blood feud. Furthermore, there are 6.103 unregistered homicides out
of 10.446 (table 1). This number represents more than the half of the total intentional homicides, and we have no deeper
information about it. A second perplexity is the fact that the data regarding the total Albanian population, drawn from
INSTAT, do not strictly correspond to the data drawn from the Worldbank dataset. The third and the last perplexity is
regarding the police as a source. On the one hand, the Committee of Nationwide Reconciliation declared the
collaboration with the police in order to get the data. On the other hand, the Justice Peace Commission of Albania,
Caritas Albania and France Caritas declared that the police stated that it cannot deliver any information regarding blood
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feud. Nevertheless, they published some authorized police data for district of Shkodra. According to the latest verdict
taken in 2008, the police is not authorized to deliver any data or information on the issue of blood feud. The reason why
the General Prosecution Office has decided not to give out any information on the issue, remains unclear (JPCA, 2010:
42). This statement is also confirmed by other scholars, as Lawson and Saltmarshe (2000: 137): The major problem in
assessing the extent of crime lay in the fact that the government classified crime statistics as state secrets for fear to
them being used against it for political purposes.
The lack of a national database to provide information on blood feud in Albania, does not permit an extensive
sociological study about the phenomenon, despite the great attention that it has obtained from the anthropological
perspective as shown in the previous paragraph.
This study revealed a significant impact of blood feud on the Albanian criminality. It also showed that blood feud is
an Albanian issue, not only local. The phenomenon is sharper in the district of Shkodra due to isolation, to economic
difficulties and weak presence of the state across the territory. These problems contributed to re-trust Kanun, as a need
for law and order. Considering the fact that in 1997 Albania went through a Civil War, we might argue that blood feud
increases in case of political instability (Lemel 1998, de Waal 2004, Lawson and Saltmarshe, 2000, Littlewood 2002).
Albania occupies the second highest crime rate among Balkan countries, excluding Kosovo. Considering the
percentages of intentional homicides for blood feud during years 1992-2012, we might claim that blood feud significantly
affects the life of Albanians.
The results suggest that blood feud is a phenomenon that is apt to perpetuate crime in Albania, generation after
generation. Kanun and blood feud have socially-accepted roots.
Such a phenomenon needs to be studied further, especially from a sociological perspective. Accurate data sources
could help to realize a deeper quantitative analysis, in order to show the severity and the consequences that brings blood
feud.
7. Conclusion
The anthropological literature offered us a very precise description of the phenomenon. It highlighted every component of
blood feud: the organization of the kinship, attitudes, values and so forth. The literature defined blood feud an old-dated
phenomenon due to the isolation and other social, historical and economic reasons. Blood feud is strongly connected with
the mythology. A myth is relevant for the identity of a given community. But when it becomes uncontrollable by politics, it
may produce deviance. This is the case of blood feud in Albania. The weakness of the state in Albania contributed to
reinforcing the trust in Kanun, as a consequence the mistrust of the National Justice Institutions.
The present study revealed that blood feud is present throughout the country, with a high significance in northern
Albania, where Kanun is still practiced. The data have also revealed that the district of Shkodra has the highest crime rate
among other 35 Albanian districts. This is due to blood feud.
Compared to the other countries taken into analysis, Albania occupies the second highest rate crime for years
2006-2010 among Balkan countries. Considering the percentages of intentional homicides for blood feud, we might claim
that blood feud is a relevant source for the Albanian criminality. It has a great impact on the entire Albanian crime rate.
References
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Coon C (1970) The Mountains of Giants. A Racial and Cultural Study of the North Albanian Mountain Ghegs. New York: Kraus Reprint
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Gjeov Sh [1989 (1933)] Kanun of Leke Dukagjini (V.Kopsaj, Transl.). Fox (ed.).
Gould R (1999) Collective Violence and Group Solidarity: Evidence from a Feuding Society. American Sociological Association 64 (3).
Grutzpalk J (2002) Blood Feud and Modernity: Max Webers and Emile Durkheims Theories. Journal of Classical Sociology 2 (2).
Lawson C, Saltmarshe (2000) Security and Economics Transition: Evidence from North Albania. Europe-Asia Studies 52 (1).
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48 (2).
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Schwandner-Sievers, S, Fischer B (2002) Albanian Identities. Myth and History. Bloomington.
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Gender in Task Difficulty: Does It Make Difference in Macro-genres?


Yadollah Hosseini Asgarabadi
PhD Candidate in TEFL, Tehran Payame Noor University, PhD Center
Email: y_asgarabadi@yahoo.com
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the role of the learners' gender in task difficulty in the four major types of macro-genres: the
descriptive, narrative, argumentative, and expository. The design included the administration of short reading tests with
comparable length and readability indices based on the four macro-genres (i.e., descriptive, narrative, argumentative, and
expository) followed by task difficulty questionnaires. The macro-genre-based reading tests along with the task difficulty
questionnaires were administered to 50 (male = 21, female = 29) EFL students in the University of Lorestan, Iran. Task
difficulty questionnaires explored the learners perceptions of task difficulty components (i.e., code complexity, cognitive
complexity, and communicative stress). The results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between
males and females in the task difficulty of the four macro-genres. The findings hold implications for the use of macro-genres for
male and female learners in task-oriented programs, genre-based teaching materials, teacher training, and testing.
Keywords: Gender, task difficulty, macro-genres, reading

1. Introduction
The learners gender is a factor that is supposed to affect his/her L2 performance considerably. The role of the language
learner's gender in his/her performance in different aspects of an L2 has already been explored. With regard to the role of
gender in the learners reading performance, for example, many research studies (e.g., Askov & Fischbach, 1973; Coles
& Hall, 2002; Hall & Coles, 1999; Kush & Watkins, 1996; McKenna et al., 1995; Sainsbury & Schagen, 2004; Smith,
1990) have been carried out. Some studies (e.g., Mullis, Martin, Kennedy, & Foy, 2007) have indicated that females
outscored the males in their reading comprehension. These findings attributed this superiority of females over males in
the reading comprehension to the females having more positive attitudes to the reading task and more perseverance in
keeping up with the reading ambiguities. Other studies (e.g., Ahmadi & Mansoordehghan, 2012; Sotoudenamah &
Asadian, 2011; Bugel & Buunk, 1996; Samadi & Maghsoudi, 2013), in contrast, reported that male learners were better in
the reading compression than the female ones. Hosseini, Rouhi, and Jafarigohar (2015) and Rouhi, Jafarigohar, Alavi,
and Hosseini (2015), however, showed that there were no significant difference observed between males and females in
their reading comprehension in the four major types of macro-genres (i.e., the descriptive, narrative, argumentative, and
expository). The performance of males and females in the reading comprehension in the four types of macro-genres (i.e.,
descriptive, narrative, argumentative, and expository) is supposed to be an issue of interest in language teaching which
may shed some light on the gender-related performance of the L2 learners and practitioners. Also of interest to L2
instructors and teachers may be the role of language learners' gender in their perceptions of a certain macro-genre level
of task difficulty, a point which, in turn, may affect the learners' language performance like reading comprehension in
macro-genre-based texts.
2. Literature Review
2.1

Task Difficulty

A central issue in task-based language teaching involves the impact of task difficulty on L2 learners performance in
various aspects of language learning and teaching, especially in the reading skill. Many of the previous empirical studies
(e.g., Foster & Skehan, 1999; Gilabert, 2007; Ishikawa, 2006; Kim, 2009; Robinson, 1995, 2001, 2007; Skehan & Foster,
1999) have examined the effects of task difficulty on L2 learners oral task performance but relatively few studies (e.g.,
Ishikawa, 2006; Kuiken & Vedder, 2008) have investigated the role of task difficulty in reading performance of the
learners.
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The four major approaches which are employed and referred to in task-based research are the psychological,
sociocultural, structural, and cognitive (see Kuiken & Vedder, 2008). Among these approaches, Robinson (2001, 2003,
2005) and Skehan and Foster (1999, 2001) used the cognitive approach in which the focus is on the cognitive processes
used by learners while performing a certain language task. Robinson (2001, 2003, 2005) and Skehan and Foster (1999,
2001) investigated how task complexity (a concept closely related to task difficulty) influenced the L2 learners
performance.
In Robinsons (2001) triadic componential framework, the task components are task complexity, task conditions,
and task difficulty. The underlying foundation for this framework is based on the cognition hypothesis. According to
Robinson and Gilabert (2007), the main pedagogic claim of the cognition hypothesis is that pedagogic tasks should be
designed and sequenced on the basis of increases in their cognitive complexity and cognitive processing load. Robinson
and Gilabert (2007) stated that the information about the effect of task complexity on language performance could be
used to guide decision-making about sequencing tasks in syllabus design used for materials in the macro-genre text
types for the language learners.
Task conditions include participation and participant factors. Task conditions refer to all external variables and
influential factors which are supposed to exert their effect on the language learners' performance. In other words, task
condition is concerned with the logistic factors of teaching and learning in the language task.
Task complexity in Robinsons (2001) triadic componential framework is defined as the result of attentional,
memory, reasoning, and other information processing demands imposed by the structure of the task on the language
learner. It is a cognitive process in nature which can be manipulated by teachers and syllabus designers before task
performance (see Ishikawa, 2006). Robinson (2005) believed that information about the effect of task complexity on
language performance was helpful in designing tasks from simple to complex to gradually approximate real world task
demands.
In Robinsons (2001) triadic componential framework, task difficulty refers to the learners perceptions of the
difficulty of a certain language task. Some factors such as proficiency and anxiety affecting learners perceptions of
difficulty of macro-genre-based reading texts are, however, difficult to identify before task performance. Therefore, they
cannot be used as a basis for decision-making in sequencing tasks.
Skehan (1998) defined task difficulty as a concept consisting of cognitive factors that could be manipulated during
task design to obtain the desired elicitation behavior of language learner. According to Skehan (1996, 1998), three areas
are important in determining task difficulty of a certain language task: code complexity, cognitive complexity, and
communicative stress. Code complexity of a task includes linguistic as well as lexical complexity. Both linguistic
complexity or variety and vocabulary load/variety play important roles in code complexity. Code complexity, thus, deals
with the lexical items and the grammatical structures used in the texts. Idiomatic structure is, for instance, one of the
factors affecting code complexity which, in turn, may affect the reading performance of the learners in macro-genres.
Martinez and Murphy (2011) found that the use of idiomatic structures in reading texts can be detrimental to learners'
reading performance. Cognitive complexity of a task, in contrast, refers to the cognitive processing and cognitive
familiarity. It involves processing factors such as information type and organizational structures as well as the familiarity
of the learners with the topic of discourse and genre type (Skehan, 1998). A factor which is supposed to be closely
related to cognitive complexity and to affect the learners' performance in reading rhetorical and genre text types is
schemata which are categorized into linguistic, formal, and content (Xiao-hui, Jun, & Wei-hui, 2007). Communicative
stress of a task (as the third component of task difficulty) is, however, concerned with time pressure, modality, scale,
stakes, and control. This component of task difficulty, thus, refers to the logistics as well as resources of task
performance including the nature of the prompt provided and the number of participants in the process of task
performance. Research studies (e.g., Foster & Skehan, 1996; Skehan & Foster, 1997, 1999) have shown that more
complex tasks (in terms of time pressure and high degrees of control) direct learners' attention to context and divert their
attention away from the form of the language. Simple tasks, in contrast, generate more fluent and more accurate
language, as opposed to more complex tasks which generate more complex language at the expense of accuracy and
fluency.
2.2

Macro-genres

Four types of macro-genres (i.e., narrative, descriptive, argumentative, and expository) were employed in this study. The
first macro-genre used was the narrative macro-genre which is a well-established text type in language teaching literature
and is also frequently employed for teaching and testing purposes by L2 practitioners. Such a text type usually involves
the creation of a story in response to some kind of stimulus. This macro-genre seems ideal as far as the manifestation of
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creativity and narration power among the L2 learners is concerned (Albert & Kormos, 2004). The narrative text type is
thought to be associated with the improvement of the learners intellectual powers of imagination and creativity which, in
turn, can pave the way for other functions of the language like regulatory and imaginative to develop. Working with the
narrative macro-genre is supposed to help language practitioners see clear sequences separate from all other mental
functions (Best, Floyd, & McNamara, 2008). Psychologically viewed, using and developing the narration ability of the
language learners is likely to lead to the establishment of mental disciplines and logical order in discourse.
Another type of macro-genre employed in teaching English to L2 learners is the descriptive macro-genre the
purpose of which is to recreate, invent, or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture
that which is being described. Descriptive macro-genre can also be found in other rhetorical modes of language including
journal writing and poetry (Diakidoy, Stylianou, Karefillidou, & Papageorgiou, 2004). The language used in the description
has ostensible patterns. In producing linear descriptions of figures, for example, learners tend to facilitate the task by
sequencing the content in one of a small number of ways, leading to specific patterns in the language (Al-Sohbani, 2014;
Bax, 2006). The nature of objects physically related within a room whose layout is to be described can affect the order in
which nouns are combined within prepositional phrases, and this, in turn, can affect the choice of preposition (Hyland,
2008). Psychologically viewed, the descriptive macro-genre is thought to lead to the language learners improvement in
logical reasoning and categorizing items in clear patters.
Argumentative macro-genre is a type of discourse genre in which efforts of the individuals to build support for their
own position, at the same time that they are undermining support for an opponent's position, result in the continual
negotiation of referential, social, and expressive meanings. It is not only viewed as a competitive process, but also as a
cooperative act, which is an important characteristic of the discourse produced by participants (Nemeth & Kormoth,
2001).
Expository macro-genre is thought to convey, describe, or explain non-fictional information (Yopp & Yopp, 2006).
Such text types include structural organization of the concepts and propositions which differentiate them from the rest of
texts. The aim of this macro-genre text type is to present people the facts, ideas, and to explain the historical events and
social phenomena, to clarify the political opinions, and to test findings and evidence in different domains. It is also
intended to explain all that is in need of explanation and clarification. The focus of the discourse in the expository macrogenre is generally the central idea surrounded by supporting details (Samuelstuen & Braten, 2005). Learners reasoning
powers and explanation abilities may be strengthened through practicing the expository macro-genre tasks (Barbara &
Samuels, 1983; Samuelstuen & Braten, 2005). Psychologically viewed, the expository macro-genre may spur the
learners motivation to keep on reading such texts. This, in turn, can result in improving the learners proficiency in the
reading skill, in general.
As said earlier, the role of the language learners' gender in many different domains of an L2 has already been
explored. The role of the learner's gender in task difficulty of macro-genres, however, has not been studied, as yet. This
felt gap in the literature of teaching English is the driving motive behind the current study for which the following research
question along with the research hypothesis is addressed:
Research Question: Does the learners' gender make difference in their perceptions of task difficulty in macrogenres?
Research hypothesis: Learners' gender does not make difference in their perceptions of task difficulty in macrogenres with the probability level set at 0.05.
3. Method
3.1

Participants

A total of 50 participants (21 male and 29 female) majoring in EFL in the English department of university of Lorestan
were randomly selected (systematic randomization). The participants were second year students having at least seven
years of experience in English in academic centers. Their ages ranged from 18 to 25 with age mean of 19.6. The
participants were at the intermediate level based on the scores they got from a proficiency test (a standard test
administered to determine participants' proficiency level in English, r = .87). All the participants were informed of the
research and its stages and they expressed that they would attend in the study voluntarily. The participants reported
having no special experience in attending formal or informal preparatory classes for genre-based reading texts. The
participants also reported that they knew the meaning of task and task-based language teaching. They reported Lacki
and Lori as their first languages and Persian as their second language. Subjective and in-class survey indicated that the
participants came from families with approximately similar socioeconomic status.
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Design

This study employed a comparative design in which male and female groups were compared in their task difficulty
perceptions of the four main types of macro-genres through running independent t-test. In each comparison, the two
groups of males and females are compared in one macro-genre (See the following diagram).
Gender
Females
Males

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3.3

Descriptive
t-test 1

Macro-genres
Narrative
Argumentative
t-test 2

t-test 3

Expository
t-test 4

Materials

In order to explore the learners perceptions of task difficulty in the four types of macro-genres, Skehan's (1998) checklist,
developed based on his triadic framework of task difficulty, was used. This checklist measured the learners' perceptions
of task difficulty in code complexity, cognitive complexity, and communicative stress domains, as three components
comprising task difficulty. Moreover, for reading comprehension, three short reading texts with the same length and
readability indices for each of the four macro-genres were used. To prepare comparable reading texts in the four macrogenre text types, Coh-Metrix Common Core formula as the reading Text Ease and Readability Assessor (TERA),
developed by Crossley and Greenfield (2008), were used. From the selected reading texts for the four types of macrogenres, appropriate reading tests (with reliability indices of .77, .83, .85, .75 for the descriptive, narrative, argumentative,
and expository macro-genres, respectively) were also constructed. Moreover, in order to determine the proficiency level
of the participants, a standard proficiency reading pre-test taken from Barrons How to Prepare for the TOEFL Test: Test
of English as a Foreign Language (Sharpe, 2004) with the reliability index of .76 was used.
3.4

Procedures

In the process of selecting the intended reading texts for the research, some passages for the four macro-genres were
selected and their readability indices were computed through running the Coh-Metrix formula (Crossley & Greenfield,
2008) (TERA: Text Ease and Readability Assessor). Coh-Metrix analysis provided the readability indices for the selected
reading texts. Furthermore, in the pilot study for the selected reading passages administered to the pilot group (20 EFL
majors), all the items meeting the item facility value between .25 and .75 and item discriminatory value more than .30
(see Baker, 1989) were selected to be used in the testing stage.
Then, texts falling in the intermediate range in each macro-genre [based on indices taken from applying the CohMetrix Common Core: Text Ease and Readability Assessor (Crossley & Greenfield, 2008)] were selected and reading
tests were, accordingly, constructed and given to 80 EFL students. Based on Cambridge Guide to TEFL Exams and
Levels, the participants whose scores fell between 50% and 70% of the total score (taken from TOEFL proficiency Test)
were judged as being in the intermediate level. Fifty participants with scores in the intermediate level range were, finally,
selected as the research sample.
As said earlier, twelve short reading texts with the same readability indices and length were prepared for
administration. This was followed by constructing appropriate reading tests for the macro-genres. In the first week, the
descriptive macro-genre reading tests followed by distributing task difficulty questionnaires were administered to the
participants. All the steps were taken just for one type of macro-genre text type in each session. With three days interval,
the same steps were followed for the rest of other three macro-genres (i.e., the narrative, argumentative, and expository).
Moreover, to obtain more valid and reliable results, task difficulty questionnaire was translated into Persian.
Correspondence between the original and Persian equivalents of each item in the questionnaire was judged by three
experienced English teachers. The translation output was, finally, judged and approved of by an expert in the field. Male
and female participants' options in the task difficulty questionnaires were, then, compiled for running statistical analysis.
The data were, finally, fed into SPSS, version 20. The significance level was set at p < 0.05.
4. Results
To provide a clear depiction of the two groups of males' and females' perceptions in task difficulty in the four macrogenres (i.e., the descriptive, narrative, argumentative, and expository) used in the current study, the group statistics (e.g.,
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mean, standard deviation) are presented followed by the results of comparisons run by independent t-test in the following
tables and figures.
As indicated in Table 2, there was no statistically significant difference observed between males and females in
their task difficulty perceptions in the descriptive macro-genre, t = -1.005, p = .320 > 0.05, eta squared = 0.33. Although
no significant difference was observed between the compared groups in the task difficulty of the descriptive macro-genre,
the group statistics showed that there was a small difference observed in the means and standard deviations of the
groups compared (females: M = 43.58, SD = 6.77; males: M = 45.57, SD = 7.06) (see Table 1).
Table 1: Group Statistics

Descriptive TD

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sex
N Mean
female 29 43.58
male 21 45.57

Std. Deviation
6.77
7.06

Std. Error Mean


1.25
1.54

Table 2: Independent t-Test for Males and Females Task Difficulty in Descriptive Macro-genre
t-test for Equality of Means
LTEV

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95% CI
Lower Upper
EVA
-1.005 48
.320
-1.98
1.97 -5.95 1.98
Descriptive TD
.222 .639
.998 42.16
.324
-1.98
1.98 -5.99 2.o2
EVNA
Note: EVA = Equal Variances Assumed; EVNA = Equal Variances Not Assumed; CI = Confidence Interval LTEV = Levene's
Test for Equality of Variances
F Sig.

df

Sig (two-tailed) Mean Difference Std.

Results of males' and females' perceptions in task difficulty in the descriptive macro-genre are also presented in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Males' and Females' Task Difficulty in Descriptive Macro-genre


As indicated in Table 3, in the narrative macro-genre, the two groups had small differences in group statistics (females:
M= 47.24, SD = 8.48; males: M = 48.71, SD = 5.88).
Table 3: Group Statistics

Narrative TD

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sex
N Mean
female 29 47.24
male 21 48.71

Std. Deviation
8.48
5.88

Std. Error Mean


1.57
1.28

Results of t-test comparison made between the two groups of male and female learners showed that there was no
significant difference between the groups compared in the task difficulty in the narrative macro-genre, t = -.684, p = .497
> 0.05, eta squared = .186 (Table 4).

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Table 4: Independent t-Test for Males and Females Task Difficulty in the Narrative Macro-genre
t-test for Equality of Means
LTEV

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95% CI
Lower Upper
EVA
-.684 48
.497
-1.47
2.15 -5.80 2.85
Narrative TD
1.92 .172
-.725 47.93
.472
-1.47
2.03 -5.56 2.61
EVNA
Note: EVA = Equal Variances assumed; EVNA = Equal Variances Not Assumed; CI = Confidence Interval; LTEV = Levene's
Test for Equality of Variances
F Sig.

df

Sig (two-tailed) Mean Difference Std.

Furthermore, results of male and female groups' task difficulty in the narrative macro-genre are indicated in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Males' and Females' Task Difficulty in the Narrative Macro-genre


In the argumentative macro-genre, group statistics showed that the results of males' perceptions of task difficulty were
bigger than those in females (females: M = 45.62, SD = 11.26; males: M = 50.00, SD = 6.00) (see Table 5 and Figure 3).
Table 5: Group Statistics

Argumentative TD

sex N Mean
female 29 45.62
male 21 50.00

Std. Deviation
11.26
6.00

Std. Error Mean


2.09
1.30

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Figure 3: Males' and Females Task Difficulty in the Argumentative Macro-genre


As indicated in Table 6, there was no significant difference between the groups compared in task difficulty in the
argumentative macro-genre, t = 1.62, p = .112 > 0.05, eta squared =0.051.

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Table 6: Independent t-Test for Males and Females Task Difficulty in the Argumentative Macro-genre
LTEV

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t-test for Equality of Means


F

95% CI
Lower Upper
EVA
1.62 48
.112
-4.37
2.70 -9.81 1.05
Argu-mentative TD
.774 .383
-1.77 44.64
.083
-4.37
2.46 -9.35 .592
EVNA
Note: EVA = Equal Variances assumed; EVNA = Equal Variances Not Assumed; CI = Confidence Interval; LTEV = Levene's
Test for Equality of Variances
Sig.

df

Sig (two-tailed) Mean Difference Std.

In the expository macro-genre, the group statistics for males and females showed that males got bigger scores than
females (females: M = 48.27, SD = 7.09; males: M = 52.09, SD = 6.98) (see Table 7 and Figure 4).
Table 7: Group Statistics

Expository TD

sex
N Mean
female 29 48.27
male 21 52.09

Std. Deviation
7.09
6.98

Std. Error Mean


1.31
1.52

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Figure 4: Males' and Females' Task Difficulty in Expository Macro-genre


Results of t-test comparison made between the male and female groups showed that there was no significant difference
observed between the groups in the participants' perception of task difficulty in the expository macro-genre, t = -1.89, p =
.065 > 0.05, eta squared =0.64.
Table 8: Independent t-Test for Males and Females Task Difficulty in Expository Macro-genre
LTEV

95% CI
Lower Upper
EVA
-1.89 48
.065
-3.81
2.02 -7.88 24.21
Expository TD
.016 .899
-1.89 43.64
.065
-3.81
2.01 -7.88 24.21
EVNA
Note: EVA = Equal Variances assumed; EVNA = Equal Variances Not Assumed; LTEV = Levene's Test for Equality of
Variances
F Sig.

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t

df Sig (two-tailed) Mean Difference Std.

The general finding was that in all the comparisons done between the female and male groups with regard to their
perceptions of task difficulty in the four main types of macro-genres employed in the current study no significant
difference was observed, showing that the groups compared belonged to the same population, although there were found
differences in the group statistics (e.g., mean, standard deviation) for females and males.

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5. Discussion and Conclusions


This study has tried to investigate the role of gender in task difficulty of macro-genres (i.e., descriptive, narrative,
argumentative, and expository). Results of t-test comparisons revealed that there were no significant differences
observed between the male and the female participants with regard to their perceptions of task difficulty in the descriptive,
narrative, argumentative, and expository macro-genre-based text types.
In ELT literature, two psychological hypotheses for the role of gender on learners performances have been
frequently presented and referred to: the similarities and the differences hypotheses. The findings of the current study are
more compatible with the gender similarities hypothesis proposed by Hyde (2005) than with gender differences
hypothesis put forward by Buss (1989). The gender similarities hypothesis holds that males and females are alike on
most (but not all) psychological variables including the learners reading comprehension. Extensive evidence from metaanalyses of research studies on gender differences supports the gender similarities hypothesis (Hyde, 2005). A few
notable exceptions are some motor behaviors (e.g., throwing distance) and some aspects of sexuality, which show large
gender differences. It is time to consider the costs of overinflated claims of gender differences. Arguably, such claims
cause harm in numerous realms, including females opportunities in the workplace and their performances in educational
contexts (Hyde, 2005).
Lack of significant difference between the male and female groups in task difficulty of macro-genre-based reading
texts may also be accounted for by the sociocultural theory, based on the pioneering work of Vygotsky (1986), which
places the social context at the heart of the learning and communication process. In the Vygotskian social interactionist
constructivism, learners can profit from social interactions under guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.
This guidance or collaboration is called scaffolding (see Yu, 2004). Through utilizing cooperative learning activities such
as pair or group work in language learning in a learner-centered setting, learners can gain support/scaffolding from their
peers or teacher. Such a scaffolding condition might have been running in the students casual classes (out of testing
situations) in which both male and female groups took advantages from cooperating with each other in enhancing their
reading ability in macro-genres and raising strategy-use consciousness in tackling such texts reading problems. Such out
of academic program cooperation among male and female learners might have led them to improve their reading abilities
in parallel; hence it might have affected their perceptions of task difficulty in the macro-genre-based texts.
The current finding might have been affected by common and background information and previous experiences of
both genders, as well. The two groups of male and female learners might have employed similar reading techniques and
strategies to overcome the encountered problems while reading the macro-genre-based texts. No significant differences
observed between the groups involved may also be attributed to the selection of reading passages. The reading
passages employed in the current study might not have been challenging enough for the differences between the groups
to appear. Presenting the groups with more challenging reading texts probably lets the differences between the two
groups in task difficulty perceptions show themselves. Moreover, participants in the current study came from similar
language background (Lacki and Lori languages); this might have made the participants process the reading passages
similarly. The other variable supposed to contribute to the lack of statistical significant difference between the male and
female learners reading comprehension as well as their perceptions of the texts task difficulty might be equal time spent
on reading the passages. The amount of time required for the participants to read texts with comprehension was not the
same (and, in fact, should not be) and this might have resulted in the suppression of the differences between the groups
compared. Females are usually more motivated, both intrinsically and extrinsically, to read texts on various topics
(Baker & Wigfield, 1999; Marinak & Gambrell, 2010; Pajares & Valiante, 2001; Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997). In EFL context
and at the intermediate level, this motivation may have acted equally for both groups of participants which, in turn, did not
let the differences in reading comprehension along with task difficulty perceptions between the two groups reach the
statistical significance.
The results of the current study are consistent with previous ones. Meece and Miller (1999), Wigfield and Guthrie
(1997), and Sotoudehnama and Asadian (2011), for example, reported no significant differences between male and
female learners reading comprehension. Durik et al. (2006) and Logan and Johnston (2009) also found no significant
differences in the reading comprehension of the two groups.
The findings of the study are, however, in contradiction with the findings of some previous studies (e.g., Askov &
Fischbach, 1973; Coles & Hall, 2002; Doolittle & Welsch, 1989; Hall & Coles, 1999; Kush & Watkins, 1996; McKenna et
al., 1995; Sainsbury & Schagen, 2004; Smith, 1990). In these studies, females were reported to significantly outperform
the males in the comprehension of the reading texts. Al-Shumaimeri (2006), Bgel and Buunk (1996), and Dornyei
(2005) showed that male students performed significantly better than the female students in their reading performance of
a familiar and an unfamiliar text. Bgel and Buunk (1996) included a gender-neutral passage in their L2 study, and they
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found that males performed significantly better than the females on the gender-neutral text.
There are some limitations to this study. The sample selected for this study was from among EFL students. The
performance of other non-English majors in reading the four types of macro-genre-based texts seems to be important, as
well. Non-English learners in male and female groups may perform differently in reading the macro-genre-based
passages and in perceiving the relevant task difficulty of the texts. Furthermore, participants of the current study were
from intermediate level. The performance of male and female students in reading these macro-genres may be different at
primary and advanced levels; the findings, thus, cannot be generalized to these contexts. It can be concluded from the
findings of this study that the learners gender makes no significant difference in their perceptions of task difficulty of the
four major types of macro-genres. The findings of the current study hold implications for genre-based reading materials,
teacher training, ESP courses, and testing.
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Human Motivational Behavior: From West and Islamic Perspective


Mariam Abd Majid
Syarul Azman Shaharuddin
Abur Hamdi Usman
Academy of Islam, International Islamic University College Selangor (KUIS), Malaysia
Corresponding Author Email: aburhamdi@kuis.edu.my
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
This article discusses on human motivational behavior from the perspective of western and Islam. According to some Western
psychologists, the aspects of physiology, biology, psychosocial, biosociopsychology are among the factors that drive the
behavior of human, while according to Islam, the needs of body and soul as basic of human creation have implications for
human behavior. By adopting documentation method and comparative analysis, this article found that human behavior
motivated by the needs of the body and the spirit, which comprises elements of al-nafs (soul), al-qalb (heart), al-bashirah (the
minds eye view), and common sense proposition that was proven through naqli. There are similarities and differences of West
and Islamic view related to psychological impulses of human behavior.
Keywords: Human; Behavior; Motivation; Western; Islam; Psychology

1. Introduction
The drive human behavior is the focus in psychological discipline (Stern, 2000). Psychology defined as a discipline of
study that examines the thoughts, lives and human behavior (Mahmood, 1992). The study of psychology explains that the
behavior of an individual human being is influenced by two main domains: thought and spirit. The biological, psychosocial
and bio psychosocial factors give a strong influence on an individual behavior (Ahmad, 1999).
The objective of this paper is to present aspects of human motivational behavior according to the dictates of the
Western world and Islam. The results outcome should provide an important fact in order to understand in depth of human
behavior. And finally, to propose various plans and programs in the society in general. There are several contributions
from this paper, such as; it contributes to the scholarly writing, to increase of exploration in understanding the human
behavior, and to organize more new dynamic and strategic activities for the goodness of society and environment.
2. Motivation of Human Behavior
Human behavior did not occur by chance but it was moved, driven or motivated by internal factors and external of the
soul (Ainslie, 2001). There are different views in relation to the encouragement of human behavior. The motivation of
human behavior is mostly influenced by the brilliant internal factors, such as spiritual and religious aspects, as well as
external factors, such as environment and effective communication (Razak, 2006). High motivation on working
environment or organizational culture contributes a high impact to increase the behavior of an employee in an
organization (Brahmasari & Suprayetno, 2009). There are previous studies conducted which found that the goals of job
satisfaction can drive employee motivation in order to involve itself actively in work and to be excellent workers and
demonstrate a high commitment to the organization continuesly (Adey & Bahari, 2010; Chiesa, 1994).
Motivation influences the behavior of an individual human being whether they exist, remain or be ignored. It also
seeks to encourage behavioral choices that must be made by one man (Weiner, 1992). Motivation derived from the Latin
word movere namely to move. Council Dictionary defines motivation as the harsh desire or strong spirit in a person that
drives him to try to do something and aiming for success (Anon, 1991). Motivation defined as the internal state of
conducting motion and give direction to the thoughts, feelings and behavior. This situation drives and controls the
behavior towards the attainment of a goal (Redzuan & Abdullah, 2002). Motivation can be understood as a joint action or
conduct of a movement oriented to a goal (Elliot & Sheldon, 1997).
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There are various theories could explain the relationship between motivation and the factors that drive the actions
(Baum, 2005). The process begins with the birth of motivation or desire within an individual. Desires and needs that exist
in a person will motivate for an action to meet those needs. The feeling of satisfaction appears in person when
requirements can be met (Huffman, 2005). Needs that exist can determine the goal that an individual wants to achieve. A
firm motivation of an individual will deploy a behavior to achieve the goal desired (Husain, 1996). Figure 1 illustrates the
motivation process that drives a human behavior.

Figure 1. Circle of Motivation


Source: Karen Huffman, Mark Vernoy & Judith Vernoy (1994)
The achievement of a goal targeted by human is a starting point on cycle of motivation as well as it is being able to put
the individual in the sense of complacency. Conversely, if a specified target cannot be reached, the person will continue
to strive to act so as to achieve the goals and objectives that was targeted. Desire and goal that exist will set a behavior
to human (Gollowitzer, 1996).
3. Desires and Goal in Humans Motivational Behavior
Psychologists argued that the motive of an individual is a goal to be achieved (Skinner, 1935). The objective is realized
through a sets of measures that disclosed by the behavior of an individual human being. Normally, one would have fully
committed the pursuit of a goal which give meaning to him (Carver & Scheier, 2003). Psychologists explained among
goals that provide motivation for the actions or behavior of an individual human being as follows (Dweck, 1991);
3.1

Motivation to Fulfill the Biological Urges

Human will always strive to meet their biological needs (Mahmood, 1992). Among the reasons to fulfill and individual
biological needs is to fulfill the intuition requirements and to maintain the self stability:
3.1.1 Fulfilling the intuition requirement
Motivation theory on intuition suggests that a human will do something to meet the needs or demands of his intuition.
Energy intuition is in the impetus for action in human. Someones intuition is something that is not learned but acquired
through disposition or natural cause. Motivation which meet the requirements of this intuition is described as a mother
who tries to get medicine to cure diseases suffered by children who is sick. Action to find a drug to treat a disease
experienced by children was naturally driven by love of his mother. Mother will feel satisfied when her seeks to obtain
medicine that could cure her childs illness is reached, yet she will continue to seek other remedies if the goal of curing
the child illness has not been successful (Redzuan & Abdullah, 2002). In other words, human will act based on their
instinct.
3.1.2 Self-sustaining stability
Maintaining the stability among the goals that drive someones behavior. Human try to eliminate the impulses that exist

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upon themselves. This impulse will emerge when they found a deficiency within themselves. This impulse elimination
process focused on the mechanisms of internal motivation. Encourage reduction motivation theory explains that any
human being has the motivation to reduce the inner impulse of what they have (Mahmood, 1992).
The urge that exist will be reduced when the need is fulfilled (Redzuan & Abdullah, 2002). Someone will try to fulfill
his hunger for food. The drive to get food will increase as long as the food is sought has not been obtained to reduce the
hunger impulse. A sense of satisfaction will be experienced when food is available and the hunger that suffers has been
satisfied (Desmet & Schifferstein, 2008). It means the drive to achieve the goals of maintaining the self stability has been
reduced because of the requirement to eat is fulfilled. Satisfied feeling is achieved when any shortcomings is fulfilled.
Human is compelled to fulfill the biological needs, which are biological instincts and maintain their stability. Human
behavior or actions motivated by both the biological needs.
3.2

Fulfilling the Psychosocial Needs

Human has always sought to achieve psychosocial needs, such as receiving an award and a gift (Brunstein & Maier,
2005). Among the psychosocial needs of the human person are:
3.2.1 Acquiring incentives
Incentives are an external stimulus that motivate someones behavior. When someone is full, the motivation to get food is
reaching to the lowest level. But the existence of a meal that looks delicious are still working to stimulate his desire to eat.
Thus, according to the theory of incentives in motivation, stimulation, and external factors can lead a persons behaviour
(Mahmood, 1992).
There are several incentives criteria that can stimulate someone. The needful incentive is more acceptable than
incentives are not necessary and positive incentives more approachable than the negative. Someone who does not have
a friend to sit and enjoy a meal on the event he attend, but a person who has many friends will use the opportunity to chat
with old friends regardless of the dishes served as chatting with some old friends is more important to him at that time.
Thus, the selection is done by a man by the pull of the current incentives and requirements available at the time. At the
same time, a matter or event that has ever hurt someone in the past is a definite negative incentives shunned by
someone (Redzuan & Abdullah, 2002).
Reinforcement of motivation theory explains that most of human behavior can be shaped through positive or
negative reinforcement. Motivation is not only subjected to the factors, such as intention to conduct something good and
effective, but it also involves some factors such as confirmation. For example, an award for something good and
productive undertaken. Reward is a one form of incentive for the implementation of behavior. If someone is satisfied for
receiving a reward after an honest and perfect actions he undertook, then typically it will become a motivation to do it
again to get the reward.
3.2.2 To reach the self fulfillment
Cognitive theory of motivation splits between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation prompts a man to do
an activity to achieve inner satisfaction from the results of the implementation of the activity, while extrinsic motivation
motivate a man to do something to achieve an outside satisfaction from these activities such as a reward. The studies
conducted found a man will work harder, diligently, more conscientious and will produce good quality when the task is
motivated more by intrinsic than extrinsic motivation (Desa, 2002). Someone who is driven to implement an action due to
intrinsic motivation will be able to feel the inner satisfaction after completing or experience the satisfaction from the result
of his action (McCullough Chavis, 2011).
3.2.3 Achieving the targeted goals
A man is driven to execute an action when assuming his target is actually can be achieved. This phenomenon is
explained in the theory of achievement motivation by David Clarence McClelland (1917-1998) was an American
psychologist, noted for his work on Need Theory. Based on this theory, a man motivated to do something if they feel
some goal can be achieved. Conversely, he wont do it if the targeted goals are presumably cant be achieved. A person
will feel satisfaction when the targeted goals are achieved (McClelland, et al, 1976; Harackiewicz, et al,1997).
A feeling of satisfaction is reached when someone is reaching the targeted goals or when the reality meets the
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expectation. Victor Vroom on his expectancy theory states that someones behavior is a reflection from decision he took
(Hassan, 2001). So according to this theory, a man of hope and predictions about what will happen in the future.
Normally, all decisions made by a person are based on what is expected and predicted to occur for the decision taken.
When a completed act gave a lot of kindness, a sense of satisfaction will increase, conversely for an opposite situation;
the human sense of dissatisfaction will increase. Someones act for its incentive inducement, inner satisfaction and the
confident of reaching the targeted goals (Thompson, Davidson, & Barber, 1995).
3.2.4 Environment
Environmental factors as among other factors that helped driving human behavior. Objects that surround a person like
the ecology, architecture, the situation of psychosocial, and social factors such as position in the community, education
levels and political affiliation are elements of environment that also contributed to the behavior of an individual human
being (Ahmad, 1999). Environment will also encourage actions and behavior of a human to adapt according to its
surrounding (Thyer, Dulmus, & Sowers, 2012).
3.3

To Achieve the Bio-psychosocial Goal

The goal of the bio-psychosocial is of one a theory of motivation that combines two requirements, namely the goal of
biological and psychosocial objectives. Abraham Maslows theory explains the goal of the bio-psychosocial of a human as
illustrated in figure 2.

Figure 2. Abraham Maslows theory


This theory highlights the need for human motif arranged in a pyramid shape and form a hierarchy qualification. Abraham
Harold Maslow (1908-1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslows hierarchy of
needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in selfactualization. Maslow said that man must meet every requirement in each level of the hierarchy (Oleson, 2004; Dye, Mills
& Weatherbee, 2005; Minshull, Ross & Turner, 1986).
Desire starts at the lowest level as a physiological need such as food, water, air, shelter, clothing and other needs
as most basic needs. Than the human needs move to the second stage of stimulant need. Third stage is the needs for
assurance and security, this stage is where human needs to fulfill their prosperity such as having a job and a house. The
fourth is the needs of love and self belonging. At this stage people will meet the needs of love and compassion. The fifth
stage is the need of self-esteem that people will be motivated to fulfill this requirement to seek life satisfaction also in
work to be respected as useful person and being contributed to the society. And finally is the need for the self perfection.
On this fifth hierarchy Maslow suggested that human needs are driven by the desire to achieve something in their life and
to reach self perfection. The struggle to fulfill something more meaningful in life is a one strong motivation (Sanford,
1961).
According to Maslow, people will try to meet the five self requirements physiological needs, safety, social, esteem
and love and self-realization. A failure to fulfill those needs can cause a person to feel uncomfortable and so they will
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keep trying to achieve it. The top of the human needs is self-realization or to become something it desired. If a person
fails to comply with this requirement he will suffer otherwise when someone is able to meet these requirements, he will
feel his life meaningful and feel satisfied (Strand, Coyne & Silvia, 2008). According to Maslow, there are two motives that
drive human to seek the meaning of life, namely the deficiency motive and the motive for growth (Cohen & Cairns, 2012).
Deficiency motive of human is an impulse to seek something that is needed to get something that does not exist within
itself (Pyszczynski, Greenberg, & Solomon, 1997). A sad and solitary person needs someone for a company and getting
rid of his loneliness. The concept is similar to the situation of a person who lacks food or drink will strive to reduce the
requirement. Growth motive is the urge to get something useful and meaningful and not based on needs. One would
have to study hard, driven by a sense to acquire knowledge to help community members in need. Assisting members of
the society who are in need will produce the feeling of satisfaction for services rendered subsequently contribute to the
experience of life with more meaningful. Someone who wants to reach perfection will do something that has meaning in
life and this will satisfy their heart and soul (Desa, 2002). Maslows theory suggests the complexity of human needs and
stressed out that when basic biological needs have not been met relatively human will not seek to fulfill the other needs
yet.
3.4

Religiosity Need

Religion is the main focus as the needs and goals of the behavior of an individual (Dennett, 2006). Religion is also a
guide to determine the actions taken by someone. Aspects of faith in Allah, the existence of the Judgment day, belief in
fate and the provision of Allah and supernatural things are the main catalyst for the movement and behavior of an
individual human being (Ahmad, 1999). Individuals who have religious beliefs will have guidance and define the scope
and limits of human behavior and actions (Clark, & Winslett, 2011). Man was created from the fusion of the two elements
that complement the body and soul perfection event. The Quran describes human creation is related to the word of Allah
in sura al-Hijr verse 28:
"Verily, I (Allah) to create man of dried clay came from mud molded into shape. So, when I have created him and have
breathed into him a soul (created) and have those (angels) bowed to him."

Humans have psychological needs that are very important in life to elevate the spiritual needs of the soul and spirit
(al-Najati, 2005). It means human bounded by body and soul needs to be met and also it proves that the people affected
by the need to meet the physical needs and demands and the spirit that exists in every individual. Therefore, a body and
soul element give a strong influence on the human and has influence in organizing the all form of life (Beck, 2002).
The aspect of soul or nafs is a dominant aspect of the people. Allah says in Sura al-Shams, verse 9 which means:
"Truly success for those that purifies the soul and losers who pollute his soul."

Sacred being is capable of forming a good heart (al-qalb). From a physical aspect, al-qalb is a blood clot which is
located on the left side of the chest. It serves to control the entire circulation of blood and become a source of life. From a
view of spiritually it is smooth, soft and determine the nature of man. Al-Qalb has a natural positive characteristic of
tending to do well. All human behavior is driven by al-qalb desire (Lebar, 1994). Al-Qalb certainly produce good people
who have good behavior, as the Prophet said which reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim:
"Know that the body is mudghah (lump of flesh), if it is good, then the better the whole body. If it is damaged, then the
whole body is also damaged. Know that a piece of meat that is heart

Element of spirit in human is established by Allah and among the highest gift of Him. The next spiritual element is
al-aql (common sense). al-Aql is the main thing that was made by Allah. al-Aql defines as an understanding of human to
reason about something. Function of al-aql is to find and communicate science to the heart and thus approaching Allah
(Ramadan, 2013), and physically it was called brain. al-Aql is capable to radiate the spirit, can understand the invisible
things and try to understand an abstract object (Lebar, 1994).
Based on the above description, the soul is an element which greatly affects the behavior of an individual
approach. Among method of approaches is to ensure the deeds that will please the soul such as good statement, good
service, and pure feeling towards human. In addition to the aspects of thought and soul, the human is also concerned
about the physical needs of society. Physical needs of human are associated with physiological activities in the body as a
substance element. And it will invite humans to need their food and drink for the body in balance. People will feel hungry,
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thirsty, need to air, rest, sleep, and will avoid pain and so on (al-Najati, 2005). Meanwhile, the rising cost of living, poverty,
the more serious the disease facing humanity in the world today is one of the challenges to human well also have
implications for the conduct of a human. The issue of a Muslim that received aid from church has shocked all Muslims
earlier. This proves that aspects of physical needs is the one we should look at and be given more attention especially
today (Schoenfeld, 1993).
Based on the findings above, it is concluded that the aspects of the mind, the soul and the physical affects the
whole aspects of human life. Therefore, the strategy of approaching the society must have the influence and the needs of
thinking aspects, physical, and soul toward humans.
There are some noteworthy that can be implemented in the formulation of plans and programs towards positive
behaviors. It can be implemented by supplying the thought of society according to the teaching in accordance with Quran
and Hadith (prophetic tradition) teachings. Human thought which based on the right knowledge will affect to the society to
justify the right action in line with the doctrine held. Forms of distorted attack on the on the teaching of religion such as
pluralism, liberalism, feminism and some other school of thought is one of the serious threats to the community as well as
a challenge to the clergy. Schools of thought have affected the thoughts and society actions. Some heresies that
appeared on this day is one form of attack that can damage the thought of the people. Serious efforts should be made to
provide people with the right mentality sources to ensure people perform the correct action. And according to Islam,
human behavior is influenced by the spiritual aspect of the covering of the soul or al-nafs, al-qalb and al-ruh (spirit).
4. Conclusion
There are two elements that affect to the human behavior, namely the thought element and the element of soul. The
efforts should be formulated based on the concentration of these elements that influence of human behavior. In Islam, the
religious factors could affect the behavior of an individual human being. Religion affects the physical and spiritual
elements became the two major domain of an individual who attempt to break the hearts of men than it stimulate the
society to perform changes based on the dawah which they received.
Thus, among the main aspects that serve to motivate action and behavior of an individual human being are;
religion, the aspect of needs and biological, psychosocial needs, bio psychosocial needs and goals of the blending of
biological and psychosocial needs of the human. The process should emphasize motivational impetus for creating a
sense of purpose in the soul. The existences of needs on people tend to show human into one targeted objective. The
implementation process needs to point of motivate the right and appropriate goals of human being. Right and appropriate
goals will produce the correct action and far from falsehood or error. A process motivation was to be followed by the
process of guiding the behavior of an individual human being through the actions to ensure appropriate action would
betaken. Implementation of this guidance can be beneficial when the challenges and problems faced by a person
identified as challenges and obstacles because they are a major obstacle in ensuring the achievement of the goals set.
The goal of motivation process was to ensure that one could commit their motivation to its behavior so that one can
sense satisfaction of high relief situation in the soul which eventually realizes the nature and steadfast commitment to
positive behaviors that are expected.
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Using of Selected Social Media in Slovakia and Poland Comparative Study


Sebastian Kot
Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Management
Email: sebacat@zim.pcz.czest.pl

Martina Ferencov
Pavol Jozef afrik University in Koice, Faculty of Public Administration
Corresponding Author: mferencov@gmail.com

Luk Kakalejk
Technical university of Koice, Faculty of Economics
Email: lukas.kakalejcik@tuke.sk
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
Web 2.0 significantly affects the way how companies carry out product promotion. The Internet is almost infinite source of
information, including brand and product information. As users browse the Internet in order to find solution that will fulfill their
needs, content generated by company can affect consumers decision in purchasing process. This article was focused on
determining whether online media are used while searching information about products before purchase and whether users
from Slovakia and Poland complete the purchase based on the information gathered from these media. The results of
questionnaire survey shown that there is not significant difference between the use of selected online media for intended
purchase between Slovak and Polish customers.However, difference between customers from selected countries was found in
online media usage in already completed purchases. It was also found that emerging media in the environment of the Polish
market are used in a greater way than in the Slovak market.
Keywords: social media, product, online marketing, marketing strategy.

1. Introduction
Currently, consumers can choose from various range of goods and services. Due to strong competition on the market,
organizations and enterprises are foced to ongoing market analysis, analysis of supply and demand, and needs and
requiriments of the consumers. Marketing and application of marketing tools (such as social media, search engines etc.)
has the irreplaceable place in each competitive company that want react to change in patterns in consumer behavior.
This is the base for the marketing to be constantly innovated in order to provide answers to the questions consumers ask
during purchasing process (Bajdor, Brzeziski, 2013). Social media, or in general, online media, are not emerging trend
of promotion anymore. It is a common way of product promotion as consumers have become more familiar with available
technology and media that use this technology. Online media give companies the opportunity to promote their products in
engaging, interactive way. This possibility is especially crucial in times when the promotion of the product should be as
same attractive as the product itself (Ferencov, Hudkov, 2013; Chovancov, Rusko, 2008).To extend the message of
the company to the multiple groups of potential customers, the Internet is the most suitable and easily available channel
(Vejaka, 2015).On the other hand, consumers ability to search, browse and consume the product related content has
improved dramatically. Due to this fact, companies have to market their products to smart customer who is able to switch
product distributor in couple of clicks once the expectations of the customer are not met (Trenz, 2015). This is why the
product benefits should be communicated preciously. As customers satisfaction is based on the ability to satisfy its
needs, he purchases more and become stable customer, prioritize companys products against competitions and can
also provide ideas about product refinement (Dima, Man, Kot, 2010). In this paper, we present how online media are
used in pre-purchase stage of buying cycle, during which customers gain information and boost their knowledge about
purchased product.

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2. Theoretical Frameworks
Consumer is a focal element of each marketing system (Kretter et al., 2008). In the environment of online media, his
importance is even more significant. Consumer affects sales of products and associated financial income of
manufacturers and service providers. To ensure their prosperity, companies should monitor the market and listen to the
voice of consumer (Kincl et al., 2004) because adjusted message can positively change customer behavior and generate
more revenue. Consumer behavior is behavior shown by consumers during search, purchase, use and evaluation of
goods and services which are expected to satisfy the needs of consumers (Schiffman et al., 2014) taking their
preferences and habits into account. It is also investment into the time dedicated to searching and processing the
information about products (Kuss, Tomczak, 2004). Thus, the main focus of consumer behavior research is on prepurchase behavior.
Once the company understands consumer behaviour, it should choose communication channels that will help
achieve its marketing goals. And online media might be the part (or can be considered as a part) of companys
communication strategy. Online social media can be defined as open, interactive online applications that encourage an
informal user networks. Users create and share different content within these networks, such as personal experiences,
opinions, attitudes, videos, music or photos (Karlek, Krl, 2011), and anyone can access the content by contributing or
response. In summary, we can say that social media represent tools allow users to create content (user generated
content) and distribute it by the Internet (Sterne, 2011).A communication based on a trusted relationship can be
developed into marital relationship, because the components of the latter are trust, respect and admiration (Vlduescu,
2012).
While Sterne considers social media to be social networks, blogs, mircroblogs, websites, discussion forums,
search engines and so on (Sterne, 2011), Kawasaki and Fitzpatrick (2014) understand social media narrower, equate
them with social networks. Anyway, detailed division of online social media is considered to be very difficult, because the
individual media overlap (Karlek, Krl, 2011). Social media helppopularize the actual topic and researchin the field
ofpublic administration of EU countries, higher education andgenderdiversity (Kot, lusarczyk, 2012; lusarczyk,
Broniszewska, 2014; Constantin, 2013; lusarczyk, Herbu, 2015; Tej, Ali Taha, Sirkov, 2013; Butoracov indleryov,
2015; Goncharuk, 2015). It can be said, that communication via social media is one of the fields that have turned into a
communication universe defined by Smarandache and Vlduescu (2014) which has its own identity and profile.
Social networks (such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and many more) could be considered to be one of the most
important media used to quick outreach of companys content and have the highest potential to make content go viral
(Halligan, Shah, 2014).Social media allow companies to build relationships with other users within the network. This
relationship is represented by being fan (Facebook) or follower (Twitter). Social networks are based on social
relationships and they develop conscious of existence and membershipVlduescu (2008). Social networks could be
devided to mostly personal (Facebook, Twitter, Google+, MySpace) or mostly professional (LinkedIn) (Janouch, 2010),
however, companies usually operate on each of these networks. Blog is another effective marketing tool for a business
(Parker, 2010).A blog is a personal journal in which posts are added in chronological order. This feature of blogs changed
with the advent of social media arrival to the business. As blogs are usually available at no cost, there are suitable for
small- and medium-sized enterprises that are most sensitive to market factors (Pietrasieski, lusarczyk, 2015). A welldesigned web presentation (including websites of retailers and manufacturers) are also used for communication with
target customers. To address them, various alternative online media can be used, such as sharing photos by Flickr,
YouTube video search engine, Pokec (one of the most popular social networks in Slovakia), Foursquare (social locationbased service smartphone app) (Gallo, 2012) or Trip Advisor (tourist-oriented website which works on the basis of free
sharing travel guides, information about hotels, destinations and tourist attractions, provides reviews and information
useful in planning the trip) (Baglieri, Consoli, 2008).
3. Research in Area of Social Media
Study of Advertising Research Foundation (2012) was conducted with use of comprehensive analysis of several research
partners and sponsors. Analysis was conducted in three phases. Results of this study shown, that in order to acquire
certain product, majority of users use information from brand/company website (47 %), search engines (43 %) and
reviews (consumer-generated: 41 %, expert: 40%). Detailed distribution of selected online media use is presented on
Figure 1.

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Figure 1. Use of selected online media to acquire product


Source: Advertising Research Foundation (2012)
Survey conducted by Mohammadpour et al. (2014) proved that value created by social media marketing affects the
attitude towards shopping via Internet. In addition, social media marketing has a positive impact on relational, brand and
value capital of promoted company. Another of the research conducted by Ezumah (2013) showed that only 5 % of
participant use social networks to make decision connected to purchase of the product. Wu and Lee (2012) studied the
variables of blog trustworthiness, product attitude, blog involvement and derived variables. Results of their research have
shown that consumer's involvement in blog influences purchase intention. However, trustworthiness of blog does not
affect consumer purchase intention.
4. Objective and Methods
The aim of this paper was to identify which of the selected online media (social media, search engines, price comparison
websites and deal sites) are used during research phase of the purchasing process for gathering information about
products users want to purchase. The intent to purchase a product, as well as realized purchase of a product, was the
main focus of this study. The methodology and methods covered in our previous work (Ferencov, Jeleov, Kakalejk,
2015) were used. Nevertheless the Internet activity is measure able, it was not possible to collect data for each source
(websites, social media, etc.). Moreover, by studying particular websites, we would not have the overall information about
general consumer behaviour but it would be focused solely on one or several sources. Based on this fact, the results
would not have broader informative value. Instead of that, we used questionnaire survey so we could capture the
behaviour across all examined sources by users. Moreover, it was not fixed to particular source so we captured
generalized behaviour of users. The increment of observed sample extended our research to the international level.
Previous study was focused solely on the Slovak market. By gaining data from similar target group from Polish market,
we were able to conduct a comparative study. The subject of our interest consisted from the target group in the age
category of 20-29 years. Because study programme of management prepare students for working in all sectors of the
economy (including manufacturing, trade and services); students of these programmes were addressed. The selection of
the sample was influenced by the fact that these students are not only real and potential customers who are actively
using observed online media but also current and potential employees, managers and business owners or service
providers therefore people who could use the results of the survey in practice for more effective communication with the
target audience.
Based on objective of survey three hypotheses were formulated:
H1: We assume that would not Slovak and Polish users use the selected online media the same way to find
information about the product before the purchase.
H2: We assume that the Slovak and Polish users did not purchase equally based on information obtained through
selected online media.
5. Sample, Material, Procedure and Data Analysis
The observed sample consisted of 158 students of one university faculty from Slovakia and one from Poland, selected by
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convenience sampling. The sample included only students of management - University of Preov in Preov (75) and
Czestochowa University of Technology (83). Average age of participants was 22.80 years (SD = 1.40), with minimum 19
and maximum 26 years. Most of the sample were women (79.11 %), reflecting a higher proportion of women students in
these faculties. At the bachelor level of study studied 23.42 % of respondents, at the master level of study studied
76.58 % of the respondents. Full-time or part-time job have 58.86 % of respondents.
The Questionnaire of social media usage consists of 17 items. In this paper are presented the findings based on
the answers of two of these items. Respondents answer each of these items using a five-point scale, from 1 = definitely
yes to 5 = definitely not. Their task was to indicate for each of the selected 16 social media if they use those social media
to search for product information and whether they purchase a product based on the information from the specific
medium. In the same way they assess use of search engines, price-comparison sites and deal sites.
A paper-version of the questionnaire was distributed in February 2015 and online version of the questionnaire was
distributed in March and April 2015. The data were analysed using the software Stat Soft Statistica. Because the data are
not normally distributed, for the analysis of data were used nonparametric statistical methods. Mann-Whitney test was
used for the detection of differences. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics too (mode, mean, frequency tables).
6. Results and Discussion
The main objective was to determine which of the social media are among most used ones by respondents while
searching information about the product that they want to buy and whether they use social networking sites, search
engines, deal sites and price-comparison websites.
The survey results showed that the respondents would search for information about the product they intend to buy
mostly with use of search engines such as Google or Bing (91.14%), seller's website (69.62%), price-comparison
websites (63.29%) deal sites (62.66%) and forums (62.66%). Higher position of use of deal sites and price-comparison
websites indicates that the price is important for while buying and it is clear that users are interested to buy the cheapest
product possible. On the other hand, social networks would not be the primary source of information about products
because among selected social networks Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Google+, Instagram, LinkedIn, MySpace, and
Pokec users would more widely use only social network Facebook (44.94%) and YouTube (43.67%). Based on this
results, we drawn two following conclusions: 1) other social networks are not sufficiently used for purchasing in the
market environment of Slovakia and Poland; 2) users use social networks for the primary purpose of their creation - to
communicate with other users - not to find information about products.
By comparison of these results with those that discuss already made purchase of product based on information
obtained from selected online media, it is clear that those numbers reached lower values than in the case of intended
purchase. The mostly used sources of information in case of purchase made were search engines (73.42 %), sellers
website (66.46 %), price-comparison websites (58.23 %) and discussion forums (36.08 %). The fact that users used
presented online media less often when actually purchased the product might be a consequence of disalignment between
users informational needs with available information as well as consequence of non-optimalized user experience. This
results suggest that companies and organizations offering goods and services should pay more attention to recognition of
needs of their potentional clients. Its important to bear in mind that information that users find, could also discourage
them from potentional purchase. Besides, companies should also focus on building customers' trust in the online
environment. When compared intended purchase with real purchase, results reached the same level only in deal sites
use (62.66 %).It again demonstrates the importance of the price as a part of marketing mix.
If we analyze the modal responses in the already conducted purchases based on information obtained from
selected online media, the highest frequency of answers "definitely yes" was found in search engines (39.24%), seller's
website (31.10 %), price-comparison websites (25.94 %), deal sites (25.32%) and the social network Facebook (15.19%).
For other online media was monitored modal response in the incidence of less than 15%. Compared with the overall
results it is clear that only about half of the users have used this source of information for buying desired product. The
result may be a consequence of several factors. First, online marketing strategy of companies is composed of several
media cohesion, while the user is not sure if the currently selected media was crucial during the purchasing process. The
second reason may be the failure to recognize the influence of medium for purchasing behaviour.
When comparing the occurrence of modal response "definitely yes" in a separate category of social networks
(except the social network Facebook, which was analyzed above) it can be observed that the greatest incidence of this
response is a social network YouTube (6.96%). Other social networks had not even reached the 5% limit. Based on this
detection, it can be argued that social networks dont play an important role in the purchasing process for consumers.
This does not mean that companies should not use them for building the brand awareness and engagement of the target
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groups. However, we recommend to track return on investment in selected social networks, and in this case, we consider
brand awareness to be a suitable performance metric for efficiency determination.
While testing the H1 hypothesis, it was not possible to reject the null hypothesis because the difference in the use
of selected online media to gather information for the intended purchase between Slovak and Polish users was
statistically significant only in some media. Based on the results it can be concluded that if respondents were in the
situation in which they should buy the product, they would search for information differently only in use of search engines,
sellers website, selected social networks and Foursquare application. Detailed results are presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Country differences in the use of selected online media for searching information about product of intended
purchase
Slovakia
M SD

Variable
Social Media
Seller's website
Discussion forums
Website of manufacturer (despite fact that it is not the seller)
Facebook
YouTube
Blogs
Google+
Instagram
TripAdvisor
Emails of the company
Twitter
LinkedIn
Pokec
MySpace
Foursquare
Search engines, price comparison websites and deal sites
Search engines (e.g. Google)
Price comparison websites (e.g Heureka.sk)
Deal sites (e.g. Zavada)

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1.84
2.53
2.73
2.75
3.21
3.21
4.05
4.19
4.27
3.37
4.39
4.47
4.56
4.56
4.64

1.13
1.12
1.34
1.42
1.44
1.29
1.38
1.20
1.24
1.29
1.12
1.03
1.00
0.91
0.87

Poland
M SD
2.42
2.39
2.63
2.75
2.87
2.92
3.37
3.84
3.98
3.13
3.94
3.89
4.00
3.98
4.04

1.15
1.31
1.15
1.24
1.18
1.30
1.24
1.24
1.16
0.99
1.14
1.09
1.13
1.05
1.15

2124.0
2774.0
2982.5
3079.5
2715.5
2691.5
2118.0
2580.0
2536.5
2715.0
2329.5
2065.5
2118.0
2080.0
2092.0

-3.44*
1.18
0,45
-0.11
1.38
1.46
3.46*
1.85
2.00
1.38
2.72*
3.64*
3.46*
3,60*
3.55*

1.24 0.61 1.63 0.98 2443.5 -2.33*


2.16 1.23 2.39 1.04 2604.5 -1.76
2.48 1.23 2.33 1.08 2957.5 0.53

Although the hypothesis H1 has not been confirmed we consider the detection of difference in the use of selected social
networks (Google+, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pokec, MySpace) and applications Foursquare to be important. Based on
comparison of Slovak and Polish users in connection with the purchase of the product based on information received
from selected online media, it can be concluded that there were found differences in the use of majority of observed
media. Hypothesis H2 was therefore confirmed. The differences in shopping behavior of Slovaks and Poles were not
detected only in use of search engines, social networking site Facebook, blogs and e-mails sent by companies. Detailed
results are displayed in Table 2.
Table 2. Country differences in the use of selected online media for searching information about purchased product
Slovakia
M SD

Variable
Social Media
Seller's website
Website of manufacturer (despite fact that it is not the seller)
Facebook
Discussion forums
Emails of the company
Blogs
YouTube
Google+
Instagram

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2.21
2.89
3.01
3.04
3.13
3.26
3.66
4.06
4.21

1.31
1.29
1.55
1.22
1.30
1.38
1.27
0.86
1.08

Poland
M SD
2.31
2.69
2.88
2.72
3.11
3.07
3.18
3.53
3.93

1.01
1.06
1.26
1.22
1.19
1.31
1.24
1.31
1.13

2542.5
2487,0
2834.5
2152.5
3030.5
2591.5
1749.5
1599.5
2057.0

-1.98*
2,18*
0,97
3.34*
0.28
1.12
4.74*
5.27*
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Twitter
TripAdvisor
LinkedIn
MySpace
Pokec
Foursquare
Search engines, price comparison websites and deal sites
Search engines (e.g. Google)
Deal sites (e.g. Zava da)
Price comparison websites (e.g. Heureka.sk)

230
231
232
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244
245
246
247
248
249
250
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253
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4.27
4.32
4.35
4.37
4.41
4.45

0.87
0.95
0.85
0.69
0.68
0.56

3.94
4.05
4.06
4.02
4.11
4.12

1.07
0.98
1.07
1.05
1.02
0.96

1888.5
2026.5
2015.5
1859.5
1987.5
1817.5

4.26*
3.78*
3,82*
4.36*
3.92*
4,51*

2.11 1.15 2.28 1.26 2583.0 -1.84


2.38 1.34 2.55 1.03 2306.0 -2.81*
2.46 1.32 2.69 1.22 2254.0 -2.99*

*p < 0,05

Based on the results shown in Table 2, it can be concluded that differences were not found when using media that are
well-established on the Slovak market. The differences are noticeable mainly in emerging media such as social networks,
which have not found the optimal application in the Slovak market yet. It can be observed in a slight latency of their use
when shopping, compared with users on the Polish market.
Results of the research:
1. If users are in a situation they should buy the product, Slovak and Polish users would search for the
information about this product using selected online media the same way. Based on this finding, hypothesis
H1 has not been confirmed while the differences in using were found only in the use of search engine, seller's
website and social networks except Facebook.
2. Slovak and Polish customers did not purchase equally based on information from selected online media.
Differences were not found only in the use of search engines, Facebook, e-mails and blogs. This detection
therefore confirms our hypothesis H2.
3. Customers would mostly use search engine, website of seller, price comparison websites, deal sites and
forums when intend to purchase a product.
4. De facto customers have bought the product based on the information obtained from search engines, sellers
website, deal sites, price comparison sites and discussion forums.
5. Emerging online media (mostly social networks) are used more and to a greater extent on the Polish market
compared to Slovak market.
The aforementioned findings cannot be generalized (because of convenience sampling), but they can be used in
the future both in realization of further research in this area and also in the development of the marketing communication
strategy of companies and organizations to communicate with their target audience. The presented results can influence
the initial choice of online media in order to prevent inefficient spending, especially in small and medium-sized
enterprises, which often operate with a limited budget.
7. Summary
Online media can be used to attract potentional customers, raise engagement and generate revenue. This can be
achieved mainly through the product information that will influence the decision of the customer's purchase. The results of
this study demonstrated that, when searching for information about relevant products, there are not significant differences
in the behaviour of Slovak and Polish customers. Furthermore, it was found that the Slovak and Polish users do not use
selected online media for shopping in the same way. The mostly used medium to find information about the product and
the execution of purchase is the search engine. Other media, especially social networks, are not significantly used during
purchasing process.
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Routes to Remembering: Lessons from al Huffaz


Mariam Adawiah Dzulkifli
Associate Professor of Psychology (corresponding author), Department of Psychology, KIRKHS
International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; m.adawiah@iium.edu.my

Abdul Wahab bin Abdul Rahman


Professor of Computer Science, Department of Computer Science, KICT
International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Jamal Ahmed Bashier Badi


Professor of Islamic Revealed Knowledge, Department of General Studies, KIRKHS
International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abdul Kabir Hussain Solihu


Associate Professor of Islamic Revealed Knowledge, Department of General Studies, KIRKHS
International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Email: m.adawiah@iium.edu.my
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
Al Quran is the basis for all aspects of Muslims life. These words of Allah are to guide us in every phase of our journey to
become ummatan wasata including teaching and learning. Remembering is essential in ones attempt to learn. Remembering
involves one core cognitive process known as memory. This research aims to explore and form a better understanding on the
cognitive basis underlying human memory, so as to help in optimizing ones own ability to learn. We have chosen to study the
memory of Al Huffaz, i.e. those who memorize the Quran because of their exceptional memory performance to commit such a
volume in their memory. In the Western literatures, the most influential research on people with superior memory performance
focused mainly on chess players (Chase & Simon, 1973). In our context Al Huffaz are considered as people with superior
memory performance due to the greater body of knowledge, the possession of accurate memory and superior ability to store
information in memory. The exceptional memory ability of the Al Huffaz was investigated via a detailed and structured
interviews and a survey. The findings from the interviews strengthened the involvement of several control processes such as
rehearsal, motivation or interest and self-discipline. In addition, the findings from the survey revealed that the best predictor to
memorizing ability is the self- efficacy and goal setting behavior. The understanding on this cognitive basis underlying human
memory will definitely help to develop ummatan wasata mentioned in the Quran become a reality.
Keywords: Memory performance, Huffaz, self-efficacy, rehearsal, goal setting behaviour

1. Introduction
Remembering is essential in ones attempt to learn. Information learned has to be sent, stored and remembered.
According to Gredler (2009) learning is an active process that involves the transfer of information from the environment to
the brain. Information is retained and undergoes more processing to make it available later or to bring back the specific
information when it is needed. Thus, theoretically, learning is the capability of modifying information already stored in
memory based on new input or experiences that result in relatively permanent change in behavior and mental processes.
Hence, learning and remembering are contingent one another.
Remembering involves one core cognitive process known as memory. Memory is our mental process that gives us
instant access to our personal past, complete with all of the facts that we know and the skills that we have cultivated.
Human memory processes involve three primary stages namely encoding, storage and retrieval. During the encoding
stage, information is sent to the brain and will be processed and transduced into neural form by an ensemble of brain
cells. In the storage phase of memory formation, the brain must retain encoded data over extended periods of time.

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Retrieval constitutes the access to the infinite world of stored information, where we bring stored information out of
permanent memory back into working memory, which can be mentally manipulated for usage.
Memory is also conceptualized in term of its structures. In one of the most influential models of human memory
proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), memory is made up of three structures namely sensory register store (SRS),
short-term store (STS) and long-term store (LTS). These three memory structures differ in terms of the capacity to hold
information and the duration of the information retention. SRS can hold a huge amount of information available from all
the senses but the information there only retains for seconds or less. The second memory structure is the STS which is
characterized as a limited capacity system for temporary storage. The information in the STS can only be retained for a
very short period of time, approximately 15 30 seconds (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). The third structure in the model of
memory proposed by Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) is referred to as LTS which has unlimited storage capacity and able to
hold information in a long time period.
An important aspect of human memory highlighted by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) is the control processes, which
according to Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) influences the flow of the information between the memory structures. Memory
control processes are active processes that can be controlled by the person and may differ from one task to another
(Goldstein, 2012). Rehearsal, mnemonics, heuristic, imagining, coding and modifying information are important control
processes that allow the information to stay longer in one memory structure or be transferred from one structure to
another memory structure. Attention is also one of the control processes that enable the selection as well as limiting the
amount of information to be stored in STS (Reed, 2009). If attention is absent, the information in the SRS cannot be
transferred to STS and it will cause the information to be lost (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Thus, with attention information
from SRS can be successfully transferred to STS. Another control process such as rehearsal is required to ensure that
the information in the STS are well maintained and able to transferred to a more permanent storage (Reed, 2009). In
short, all these various control processes allow an active interaction between the new and the stored information. They
are the essential processes that become the basis for information transfer between different memory structures.
The current research is conducted with the aim to explore and form a better understanding on the cognitive basis
underlying human memory. In particular, it is to discover the uniqueness of the memory ability of people called Huffaz.
Huffaz is an Arabic word that is used to refer to people who have completely memorized all the thirty juzuk of the Quran.
What could be memory processes and the predictors of their exceptional and superior memory performance? A direct
implication of understanding the working of the experts memory is it will help to form a better understanding on the
cognitive basis underlying people with exceptional memory ability as well as the understanding of the structure and limits
of human adaptation and learning.
1.1

Memory in Islam

The role played by human memory is so significant from Islamic point of view. In Islam, the main mode for the
preservation of the Quran is through memorization. In the field of hadith, memory plays important role in determining the
authenticity of a hadith. An authentic hadith according to Ibn Salah is the one which has a continuous isnad (chain of
narrators), made up of reporters of trustworthy memory from similar authorities, and which is found to be free from any
irregularities (i.e. in the text) or defects (i.e. isnad). For those studying hadith it is generally understood that the more
trustworthy and of good memory the reporters, the more authentic is the hadith. Due to the significant role ones memory
plays, muhaddith are very particular and careful in selecting hadith by checking up the memory of the individuals they
took the hadith from. This is done to ensure the contents are not distorted unintentionally due to the difficulty caused by
memory related problems. For instance, even if the narrator manages to fulfill the criteria of a fine narrator such as just
and Muslim, but lack in memory performance, not only the narrator will be deemed as weak, even the hadith narrated is
considered weak. This shows how memory alone can determine the status of a hadith. In the field of fiqh or Islamic
jurisprudence, memory serves as a tool to implement Islamic laws and the protection of Muslims well-being efficiently.
For example when a Muslim is giving a testimony towards others in the case of qazf (accusation of adultery) their
testimony shall be checked with the details given along their memory condition.
1.2

Quranic memorization

The tradition of Quranic memorization is traced back to the period of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). In fact,
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is indeed the first person who memorized the Quran as he was asked to
commit the first revelation (96: 1-5) via the form of oral transmission by the Jibrail. In one of the hadith Prophet
Muhammad (peace be upon him) shared with his companions the experience he went through when the revelation was
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sent to him.
Narrated by Said Bin Jubair:
It is for us to collect it and to give you (O Muhammad) the ability to recite it (the Qur'an) (75.16-17) which means that
Allah will make him (the Prophet) remember the portion of the Qur'an which was revealed at that time by heart and
recite it. Afterwards, Allah's Apostle used to listen to Gabriel whenever he came and after his departure he used to
recite it as Gabriel had recited it."
Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 1 No. 4

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) often encouraged his companions to memorize the Quran since the
majority of them cannot read nor write, leaving memory as the only thing they can depend on to preserve the Quran.
Thus, memorization can be considered as one of the modes to preserve the authenticity of the Quran as the guidance to
mankind historically.
With regard to Quranic memorization, several terms are to be clarified. Hifz is the Arabic word that refers to the
process of memorizing the Quran. The books Mu'jam al Arabi al-Asasi and Mu'jam al-Wasit (as cited in Abdul Hafiz
Abdullah & Hasimah Muda, 2003) both explain that hifz means to guard or protect and to preserve from being lost. Thus,
when applied to memorizing the Quran, it entails several processes that need to be carried out to ensure the information
committed to memory is not lost. These processes include encoding the text of the Quran, rehearsing the text for the
purpose of permanent storage and retrieving the text of the Quran with full accuracy and correctness. Hifz is therefore
cannot be passive memorization process. Rather it is a highly active and complex memory-based task conducted by one
so as to 'preserve' the Quran in an individual's memory.
The person who does the hifz is called hafiz (plural is huffaz). The word hafiz comes from the same root word as
hifz and literally means guardian. The hafiz is commonly conceptualized to refer to the one who does the memorization
of the Quran and thus becomes the guardian and preserve the Quran. In Malaysia, the term hafiz is understood to be one
who has completely memorized all the thirty juzuk of the Quran.
Malaysia recorded 13,000 huffaz in 2011 (Penyelaras Pembangunan Al-Quran JPAQ, 2011). There are also 158
tahfiz (Quranic memorisation centers) registered with JAKIM (Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia, 2014). Over the years,
many more informal centers have been formed too.
Research on memorization of Quran in Malaysia has revolved mainly around the various techniques used at
different centers of tahfiz and the effectiveness of these methods (Sedek Ariffin & Zulkifli Mohd Yusoff, 2014; Azmil
Hashim, Ab. Halim Tamuri, Misnan Jemali & Mohd Aderi Che Noh, 2013; Azmil Hashim & Ab. Halim Tamuri, 2012;
Mohamad Marzuqi Abd Rahim, 2008; Abdul Hafiz Abdullah & Hasimah Muda, 2003). For example, the methods the
various schools generally employed are fundamentally repetition (takrir) over a span of at least a year, to memorize verse
after verse. They differ in details of techniques like the order of memorization of the 30 juzuk, the order of page
memorized first, number of times students are required to repeat the verses and how revision is done i.e. after a week or
a month and individually or by peer-review (tadarrus). These details serve as measures to ease the process and improve
retention (Abdul Hafiz Abdullah & Hasimah Muda, 2003; Sedek Ariffin & Zulkifli Mohd Yusoff, 2014). These studies do
address the much asked question on how to best memorize, but few have looked into the psychology of the process of
memorization to understand how it happens.
As with the study on memory processes, it has been generally agreed that storing and retrieving information from
memory involves bidirectional transfer of information across multiple memory domains (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968, Cowan,
2000, Goldstein, 2011). However, there is less agreement on the nature of control processes that may become the basis
for the information transfer. The current initiative is an attempt to discover and characterise the nature of the processes
underlying the transfer of information between these memory structures. In particular, the control processes involved in
memorizing the Quran by the huffaz.
2. Method
Methods for data collection were of two types; the first is a structured and detailed interview with subject matter experts.
The interviews were conducted to explore the possible factors or processes influencing the process of memorization of
the Quran. In an attempt to view the process holistically, the interview questions included open-ended questions on the
possible human factors (iman or faith, self-discipline, age etc.), environmental factors (food, adaab or etiquettes like
facing the qiblah etc., place), memory control processes (repeating, writing, understanding, etc.) and Quranic text
characteristics (rhythm, writing style etc.).

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The second method for data collection is the survey on people who are involved in the Quranic memorization
process. This was conducted on those who were involved in Quranic memorization with the aim to strengthen the findings
from interviews as well as to explore on the best predictor for memorizing ability.
2.1

Participants

The participants to the interview consisted of five Huffaz. They were two Malaysian females and three males (one from
Pakistan, one from Sudan and one from Malaysia). Their age ranged from 35 to 55 years old. All of them had completed
memorizing the Quran and had more than three years of experience in the teaching and learning of memorization of the
Quran.
As for the survey, the respondents consisted of 270 students from six tahfiz schools in Kuala Lumpur and
Selangor. 52.2% were females while the rest were male respondents. Their age ranged from 13 to 18 years old.
3. Results
3.1

Findings from interviews

The interviews were conducted to explore the possible factors or processes influencing the process of memorization of
Quran. On the basis of the content analysis of responses given by the subject matter experts, the followings are the
factors that have been identified and are believed to influence the memorization of the Quran. These factors have been
arranged according degree of importance.
3.1.1 Memory control processes.
Memory control processes are active processes that can be controlled by the person and may differ from one task to
another (Goldstein, 2012). Rehearsal, coding and imaging are some of the important control processes that govern the
flow of information in human memory system. One of the most commonly used control processes is rehearsal. It refers to
the process of repeating information either overtly or covertly. It may delay the loss of information from memory system or
result in an increase in the memory strength. Rehearsal has been shown not only to maintain information in short term
memory but also to control transfer of information from short term memory to long term memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin,
1971).
At the outset, it was expected that rehearsal would be advantageous to memorization. The findings from the
interviews strengthened this when all the interviewees mentioned on the importance of rehearsal as a memory control
process in the process of memorizing the Quran. Interestingly, all the interviewees stressed that it is the maintenance and
not elaborative rehearsal that plays the most important role in the memorization of the Quran. Maintenance and
elaborative rehearsal are the two types of rehearsal that differ in that the former involves memorization of information by
merely repeating the information without any consideration to its meaning or associating it with other information. This
type of rehearsal involves a relatively superficial level of information processing. On the other hand, elaborative rehearsal
is repeating with understanding, i.e. memorizing information by knowing its meaning and linking it to information already
stored in long term memory. Compared to maintenance rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal involves a deep level of
information processing. This is supported by Craik and Lockhart (1972) who argued that the processes involved in
memory were more important than the memory structures. Thus, the deeper the level of information processing, the
longer the information is kept stored and the better is the memory performance.
The finding from the interview however, gives more support to maintenance rehearsal as one of the main factors
that contributes to successful long-term retention and accuracy of the Quranic verses.
3.1.2 Motivation
The content analysis from the interview suggested that the second pre-requisite to successful Quranic memorization is
motivation. The interviewees described motivation as a mechanism that influenced what strategies the memorizer would
use and how they follow through with it. This is actually in line with many motivation theorists that assume that motivation
is necessary for the performance of any learned response (Huitt, 2011). This motivational factor is deemed important as it
influence a relatively more effortful activity to complete the task.

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3.1.3 Self-discipline
Corresponding to motivation, another human factor i.e. self-discipline was also reported to be instrumental in finishing
memorization of the 30 juzuk of Al Quran. Memorization of the Quran does involve deliberate practice. Ericsson and
Charness (1994) described deliberate practice as the structured, arduous activity intended to improve performance and
this practice was limited to a short length of time practised daily due to the enormous effort it needed. Thus, the
memorizer would need discipline to practise as such.
Overall, the findings from the interview showed that consistent repetition or maintenance rehearsal, motivation and
self-discipline were found to be impertinent to memorization of the Quran.
3.2

Findings from survey

The second part of data collection is a survey on people who are in the process of memorizing the Quran. The survey
was conducted with the aim to strengthen the findings from interviews as well as to explore on the best predictor for
memorizing ability. The items in the survey include those such as age, number of years being a hafiz, strategies to
memorize, perception on memory ability, goal-setting behaviour, time management, self-efficacy, supportive environment
and religiosity.
On the basis of regression analysis, seven predictors (age, number of years being a hafiz, goal setting, time
management, memorising self-efficacy, supportive environment and religiosity) have been identified and there is one
criterion variable (memorising al-Quran ability) (see Table 1). To test this model, first, a pre-investigation on the
correlation between predictors and the memorising ability was investigated to ensure that all of the predictors were
significantly related to the outcome variable (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). The correlation analyses indicated that only
memorising self-efficacy and goal setting were significantly correlated to the memorising ability and therefore these two
predictors were included in the regression model.
Second, a hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA) was conducted to test whether memorising selfefficacy and goal setting significantly predict the memorising ability (Field, 2005; Green & Salkind, 2005). Memorising
self-efficacy was entered in step 1, while goal-setting was entered in step 2. Results showed that memorising self-efficacy
significantly predicted the memorising ability (Model 1: R = .320, R = .103, Adjusted R = .099, F (1, 261) = 29.824, p =
.000). And goal setting also significantly predicted memorising ability (Model 2: R = .364, R = .133, Adjusted R = .126,
F (1, 260) = 9.056, p = .000). With the significant F, the findings indicated that memorising self-efficacy and goal
setting were significant predictors to the memorising ability.
In addition to hierarchical regression, relative weight analysis was conducted to examine the exact amount of
unique contribution the memorising self-efficacy and goal setting make to the outcome variable (memorising ability).
While the former is a conventional tool to assess predictive validity, the latter is a recent technique used to examine the
relative contribution each predictor uniquely makes in explaining the outcome variable (LeBreton, Hargis, Griepentrog,
Oswald, & Ployhart, 2007; LeBreton & Tonidandel, 2008). Results of the relative weight analysis revealed that
memorising self-efficacy was the strongest predictor to memorising ability as it explained 57.85% of the variance in
memorizing ability. This was followed by the goal setting which explained 42.15% of the outcome variable.
Table 1.

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4. Discussion
The current chapter highlight on the current initiative to study people whose memory performance is of exceptional level.
The study of the memory of the Huffaz was conducted with the aims to discover the factors that contribute to their
superior memory performance in memorizing the Quran. The findings from the research are pragmatic and applicable to
learning process in general and not necessarily memorizing the Quran or any other religious texts. Theoretically, learning
involves memory. New information has to be remembered and information already stored in memory can be changed or
modified in response to new input or experiences. In other words, learning is contingent on memory. It is therefore crucial
for us to discover ways to optimise our memory ability so as to optimise our learning ability. The findings from the current
research can help to form a better understanding of the cognitive basis underlying human memory, which can optimize
human potential and lead to better interventions at schools of tahfiz all over the world. In addition, they can also be
applicable to all knowledge and learning process that entails long-term and working memory.
The current research is divided into two phases. The first phase is an exploratory in nature. The structured and
detailed interviews were conducted with several subject matter experts. In the second phase a survey was conducted on
secondary school children who were involved in memorization of the Quran.
The findings from the interview revealed the importance of specific memory control process such as rehearsal.
More importantly, it has been found that it is maintenance and not elaborative rehearsal that plays the most important role
in the memorization of the Quran. Motivation and self-discipline have also been found to be essential in Quranic
memorization.
Up till now, there seemed to be a dichotomy between two approaches to memorization where the traditional was
repetition and thus considered conservative by psychologist. These psychologists hold on to the results of numerous
researches that show that elaborative rehearsal is a more effective method of studying and memorization (Craik and
Lockhart, 1972, Craik and Tulving, 1975). However, much insight has been gained into the process of memorization from
the current findings. In memorizing the Quran, maintenance rehearsal is better compared to elaborative rehearsal. It can
be said that memorization of the Quran is different because it entails memorization of a large volume of text, more often
than not, incomprehensible to the memorizer. Thus, it needs to be categorized differently and in fact, can be better
understood as a process to gain expertise in the text of the Quran. Unlike studying which, requires understanding of
concepts for higher order executive functions, memorization of the Quran focuses on the preservation of the Quranic text
as it is. This difference in goal may lead to differences in the memory control process used. In addition, the voluminous
amount of material to be rehearsed verbatim makes it hard to use elaborative rehearsal as a control process except for in
a more superficial manner as used for memorization of numbers by expert memorizers.
The findings from the survey indicated that the best predictor to memorizing ability is self-efficacy and goal-setting
behavior. Self-efficacy refers to the beliefs that one has concerning his capabilities to attain designated levels of
performance (Bandura, 1986, 1988). Kanter (2006) referred self-efficacy as a kind of self-confidence while Brockner
(1988) proposed that it is a task-specific version of self-esteem. Ones self-efficacy is closely related to goal-setting
behavior as ones capability of achieving can influence his or her learning ability. The influence can be in the form of the
goals set by the learners to attain, the efforts that the learners are willing to exert and the level of persistence in dealing
with challenges.
Self-efficacy has been found to be the determinant to any task performance (Bandura & Locke, 2003). With regard
to memory performance, Beaudoin, Marine, Desrichard & Olivier (2011) in their meta-analysis study reported on the
significant positive correlation between memory self-efficacy and memory performance. This is in line with the findings
from the current study that revealed memory self-efficacy as one of the best predictors in memorizing ability. In
memorizing the whole Quran, memorizing self-efficacy is deemed important and necessary as the Quran itself is a large
volume of text, more often than not, incomprehensible to the memorizer. The Quran is a
divine religious book of Islam. Muslims believe that it contains the actual words of Allah (the God), and that it is the
last scripture from Him to humankind. It was revealed to Prophet Muhammad 14 centuries ago in pure classical Arabic
language consisting of 77,430 words, which are organized in 30 sections (Juzuk). The 30 juzuk is further categorized to
114 chapters (Surahs) that are in turn partitioned into a number of verses (Ayah). The Quranic text is unique and has
not encountered any change throughout the previous decades. It is also considered the main source of legislation in
Islam since it contains the main rules that govern Muslim in various spiritual, private, social and political aspects of life.
(Alrabiah, Alhelewh, Al-Salman & Atwell, 2014, pp. 1 & 2).

To summarize, among the possible routes to remembering revealed from the current research are ones memory
control processes which include rehearsal, motivation and self-discipline. The belief in ones ability to succeed in
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memorizing information or memory self-efficacy and goal-setting behavior have also been identified as the best predictor
to memorizing ability. Consequently, any learners or educators should be vigilant on the need to look into the internal
processes of the learners since these may be the key points to optimize ones potential. Future research may look into
documenting the neural underpinnings of memory processing system as it would offer significant insights into the
mechanisms of exceptional memory performance.
5. Conclusion
Those in learning world are inundated by massive amounts of information to attend to. Exchanges of information that
occur in every second demand for the need to increase understanding on the the mechanisms and factors contributing to
superior memory performance. There is indeed a great need for such studies in our efforts to improve memory and
learning process in the general population and the memory impaired.
6. Acknowledgement
The research is funded by the Ministry of Higher Education under its Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS13019-0260).
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Challenges of Parenthood after Divorce in Albania


PhD Jeta Shkurti (Toila)
Department of PedagogyPsychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tirana
Email: jetashkurti@yahoo.com
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
After the divorce, in addition of changing the marital status, changes arise also in parenthood. Suddenly there are two houses
with an adult responsible for the children. What are the challenges facing parents already divorced? Do the Albanian parents
support each other during this process? Does the parenthood exist or society is not yet ready for this form of care? This
research established on the basis of these questions is qualitative, where the data were collected through semistructured
interviews. They were transcribed and analyzed by thematic content. Interviewees were mothers and fathers of the Albanian
capital, who had at least one child. They were interviewed a year after the announcement of the decision by the Court of Tirana
for the dissolution of marriage. The data represent the experiences and opinions of interviewees who had similar but also
different custody regime. From the search results that the main challenges faced by parents concerned with the lack of
cooperation with the other parent, parental alienation, difficulty of maintaining the close relationship with the children, adapting
to a new way of living, and hope of resident parent for a greater support in parenting by the nonresident parent. The study
helps the divorced parents or those in the process of divorce, as well as professionals in the field.
Keywords: parenthood, divorce, parenting together, custody, parental alienation

1. Introduction
1.1

The challenges of parenthood after divorce

Recently in our country the phenomenon of divorce has become more vulnerable than before. There is no wonder that in
a palace or class is at least one child of divorced parents. Working with divorced parents in order to reduce the effects of
divorce on children, is one of the important aspects of the phenomenon. Still there is no awareness that psychological
counseling during and after a divorce is necessary, however, some promising steps are made in this direction. Since
2004 with the adoption of amendments to the Family Code of the Republic of Albania, during the trial of the marriage
dissolutions, takes a special role the psychologist or social worker. From this period, my interest was shown for the
phenomenon of divorce in Albania. As an expert recognized by the Court of Tirana in matters of custody of children in
cases of the marriage dissolutions, I had the opportunity to contact more than 300 couples during the phase before,
during and after divorce. I had the opportunity to observe each year causes, motives of divorces, behaviors and attitudes
of partners to each other, the childrens reactions. But what made me more curious and more demanding to research
further was the situation after the divorce. This is the stage of challenges for parents, as well as for children. It is not yet
easy to accept the fact that after divorce, the former partners must meet and talk to each other again for the childs
problems. The typical Albanian divorce has been not only the separation of the couple, but also of the tribes. Meetings of
children with the nonresident parent have been rare. But Albanian society expressed in most cases the wish to be
Europe. In this context, the issues of divorce must be treated and considered similar to those of European countries.
Consequently, at this stage they need more support. The beginning of supporting parenthood after divorce is the
awareness of parents that a child needs both parents. This is emphasized in the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
The purpose of the study is to understand what are the changes and challenges of parenting after divorce. The search is
focused on parents, their experiences and opinions on the situation after the divorce.
1.2

Divorce

In the past, before the 90s in Albania, few cases of divorce were present. The socialist state and society did not accept
simple reasons to divorce. There had to be a major and proven cause for the court to give the divorce. When women
came out as brides from the fathers house, they were ordered to behave well and to be devoted since there was no
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turning back. For most couples, though they were not married in church, marriage was accompanied by the phrase for
better and for worse till death do us part. Divorce was not easy. While in other countries it was about gender division of
roles as the man to ensure their livelihoods and the woman who cared for the children, and then began the movement for
gender equality, in our country before the 90s both men and women worked and educated, but their independence was
not at the same levels. In fact, the dictatorial regime limited both sexes in terms of independence, even within the walls of
the house. In other countries, when women began to work and to be educated, they provided a good income. Gender
balance changed. To us, the situation remained constant. It was the state regulator of all, despite the desires and
potentials. In Albania before the enactment of the Family Code in 2003, there were recognized as grounds for divorcing
violation of infidelity, incurable mental illness, and criminal conviction of one of the spouses. Today, under Article 132 of
the Family Code, the dissolution of marriage at the request of one of the spouses is due to continuous quarrels,
maltreatment, severe insults, adultery, incurable mental illness, criminal conviction of one of spouses or for any other
reason that makes repeated violations of obligations arising from the marriage, joint life becomes impossible and the
marriage has lost its purpose for the plaintiff spouse or both spouses. Also under Article 129 of the Family Code, the
divorce can happen today due to the interruption of life together when the spouses live separately in fact since 3 years.
The process of dissolution of marriage in our country is realized soon but the delay can occur also. Usually
procedures are simple and in a normal flow the divorce is carried out within 2 months, but if the court does not create
confidence that all possibilities of reconciliation of spouses are excluded, it may postpone the announcement of the
decision to 1 year, based on Article 136 of the Family Code. Divorce brings big changes in life. According to Tolkki
Nikkonen (1985) divorce can be regarded as a crisis situation that can change lives for the better. Pohjola (1999) states
that divorce has become an option for many people to change their lives. Families should be supported during the
marriage in parenting and relationship issues. It is natural for a family to have problems, but in order to reduce the
number of divorces it is necessary the support. If parents can afford divorce and parenting after it constructively, it can
have a positive effect on children. Galambos and Ehrenberg (1997) stated that divorced parents who are able to maintain
good relations with each other and have cooperative parenthood, not only protect the children from the potential negative
effects, but also they can provide models for children how to resolve the conflicts and how to negotiate relationships.
1.3

Parenthood

Parenthood is a lifelong role and dedication. Parents, children and the environment form the role of parenthood.
Parenting is developed by parentchild interaction. Being a parent can be a rewarding and enjoyable thing, but also it has
many challenges. In modern societies, parenting is a choice. Furthermore, having children can be seen as a project
(Hokkanen 2005). To become parent in Albania, in most cases is a defined task since when wearing the crown. It is
expected immediately the birth of a child from a married couple. Even the most common wishes in a marriage ceremony
are Wish for you to have successors, Wish for the couple to be inherited with a son, which means that the Albanians
celebrate and wish the heritage, and not the couple coexistence itself. Pressure to be inherited is made to couple from
families, relatives, neighbors and even by just acquaintances. A childless couple who has more than two years of
marriage, is viewed with compassion by others with the idea as sin, they cant have children, excluding the fact that the
couple may have chosen not to become a parent for a period of time. Especially for couples living in the capital is an
increase of childless years after marriage. For young couples in our country now as in other countries it is believed that
the transition to parenthood is an event that brings changes. The couples life is not the same after birth of a child.
Becoming a parent for the first time includes the reorganization of perceived roles and relations for the mother, father and
the couple as a whole (Brooks - Gunn & Sidl Fuligni 2002, 83). Transition contains not only positive changes. Parents
should keep in mind that negative changes are also included as positive ones. Parenthood is not a feature or role, and
not a set of tasks that an adult takes as responsibility just becoming a parent. Recently parenthood is not an obligation or
right. Parenthood is a relationship between parent and child. (Tamminen, 2004, 67.) According to Emery (1994) an
essential part of parenthood is the relationship between parents. If the relationship between the couple, parents goes to
divorce, it is important to understand that parents get not divorced also with children. Therefore, the relationship between
the parents should remain. Children are connection bridges of their parents. Under the International Convention on the
Rights of the Child, Article 18, both parents have equal responsibilities for childrens development. After the divorce,
changes the nature of parenthood. Children spend some time with their mother and the rest of time with their father.
Parents face new situations that have not experienced before. They have to adapt to new forms of parenting.

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Support for Family and Parenting in Albania

In our country, unlike other countries has not statutory institution or organization caring for family and parenting before,
during and after divorce. There are several nonprofit organizations such as TLAS, which provide legal assistance to
women during divorce, which can not afford financially the court costs. Centre of services and legal integrated practices
QSHPLI offers also legal assistance. These organizations offer their support as the only legal representative of the
parties in need and do not provide psychosocial or economic assistance for the just divorced couple or their
psychological counseling in terms of parenting after divorce. Community centers of mental health provide advice to
general focus and not specifically to the problems of divorce. Psychologists and psychiatrists working there are not
recognized by the public regarding the help they may provide. None from the parents interviewed by me, has not ever
had contact with a psychologist to these centers. To my knowledge there is an association of parenting, but their activities
depend on the acquired projects and may be limited in duration. State institutions may have on their staff, directorates
with many beautiful names, but their efficiency and visibility for the concerned public is zero.
1.5

Custody of Children

Mason (1994) states that the division of childs care after the divorce, is a new idea and today custody is based on the
principle best interest of the child. Before, the Albanian customary law has considered children as the property of the
father. XX century took into account the role of the mother as the primary caregiver of the child and then the best
interests of the child would determine the mother as the main caregiver. Maccoby, Depner and Mnookin (1990) stipulate
that it is beneficial for the child to interact with both parents constantly. In different countries there are different types of
custody. In our country are used some samples and are not taken into consideration the specifics of the case. There are
many reasons why the court does so. One of them is that that are followed judicial practices and some inexperienced
judges in the field of children do not tend to bring innovation in their decisions. Also the role of the judicial psychologist is
still seen as a piece that forces law and not as a necessity and importance in a dispute with the object of dissolution of
marriage. It would be a revolution if it would define a day of common parenting or parenting together. In all cases it is
determined the formula: Entrusting for growing up and education of the children to X parent and the right of meeting and
alimony to Y parent. Usually to a non-resident parent, a term used regularly in the estimates for the court, is fixed the
right of meeting once every two weeks or once a month. With great strain are determined the rights of meeting every
week or even more.
2. Literature Review
I am referring to, because of the ease of access, two similar studies in Finland by Kriinen (2008) and Hokkanen
(2005). Kriinen (2008) in a paper entitled Divorce presents a challenge for parents interviewed divorced parents.
The paper was conducted within the project for the welfare of children who deals with parenting after divorce. The aim of
the project was awareness of the situation of children and the reduction of the bitter experiences of children by the
divorcing of parents. Research led by Kriinen (2008) was based on the experiences of parents and aimed to find out
how parenting was during and after divorce or what changes occur during a divorce. MykknenHnninen and Paajanen
(2007) ranked the co-parenting characteristics:
- Mutually cooperative relationship on childrens issues
- Holding and maintaining a positive image of the other parent
- Taking into account the views of the child
- The ability to protect children from conflict between parents
- Flexibility in the conflict situation
Findings of Hokkanen (2005) showed that the time and place influenced the experience of parentchild
relationship. He also indicated that the mothers relationship with the father is mediated by the child and the relationship
of the father with the mother is mediated also by money, economic result of divorce or payment of alimony.
3. Research
The purpose of this paper is to study the experiences and opinions of divorced parents in Albania. The aim was to find
out what changes on parenting after divorce and what challenges brings the divorce. It will also show how parenting
works towards cooperation between former partners and how this relationship affects the parenting of interviewees.
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Further it tries to convey how parents coped with divorce and whether they were in need of support at this stage.
The questions raised are:
How changes parenting after divorce?
What kinds of challenges have emerged on parenting after divorce?
How was the cooperation between parents after divorce?
Do they have the need for support on parenting after divorce?
4. Research Methods
Qualitative methods are the ones that come to help us in this paper, since we are dealing with experiences and opinions.
There are prepared semistructured interviews with defined topics. Interviewees have completed previously general data
in a form, and then through direct interview we had the opportunity to examine them more broadly.
5. Data Collection
Data were collected during the period 20092011. There were in total 8 divorced women and 8 divorced men. All together
had 21 children from 1 to 2 children each. They have been married for 3 to 15 years. The plan of de facto visits of
children was different, though de jure in judicial decisions had similarities. The frequency of meetings of nonresident
parent was from every day of the week to once a year. Criteria for the selection of the interviewees were to have been
married for more than 1 year and have had minor children. They were not known to each other and none of them was the
former partner of anyone by interviewees. Interviews were conducted in complete privacy conditions. They had 3 main
topics: Parenting together, change in parenting after divorce and the welfare and coping after divorce. The interviews
were recorded and literally transcribed. Then they were organized and analyzed by topic.
6. Changes and Challenges
Lets see in row three main topics where are focused the interviews.
- The cooperation and decision making
Cooperation with former partner is one of the most important aspects of postdivorce relationship. It must be said
that it is not easy to start co-parenting after a divorce. New rules should be established to parenting after divorce in order
to have a functional relationship. This will have a positive impact on parenting. The nature of cooperation affects to some
degree in parenting. If the relationship would work, former partners could have a good relationship and would be able to
cooperate. This would support and facilitate parenting after divorce. According to someone, which had smoothly coparenting after divorce, the reason was that they have previously agreed regarding visits and alimony. The dissolution of
marriage with agreement has been positive for the parties, because they have put everything on a document. In this
case, the beneficiaries have been both parents and children.
6.1

Changes

According to interviewees parenting changes after divorce. The main change is described in terms of the relationship with
the former partner, relationships with children and dealing with responsibilities.
Relations with children
They are described as changed after the divorce. Both sides react immediately to changes in the family. Now they
have to adapt to this new environment and the new form of relations, for which they were not prepared. Children are
found between two houses that are not asked by them, but they need to get used to. As parents and children, do not feel
comfortable with each other. The child blames the parent when not blaming itself for the changed situation. The parent
feels bad and feels like separating also from the child, except than separating from the partner. Also it feels the weight of
responsibility already doubled, once shared with the partner. To improve the relationship with the child, the parent
dedicates the maximum hours to the child and even meets every requirement, once called whim. This is the typical
relationship between parent and child after a divorce.
Relations with the former partner
Because of the mentality and social pressure, the relationships with former partner tend to be conflicting or with
significant lack of communication. Usually Albanian parents use their children as a messenger for the other parent. Even

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if they may wish for the continuation of the relationship, the public opinion is the one that prevents them to a significant
extent. After divorce, parental alienation syndrome appears to both parents. There is no alienating or alienated division,
as both parents do not escape both roles appearing simultaneously.
6.2

Responsibilities

Some of the interviewees mention the many responsibilities that come after the divorce, taking playing two roles, as the
nonresident parent most of the time does not respond to certain obligations. Others mention that after the divorce the
nonresident parent finally remembers that it has children and finally acknowledges the parental responsibility. There are
others who feel just the same even after divorce, because also during marriage they exercised the same responsibilities,
reason for which the divorce occurred.
6.3

Welfare and Coping

Difficulty to manage alone with children after divorce is the main concern. But in our country, the ties with the family of
origin are still strong. Therefore, the support from family of origin after the divorce is still seen as a protective factor in
terms of facing difficulties. Grandparents remain heroes, saviors, even in situations of divorce. But economic difficulties
pose the biggest problem of parents after divorce. Living in rented houses, job instability, low wages and high prices,
make the childrens lives after divorce of parents undergo changes and to give effect to many aspects of welfare.
Resident parents are forced to perform more than one job to succeed, but it will affect the relationship with the child in the
period when he/she most needed to.
7. Discussions and Conclusions
Most parents gave the same answer to the question what makes positive parenting after divorce, compared with the
model provided by Kriinen (2008). The study shows that if the four aspects of the model are taken into account, they
would help parents after the divorce process, causing less damage to them and the children. In the pattern of challenges
of parenthood after divorce, parenthood is in the middle and surrounded by 4 aspects: planning divorce together, sharing
responsibilities, support each other and interaction obligation. From my interviewees none of them had been part of the
first aspect of planning along the divorce. Depending on the motive of separation, one or the other did not agree initially
for the divorce and after some time it agreed with reality. Consequently, given that one of the partners has had opposition
to divorce, even the aspect of supporting each other was not implemented from the beginning. After a while, after the
decision became final, the parents have not followed the obligation for interaction for the sake of the highest interest of
the child by not leaving aside the anger and disagreements. Over time, parents have realized that their welfare influenced
the childs welfare. As a result they have returned again to four aspects of parenting replacing from the beginning the right
relations with expartner. It should be noted that not all interviewees have achieved this. As stated in the introduction of
the paper, the Albanian mentality and traditions still influence the behaviors and attitudes toward divorce. Although it is
desired by parents sharing responsibilities, in our country full responsibility is still exercised by the resident parent and
nonresident parent in most cases only enjoys de facto the right of visit and alimony. Everything else is realized by
resident parent. One of the model challenges was the interaction of the parents. Depending on the cases, it was the
interaction. There were parents that for the childs sake, accepted to enter into negotiations with the other parent, but
there were others that for the sake of pride and anger, refused to interact, especially when one of the parents was
remarried. To minimize conflict between them, the parents need to support each other. According to interviewees, the
parenting facilitated when they enjoyed the support of the other parent. But in most cases, the support was received from
family members, friends and second partner. They wanted to have support and assistance also from professionals, but
they could not find someone. Parenting faces many challenges during and after divorce. It has to do with the relationship
with the child and it is a lifelong relationship. While love ends between the couple, co-parenting should continue. Parents
implemented various plans of visits, particularly different to those of the court decision. Parent-child relationship had
changed inevitably. They were made distant. In summary, the main changes to parenting after divorce were: parenting
happened in a way where each used to parent separately, relationships with children changed because they were not
daily relationships, parents had a greater responsibility since they were only one parent at home. Cooperation with the
other parent to the childrens interests, maintaining a close relationship with the child, coping with the increased
responsibilities and new ways to manage and care for all, by finding the support from outside. I hope this paper can help
the divorced parents, or those who are under process of divorce, as well as professionals of the field who may encounter
problems of parenthood and divorce.
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References
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Bernardes, Jon, Family Studies, an Introduction. London: Routledge 1997.
BrooksGunn, Jeanne & Sidle Fuligni, Allison, Meeting the Challenges of New Parenthood Responsibilities, Advice, and Perceptions.
2002
ClarkeStewart, Alison & Brentano, Cornelia, Divorce Causes and Consequences. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
2006
Emery, R.E., and Dillon, P. Conceptualizing the Divorce Process: Renegotiating Boundaries of Intimacy and Power in the Divorced
Family System. Family Relations 43: 374379. (1994).
Freitas, Maria Jos, Friesenhahn, Gnter, Frost, Elizabeth & Michailidis, Maria, Children, Young People and Families Examining social
work practice in Europe. Children, Young People and Families in a European Context. Rome: Carocci editore 2005
Hogan, Margaret Monahan, Finality & Marriage. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press.1993
KarvinenNiinikoski, S. TapolaHaapala, M., & Kriinen, A. 21 Nov 2012 Challenges of divorce, Interventions and children [Eron
haasteet, vliintulot ja lapset]. Kriinen, A., Hmlinen, J. & Plkki, P. (eds.). Helsinki: Ensi- ja turvakotien liitto, p. 99-123 24 p
Kautto Mikko, Changes in Age Structure, Family Stability and Dependency. 2002.
OLoughlin, Steve, Values and Ethics in Social Work with Children and Families. 2008.
In OLoughlin, Maureen & OLoughlin, Steve Social Work with Children & Families. Second edition. Exeter: Learning Matters Ltd.
Rubin, Herbert & Rubin, Irene, Qualitative interviewing The Art of Hearing Data. London: Sage Publications. 1995
Smyth, Bruce & Weston, Ruth, The Attitudes of Separated Mothers and Fathers to 50/50 Shared Care. Family Matters No. 67 Autumn
2004.

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Cybercrime - The Emerging Threat to the Financial Services Sector in Zimbabwe


Ishmael Mugari
Lecturer, Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe; Email: ishiemugari@gmail.com

Shingirai Gona
Lecturer, Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe; Email: sgona@buse.ac.zw

Martin Maunga
Lecturer, Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe; Email: mmmaunga@buse.ac.zw

Rufaro Chiyambiro
Intern, CIMAS Medical Aid Society, Zimbawe; Email: rufarohope@gmail.com
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
The proliferation of Information Communication Technology (ICT) has resulted in the change of different aspects of human life,
bringing convenience and simplicity to our lives. It has taken domain in the different business sectors inclusive of the financial
institutions. However it has come with its own share of problems, which have become a major concern to business
organisations. This study, which was confined to four financial institutions in Harare, was aimed at investigating the prevalence
of cybercrime in financial institutions. A total of 48 respondents drawn from four commercial banks were invited to participate
using stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques, with the questionnaire and in-depth interviews as the key
research instruments. The study revealed hacking, phishing, identity theft and malware to be amongst the types of cybercrime
in banks. Though financial institutions are putting cyber security systems in place to curb the scourge, the preventive measures
are being out- paced by technological advancement.
Keywords: Cyber crime, information technology, identity theft

1. Background
Over the past decade, the world has witnessed a great improvement in information and communication technology. The
introduction of computers and various software programmes in the business environment has greatly improved business
operations. This increased use of technological innovation devices such as computers, mobile phones, internet and other
associated technologies is a path way which has yielded both positive and negative results. The rise in cyber crime is the
major negative impact of the use of the modern information technology infrastructure.
Cybercrime is a serious threat to all the facets of any nations economic activity and this threat is more pronounced
in financial institutions. The use of non cash based payment systems around the globe has increased the risk of
cybercrime in financial institutions. The current liquidity crisis in Zimbabwe has led to an increase in the use of facilities
such as payment cards and Real Time Gross Settlement System (RTGS) (Mugari, 2016). These alternative payment
systems have increased exposure of financial institutions to risks such as fraudulent RTGS payments and electronic card
fraud (Mugari, 2016). However, it is still a challenge to control and prevent cybercrime in developing countries than in
developed countries due to factors such as; the lack of awareness, ineffective legislation and policies, cost of anti-viruses,
amongst others. Law enforcement agencies have not been able to deal with cybercrime effectively, especially in the
developing countries because of the pace at which technology is changing (Sussmann, 1999).
Mobile banking is one of the most recent innovations introduced in the banking sector. It involves the customer and
bank communicating online (Saini et al, 2014). Customers now prefer online services because they are convenient, cost
saving and easier and faster to use (Vrancianu and Popa, 2010). There has also been the introduction of mobile money
transfer through mobile networks (Mbiti, 2011) and in Zimbabwe, it is being administered through services such as

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Ecocash, Telecash and One Wallet. Technology has thus made banking services reach many people by improving
affordability and accessibility (KPMG, 2011). Despite mobile banking advantages, it has been noted that many smart
phone based applications have not been developed with security in mind, and are often not compliant with best practices
(Metcalf & Kirst, 2013).
The enhancement of technology and online banking services has come with its own share of problems.
Cybercrimes are committed using online technologies to illegally remove or transfer money to different accounts are
tagged as banking frauds (Wall, 2007). Siddique and Rerman (2011) identified the following cybercrimes; credit card
fraud, ATM frauds, money laundering, phishing, identity theft and denial of service. According to Symantec Cyber Crime
Report (2012), 114 billion is lost to cybercrime globally and the cost spent to fight cybercrimes is double the amount lost.
The laws and regulations available are unable to keep up with the pace at which cybercrime is spreading (Akuta et al,
2011). It is important to note that Zimbabwe does not have a specific law towards fighting cybercrime as yet (Jangara,
2014; Chimheno & Dehangah, 2012).
With this background, this study was conducted in Harare Central Business District. All the financial institutions in
Zimbabwe have their headquarters in Harare hence the sample was considered by the researchers to be representative
of other financial institutions around the country. The study sought to address the following research questions;
1. Which types of cybercrime are prevalent in the financial sector in Zimbabwe?
2. How effective are the current measures for curbing cybercrime in the financial sector in Zimbabwe?
3. What can be done to combat cybercrime in financial institutions in Zimbabwe?
2. Literature Review
2.1

Concept of Cybercrime

Current definitions of Cybercrime have evolved experientially and differ depending on the perception of both protectors
and victims (Magutu et al, 2011). To support the above, Yar (2005) argued that the lack of a consistent and statutory
definition for the activities that may constitute cybercrime make it difficult to analyse it (Yar, 2005). Despite Magutu et al
(2011) and Yar (2005)s perception on the cybercrime definition, the Council of Europe has defined it as any criminal
offence against or with help of computer network (United Nations Office on Drug Crime, 2013). Cybercrime can also be
regarded as computer-mediated activities which are illegal or considered illicit by certain parties and which can be
conducted through global electronic networks (Douglas and Loader, 2000). Other authors define cybercrime as
unauthorized entry into a computer system with the motive to delete, modify or damage of computer data (Sarrab et al,
2013; Broadhurst, 2006). The diverse definitions therefore imply that it a complex type of crime since it has various forms
and motives (Sarrab et al, 2013).
In Europe, cybercrimes are commonly considered as falling into one of two categories: new offences committed
using new technologies, such as offences against computer systems and data, dealt with in the Computer Misuse Act
1990; and old offences committed using new technology, where networked computers and other devices are used to
facilitate the commission of an offence (United Nations Office on Drug Crime 2013). To support the above, KMPG (2011)
revealed that cybercrime has been used to describe a wide range of offences, including offences against computer data
and systems (such as hacking), computer-related forgery and fraud (such as phishing), content offences (such as
disseminating child pornography), and copyright offences (such as the dissemination of pirated content).
2.2

Nature of cybercrime

2.2.1 Phishing
Roger (2008) cited in Boateng & Amanor (2014) defines phishing as attacks on individuals and organizations in order to
obtain private information which will be used for fraudulent purposes. This was supported by the Europol (2014) who went
further to describe it as fraud against businesses and financial institutions through stealing the customer identity. Phishing
is also referred to as identity fraud (United Nations Office on Drug Crime 2010). Sarannia & Padma (2014) defined
identity theft as the stealing of sensitive information for illegal use without the owners acknowledgement. They went
further to identify three types of phishing namely spear, clone and whaling (Saranni and Padma, 2014; Chandhary, 2014).
In agreement to the above (KPMG, 2012) highlighted that phishing is the most common type of identity theft.
Boateng and Amanor (2014) identified vishing and smishing as types of phishing. According to Sarannia and
Padma (2014) smishing is phishing by SMS (or Short Message Service). In agreement to Sarannia and Padma (2014),
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Boateng and Amanor (2014) defined vishing as an attack done through the use of short message services. For example
a fake short message services may be send to a person informing him/her that his/her account has fallen victim to a
malware and to correct this they need to send their personal details for corrections. This information is then misused for
the phisher requirements (Boateng & Amanor 2014).
2.2.2 Hacking
Hacking is one of the oldest computer crimes (Herselman and Warren 2010). Paget (2007) cited in Hedayati (2012)
defined hacking as the unlawful access to systems or databases to obtain personal or organizational confidential
information. The availability of personal information online has made it easier for perpetrators to steal from business
organizations and individuals (Magutu et al, 2011).
Bawane and Stelke (2014) listed the hacking techniques such as denial of services, spoofing, sniffing, viruses and
worm, key loggers, social engineers and fake messages. In support of key loggers, Broadhurst (2006) identified hacking
tactics such as key stroking monitoring or transmission whereby software is installed on victims computer which records
the key being entered and they are recorded and used for identity theft, internet fraud, telecommunication fraud and
economic espionage. Hackers target a computer system host that has large data base so as to obtain identity related
data on a large scale. This was supported by (Magutu et al, 2011) who mentioned the increased crisis, especially in
individual accounts, as one password is used for many accounts. This therefore means that in the event of an attack of
such a victim, there will be a great loss experienced in different accounts through identity theft (Magutu et al, 2011).
2.2.3 Card fraud
Sharma and Nanda (2006) defined card fraud as a type of crime involving the illegal use of unauthorized account or
personal information so as to misrepresent the account information. Sonepat and Sonepat (2014) agreed with Sharon &
Nanda by defining credit card fraud as the use of an unauthorized personal account for operations not intended. KPMG
(2012) went further to reveal that credit card fraud can only be administered after stealing the cards and the relevant
information needed for the transaction to take place. There are two kinds of card fraud which are online and offline card
fraud (Sonepat & Sonepat 2014). Offline card fraud involves stealing of physical card and online car fraud is committed
through the internet, phone, shopping and web.
2.2.4 Malware
According to Uppal et al (2014) malware is when an unauthorized programme is installed into a computers system
secretly with the intention of stealing information. In support, the United Nations Office on Drug Crime (2013)
acknowledged that malware attacks are achieved through the perpetrator installing a malicious software which allows
them to scam the hard drive to collect information needed, usually credit card numbers and social security numbers.
Magutu et al (2011) supported this by highlighting that malware moves between computer and network systems so as to
modify systems without the owners permission. Roderic (2006) went further to mention that malicious software can be
designed to intercept communication or log key board strokes, therefore recording entry made by the user and the
information can be sifted electronically for password and related information.
Uppal et al (2014) identified two categories of malware which are the contagious and masked. Under the
contagious, he described viruses and worms, and under the masked, he describes the Trojans. After an unauthorized
entry of a virus in a computer, the virus replicates itself and in the process infecting the whole system, leading to denial of
services. Worms operate independently and they are passed through storage devices such as USB and email, which will
cause shortage of space. Trojan is malware which conceals itself to behave like a legitimate program, which will be then
downloaded from the internet and used for stealing personal and confidential information. These are obtained through
downloading information from the internet.
2.2.5 Identity theft
Cole and Pontell, (2006) consider identity theft as the fastest growing cybercrime in America. One of the primary reasons
for the lack of reliable data on identity theft is that it is debatable amongst investigators since they do not all agree on how
best to define it and what crimes should fall under this broad concept (McNally and Newman, 2008; Cole and Pontell,
2006). Despite difficulties to define identity theft, McNally and Newman (2008) defined it as using someones personal
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information for fraudulent use.


There is online identity theft which includes hacking, phishing malware and online fraud and offline identity theft
which includes trashing and old fashioned stealing (Hoofnagle, 2009). To support the view on identity theft, CIPPIC
(2007) cited in Hedayati (2012) identified the type of personal information that identity thieves steal which are credit card
number, social security number, date of birth, passwords and pins, home address and phone number.
2.3

Applying Criminological Theory to Cyber crime

2.3.1 Routine activity theory


Routine theory is based on the rational choice theory and it was developed by Cohen and Marcus in 1979. It states that
crime is normal and it just requires opportunity. Routine activities theory requires that three elements be present for a
crime to occur: a motivated offender with criminal intentions and the ability to act on these inclinations, a suitable victim or
target, and the absence of a capable guardian who can prevent the crime from happening. These three elements must
converge in time and space for a crime to occur.
Hutching and Hayes (2009) applied the routine activity theory to one of the most common types of cybercrime
crime in banks which is phishing. Hutching and Hayes (2009) went further and explained the presence of a suitable
offender to be associated with the increase in the number of people using the internet. This therefore means an increase
in the people with the technological knowhow of commit phishing. The presence of a suitable target is found where there
is an increase of number people with the behaviours of potential victims, for example, more people using the internet and
internet banking. The Department of Broadband, Communications and Digital Economy (2008) identified that 77% of
Australians had accessed the internet in 2006, compared with 64% in 2001. This therefore increased the risk of both the
likely offender and the suitable target.
The absence of capable guardianship was associated with lack of awareness. The term capable guardian may
include the owner of the property e.g. account holders, law enforcement, Computer Emergency Response Teams
(CERTs), banks and financial institutions, or any other individual or agency that has the potential to discourage offenders
(Yar, 2005). Their absence increases the risk of cyber attacks.
2.3.2 Rational choice theory
The theory was propounded by Cornish &Clarke in 1987. The theory states that offenders make a choice to commit
offences after doing a cost benefit analysis. This means an offender weighs the benefits of the offence they want to
commit, as well as the cost of being caught and punished. This was supported by (McQuade, 2006) who posits that
offenders are rational people who weigh the benefits of engaging in a particular criminal behaviour against the risks
associated with that behaviour. According to this theory, there is need to stress the implication of strict punishment as a
control measure. In financial institutions, electronic mechanisms such as user ID, automated access control system and
surveillance cameras can serve as deterrents because they increase the perceived risk of being apprehended (Wada and
Odulaja, 2012). The fact that cybercrime is difficult to detect also increases the chances of choices to commit cyber
crime. Hence, a rational cyber criminal will choose to commit cyber crime due to huge benefits, coupled by difficulties in
detection.
2.3.3 Space Transition Theory
This modern day theory was propounded by Jaishankar (2007) and is an explanation about the nature of behaviour of the
persons who bring out their conforming and non-conforming behaviour in the physical space and the cyberspace. Space
transition involves the movement of persons from one space to another, for example, from the physical space to the
cyberspace and vice versa. The theory also highlights that persons with repressed criminal behaviour in the physical
space have a propensity to commit a crime in cyberspace which they not otherwise commit in the physical space, due to
their status and position (Jaishankar, 2008; Wada, Longe & Danquah, 2012). Identity flexibility, dissociative anonymity
and lack of deterrent factor in the cyberspace provide the offenders with the choice to commit cybercrime (Jaishankar,
2008). Intermittent ventures of offenders in the cyberspace and the dynamic spatio-temporal nature of cyberspace
provides the chance for escape (Jaishankar, 2008). The theory can thus explain the rise in cybercrime in financial
institutions, especially given the fact that the perpetrators are usually of high social standing.

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3. Methodology
Respondents were selected from four commercial banks out of a total of 25 registered banks in Zimbabwe. Services for
commercial banks in Zimbabwe are almost similar hence four banks were selected to avoid data saturation. The study
was confined to Harare Metropolitan Area and all the registered commercial banks have their headquarters in the capital
city, hence it was the most ideal area of study. A total of 48 respondents from the four commercial banks were invited to
participate in this study using stratified random sampling as well as purposive sampling techniques. The respondents
were drawn from four key categories namely; the IT department, the risk management department, the internal audit
department and the operations and services section. The respondents were perceived to be key informants to the study
due to their direct and indirect encounters with criminal activities in the financial services sector. Questionnaires and indepth interviews were the key research instruments. Quantitative data was coded and fed into the SPSS software for
analysis. Qualitative data from interviews was analysed using summative content analysis and it was used to support
quantitative data.
4. Research Findings and Discussion
4.1

Types of cybercrime in financial institutions and their prevalence rate

Table 1. Types of cybercrime


Types of cybercrime
Hacking
Identity theft
Electronic card fraud
Malicious software
Phishing

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Non
1
0%
0%
11.1
0
8.3

Low
2
8.3%
16.7%
36.1
30.6
27.8

N=36
Average
3
75%
69.4%
41.7
52.8
50

High
4
16.7%
13.9%
11.1
16.7
13.9

Mean

SD

Skewness

3.08933
2.9722
2.5278
2.8611
2.6944

.0500
.55990
.84468
.68255
.82183

.192
-.015
-.092
.180
-.344

Source: Primary data


The results on Table 1 seem to suggest that cybercrime is a challenge for financial institutions in Zimbabwe. Hacking,
though in the average category seems to be the major challenge, with a mean of 3.08933, standard deviation of 0.0500
and a level of skewness of .912. Identity theft comes second, with a mean of 2.9722 also indicating an average
prevalence rate. Malicious software attack had a mean of 2.8611, with a standard deviation of 0.68255 and a 0.180 level
of skewness. Phishing and electronic card fraud have lower prevalence rates, with means of 2.6944 and 2.5278
respectively. Though a lesser proportion of respondents considered the cyber crimes to be high (hacking, 17%; Identity
theft, 14%; electronic card fraud, 11%; phishing, 14%), the fact that most of the respondents indicated that the
cybercrimes have an average occurrence rate is a cause for concern.
4.1.1 Hacking
With the majority (75 percent) indicating hacking to be in the average category, the finding is in tandem with the study
conducted by Raghavan & Parthiban (2014) and Siddique & Rehman (2010), who identified hacking to be amongst the
types of cybercrimes most prevalent in the banking sector. Analysing the results of the study and that of past studies, it
can be established that hacking is a persistant crime, as it was identified in the studies by Siddiqie & Rehman (2010);
Raghavan & Parthiban (2014) and Mugari (2016). This to some extent shows the difficulty of fighting it as it keeps on
being amongst the prevalent types of cybercrime in banks.
The interviews also identified hacking amongst the types of cybercrime present in their institutions. Amongst the
respondents, one of them revealed that financial institutions possess a large amount of their customers data due to the
nature of services they offer. This has made financial institutions to be amongst the major targets for hackers as they
extract personal information of the customers for fraudulent purposes. This was in the same view with Magutu et al
(2011) who affirm that hackers target computer systems that have large databases such as that of banks to obtain
identity related data on a large scale.

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4.1.2 Identity theft


The finding shows that identity theft is amongst the worrisome types of cybercrime in the financial sector. The
interviewees also cited identity theft as one of the most prevalent type of cybercrime in Zimbabwes financial institutions.
Some interviewees however identified hacking, phishing and malicious software to be the major forms of identity theft.
KPMG (2011) also categorised phishing, hacking and malicious software to fall under the identity theft type of crime. It is
also noteworthy to point out that identity theft proved to be the centre of every other type of cybercrime in the financial
institutions as it is the major aim of the offender to steal personal information of customers which will then be used to
steal.
4.1.3 Malicious software
With slightly above half (53%) of the respondents considering malicious attacks to have an average occurrence rate, the
prevalence rate is also worrisome for financial institutions. This finding complimented the studies which were conducted
by Siddique & Rehman (2011) and KMPG (2011) who also identified malicious software as a type of cybercrime common
in banks. Majority of the interviewees concurred that malicious software is prevalent in Zimbabwes financial institutions
but much of its exposure for the risk is emanating from services such as e-banking. This is due to the use of unsafe
devices to access personal information. This was supported by Uppal, Mehra & Verma (2014) who revealed that ebanking is at risk of masked malwares such as Trojans which conceals its self to behave like legitimate programmes.
4.1.4 Phishing
Table 1 shows that half of the respondents considered prevalence rate of phishing to be average, whilst only 14 %
considered it to be high. However, slightly above a third (36.1%) were of the view that the crime is either low (27.8%) or
nonexistent (8.3%). Basing on the statistics, it is also safe to opine that phishing is a common type of cybercrime in the
financial institutions in Zimbabwe. The crime was also cited by half of the interview respondents. The study findings are in
tandem with the studies conducted by the Europol (2014) and Wada & Odulaja (2012) who listed phishing as one the
major threats against individual and organizational private information in the financial sector.
4.1.5 Electronic card fraud
Though 41.7% of the respondents considered its prevalence rate as average, a significant percentage (47,2%)
considered it to be either low (36.1%) or non-existent (11.1%). This shows that the threat is as significant as other threats.
This can be explained by the fact that the Zimbabwean banking sector has not embraced the use of credit cards, though
there is wide use of the debit cards. In other developed countries, the widespread use of the credit card results in an
upsurge of electronic card fraud.
4.2

Current measures to combat cybercrime and their level of effectiveness

This was an open ended question which required the respondents to list the measures they have put in place within their
organisations as a way to fight cybercrime. The respondents identified education and training through seminars and
workshops, tight IT security, constant change of ICT technology to meet up with the changes, installation and constant
updating of security measures such as anti-viruses, firewalls and firewalls data recovery sites. These all fall under the
three broadways to overcome cybercrime which are cyber laws, education and policy making as suggested Saini and
Rao (2012).
To add on, the interviewees responded to the same question and identified measures such as protection of the
banking sector through access control measures, installation of biometric security and use of smart cards. They also
suggested separating critical banking applications from the web through firewalls. This was in support of the study by
Siddique & Rehman (2011) which recommended the following protection measures; hardware identification, access
control software and disconnecting critical banking application from the web.

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Effectiveness of Current Measures

Figure 1: Effectiveness of measures


From the total respondents, 57% considered current control measures as either effective (54%) or very effective (3%)
(Fig 1). The other 43% considered the measures as either less effective (36%) or not effective (7%). However, the
statistics seem to be at tangent with the findings on the prevalence rate, with the prevalence rate pointing to inadequacies
on the current preventive measures. Interestingly though, most of the interviewees indicated that the current control
measures are not very effective and they admitted that it will be difficult to outwit the cyber criminals.
5. Conclusion
From the above findings, it can be concluded that cybercrime is prevalent in the financial institutions, with hacking,
identity theft and malicious software as the most prevalent cyber threats. Whilst the literature survey pointed out the
severity of cybercrime in developed nations, the findings point out that the scourge is also rampant in developing nations
like Zimbabwe. Control measures such as training, updating of anti-viruses and firewalls top the list of current strategies
to curb cyber crime. Despite the presence of these control measures to protect banks from being victims, keeping their
security systems up to date is difficult, as it is being outpaced by the changes in technology itself. Based on the findings
of this study, it can be concluded that cybercrime will remain the major threat to financial institutions and the challenge
will be compounded by the swift pace by which technology is advancing. Admittedly, the financial services sector is the
back bone of the economy in any nation, hence the glaring need for dealing with the threat.
6. Recommendations

Education of employees is the best defence against many threats. However, this is most effective when
organisations break away from traditional security awareness models to employ creative and immersive
techniques, and deploy technologies that can influence user behaviours.
Multi-layer security, including firewalls, secure sign-on, dual authentication with triangulation of access and
real- time business event monitoring helps protect against data failings from external attacks
Improved real-time tracking and business intelligence will alert institutions to any security breach. The ability to
monitor every transaction across global operations will be the key to protecting against internal and external
threats.
New technologies, such as mobile banking applications or payment, need to be considered within the overall
security framework. This will be critical from a cost and resource perspective. Applications, procured through
line of business functions, can operate outside of the core infrastructure which will impact on the security and
risk posture of the organisation.

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Dawah Generate the Arts of Malay Heritage in Terengganu


Berhanundin Abdullah1
Badlihisham Mohd Nasir2
Ahmad Syukran Baharuddin2
Aminuddin Hehsan2
Akmaliza Abdullah2
Adibah Muhtar2
Mohammad Azhar Mat Daut2
Mohd Nasir Ripin2
Abdul Basit Samat@Derawi2
2

1Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak, Kuala Terengganu Malaysia


Faculty of Islamic Civilisation, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
Islamic Dawah has grown in Terengganu began before the year 1303 AD missionary in extended periods of time, has
managed to adopt Islamic values in Malay heritage. The purpose of writing this article is to detail the findings of research
against some artistic practices that have been absorbed by Islamic art. This study uses text analysis method (content analysis)
and documentation review and then processed in a descriptive writing. Analysis carried out on the facts of history and current
information related to the practice of the arts in the community. The outcomes of this study verify that the application of Islamic
values could change the Malay traditional arts heritage. Limitations of this study focuses on Malay language Jawi writing,
learning the Quran, architecture, calligraphy, crafts and martial arts in the state of Terengganu. The impact of this study is able
to enlighten the community that is very important to know the art heritage from the Islamic perspective and appreciate the art of
Malay heritage.
Keywords: Dawah, Islamic value, Malay heritage arts, Terengganu, Islamic Knowledge

1. Introduction
History of arrival of Islam in the Malay countries, especially in Terengganu has led the evolution of Islamic civilization in
the arts. The role of Islamic missionary began before the year 1303 AD based on the Inscribed Stone inscription dated
Rajab 702 AH, 4 to February 22, 1303 AD. The role of missionaries has brought changes to the growth of the arts and the
importance of knowledge, ethics and aesthetics in art. Scholars and preachers use artistic approaches appropriate to the
situation of life to be able to change the understanding of society and mentality. The Islamic missionary used softer
approach, beauty and attractiveness in an effort to form a noble soul and noble character. Some Islamic art was
absorbed in traditional Malay art. Among them are slavery value, the value of beauty related to the concept of divinity, the
value of good character and piety, all these values was applied in heritage art to produce serenity, beauty, gentleness
and self-confidence. The value of ethics and aesthetics is to complement to the value of Divinity.
The Islamic missionary absorbed the Islamic values in the field of art gradually in accordance with the
appropriateness of the time and circumstances. Missionary effort was not to rush in changing societys mentality which is
influenced by the myth and superstition. Hence, the missionary implemented through art is important efforts in presenting
the message of Islam to eliminate the myth, superstition and the practice of disobedience. These missionary efforts must
be continued to preserve the heritage of the Malays in the implementation of Malay-Muslim art.
Acceptance by part of Malay generation against the Malay heritage in Terengganu is not acceptable. They are
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exposed to the foreign art and culture which is influenced by the culture of hedonism where the effect is to give the
purpose of entertainment and pleasure the human passions. Understanding and knowledge of the present generation
related to the heritage art somewhat limited to the traditions of art and art-cultural entertainment such as Main Puteri, Mak
Yong, Ulik Mayang and Silat (martial arts). This study is also very important to restore the glory of Islamic civilization in
the arts which absorbed in Malay heritage art in integrated processing between the values of ethics, aesthetics and
spirituality. The limitation of this study is focused on Malay heritage is still practiced in Terengganu.
2. Discussions
2.1

Missionary Goals

Studies on missionary responsibility in order to transform the Malay art, turned to Islamic art heritage feature are part of
the Islamic missionary function. Missionary goals in the arts are to change the ignorances nature and switch to Islam
feature. This study describes the development of missionary gradually to dominate the situation and the opportunity to
change the mentality of a community that is deeply rooted in the arts of Hindu-Buddhist influences. Islamic Dawah is also
confronted with the challenge of custom and traditional culture, which practiced from generation to generation as
traditional practices and animism. At the present time also the community of Terengganu began to be influenced by
modern art that could because they forget about the nations heritage.
Recently, a missionary approach focused on community interest in artistic heritage is becoming less practiced in
the Malay community under the influence of modern art, which has a background of entertainment, excitement and
satisfaction. Therefore the fineness and beauty of inheritance should be developed as a missionary activity such as
learning Quran with rhythm (tarannum), Arabic term retention in the teaching of knowledge and arts heritage or the main
event with the community.
This study also points to re-establish the public's consciousness about the inheritance of great significance in
meeting the demands of the entertainment. The elements of Islamic art are on display at one time to be seen
continuously in public spirit. This exertion is worth it to make art preserved. The identity of the Malay arts be permeated
by the faith via Islam and have been processed based on the Quran and al-Sunnah must be preserved. Retention Malay
heritage represents the prosperous civilization of Islam in shaping world civilization. The rapid growth of the industrial
sector of the arts, the maturation of data technology and changes in societal attitudes should be in line with the evolution
of the Malay heritage of Malay identity. Missionary role should be enhanced to uphold the Malay heritage in Terengganu
to the knowledge of the entire community.
2.2

Missionary through the Arts

The growth of Islam in the land has brought it some changes in all prospects of spiritual, physical and thinking. Missionary
delivered by scholars and preachers either from Arabia, China, Persia or Malay Lands, have adapted to the fineness of
the soul of society. Conscientiousness against missionary service has been able to influence the psyche and become the
driving force to the moral values of Islam in the Malay heritage arts. Missionary methods of applying the finest values and
ethics of aesthetics in Malay art have been an attraction and accepted by all strata of society. Missionary efforts in this
study known as evolutionary art. It is carried out gradually and carefully in order to be capable to influence the mentality
and mindset of the society. Islamic art more suited to the lifespan of the Malay community who are courteous and
receptive to reform.
The Islamic missionary successfully implemented Islamic values gradually in Malay art began in the 11th century
AD until achieving the pinnacle of brilliance in the 16th century AD. Especially in the context of the evolution of Malay
literature was developed through the Islamization of the Malay language, the terminologies Arab/ Persian-Islamic, Jawi
writing, the art of reading the Quran, the art of Malay culture, art of Malay civilization and martial art as a direct result of
the missionary (diffusion of Islamic teaching). A view of the Malay-Muslim art is discussed in an orderly manner in
accordance with the historical development of Malaysian art.
2.3

The Islamization of Language and Terminology

Granting to the opinion of Syed Muhammad Al-Attas Naquib that the arrival of Islam in the Malay Archipelago, has
caused Malay language follow undergoing the process of Islamization (1969:12). This process as an artwork to enable
people to take the Islamic teaching and knowledge perfectly. Malay language is the medium for the teaching of Islamic
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knowledge and religious studies in the entire part of the Malay land, in addition to using the terminologies as well as Arab
/ Persian-Islamic. Many Arabic words have been used as a Malay word for facilities understanding and practicing the
Islamic teaching. For example, iman, taqwa, ihsan, solat, haji, zakat, ikhlas, sabar and else.
Malay language previously was produced to be a limited, but after the arrival of Islamic teachings it has become
the lingua Franca for expanding Islamic missionary and knowledge for the whole of the Malay community. While the solid
sphere of cognition, particularly in relation to Islam and Malay civilization are written and elaborated in the Malay
language through Arabic-Jawi inscription (Harun Mat Piah et al. 2000:37). Jawi inscription managed to take some form of
calligraphy in handwriting. It is carved out and written either on the stone, wood, paper, animal hides and cloth.
Lettering styles of Jawi inscription which found in the literature of Malay myth stories influenced by Arabic style.
Authors or the translators are often taking the terminologies and use words or phrases in Arabic. Writing inscriptions are
not experiencing the difference because Jawi writing and Arabic inscription have the same form. In addition, there are
many elements of the fiction influenced by oral stories and most of it is the beliefs of the Shia. The example of Malay Epic
Stories is Hikayat Nur Muhammad (Ali Ahmad and Siti Hajar, 1996:2)
2.4

Jawi as A Handwritten Calligraphy

Some other issue of the development of Malay as a consequence of the implementation of preaching is the utilization and
adaptation of the Arabic script to be the Jawi script to spell the Malay language. Jawi script is no different from the original
form the alphabets of the Quran which has capital value in its own right. The effects of the Jawi script sketched in various
figures have attracted the attention of anyone who looked.
Missionary activity is a very great contribution to the expanding Islamic knowledge in Malaya because has
maintained Jawi writing, in the writing of literary, religious books, citizens literature, history, law, classical prose and
poetry as well as writing in artifacts. Important historical material about the date of arrival and the patterns of Islamic art in
Terengganu was immortalized in the Jawi script. This is evident in Jawi script, are carved on the Batu Bersurat that has
been set up in Kuala Berang, Terengganu dated 702 H or 1303 M. This Jawi script was adapted to the Malay word and
added five alphabets in the same form, but distinguished by the additional points for completing pronunciation. Some of
his alphabets are nya, cha, nga, gha, and pa.
For more than 710 years, the Jawi script became the official script in Terengganu since the 13th century AD until
mid-20th century, coinciding with the evolution of the Malay language which is the Lingua Franca language, in the Malay
world. At that time, European traders, Chinese and Indian were coming to trade in the Malay world use Malay language
as a medium of instruction and accept the Jawi script as the official script. Whole figures of agreement, document,
consent commerce and the letters on official government as a business relationship with foreign merchants are written in
the Jawi script.
The missionaries who came from Arabia have taught the Malay community to recognize Arabic letters in learning
to read the Quran. Based on this learning, they are taught to say the Malay word on makhraj and then write in Malay
pronunciation. Eventually Malay scholars created Jawi alphabets by using the form of Arabic letters in addition, some
modifications and additions made by reference to the Malay language. The Jawi alphabets were created as replace Kawi
letters and Nagari letters are derived from Hindu civilization (Winstedt and Wilkinson 1961:139).
Introduction of Jawi alphabets has been prompted missionaries to intensify efforts to extend the knowledge of
Islam in the Malay language. The use of Jawi writing at an early stage is to explain the rudiments of Islam like the concept
of Divinity and the principles rites of islam. Writing the religious books is known as a literary text script. The birth of the
book literary is through writing and translation of religious texts that originated from Arabic (Harun Mat Piah et al.
2000:393). Universality in the Malay Jawi writing was diffused into the early education system in Malaya.
Jawi writing has been promulgated as Malay writing. The use of the Malay language written in Jawi officially as
enshrined in the letter of appointment of each officer and the state laws such as the law of Terengganu set for 1911 (the
Constitution of Terengganu 1911). To ensure that this agenda is reached, the Terengganu state government on the order
of Sultan Zainal Abidin III in 1911 has issued the following instructions:
..... and all letters relating to the office should be use lettering in Malay word (Arkib Negara Malaysia, S. T. 209 /
1357).

2.5

Art and Rhythm of Reading the Quran

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appreciation of the Quran. In the early stages, the development of Islamic missionary among the public through learning
of the Quran and religious knowledge are conducted in mosques, surau, stations, madrassah or homes. Therefore, the
learning system has made an establishment called Tok Guru, which is normally treated by the priest or preacher has to
do with religious teaching. Quran learning system and religious are conducted in Tok Guru houses and this practice is
cultural heritage in early stages of education (Shafie Abu Bakar, 1997:8). Munshi Abdullahs during his visit to
Terengganu was admiring the beauty of Jawi writing / Arabic and elegance of the Quran recitation (Shafie Abu Bakar.
1997:4).
According to Munshi Abdullah, in his notes during a voyage to the East Coast of Malaya on Dzulhijjah until
Muharam corresponding to 4 March 1253 until April 1838 and was stopped in Terengganu. He said that Terengganu
community at that time reading the Quran very well up to renowned outside the state of Terengganu (Abdullah bin Abdul
Kadir Munshi, 1965:32).
Learning Quran recitation was conducted by routine teacher, according to their free time, ordinarily in the late
afternoon and evening. Only teachers of the Quran alone can teach the Quran because they have the pronunciation
methods and the recitation fluently. At the beginning the students are instructed to recognize letters, recitation style, a
situation to break off and connecting the sentences. Then taught the methods of Quran recitation with the rhythm
according to the tone which adjusted with the meaning of a sentence.
2.6

Calligraphy of Art and Khat

According to scrunity Syed Muhamma Al-Attas Naquid that Malay inscription in Jawi script is the oldest untraceable in
Malaya was found in Kuala Berang, Terengganu. It was dated on Friday, 4 Rajab in 702 AH corresponding to 22
February 1303 AD (Gang Giong Sok, 1990: xxiii).
Batu Bersurat in Terengganu showed a strong evidence that the Malay Jawi writing was influenced by the Arabic.
Jawi spelling system is a combination of Arabic orthography use, Irab system (change of line markings; dhammah row
forward, fathah top row, kasrah the bottom line and sukun sign off, according to its position in the sentence based
on Arabic grammar) with the use of alphabets alif, wau and ya in the Malay language. These alphabets are known as
vocal signs. Apart from that there are also signs of semi-vocal and diphthongs. Then followed the use mad and tasydid
was first introduced (Muhammad Fauzi Jumingan, 2004:26).
The most popular calligraphy writing in the Kufa city (the capital of the Islamic Empire in the time of Saiyidina Ali
bin Abi Talib) is Kufi calligraphy. In Malay, calligraphy used in the inscription was influenced by Kufi calligraphy as in
Phan-Rang and Gerisik and then, came the khat Naskhi for copies of the Quran. Calligraphy continues to grow wider and
there appeared a new type of khat Thuluth, Riqah, Diwani Jali, Raihani, Taliq Pharisees, thuluth Jali and other styles
(Amat Juhari Moain, 1996:119).
Batu Bersurat of Terengganu has created in the form of khat - 7 M century. Beginning of the century, during the
Umayyad government establish calligraphic script until it reaches perfection in the final formation 9 M. By extension,
various forms of khat were produced, such as Nasakh, Diwani, Thuluth, Riq'ah, Raihani and some other calligraphy. But
the Thuluth trend is running toward the Muhaqqaq and Raihani.
2.7

Art of Sufi

The evolution of Islam in Malay land was through the flow of Sufism and spirituality. Missionary from this path will attract
more Malay community in studying the Islam because it emphasizes the moral and spiritual formation. For example, in
Kitab al-Luma include that the Sunni Tasawwuf has developed extensively. The content of Sunni Tasawwuf in the Kitab
al-Durr al-Manzum was influence by combining with the teaching of theology from Sunni Asyari, tasawwuf Sunni alGhazali and the practice of sharia from Sunni Syafie (Harun Mat Piah dkk. 2000:43).
The spread of this religious in various aspect of Islam, such as recite Quran, hadith, treatise about pillars of faith
and Islam, law, knowledge of Tasawwuf, philosophy, morals and others (Zuber 1963:19-20). Teaching, practice and
appreciation of Tasawwuf more focussed on the Faith to God and the character formation. Missionary Islamiah from
teaching of Tasawwuf has success in developed the great soul and honestly can build the good character.
2.8

Arts of Literature

The art of literature in Terengganu was growing rapidly since in the 19th century. Sayyid Muhammad bin Zainal Abidin bin
Hussain bin Mustaffa Al-Idrus (Tok Ku Tuan Besar), was a scholar from Terengganu has written many of Kitab. Among
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the form of poetry is Kanz al-Ula (life of Prophet), Sirah al-Nabawiyyah (History of Prophet), Jawahir al-Saniyyah, alDurrah al-fakhirah and Tahiyat al-Wildan. The work in opus is like Targhib al-Sibyan fi Hifzi Aqaid al-Iman, Diya Uquud
al-Durratain fi Tarjamat Kalimantain al Syahdatain, Mukhtasar, Sullam al-Tawfiq (Shafie Abu Bakar 1991:3-8). Honor and
title to Tok Ku Tuan Besar in the mock of literature with the Islam oriented encourage the local historian call Father of
Literature, Terengganu.
The manuscript about the constitutional also was write in the Jawi like Kitab Adab Raja-Raja in Terengganu and
Kitab Nasihat Raja-Raja di Istana Terengganu written by Wan Abdullah bin Haji Wan Muhamad Amin (Tok Syeikh
Duyong)(Worawit Baru 2004:104-136). The longest history of poetry is the Syair Tawarikh Zainal Abidin which has 3335
duple, written by Tengku Dalam Kalsom binti Tengku Wook Khazaki in the years 1930 (Muhammad Yusoff Hashim,
1980:54). This poet was the longest due to the story of the reign of three Sultans who ruled the Terengganu. This writing
as a continuance to the historiography in entire of the Malay world (Harun Mat Piah dkk 2000:329).
The discussion about the development of literary classic Malay history is many expressed by the researcher
include from western like R.O Winstedt (1969:1), which state:
Literature strictly came into being with the art of writing, but long before letters were shaped, there existed the material
of literature, words spoken in verse to wake emotion by beauty of sound and words spoken in propose to appeal to
reason by beauty of sense.

As recognized by the history that the tradition of writing only exist in the Malay literature after the present of Islam
in the Malay culture. The results of treasure of writing and Kitab-Kitab (manuscript) include hikayat also help to prove
these development. Al-Attas (1986:6-8) expressed based on the progress research by the researcher from western and
eastern, that there is no such literary works in any collection in the world proven to exist before 1600 century.
Works of story greatly influenced the Malays soul especially in Terengganu. The spread of this story was brought
from Riau, Johor and Pahang until reach at Terengganu through the castles institution or Malay king. This has been
popular among the Terengganu Malay community (Harun Mat Piah and Siti Zainon Ismail 1986). The book about
religious either in the form of faith, Sharia, moral or nazam form, poet and others has been crafted with a lot of reading
material until it becomes the main reading material in community.
2.9

Missionary Shape the Privileges of Malays Artistic Heritage

The effort of Islamic missionary has success to improve the beauty, subtlety and attraction to the Malays art with
application Islamic values. This art finally become the artistic heritage in Malay community. The Malay artistic heritage
disclosed in the formal community event so it cannot be forgotten. The affirmation term of the heritage shows that the
approach of missionary in doing the Malays art to fix the practice does not conflict with the faith of Islam. It is maintained
and cherished due to have its own benefit, such as:
1. Contains valuable knowledge and provide the information of science ago.
2. Educate people to love the religion through the religious books.
3. Promote human to love the Islamic culture and literature.
4. To value that is used by the government or the people in the past in all circumstances, affairs, time or
anywhere.
5. As the introduction of Malay community identity, especially in Terengganu.
3. Conclusion
The artistic heritage of Malay culture developed through the knowledge of implementation missionary in Terengganu is
very interesting. Moreover, it is effective to bring an evolution in the society from jahiliyyah practices to the development
of knowledge and appreciation of Islam. The subtlety of Islam artistic as described before showed able to seep into the
instinct of every human being and a catalyst for changes in attitudes, emotions, endurance and growth of knowledge. The
artistic practice according to Islam is not just practice but had become symbols of Malay art that successfully led the
development of civilization community for Terengganu. The Malay heritage arts should continue to be developed in line
with the development of Islamic missionary so that foreign art no longer have the space to influence people.

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Shafie Abu Bakar. (1991). Seminar Antarabangsa Kesusasteraan Melayu II, Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Shafie Abu Bakar. (1997). Sejarah Terengganu Dulu Dan Sekarang. Terengganu: Lembaga Muzium Negeri Terengganu.
Winstedt, R.O. dan Wilkinson, R.J. (1961). Pantun Melayu. Singapura: Malay Publishing House.
Winstedt, R.O. (1969). A History of Classical Malay Literature. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Worawit Baru @ Haji Ahmad Idris. (Pynt). (2004). Pemikiran Melayu: Tradisi dan Kesinambungan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan
Pustaka.
Zuber Usman. (1963). Kesusasteraan Lama Indonesia. Jakarta: Gunung Agung.

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Hajj Service Management at the Department of Religious Affairs in Gowa Regency


Abdul Hafid1
Rakhmat2
Suradi Tahmir3
Rifdan4
Doctoral Student of Public Administration, the Graduate State University of Makassar
2Professor of Public Administration, state Hasanuddin University of Makassar
3Professor of Public Administration, State University of Makassar
4Professor of Public Administration, State University of Makassar (Indonesia)
1a.hafid63@yahoo.com, 2rakhmat20@gmail.com, 3radita_unm@yahoo.com, 4rifdan@unm.ac.id
1

Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the planning and implementation, and monitoring services in the Office of Religious Affairs Hajj in
Gowa. The importance of public service management in organizing Haji requires the involvement of all elements of the
bureaucracy, the private and the public throughout the whole process and the management of the service management of Hajj
pilgrimage in order to realize a quality service in Gowa. The study used a phenomenological approach. Data collection
techniques used are in-depth interviews, observation, and documentation. Techniques of data analysis through data collection,
data reduction, presenting the data, and drawing conclusions. The results showed that the First, implementation of the service
management functions on pilgrimage shows the results have not been optimal. Complaints pilgrims started at the time of
registration to departure for unsatisfactory service. In the aspect of planning to monitoring has not shown the expected level of
effectiveness. Infrastructure and the availability of Human Resources has an influence in the service of Hajj. Second,
implementation of Hajj services and mechanisms that are running already processed properly, but the implementation is still
partial. Third. In the aspects of monitoring has not shown the results are not satisfactory because it is still the presence of weak
supervision of the Ministry of religion in Gowa. It shows that every year, there are always complaints about Haji worshipers and
their family. Whereas, the supervision performed by the Government through the Ministry of religion is expected to minimize
their complaints.
Keywords: Public Service, Management, Haji Services

1. Introduction
Performing Haji is the desire of every person who professed Muslims. Every Haji season arrives, the Muslims from
different parts of the country come to Makkah Baitullah to perform Haji. Indeed, Hajj and Umrah is obligatory for every
Muslim, who can afford it. It means that he or she has stock. He or she is healthy physically and spiritually. He has a cost
for the family left behind. Since ten years, the number of Muslims, who performs Hajj in Makkah reached 2.5 to 3 million
people annually. It shows the high interests of Muslims to perform the Hajj, although the economic crisis still afflicting
Indonesia.
The complexity of the problems in organizing the Hajj from year to year requires a management system that can
access all the managerial functions such as planning, organization, coordination, and supervision. It is conducted in order
to achieve the Hajj implementation that is safe, smooth, comfortable, discipline and economic.
The Ministry of Religion as one of the institutions of public service that manages the Hajj is not apart from the
problem of the quality of service. The case of canceling embarkation of 29.974 prospective Hajj to the Holy Land of
Makkah in 2014 creates some speculations and analysis from some quarters about the performance and management of
the Hajj. Organizing the Hajj that is not professionals in providing services is still far from the expectations of the Jamaah
Hajj. Efforts to organize the management is very sluggish. It can be seen from the complaints of Jemaah Haji every year.
As a form of placing a customer as the mission that should get excellent service, and then it is not wrong if not all
affairs of Hajj are handled in Ministry of religion. One of the ways is to give authority to the region for organizing some of

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the Hajj services. Thus, not all Affairs of the Hajj is performed in the Center.
Service is not just a Word. It has the meaning as the following description. Self-awareness and Self-esteem instill
an awareness that service is part of the Muslim mission. Hence, it should always maintain the dignity of themselves and
others. It has to do with empathy and serves with great enthusiasm. Enthusiastic attitude will give the inner effect for
himself and others who are served. It seeks to better and better again, and always fixes quickly at every possible
complaint or anything that could damage the service. Service means to win the hearts, to bring the mission and to build
happiness and victories together.
In the attitude of serving, someone must have the foresight to make improvements, and improved quality give an
impressive service and strive always to improve the service. The service should show a very profound concern and
develop values that are capable of opening cooperation. The service should establish communication as a Golden Bridge
to foster synergy and openness. The service should perform an evaluation, contemplation, and should empower the
existing assets.
Therefore, the formulation of the problem in this research is how the process of planning, implementation and
supervision of the Hajj service is in order to create an efficient management service at the Office of the Ministry of
Religion in Gowa Regency.
1.1

The Theory of Public Service Management

The nature of service is a series of activities. Therefore, the service is a process. As a process, the service runs regularly
and continuously. It covers the whole life of the people in the community. Indeed, the product of a government
organization is the public service. The service is provided to meet the right of public either civil service or public services.
It means that activities are fundamentally related to the fulfillment of the rights. It attaches to any person, either in private
or in groups (organizations). It is universally conducted.
The service is very carefully related to public lives, in relation to the formation of the Government. It aims to create
regularity, justice, prosperity, and peace of the community. Rakhmat explained that the government is creating an
atmosphere within the activities of service to the community, which mostly concern the fulfillment of rights that adhere to
any person, either in private or in a group. Moreover, it is conducted universally.
The public service is one manifestation of the function of the state apparatus as a servant of the state and society.
The change of government that has undergone a paradigm shift from "rule government" to "good governance" demands
the involvement of all elements of the bureaucracy, private or community in the overall process and the implementation of
development and public service. Osborne and Gaebler (1992, p. 25) reveal The job of government is to steer not to row
the boat delivering services is rowing.
If the Government is a bureaucratic organization in the public service, the Organization of the Government
bureaucracy is the leading organization that deals with public service. In terms of government institutions providing
services, the most important is how to provide relief and ease to the community in order to meet your needs and
interests.
Daviddow Uttal (1989) and Kinteki (2012) mentions that the Ministry's activities or benefits offered by the person or
individual who is intangible and cannot be owned. Norman (1991); Kinteki (2012) added that the Ministry was
characteristics cannot be touched, deeply opposed to finished goods. God, explained that the Ministry's actions and
influences social, where production and consumption Ministry not split for real, because in most cases, it happens
simultaneously and occurred in the same place and time.
Institutional aspects, resource management and reform the principles of management of public service as follows:
1. Organizational Restructuring, include: rationalization and decentralization.
2. Budgeting Reforms, including: financial management reform, and reform of the financial performance of the
audit.
3. Customer-oriented management includes: strategic planning, management flexibility, and performance
measurement.
4. Apparatus, comprising: HR leadership and professionalism.
5. the democratization and public participation in the need's analysis and evaluation.
In line with the development within the management organization of the State, and in an attempt to realize high
quality, excellent service and public service paradigm developed by focusing management oriented on customer
satisfaction (customer-driven government). Management service in the public sector is the overall service management
activities carried out by the Government are operationally implemented by agencies-government agencies or other
government-owned legal entity pursuant to the authority of the Ministry which is directly given in the public or indirectly
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through specific policies.


Public service product is used collectively by individuals who want to use and not an individual may prevent other
individuals using it. The provision of a public service nature product is pure, such as ministries of Justice, defence and
diplomacy conducted by the State Government. The public service management can be understood as any activity in
order to increase performance in the fulfillment of basic needs in accordance with the fundamental rights of each citizen
and resident of goods, services and administrative services provided by the service providers related to the public
interest.
Public service management is the responsibility of the Government, both central and local. In the era of
decentralization and the more powerful the democratization currently, the claim will be the responsibility of the public
service and public service management performance improvements are also more powerful and open. At the moment,
this public service performance management is becoming a measure on the performance of local governments,
especially heads of regions.
On many occasions, the society coming into public service management performance is increasingly widely
expressed by society openly. The community demands of organizing management service more responsive to the needs
within the community and the implementation of public service management that is transparent, participatory and
accountable.
To respond to the challenges and problems that in order to support increased efforts will be focused to service, 1)
Increased the effectiveness of organizing services 2) development of procedures of the Ministry that is easy, fast and
transparent. 3) to improve the quality and capabilities of personnel service providers 4). Policy development that supports
the Action Plan Increased service.
2. Method
This type of research uses qualitative research methods, i.e. this study investigates a phenomenon that occurs in the
Office of the Ministry of religion, with a focus in implementing what sort of planning, implementation and supervision of the
Organization of the Hajj through researching the words, a detailed report of the views of informants, and conduct studies
on a natural situation. a key instrument is the researcher. Data collection is done in triangular (combined), the resulting
data is descriptive. Results of the qualitative research emphasized the significance of the generalization. This research
uses a case study approach to know the assessment or response of informants against the activities conducted through
the offices of the Ministry of the bureaucratic apparatus Religion Gowa.
3. Result and Discussion
3.1

Planning Dimension

Planning areas of Hajj compiled by the head of the Organization of Hajj, Zakat and Waqaf, aided by the Kasi Extension
Hajj and Umrah , Kasi Guidance Officers and Pilgrims, kasi journey and infrastructure of Hajj, Kasi Build Board of Zakat
and Waqaf, Empowerment Zakat and Waqaf. The preparation of the planning based on the input of Kandepag regencies
and cities.
The planning covers basic tasks Extension section of the Hajj and Umrah, Section Pilgrims and field officers,
infrastructure Section and Hajj travel, section Bina Institution Zakat and Waqaf, Section empowerment of Zakat and
Waqaf. While its implementation covering the details about the activities of each section. To facilitate the implementation
of the controls produced a matrix containing items of activities over a period than one year. The matrix can be detected
based upon the implementation of activities are appropriate or not with planning.
The competence of the staff in the field of Hajj Zakat and Waqf according to the head on a human basically has the
skills or the intelligentsia and skill levels vary; some have high skill and prowess, while some are low.
So the staff in the field of Hajj Zakat and Waqf, in fact, there are personnel with educational background does not
fit for the job that he's capable of, but since the question has the prowess and skill above average, then the educational
background that doesn't match it's not a problem. On the contrary, there is a background of undergraduate education in
accordance with his duties, but because the level of intelligentsia and skill possessed low so concerned is less capable of
handling the job was charged.
With the condition of the staff in such a way, Kabid Haj, Zakat and Waqaf in completing tasks in their fields don't
feel too distracted. It is resolved by looking for the type and nature of the work load. For the work to be completed soon
(pursued) then it should be taken on the road bypass, by giving those duties to staff who can work quickly. However, if
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the work is not to be immediately resolved (normal), then a weak staff of the assignee and of course with guided kasi
respectively.
In the implementation of the Regional Office of the Ministry of Hajj, as agencies within the area of level I just as
planners. However, sometimes there are also people who come to the regional office, and those who came were also
served by The Waqaf, Zakat and Hajj. However, the services at the level of the regional office are usually more briefing,
explaining to worshipers who came, who recommended that they eventually come to the Kandepag district/city
respectively.
3.2

Discharge Dimension

Implementation of Hajj services refers to the policy of the Central Government and the local Regional Office of the
Ministry of Religious Affairs. Centralized system up gradually raises surveillance system (controlling, supervising and
monitoring) adopts inherent hierarchical supervision. One implementation unit, namely Section Head of PIH and Umrah at
the Ministry of Religious Affairs in the discharge serving pilgrims or pilgrims always obtain the direct supervision of the
Head Office of Religious Affairs. In addition to the direct supervision of technical coordination meetings organized by the
Head Office of Religious Affairs periodically to control and monitor the Hajj ministry.
Then periodically Section Head of PIH and Umrah also periodically without being asked to submit a report on all
activities related to service both the data Hajj pilgrims development and registration of the Hajj and the achievement of
service. Similarly, the implementation of training rituals of Hajj and the use of the training budget is always reported to the
Head Office of Religious Affairs. Furthermore, all the reports from the Head of Section forwarded to the Head Office of the
Ministry of Religious of South Sulawesi Province.
It has become an annual event after each departure and return of Hajj Head Office of Religious Affairs made a
report to the Mayor/Local Regents meeting to serve as evaluation of pilgrimage in the region. Evaluation meeting
organized by the Regional Head, II level followed by the Office of Religious Affairs, relevant government agencies, police
and military as well as some of KBIH. Also present were a number of meeting participants evaluation local legislators who
sit in the relevant commission.
Who giving good service or services that will give satisfaction to the congregation of worshipers who in turn will
create loyalty pilgrims on the manager (travel) concerned. If the above services are perceived good and satisfactory
services, otherwise if the service or services received is lower than expected, then the perceived poor quality.
Characteristics of good service can give you the satisfaction of the congregation is to have professional
employees; available infrastructure is good, provided the entire desired product, Responsible for pilgrims from start to
end. Able to serve as a quick and precise, able to give confidence to the pilgrims.
3.3

Control Dimension

One of the activities carried out by the Office of Religious Affairs of Gowa is implementing and monitoring the
implementation of the Hajj which was coordinated by the Section of Hajj. In this case the task of Section Hajj is providing
services to pilgrims in Gowa.
In monitoring the Hajj at the Ministry of Religious of Gowa, which constantly monitors the situation and condition of
pilgrims in Mecca. Whether it is through direct coordination with the Hajj, or even sends a team of representatives of the
Ministry of Religious who are considered to have the capability to go there to see the situation and provide assistance in
resolving the problem. It will be pursued dialogue with representatives of embassies in Saudi Arabia to help deal with the
crisis. Additionally held dialogues with the pilgrims to the opinions on the sidelines rest of their activities are carried out by
a team of Indonesian Hajj to be directly coordinated with the Ministry of Religious Affairs. Ask for help by Hajj Monitoring
Team that can help provide information on the state there. So that information will be obtained continuously.
Monitor all the news in the media, both electronic and print media. So it is important to monitor or monitor rumors
were reported to be used as reference material make emergency decisions there. Cooperate with the media to proclaim
what things are needed pilgrims there.
Always corrected thoughts or actions were wrong actions, improve the management of internal that this crisis must
be resolved with a cool head. Not just any reactive origin, was blamed but rose to make the ideas that drive the wake of
the thinking about what steps strategy is to be retrieved. Minimize rumors by appearing to provide information to the
public. By always active through the mass media to disseminate information on what facilities will be fixed soon.
Reports for several years had a little manipulation of the good immediately addressed and corrected to be made
new, more honest report according to the datas and facts. So that the evaluation can be measured quantitatively and
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qualitatively can be criticized for being material correction in the future. If all has been done trying to do the handling of
the crisis evaluation.
Evaluation of the crisis can be done if all have a safe and controlled circumstance. The hajj team in Mecca has
stated condition can be overcome and recover. While in Indonesia Ministry of Religious Affairs Management makes steps
to resolve the crisis, whether it is done with a new adaptation decisions taken, so that all parties can be satisfied. Then
the next step with the media to talk to can make an agreement that the Ministry of Religious Affairs made it out of the
crisis and resolve the case in the provision of facilities will not be repeated in the future in addition to technical factors.
Maintain consistency management in Indonesia and to continue working in Makkah serve wholeheartedly even after the
occurrence of the problem. So keep increasing the harmonious relationship between the teams. Consistency is needed in
a teamwork and coordination of a solid team for the Indonesian pilgrims there.
If these steps crisis evaluation done well then it should not immediately satisfied, it makes a work that always
unsatisfied so be motivated to pursue and will always give the best results for its customers in this case Indonesian
pilgrims.
4. Conclusion
Implementation of management functions to service Hajj is not optimal, various obstacles and complaints of pilgrims
started at the time of enrollment until the departure phase indicates that there are things that still need to be addressed,
the issue of service should be anticipated from the aspect of planning to control the level of effectiveness has not been
demonstrated adequate both of infrastructure and availability of human resources so as to give effect in the service of
Hajj.
Implementation of Hajj services in general and running mechanism appears to already process properly, but the
implementation is still not well coordinated, so that the contributions of the responsibility of the elements of leadership and
stakeholders tend to run itself.
In the aspects of monitoring has not shown the maximum results, it is seen that every year there are always
complaints of pilgrims, as well as the family of pilgrims whereas the supervision conducted by the government through
the ministry is expected to minimize the religion of complaints pilgrims.
References
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Jakarta Kemenkes RI
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Service Evaluation and Customer Orientation using Need Based Approach to


Enhance Effectiveness in Public Sector Marketing
Ahmad Nawaz Zaheer1
Dr. Song Wei2
Ghulam Nabi3
Mohamed Noureldin Attia4
Kashif Ullah Khan5
Fakhra Rashid6
1

Ph.D. Student, School Of Public Affairs, University of Science and Technology, China, University of Science and
Technology of China No. 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026, Anhui, China; Email: anzaheer@mail.ustc.edu.cn
2Professor, School Of Public Affairs, University of Science and Technology, China, University of Science and
Technology of China, No. 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026 Anhui, China; Email: songwei@ustc.edu.cn

Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
Marketing approach rarely moves ahead without self-interest. This inculcates a strong link between customer orientation and
strategies followed for public sector marking. In case of China, due to huge population, there seems a greater challenge to
maintain quality services and public satisfaction. Taking into account the extensively developed railway network, we conducted
a survey of customers utilizing train services in China with an aim to document train service effectiveness in relation to
satisfaction and perceived customer orientation. The evaluation was based on questionnaire specifically prepared to analyze
public sector marketing effects on shaping views of train customers who travel within China through railway network. Results
enabled us to construct a model that clearly indicates speed, comfort, cleanliness and flexible train schedules have strong
positive impact train users. Marketing focus on purchase of tickets such as online buying and information about train schedules
inside stations has inspired huge population to prefer travelling through train than any other means. Our findings show that well
planned customer orientation before public service marketing will create a customers need which can be set as political
objective to enhance customer satisfaction by taking control of that need as in the case of China high speed train.
Keywords: customer orientation; high speed train; online services; customer feedback; public sector marketing

1. Introduction
The primary basic normal for the government organizations products are that it is prevalently a service item; it comprised
on a tri-segment type of requirements, obligations and amenities and it shows features of pecuniary experts' idea of a
public good ". In the primary, government organization gives benefits instead of merchandise. The marketing
ramifications of the service trademark incorporate the need to make substantial those parts of public service which
resident shoppers discover hard to appreciate. Public sector organization in various countries logically sees the
prerequisite for relentless quality change of the organizations gave and an interminably quick response to the growing
needs and demands citizens or client. Broadly talking, there is right now a need to direct citizens faithfulness even with a
trouble; the essential to give organizations at the biggest sum whilst meanwhile going up against the need to cut
government utilization
Numerous public sector supervisors realize that marketing is more than interchanges or sales, yet they don't have
the foggiest idea about the "enchantment" that makes it work. When they comprehend the four Psproduct, price, place,
and promotion they can utilize them to change their correspondence with public and enhance their execution (Philip
Kotler & Lee, 2007). With the movement of the public sector to a greater extent an administrative, professional loom, the
appropriation of marketing activities can provide as an important part in reinforcing responsibility and changing
government business into manageable operation(Church, n.d.). This line of attack has essential for public sector
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directors to learn and rehearse a scope of new marketing aptitudes (Sargeant, 1999)
Kotler and Lee (2007) clarified that key marketing planning is a fundamental administration device. It relies on
upon a citizen focused approach and utilizes a custom mix of the advertiser's techniques, which the private and not-forprofit segments have been utilizing for a considerable length of time. It is a train that can be sent to change any public
organization into a practical organization. What does "marketing" infer? Advertising or selling. Actually, these are
strategies of the final resort, utilized when marketing standards and methods have not been appropriately utilized to
create value, disseminate and viably impart the genuine estimation of an association's offerings. They demonstrate an
absence of a customer-oriented mindset.
Public sector marketing can be utilized to accomplish the revelation of better viewing so as to advise and drawing
in citizens correspondences inside of a more extensive key marketing framework. It can reposition and make unrivaled
picture for the organization, drive better results in project uptake, system effect and behavioral change. It can likewise
draw in financial specialist's capital or spare cash by helping administrators and program or administration directors make
educated speculation and resource trade-off decisions (James, Mintz and Doug, 2011).
Adding to "Marketing in Government", (Madill, 1998) repeated Proctor's (2007) attestation that, the public sector
associations are worried with giving services instead of products. Advertising of services requires diverse methodology.
Marketing a service based business contrasts from promoting a product based business.
Cowell (1984) contended that what is huge about services is the relative predominance of impalpable traits in the
makeup of the service product. As an outcome, administrations may require uncommon understanding and unique
advertising endeavors. For instance, the personnel giving the service are pretty much as essential as the service itself
and the association between service supplier and service beneficiary is of central significance. Service based
associations are basically worried with overseeing relations on the grounds that they deal with the aggregate "buyer
seller" communication process. This is done as a major aspect of pulling in, keeping up, and enhancing client
connections (Reid, 2008)
Kotler and Lee (2007) included that, while numerous services marketed in public sector are manageable to the
same sorts of treatment as one would take after with services in the private sector a few services have an alternate point.
Utilization of marketing techniques and ideas inside of a few parts of public service are worried with advancing thoughts
and are as often as possible alluded to as social marketing. Kotler & Zaltman (1971)recommended that, social marketing
is: The design, implementation and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and
involving considerations of product, planning, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing research. Social
advertising plans to realize particular behavioral objectives important to social great, for instance the anticipation of
hostile to social conduct, for example, vandalism or liquor misuse in the community. On the other hand, it is one and only
of various conceivable mediation strategies and its constraints or suitability for specific purposes has to be surely known.
On the subject of Marketing difficulties confronted by public sector administrators the CEPSM (2006) directed a
study to survey the soundness of promoting out in the government sector in Canada (Mintz, Partner, & Sector, 2006). The
survey likewise called attention to that Government as a rule, exhibited disregard for consolidating a recognized
marketing procedure and setting up quantifiable marketing goals and scored low on executing a proactive procedure that
inculcate customer desires when recognizing and growing new offerings( product, services and program)
Cousins (1990) clarified that, in the 1990s, various Europeans public sector began to see its general public as
clients and observed the huge benefit of their marketing practice in their day to day activities and planning for marketing
efforts keeping in mind the end goal to "sell" strategies to nationals. Public sectors utilize four sorts of marketing, which
vary from one another in the targets fundamental them.
1- "Marketisation" implies that, definite parts of public sector movements get to be similar to business subjecting
so as to promote in the private sector offerings to the aggressive strengths of market. The main concentration
was to reduce the cost and offered the more valued products and services as per customer demands
(Chapman & Cowdell, 1998)
2- Every organization wants to promote their self interest and marketing plays very important role in this. For
instance, (Burton, 1999) proposed that most of the organization in public sector utilized partner advertising to
make safe their proceeded with presence by backing from the business sector and the social order.
3- Thirdly, the local authorities and powers, advertising are utilized to advance the region beneath the obligation
of the public sector for example, city marketing.
4- At long last, marketing might be influential in advancing main political destinations, for instance the
acknowledgment of social impacts. Advertising abilities created in the private segment can be utilized in the
public sector to advance and convey non-benefit inspired administrations. A municipal council, for instance,
can have a product mix which includes product classes from a plant nursery to decline accumulation and a
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legitimate division, and can utilize the same methods as private sector marketers.
Before, public sector organizations have focused more in transit in which services are conveyed as opposed to
accentuation on customer or end user. Apparently that have created in light of the fact that an organization has had a
thought of what the client needed, or considered that it realized what the client required from an expert point of view
(Bean & Hussey, 2012). Marketing standards can be connected inside of public sector however there may be trouble in
relating service conveyance totally to market standards. In proposing that "market" standards may be connected in public
sector, there is a presumption that the business sector is a productive and proper assigning component for appropriating
open segment merchandise and administrations. Mellors (1993) contended that the thought of a public good and public
interest stay hazardous in receiving business sector answers for service provision. In any case, whatever the connection,
marketing standards can apply and staff should be marketing focused.
As Public sector organization everywhere throughout the Western world has moved toward managerialism toward
the 80s' start, 'marketing has additionally expanded in significance. Alongside the new public administration development
an adjustment in the relationship between the organization and the subjects has gotten to be clear, open division in
different European nations began seeing nationals as clients, further start applying marketing in their day to day activities
and starts planning for this (Cousins, 1990) with an objective to satisfy the customer and fulfill the need of the customer in
a better way.
The primary two purposes behind which the utilization of marketing in public sector is unavoidable as mentioned by
Proctor (2007). The first reason is Scarcity of resources especially fiscal ones. This issue has been an unfaltering issue
starting from the '80s as a result of, from one perspective, reliable augmentation of enthusiasm for better and more
different public service and, on the other hand, by higher disillusionment with the execution of the association and in this
way a diminished preparation to contribute fiscally and socially. The second reason is expanded rivalry from the private
organization. Last couple of decade, a standout amongst the most widely recognized parts of any change development in
public sector has been the presentation of rivalry in the public segment.
Public sector in the country has long had segments of advertising yet they have as a general rule been fringe to the
acquirement of focus public merchandise and administrations (Serrat, 2010) take for instance exercises done in
advancing tourism or certain products of state owned companies. The initial step is to acknowledge marketing as
something key for any public sector. Besides, incorporating marketing as a component of the entire association
methodology is something that is in the line of new changes where citizens input is seen as more imperative for
advancement and conveyance of services Another favorable position is that it accomplishes indicated incomes or costrecuperation targets (Serrat, 2010, p.4) .
The idea of marketing, in spite of the fact that with a background marked by just about a century, has continually
developed, principally amid the most recent decades, turning out to be more unpredictable and broad. Maybe, one of the
conceivable clarifications of this prevalence is that living in a general public in real part in light of the free market economy
includes, in addition to other things, buying and selling various items and administrations went for raising the personal
satisfaction. Buying and selling are additionally taking into account the idea of deliberate trade which further suggests
pricing, promoting, branding or, in only single word, marketing.
While the idea of administration quality has, by and large, pulled in awesome consideration in the private part for
quite a while, it has just entered the verbal confrontation in public sector organization literature all the more as of late.
Further Parker& Bradley (2000) and Kodylis (2011) discussed that public sector associations have been affected and
characterized by political powers and focal bureaucratic organizations. In this bureaucratic model public segment
representatives took after troublesome systems by standard to exhibit responsibility to general society (Claver, Llopis,
Gasc, Molina, & Conca, 1999; Bolton, 2003). The procurement of administrations was in this way more inside centered
than being engaged towards the requirements of the national. All things considered, the idea of administration quality
from the beneficiaries' point of view was unessential. With the presentation of the New Public Management approach it
was would have liked to add to another administration introduction amongst public division associations. Further Giankis
(2002) explained the market-driven concepts and said that organizational change outline is oriented towards the
development of post-bureaucratic organizational forms. Further the delivery of powerful and effective administrations and
their change. In any case, various scholars contend that numerous public sector battle with this re-introduction because
of the complexities of nature they are working in. For example, Marini (1993) highlights that public sector organizations
are often used to demonstrate for instance of service carnage. Important to note in this entire debate is the dominating
managerial focus, centering on questions concerning management, change to organizational structures and processes,
and the difficulties that the employees face in this transition. Less attention is paid to the impact on potential service
recital absorption between sectors has on recipients.

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2. Customer Orientation in Public Sector


Public sector marketing has developed from business promoting practices the investigation by Kotler and Zaltman
denoted its rise as an unmistakable control. Business marketing practices thus has developed through a progression of
stages to its present day customer orientation. To start with the production orientation, the overwhelming business state
of mind for the first half of this century is described by sympathy toward expanding yield and decreasing expense. The
second period of business logic, a "sales orientation" has been encapsulated by an offering and advancement exertion
coordinated toward producing high sales and high benefit. Social advertising system that depend upon advancement to
"offer" items ,, for example, exercise gear and "quit smoking" projects, are cases of this way to deal with wellbeing
instruction. As opposed to the production and sales introductions, present day business marketing locations the
customer's requirements and hobbies in the improvement and advancement of products and services.
As indicated by Narver & Slater (1990), customer orientation is a piece of business sector introduction yet a few
creators characterized it all the more definitely. Furthermore the concept of customer orientation is explained by Shapiro
(1988) which is "the dissemination of information about customers throughout an organization, formulation of strategies
and tactics to satisfy market needs inter-functionally and achievement of a sense of company-wide commitment to these
plans" .Customer orientation arrives displayed as an authoritative society that is dedicated to fulfill clients' necessities on
their business sector. As per Shapiro 1988) that behavior is produced through correspondence or "dissemination of
information" all through the organization. Kohli & Jaworski (1990) likewise propose that client introduction "represents the
degree to which customer information is both collected and used by the business unit".
At last, for Deshpand, Farley, & Webster Jr (1993) discussed the customer orientation and described that "the set
of beliefs that puts the customer's interest first, while not excluding those of all other stakeholders such as owners,
managers, employees, in order to develop a long-term profitable enterprise. Therefore, Customer orientation use to be
significant part of an authoritative society and regard for information about clients' requirements ought to be considered
as a fundamental estimation of the firm. Appiah-Adu & Singh(1998) further contributed and said "customer orientation is a
concept comprising customer understanding orientation and customer satisfaction focus". Further they explained that
this is the motivation behind why client introduction includes social mentalities, for example, creating and improving
quality to clients. Customer orientation is about execution and since society is "how things are done" customer orientation
ought to pervade the general exercises of an organization.
Mainstreaming the necessities of individual signifies "to deal with a product for all" idea is out of date. Clients now
need more altered administration from suppliers, and are willing to pay the comparing cost. For suppliers, the primary
precondition of procurement of tweaked item or administration is to have the capacity to plainly separate and distinguish
the business sector. The business sector can be completely portioned, which implies a definitive objective is that every
client will be a business sector fragment. In complete business sector fragments, suppliers will give redid administrations
or products to every client. Regardless of the possibility that the business sector can be completely portioned to every
client, the following most concerning issue is to tell whether this model is commendable from the business appraisal, that
is, to pick a level of beneficial customization (Fang, Xiaoping, Chen, Zhiya and Li, Zhizhong, 2003). This is identified with
the way of the business sectors confronted by the producer. Here, the measure of an individual business sector portion
should be investigated. In particular, the size can be separated into four related viewpoints: single exchange volume,
whether there are ceaseless exchange needs, normal yearly exchange measure of a solitary client and the aggregate
number of clients. By and large, institutional customer has a greater exchange than individual client does. Institutional
customer's obtained types of equipment and auxiliary specialized administrations and individual buyer's durables are
discontinuous requests; while institutional customer's requirement for crude materials, fuel, parts and specialized support
administrations, and individual purchaser's consumables are constant requests. China railroad cargo transport division
mostly gives administration to institutional customer's products transport and logistics interest, which is an extroverted
and stable concern. Therefore the institutional customers build the level of cost control, there will be an tendency of littler
volumes and more clumps.
Customer orientation lies in the way that all moves ought to make into record the needs, prerequisites and desires
of clients. In connection to the administrations gave by public organizations, it can hence be presumed that need will be
met through conferment of administrations to the customer (e.g. issuing an identity card), necessities will be met given
the administration rendered meets specific parameters (is done appropriately, as per the regulations, is not flawed, and
so forth.), while desires are met when the administration is rendered to the beneficiary in the route in which the client
wishes to be served, and not surprisingly (e.g. decent environment, comparing to the customer's likelihood getting
administrations, and so forth.). Today, numerous ideas hold customer orientation as a central guideline.

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3. Excellence of Services Provided by the Public Sector


In last couple of years, public sector viability, execution and organization quality had been able to be best issue of
government association. Therefore client situated administration attitude was the top undertaking of public segments or
associations and all individuals should concentrate on clients. At the point when going to open segment for public
undertakings, individuals frequently needed to visit different offices, rehashing rounding out the comparative structures; or
going forward and backward offices with records in the segment framework with misty obligation division. With customeroriented" administration mentality, client worth could be the critical premise of organization, specifically communicate with
client (individuals), gather client related data, and along these lines enhance administration and item regulatory
foundation gave (Chiang, 1999).
Font (1997) argued that government driven organization quality change must be assessed in perspective of
customer, develop the degree a few units, offices, as well as learn achievement skill of private sector, and exchange to
public sector function. Also, in related assessment, the part of individuals in quality assessment must be checked; inside
assessment should consider dynamic support of association organization top supervisors and individuals. Individuals
fulfillment related information might be surveyed by outer organization, looking at contrast of comparable gatherings or
distinctive gatherings. Assessment result should be announced subsequent to a period to maintain time impact in order to
be yardstick that government organizations can talk about change. It's recognized from over that, administration might
modify service means and substance by method for reaching clients and knowing their interest, so clients get maximal
fulfillment. Henceforth, future service quality might be without a doubt the way to enhancing organization execution and
competency for public sector
4. Public Services in China (Chinese Railways)
In view of the fact that the reforms and opening to the outside world, the Chinese Economy has seen a fast extension.
The information gathered by National Bureau of Statistic of China (2012a) affirmed that the GDP of China Surpassed
Japan in 2010, and turned into the second biggest financial body on the planet. The public service is defined by
legislation specifying the characteristic of the employees and the employing institutions, and the monopoly is the essential
characteristic of public service of China (Xiong, 2009). According to the 12th National Five year Plan of basic public
service system of China published on July 11,2012, eight kinds of public services are included in the system, namely
Public education, employment service, social security, basic social services, health services, family planning, house
security and public culture. However, Railway passenger is not included in the system.
With the rapid development of Chinese economy, the public service system gets its initial effects, although its
barely in embryo stage, and nearly all the Chinese have been influenced in terms of living style and quality. Meanwhile
innovations in the public service fields also cause some problems, especially in monopolized public sector service
sectors, for example, China Railways.
The ministry of China Railways was established after the founding of Peoples Republic of China, which is
responsible for the construction and management of railways all over China. There are six affiliated bureaus under the
ministrys control, and each bureau is in charge of a specific area (The General Knowledge of Railways, 2013).
In 1949, China had only 102 million person travelling by railway and by 2011, the number reached 186 million,
increased by 82%. At the same time although the capacity of railways has been increased greatly, especially from 2005
to 2011, the gap between the demands and supply of passenger transportation was still as high as 43.09%. Let alone
during the Spring Festival Season

Figure 1: Conceptual framework


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In order to conceptualize the context specificity of the implications of public sector marketing on customer orientation, a
framework from the literature review is proposed in which the impact on customer satisfaction and customer orientation is
described as a two stage process, the focus and outcome of which is determined by measuring effectiveness.
5. Objective of the Study
The goals of this study were (1) to measure the effectiveness and to develop scale of perceived customer orientation, to
measure customer satisfaction when Public sector marketing is implemented and (2) to analyze public sector marketing
effect for customer orientation in public services based on the proposed conceptual framework (see Fig. 1).
6. Methods
In order to measure the effectiveness we have chosen the railway sector especially the fast train services in china. The
main reason for choosing the below motioned methodology is that it provides the comprehensive relationship between
the service provider and service users, it reflects the opinion of the customer and shows the optimum level of customer
orientation in the public sector. The effectiveness of such a sector which provides services can be measured according to
the opinion that consumers in the target groups have the (Table 1) characteristics. The effectiveness of such a sector
which provides services can be deliberate according to the outlook that clients in the target groups have the subsequent
distinctiveness.
Characteristics
Speed
Price
Comfort
Reliability
Accessibility
cleanliness and
maintenance of station facilities
Safe/ Security
Schedule span
Understand the needs of the passenger
Ease of buying tickets
provision of information about train schedules and platforms
The quality of facilities and services (e.g. toilets, shops, cafes) in railway stations.
Complaint handling mechanism
Responsiveness
Service quality at station
Assurance

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7. Data Collection
The above attributes isolated into a few parts which are clear to the client (train traveler) and which can be judge
independently. Data collected through the questionnaire and the target group can state their opinion against variable
(Table1). Questionnaire based on using ordinal scale division from these opinion every characteristic will be assigned an
appreciation weight age.
Table 1. Assessment table of fast train service in China
Characteristics
Speed
Price
Comfort
Reliability
Accessibility
cleanliness and maintenance of station facilities
Safe/ Security

---+/+
++
+++
Very bad Bad Moderate Sufficient Good Very good Excellent
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Very high High Fairly high Reasonable low Very low Minimal
Very bad Bad Moderate Sufficient Good Very good Excellent
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//

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Schedule span
Understand the needs of the passenger
Ease of buying tickets
provision of information about train schedules and platforms
The quality of facilities and services (e.g. toilets, shops, cafes) in
railway stations.
Complaint handling mechanism
Responsiveness
Service quality at station
Assurance

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297
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300
301
302
303

//
//
//
//

//
//
//
//

//
//
//
//

//
//
//
//

//
//
//
//

//
//
//
//

//
//
//
//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//
//
//
//

//
//
//
//

//
//
//
//

//
//
//
//

//
//
//
//

//
//
//
//

//
//
//
//

This applies in particular to reach measurement, satisfaction measurement and result measurement. Organization that
explicitly pay attention to these types of measurement will also have an internal climate favorable for customer oriented
methods.
8. Results and Discussion
Table 2. Result Assessment table of fast train service in China
Characteristics
Speed
Price
Comfort
Reliability
Accessibility
cleanliness and
maintenance of station facilities
Safe/ Security
Schedule span
Understand the needs of the passenger
Ease of buying tickets
provision of information about train schedules and platforms
The quality of facilities and services (e.g. toilets, shops, cafes) in railway stations.
Complaint handling mechanism
Responsiveness
Service quality at station
Assurance

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Opinion of the fast train user (%)


--- -+/- +
++
0 0.9 0.6 5.1 2.6 47.1
0 13.4 18.0 56.0 3.7 8.0
0 0.3 1.1 11.7 11.7 59.7
1.7 2.6 8.6 21.1 8.0 44.6
1.1 6.3 28.3 11.1 8.3 32.3

N=350
+++
43.7
0.9
15.4
13.4
12.6

1.1

.3

10.9 12.0 50.3 25.4

0
0
0
2.0
0
0
2.0
4.3
0
1.4

0.6
0.6
1.1
0.6
0
0.3
3.7
16.0
5.1
2.9

1.1
0.3
4.3
2.0
1.5
3.1
5.1
21.1
5.7
2.6

5.7
7.7
25.1
9.1
7.1
17.1
19.7
31.7
36.3
40.0

8.0
10.6
22.6
15.7
8.3
10.9
16.6
8.0
16.3
12.3

52.6
40.3
34.9
32.6
49.1
44.6
37.7
16.0
31.1
32.0

32.0
40.6
12.0
38.0
34.0
24.0
15.1
2.9
5.4
8.9

Meeting with the real score yields the picture reflected in table 3. We may finish up from this table the price of the Fast
train services merits consideration. The client is fully satisfied by the other trademark utilized as a part of this study also:
more than the standard rates of clients demonstrate that they are satisfied by these attributes.
Table 3. Customary for assorted characteristic as per their actual values
Assumed Standard (%)
Reality (%) Deviation (%)
Sufficient ,Reasonable or higher
Speed
80
98
+18
Price
80
69
-11
Comfort
80
98
+18
Reliability
80
87
+7
Accessibility
80
64
-16
cleanliness and maintenance of station facilities
80
99
+19
Safe/ Security
80
98
+18
Schedule span
80
99
+19
Understand the needs of the passenger
80
95
+15
Ease of buying tickets
80
95
+15
provision of information about train schedules and platforms
80
98
+18
The quality of facilities and services (e.g. toilets, shops, cafes) in railway stations.
80
96
+16
Complaint handling mechanism
80
89
+9
Characteristic

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Service quality at station
Assurance

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80
80

59
89
93

-21
+9
+13

Intentionally utilizing one or a few of the sorts of adequacy estimation examined above naturally upholds sound
recognizable proof of the target groups. This applies specifically to achieve estimation, fulfillment estimation and result
estimation. Public sector organization in China expressly pay consideration on these sorts of estimation will likewise have
an inner atmosphere ideal for customer oriented methods.
9. Summary and Conclusion
In this study, we developed the conceptual framework from the brief literature review; Fig 1 explained the focus of public
sector marketing towards public services in order to meet the customer satisfaction. The conceptual framework
suggested the overall process and creates a positive prelateship between customer orientation and customer satisfaction.
This relationship further explained through measuring effectiveness. The result of the survey used in this study showed
the fast train user satisfaction toward services, we used different parameter to measure the effectiveness, in table 3
indicate that the price followed by accessibility and responsiveness as signals of customer satisfaction and tolerable
pleasing of customer wants. The remaining attributes of the fast train services in china, which shows that high level of
satisfaction from the customer (user). This study here affirms that the wide standards of the marketing and customer
orientation idea are pertinent in public segment, examines and presents illustrations of possible strategies, prerequisites
and methods for the viability estimation that might be used as a piece of public sector. In the previous studies Zaheer
(2015) mentioned that in China, Public sector has enthusiastically brought significant improvement for fulfillment of the
need citizen and also for establishment of innovative offerings for public interests and Chinese public sector posses a
huge prospective to support the government in on condition that effectual services for the public at large.
At the outline stage for client introduction forms at public sector, it is important to recognize the customer, which
may be aggregate (e.g., associations and other government offices) or individual (client or native). Subsequent to
distinguishing customers who are beneficiaries of the services, and consequently the members and beneficiaries of the
procedure of its execution, it is important to decide their need. Before the difficulties and opportunities brought by
globalization, and in addition of the quick advancement of innovation, demographic changes, rising desires of citizens and
rivalry from the private sector, the Chinese Government ought to figure out how to proceed with the investigation and
abuse of better approaches to enhance the circumstance of public administration in the country. In closing we may
reason that customer orientation in public sector organizations is an especially obliging and vital thought.
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Kohli, A., & Jaworski, B. (1990). Market orientation: the construct, research propositions, and managerial implications. The Journal of
Marketing, 54(2), 118. http://doi.org/10.2307/1251866.
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Research (JABR), 5(4), 1519.
Kotler, P., & Lee, N. R. (2007). Marketing in the Public Sector: The Final Frontier. Public Manager, 36, 1217.
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Marini, F. (1993). Cant Get No Satisfaction: Customers, Citizens, Service, and Satisfaction. JSTOR.
Mellors, J. (1993). The commercialisation of common services provided by the Department of Administrative Services: outcomes and
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Serrat, O. (2010). Marketing in the Public Sector. Washington, DC: Asian Development Bank.
Shapiro, B. P. (1988). What the hell is market oriented? HBR Reprints.
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Western Balkan Integration to EU


Msc. Shkelzen Imeri1
Diplomat, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, bioalma_79@yahoo.com

Dr. Marsela Sako2


Faculty of Social Science, Department of Political Science, University of Tirana; marsela sako@yahoo.com
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
Performance of candidate countries to EU is assessed as weak and with problems in the function of state institutions, which are
considered as the main challenges for the security of Western Balkan and its EU integration. The other problem is the
insufficient economic development that has great influence in the Western Balkan security. Countries in the region are faced
even with the consequences of this problem like high unemployment, poverty and social tensions. Western Balkan leaders
need to take serious initiatives on economic reform, with the goal to increase economic indicators and moreover living
standards. EU countries have the necessity to understand the importance of Western Balkan countries for peace and security,
simultaneously the need for economic and political assistance for reaching standards. The aim of this article is to give modest
ideas for the acceleration of Western Balkan integration process in EU.
Keywords: integration, reforms, security, competition, assistance, corruption, law enforcement, economic cooperation, and
performance.

1. Introduction
Historical developments in the Balkans are characterized by ethnic rivalries and bloody conflicts, consequences of
political conflicts.
On the historical perspective, Balkans has been the main road of Romans to the East and of ottomans to the West.
During different occupations each invader has left a nation or a religion, where each hated one another to the death.1
1 During these historical conflicts, the fundamental problem exist in the contradiction among geopolitics and ethnic
borders, lack of appropriate political mechanisms and of the will to solve these contradictions. In most of the cases
solution has been brought forth through use of force, which has planted the seed of new conflicts and accompanied with
violence in the Balkan and beyond.
USA and EU engagement helped the Balkan to get out of war in peace, from the stable development of
disintegration, where through NATO a Euro-Atlantic future was brought forth. Without the powerful engagement of the
Euro-Atlantic Alliance the fundamental changes that have happened in the Balkans could have never been achieved nor
have stable development. These are reflected in the internal regional and border agreements and beyond.
2. The Balkans and the Issues toward EU.
Balkans EU integration is not only a desire of the countries that make it. On the other hand it will depend on the will of
EU, which in most of the cases is contradictory. EU countries reduce their national sovereignty with the aim to strengthen
their international influence, an influence unreachable if acted unilaterally. On this perspective, reduction of national
sovereignty towards EU, meaning in practice member states delegates some of decision-making powers to existing joint
institutions.
Despite that national sovereignty is still an insuperable barrier in the development of a common and proper foreign
policy, without mentioning common defence policy and the establishment of a joint army.2 2
Balkan countries EU integration is somehow a question of standards and values adopted in the national and
1
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George Friedman, Future 100 Years, Plejad 2010, pg 66.


Desmond Dinan, European Union Policies, AIIS, pg 272.

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regional reality, before being a question of technical negotiations and of political dialogue or of European and global
conjectures. Integration process neither is nor depended mainly from the progress of local, national and regional factors
in the Balkan countries.
If we had developed countries and integrated regions according to EU doctrine, even the enlargement would not
have reasons to slow down. Albania and the region in its entirety have many challenges to reach integration values and
standards. The process would always be depended from internal EU developments, especially from the acceptance
policy of new members with full rights. The birth of different kinds of problems in EU and world conflicts (economic global
crisis, refugee crisis, terrorism, etc.) has stimulated EU sceptics to slow down the enlargement process.
3. Western Balkan Countries Challenges Towards EU
Western Balkan presently is threatened and endangered from: weak institutions, corruption, poverty, organised crime and
terrorism.3
It faces another fundamental and important problem that deals with the establishment and function of state
institutions. In a quick view, establishment of institutions through nepotism, otherwise called as phenomena of state
dissolution, is a phenomenon that threatens security and is a real challenge for all countries in the region. American NGO
Fund for Peace in one of its reports, assesses the stability of EU candidate countries from institutional point of view, in
pre-warning areas. This study includes 177 countries and is based on 12 indicators: 6 political, 2 economical and 4
social, which determine: government ability (or governmental institutions) to exercise control in the countrys territory,
offering public services, level of corruption and criminality, level of population involuntary movement and economic
recession. 4
Weakness and functional state institution problems are considered the main challenges for Western Balkan
security and its EU integration. The above-mentioned arguments are based on the fact that in modern political regimes,
the state has an obligation to establish and guarantee structures that regulate economic and political activity of the
society. Beside this, legal structures and established institutions by the state including their function in accordance to
international standards, assure its presence in the international economical and political system. As a consequence,
structures can not function on satisfactory levels, subsystems of society that are connected to economy, justice and
policy will not function in their internal activity, including the foreign one. This issue has a particular importance, in cases
when states are not able or have great difficulties to modernise without international assistance, as are Western Balkan
states. Pre-Accession Instrument in EU, is focused on strengthening institutions, because only a country with strong
institutions may fulfil Copenhagen Criteria. 5
Main criticism for the moment is toward the practical function of institutions and their structural gap.
EU Independent experts identified real measures that aim at raising institutions independence, transparency,
professionalism, function and public trust like: Ombudsman, Commissioner for Anti-Discrimination, Asset Declaration
Inspectorate, etc. it was agreed on the strengthen of legal framework and institutional through a number of horizontal
measures for all independent institutions. 6
When discussing on institutions, take in consideration civil service institutions, political, military, police and law
institutions. During transition period, the most dynamical reform in the region has been in military sector. Yugoslav
Peoples Army (Jugoslavenska narodna armija JNA) in the 1990s has had 180.000 active soldiers, 1850 tanks, 455
planes and 198 military helicopters. Albania in the 1980s had an active army made up of 61.000 military forces, 260.000
in reserve and a considerable number of volunteer forces. In the end of the 1990s armed forces reached a number of
100.000 people. 7
In an analysis of a Serbian journal Blic, Serbian Army is made up of 33 thousand military forces, 80 planes and
272 tanks. Macedonia has about 8 thousand military forces and 3 tanks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has 11 thousand
military forces, 19 planes and 188 tanks. Croatia NATOs member has 16 thousand military forces, 32 planes and 86
tanks. Slovenia, NATOs member has 7100 military forces, 24 planes and 54 tanks. Montenegro has 2100 military forces
and 4 planes. Kosovo has 2500 military forces and 800 in reserve.8
www.zeriamerikes.com Organized crime obstacle for integration 27 02 2010.
www.global.fundforpeace.org/index.php June 2010.
5 http.//www.eeas.europa.eu/delegacions European Council Copenhagen 1993.
3
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delegation-albaniaqeeas.europa.eu. Seminar Tirane 2015.

https.//lajmi i fundit.wordpss.com/2012/07, shkurtime ne ushtri. Zv/mimistri i Mbrotjes, Arian Starova.


8 www.zeri.info/.../ serbia ushtrin me te forte ne Ballkane 07/05/2013 gazeta Blic.
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According to Defence Minister Ms Kodheli, the Albanian Army will lay off in 2015 1500 troops from the actual
10.000. The Army budget is 0,85% of GDP. It is forecasted that the Army budget in 2015 to go to 2% level of GDP. For
2016 it is forecasted military purchase of 17 million $ armament and in 2025 it is forecasted this value to go to 38 million
$.9
Referred to the International Institute for Peace in Stockholm Report, Albanias military spending go up to 3,131
billion $ during 1992-2013 period. Macedonia has spend 3 billions and 46 million $ during 1996-2013 period. In 2001
Macedonia was unstable and spent 436 million $. Bosnia and Herzegovina has spend 3 billions and 90 million $ during
2002-2013. Montenegro has spend 626 million and 800 thousand $ during 2006 - 2013. 10
Actually, the greatest challenges are political reform as these reforms are the basis for the Europeanization of the
regions countries. This process requires dynamic and pragmatic actions, not based on ideology or Balkan provincial
leadership. Naturally, it is thought for the process to be lead by leaders whom, for the security of their country. To judge
on strategic viewpoint and regionally, to have political vision to consider Euro-Atlantic integration process of their
countries as a political process, this requires its own maturation period.
Not far from importance is economic development. Momentarily is not on right proper rhythms and is not enough to
exercise greater influence in the Western Balkan.
Each of the countries in the region is faced with consequences of such condition like high unemployment, poverty,
exodus and social tension. Polarization of social conflicts in some cases is done on ethnic bases. James Clapper, USA
Intelligence community director, in a report to Senate Committee stated, Conditions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and
Macedonia is unstable due to ethnic division. Macedonian government continues to support programs that aim to
encourage Macedonian nationalism against Euro-Atlantic integration of the country. 1111
Fragility of state institutions and insufficient economic development influence directly on the issues that are related
to security.
Unemployment in Western Balkan in last two decades varies from 20- 25%. Majority of graduates cannot find job
due to corruption and nepotism. In most of the cases, they go to the higher instances, by creating obstacles to
opportunities that are created for stable economic development. In none of the regions countries like Albania, Kosovo,
Macedonia, Bosnia and Montenegro, no young can have a career if not engaged in some political parties. In a detailed
analysis of DW, related to refugee crisis, one of the problems for Balkan countries is also the issue of Roma community,
which deal with sharp economic and social problems. Often they are discriminated not for their ethnical background but
suffer from their collapse of social security.12
Moreover, Western Balkan countries, according to World Bank report of 2015, ranks among 10 countries with low
income per capita and more precisely Kosovo with 3390 $, Albania 4450 $, Bosnia 4760 $, Macedonia 5150 $,
Montenegro 7320 $, Bulgaria 7620 $, Rumania 9520 $.13
In a quick view incomes in the region are fluctuated in a medium level of 5300$, and compared to incomes of EU
countries, are comprised of 31% of their medium. If measured with the performance of European political initiatives, the
region is ranked at the bottom according to Catch Up index, which measures 35 countries in Europe, takes in
consideration economic indicators, life quality, democracy and governance. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania are
ranked at the bottom of this study, while Kosovo is not even considered.
According to these data, Balkan countries unfortunately are indicators of the fact that the time of economic growth
and approximation with developed countries has finished. IMF forecast on the regions performance is gloomy. Economic
growth is forecasted to be among 2-3.5%, excluding Montenegro which foresees an economic growth of 4%.14
The study of Valbona Zeneli PhD, expert at George Marshall centre, related to the forecast of economic growth in
Balkan countries, states that if in these countries would exit an economic growth of 7% per year, and then they would
need 25-36 years to double their revenues and 50 years to reach the European average. Another argument in her study
is related to the threat in the region, which is a result of unemployment that reaches over 24% and is double that of EU.15
One of the biggest failures during transition period is economic informality and great social inequality. Negative
9 www.telegrafi.com/.../sa Instituti Ndrkombtar i Krkimeve pr Paqen n Stokholm. 28/06/2014, do vit publikon shifrat e shpenzuara
nga 171 shteteteve.
10 www-gazeta-shqiptare.com. Shkurtime ne ushtri, 14.12.2015.
11 www.zeriamerikes.com Rraportim ne Senatin Amerikane, James Clapper, Drejtor i zb. 29 janar 2014.
12 html//www.dw.com/sq/fokus Deshtimi i Elitave politike ne Ballkan date 17 gusht 2015.
13 http/www.EXLPRESS. Pse ngec Ballkani, 18/02/2016.
14 http.worldbank.org/sq. Raporti BB per ardhura per fryme 2015.
15 albania-arkiva.blogspot.com/2015/06/varferia-rreziku-kryesor. dr. Valbona Zeneli, Drejtoresh e studimeve ne qendren George C.
Marshall.

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economic indicators are the poor performance in creating competitive markets and improvement of entrepreneurship, as
poor and low indicators of production. Average level of GDP per capita in Balkan countries is nearly 40% of average in
EU countries. Calculated on the principle of buying power is as followed: Rumania 31%, Greece 29%, Bulgaria 11%,
Serbia 9%, Croatia 8%, while Kosovo, Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia share among them 12% of regions
GDP.16
Countries region are assessed with weak competitive force in relation to global competition at the World Economic
Forum. Factors that contribute in this dishonest competition is the unfriendly environment towards business. Rule of law
and law enforcement leaves a lot to be desired, while innovation in economy is negligible.
Corruption is deeply rooted and includes political and institutional elites. Croatia has the greatest achievement in
the fight against corruption, including arrest and punishment of high political figures (ex Prime Minister Sanader). In
Albania is arrested and attending trial ex minister of Labour and Social Welfare, Spiro Ksera.
In general, Western Balkan countries are described as autocratic where corruption and close relation to political
elite and organised crime dominates the political landscape. The slow transition to the path of democracy and rule of law
in the Balkan has caused discontent in EU, which has turned its attention to other hotbeds like Greece and Ukraine.
Consequence of such condition is the migration waves, mainly young people. The exodus of young graduated people
makes for their engagement in social changes in their country to be inexistent. This has given rise to desperation that can
bring a certain dictatorship from which every young and intellectual wish to escape as soon as possible. 17
Poverty and inequality is another challenge for security in the Balkan, which includes illegal immigration toward EU
countries. In a World Bank report, the number of immigrants in 1990 was 13% and in 2013 reached 25%. Nearly 4.9
million Albanians have left the Balkan area. Up until August 2015, in Germany, there were 38, 245 asylum seekers from
Albania, 33.824 from Kosovo, 20.864 Serbs and 10.244 Macedonians.
This marked a record in request for economic asylum. 18 Regional uncertainty situations have created a negative
image for the region in the eyes of foreign investors. The phenomenon is seen in the reluctance to invest in the Balkans
due to the unstable political and economical situation. An indicator for this fact is the attraction of less than 0,9% of
foreign global investment from the whole region. 19
Countries of the region are faced with economical crime (money laundering), drug traffic, weapons, human
trafficking, smuggling, violent crimes, nationalism, etc. Money laundering from 2004-2013, in Serbia, went up to 30.83
billion $, Croatia at 40th place with 34.5 billion $, Bulgaria at 47th with 25 billion $, Macedonia 5 billion $, Montenegro at
108th, 2.5 billion $. 20 According to Global Financial Integrity (GFI) money coming from crime, corruption and fiscal
evasion have cost to the Balkans a staggering 111,6 billion $ during 2001-2010.
Organised crime in the region is able to infiltrate the political sphere more than other countries of Europe, due to
weak institutions. Transparency International has published Corruption Perception Index for 2015, where Kosovo is
ranked 103rd, Albania 88th, Serbia 71st, Macedonia 66th, Montenegro 61st. 21
As consequence of this phenomenon institutional reforms are stumbled. As conclusion, it has to be said that weak
institutions, corruption and organised crime, are the main obstacles of Western Balkans Europeanization.
4. Conclusions
Western Balkan leaders need to take serious initiatives in reforming the economy with the intention to have growth in
economic indicators and improvement of living standards. Due to the crisis, growth cannot be immediate. On this
viewpoint, every country in the region, in accordance to specific problems, need to secure necessary financial sources for
their accomplishment.
It is judged for reforms to be structural, including also the improvement of business climate. Investments need to
be implemented overall on human capital, keeping in consideration the requirements of the labour market and not going
after just a graduation at universities.
Western Balkan countries need to increase the level of regional economic integration, as apart they comprise small
market and cannot attract huge and serious investors. In this direction, regions countries make possible for this initiative
http/www.XLPRESS. Pse ngec Ballkani, 18. 02. 2016
www.dw.com/sq/koment-deshtimi i elitave ne ballkan17.08.2015
18 www. BIRN.al Emigrantet nga Ballkani Gjergj Erebara 29 09 2015.
19 http.worldbank.org/sq varferia rezik kryesor i ballkanit 11 06 2015.
20 www.gazeta-shqip.com, pastrimi i parave ne Ballkan, citon raportin e Global Financial Integrity. 31 korrik 2013.
21 www.gazetaexpress.com/lajmet/ti, referohet Organizates TI Indeksi Preceptimi i Korrupsionit per 2015. 24 shkurt 2016.
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not to remain alone on the political aspect but to be implemented in practice.


Security challenges are the growth of regional commerce, cooperation and accomplishment of joint investments.
This will give impetus to the local economies of each country. On the other hand, EU countries need to understand that
lack of stability in the Balkans may cause instability to them, including massive flux of economic refugees and asylum
seekers. It is to be judged that EU needs to assess the contribution of Western Balkan countries for peace and stability.
In this framework it is always welcome from these countries for the offering of assistance in political and economical
aspects and achieving standards.
Attempts for Euro-Atlantic integration, strengthening security and political and economical progress are in the hand
of political elites and of the people themselves in the Western Balkans.
References
George Friedman, 100 Vitet e Ardhshme, Plejad 2010, fq 66.
Desmond Dinan, Politikat e Bashkimit Europian, AIIS, fq 272.
www.zeriamerikes.com Krimi i organizuar pengese per integrim 27/02/2010.
www.global.fundforpeace.org/index.php Qershor 2010.
http.//www.eeas.europa.eu/delegacions Keshilli Evropian Kopenhagen 1993.
delegation-albaniaqeeas.europa.eu. Seminar Tirane 2015.
https.//lajmi i fundit.wordpss.com/2012/07, shkurtime ne ushtri. Zv/mimistri i Mbrotjes, Arian Starova.
www.zeri.info/.../ serbia ushtrin me te forte ne Ballkane 07/05/2013 gazeta Blic.
www.telegrafi.com/.../sa Instituti Ndrkombtar i Krkimeve pr Paqen n Stokholm. 28/06/2014, do vit publikon shifrat e shpenzuara
nga 171 shteteteve.
www-gazeta-shqiptare.com. Shkurtime ne ushtri, 14.12.2015.
www.zeriamerikes.com Rraportim ne Senatin Amerikan, James Clapper, Drejtor i zb. 29 janar 2014.
html//www.dw.com/sq/fokus Deshtimi i Elitave politike ne Ballkan date 17 gusht 2015.
http/www.EXLPRESS. Pse ngec Ballkani, 18/02/2016.
http.worldbank.org/sq. Raporti BB per ardhura per fryme 2015.
albania-arkiva.blogspot.com/2015/06/varferia-rreziku-kryesor. dr. Valbona Zeneli, Drejtoresh e studimeve ne qendren George C.
Marshall.
http/www.XLPRESS. Pse ngec Ballkani, 18. 02. 2016
www.dw.com/sq/koment-deshtimi i elitave ne ballkan17.08.2015
www. BIRN.al Emigrantet nga Ballkani Gjergj Erebara 29 09 2015.
http.worldbank.org/sq varferia rezik kryesor i ballkanit 11 06 2015.
www.gazeta-shqip.com, pastrimi i parave ne Ballkan, citon raportin e Global Financial Integrity. 31 korrik 2013.
www.gazetaexpress.com/lajmet/ti, referohet Organizates TI Indeksi Preceptimi i Korrupsionit per 2015. 24 shkurt 2016.

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Determinants to Female Labor Income in the Vietnams Informal Sector


PhD. Loi Duy Nguyen
MA. Ha Thi Tran
Researchers, the Institute of World Economics and Politics (IWEP), Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences (VASS)
Email: loinguyen_duy@hotmail.com
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
By investigating the earnings of female labor in the Vietnams informal sector, this proposed research aims to: (a) Find out the
determinants of earnings for female workers in the informal sector in Vietnam; (b) Search for an appropriate policy option for
upgrading earnings for female workers in a sustainable way in the informal sector in Vietnam; (c) Increase the overall
awareness about the role of female workers in the informal sector in Vietnam.
Keywords: Income, female worker, informal sector, Vietnam

1. Introduction
Since the launch of the reform policy in 1986, Vietnam has made outstanding socio- economic progress. However,
Vietnam is still a transitional economy that has the dual one including the formal and informal sectors. The development
of formal sector is at the expense of the informal sector which has an important role in generating employment, response
to shocks and having dynamic and good contribution to the economy. Vietnam has a large informal sector in term of the
use of the female labor force. The Vietnams informal sector is important and dynamic, accounting for a majority of selfemployment, however, low earnings and poor labor condition. Female workers, which are large and discriminated, have
poor quality of social protection.
Women labor has been seen as a significant resource to strengthen socio-economic development. Participants in
the informal sector are vendors, hawkers, petty traders, the small neighborhood retail store owners and their assistants,
the tricycle and pedicab drivers, housewives and homeowners engaged in small business and subcontracting jobs, micro
and small entrepreneurs and the self-employed (Yuzon, 2005). The reasons for people to join in this market are (i) easy
entrance; (ii) reliance on indigenous resources; (iii) family ownership of enterprises; (iv) small scale of operation; (v) laborintensive and adapted technology; (vi) skills acquired outside the formal school system; (vii) unregulated and competitive
markets. However, up to now the employment in this sector are largely ignored, rarely supported and discouraged by the
Government (James, Heintz and Vanek, Joann. 2007; Ray, Bromley, 1978).
Therefore, the Government of Vietnam has implemented various policies which are aimed at human development,
creating favorable conditions for all participants, both male and female. In fact, the potential of female workers have been
promoted and their social status has been greatly enhanced as well. However, as for the informal sector, they are still
faced with many difficulties and challenges. Therefore, the research aims to analyze determinants to female labor income
in the Vietnams informal sector.
2. Literature Review
Since 1986, Vietnam transformed from the centrally- planned economy to market-oriented one. One of the major reforms
was to shift the government attitudes and policies towards the role of private enterprises (CIEM, 1997). As a result,
informal economic activities have expanded. Also since the late 1980s, the expansion of the informal sector, particularly
in urban areas, has been widely observed. This sector has noticeably expanded by the shift inward of a large number of
workers who were made redundant from the process of state-owned enterprise reform. A substantial part among them
was female, middle-aged, low skilled workers. Thus, being self-employment as small vendors or engaging in low paid
jobs in informal household businesses are the feasible options for them (Evans, 2004).
The concept of the informal sector is ambiguous and disputable (ILO, 2002). The comprehension of the term

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informal sector used today is broader than before. According to the ILO report in 1972, the informal sector activities
consisted of pretty traders, street hawkers, shoe-shine boys and other groups underemployed on the street of the big
towns, etc. Recently, the informal sector defined generally by the ILO has the following characteristics: ease of entry;
reliance on indigenous resources; family ownership of enterprises; small-scale of operation; labor intensive and
adapted technology; skills acquired outside the formal school system; and unregulated and competitive market.
There has been the ambiguity and confusion in both terminology and related conception, resulting in difficulties in
undertaking studies on these activities/sectors. Therefore, it is important to obtain an appropriate conceptual framework
distinguishing these activities/sectors.
The 17th ICLS defined informal employment as the total number of informal jobs, whether carried out in formal
sector enterprises, informal sector enterprises or households during a given reference period.
In Vietnam, women account for around 50 % of the total labor force. According to the Mid-term Review Report of
the implementation of the Five year (2006-2010) Socio-economic Development Plan, in 2007, the labor force participation
rate of women was 65.4 %, compared to 74 % for men, constituting a ratio of 0.88, which is higher than the average of
the countries at the same income level (0.76). The Gender Development Index (GDI) was 0.732, ranking 91st in the total
of 157 listed countries.
The informal sector plays an important role in employment creation and poverty reduction for female labor.
Currently, around 70-80 percent of women in Vietnam are working in this sector, 60 percent of them are in the agriculture
and 20 percent are in the non-agricultural sectors, which are mostly affiliated with small size production and service units
(Linh, 2008). Female labor in the informal sector proved that their employment in this sector has a vital role in poverty
reduction and creates sustainable employment. However, this sector receives very little attention from local authorities as
well as the central government.
3. Income for Female Workers in the Informal Sector
Average hourly income of informal women workers is also much lower than formal ones, less than male informal
workers, even lower than the average of the informal workers of both sexes. Informal female labor income is only by half
the income for formal women workers. In 2004, an average informal women worker earned 3,471.404 VND per hour; in
2010, the number increased to 8,391.426 VND per hour. This, however, is still lower than the income of male informal
workers, at respectively 4,329.526 VND per hour in 2004 and 11,380.55 VND per hour in 2010.
Table 1: Earnings per hours (Thousand VND)
Year
AREA
Female
Formal employees
6.020818
Informal employees
3.471404
Formal self- employed
14.68524
Informal self- employed
6.39606
2008
Female
Male
11.86192
13.61865
5.977983
7.647428
24.26926
31.68433
13.32028
17.16286

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2004
Male
6.899374
4.329526
19.61129
9.371138

Both
6.493887
4.029256
16.88416
7.569777

Both
12.7844
7.06321
27.93001
15.04131

Female
16.89925
8.391426
32.13776
23.8787

2006
Female
Male
Both
7.925911
9.056573
8.522363
4.120808
5.344982
4.909749
18.62694
23.14833
20.68304
8.579896
11.22277
9.624722
2010
Male
Both
19.98696
18.45632
11.38055
10.36652
47.00799
39.06604
27.79569
25.46994

Source: VHLSS various years, authors calculations


Self-employed informal labor has higher hourly incomes. Average hourly earnings of self-employed informal workers were
6,396.06 VND in 2006, rising to 27,795.69 VND in 2010. However, the hourly wage of self-employed informal female
workers is still lower than male workers in the same sector and much less than female and male workers in the formal
sector.

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Table 2: Employment composition (%)


Formal employees
Female
Male
Informal employees
Female
Male
Formal self- employed workers
Female
Male
Informal self- employed workers
Female
Male

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102
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2006

2008

2010

46.05
53.95

47.03
52.97

47.07
52.93

49.57
50.43

36.54
63.46

36.4
63.6

36.1
63.9

35.35
64.65

60.57
39.43

54.35
45.65

50.63
49.37

51.72
48.28

55.28
44.72

60.5
39.5

55.21
44.79

54.93
45.07

Source: VHLSS various years, authors calculations


According to the VHLSS, less female than male labor takes part in the informal sector. For example, male informal
workers constitute around 65%, while female informal workers account for about 35%. However, the percentage of selfemployed female workers is higher than male workers, making up nearly 60% in 2006, down to 50% in 2008, while selfemployed male labors increased from 40% in 2006 to approximately 50% in 2008.
If classified by hourly earnings, formal labor income is higher than informal labor income. The income is greater in
urban areas than in rural areas in both the formal and informal sector. For example, in 2004, the average income for
informal workers in rural areas is 3,116 VND per hour, which is lower than in urban areas, 4,314 VND per hour; in 2010,
the corresponding figures is 7,740 VND per hour and 9,893 VDN per hour respectively.
Self-employed informal labor has the income on average twice as high as paid informal workers. In 2004, the
former earned 6,049 VND per hour in rural areas and 7,229 VND per hour in urban areas; in 2010, the figures increased
respectively 22,090 VND per hour and 32,187 VND per hour.
If divided by the regions of the country, incomes are higher for men than for women, better in the regions with more
favorable natural conditions than in remote and mountainous areas. As for women informal workers, in 2004, incomes are
greatest in the Southeast, at 4,510 VND per hour, followed by the Northwest, 4,320 VND per hour. By 2010, the highest
income of women informal workers is in the Southeast, at 10,350 VND per hour, followed by the Central Highland, 10,100
VND per hour. The Northwests - which is mountainous and poor area top position is due to the regional female informal
workers involvement in tourism and manufacturing and sale of traditional products.
Self-employed informal women workers averagely earn twice as much as the paid female informal workers do. In
2004, self-employed women workers have the highest income in the South East, at 9,210 VND per hour, followed by the
Central Highland at 6,910 VND / hour, and the Mekong Delta region, at 6,310 VND per hour. The Red River Delta is in
the tops, at 6,160 VND per hour, while the lowest is the North-central coastal regions, at 4,310 VND per hour. In 2010,
the number highest for the Southeast, at 49,410 VND per hour, the second is the Red River Delta, 28,310 VND per hour,
followed by the North Central Coastal regions, 20,610 VND per hour. The average income of female informal workers
higher in some regions is due to their association with household production - processing businesses who export such
items as wood, rubber, pepper, coffee, and seafood or services.
The majority of women workers in the informal economy only manage to earn rather low incomes and do
dangerous jobs, but the source of income is important for their families to improve from poverty. Vietnam has 27% of the
workforce as female breadwinner, that is, female labor income is the only source for 27% of families in Vietnam (World
Bank, 2009).
4. Determinants to Female Labor Income
For incorporating and quantifying the effect of any potential factor on labor productivity, Jacob Mincers model of earnings
(1974) is used. Jacob Mincers model of earnings (1974) is widely used as an empirical tool in economic studies for
estimating return to schooling1, return to schooling quality2, and measuring the impacts of work experience on male1

For example Ashenfelter, O. and A. B. Krueger (1994), and Krueger, A. B. (1993)

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female wage gaps3. In growth economics, the Mincers model is also used to analyze the determinants of wage rates4,
and the relationship between growth and average schooling levels across countries5. The Mincers model of earnings has
been estimated using data from a variety of countries and time periods. Earnings of worker i are determined by the
Mincers equation as follows:
Y = X i +
i

Where Yi - A column vector of logarithmic values of hourly wage for individuals;


Xi - A vector of person specific explanatory variables including demographic variables;
i - A vector of unknown parameters;
i - The error term is assumed to be normally distributed.
Vector X includes the characteristics of workers, according to the conventional literature, it often include level of
education, age, and occupation. Dummies of marital status and gender are also present. To control urban/rural variations
in wages, dummy for urban-rural residence is used. By assessing the statistic significance of those variables in the
regression, it is possible to compare and figure out which factors could play important roles in determining the informal
female labor earnings. We use the econometric model to examine the factors that have impact on earnings of informal
female labor, using primary survey data and data from the VHLSS in 2010. Lists of the variables in the earning functions
are as follows.
Variable
Wage
L_wage
Informal

Explanations
Wage of individual per hour
Log form of wage
Dummy variable, equal to 1 for informal labor and 0 for formal labor
Dummy variable, equal to 0 for individual who registers for residency at his dwelling, and 1 for individual who registers for
Immigration
residency at other place
Gender
Dummy variable, equal to 1 for male and 0 for female
Agetv
Age of individual
Age2
Age square
Edulevel is levels of education by: no degree to 1, primary to 2, secondary to 3, high school to 4, vocational to 5, college and
Edulevel
higher to 6
Urban
Dummy variable, equal to 0 for rural and 1 for urban
Skill
Dummy variable, equal to 0 for unskilled workers and 1 for skilled workers
Dummy variable, equal to 1 for the current marital status of individual is married and 1 for the current marital status of
Mar
individual is never married, widowed, divorced, and separated.
Sectorpar Dummy variable, equal to 1 for workers (who work in labor-intensive industry) and equal to 0, otherwise

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4.1

Data

The research also make uses of data from Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) examine the labor and
earning in informal sector. Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (1993, 1998, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010)
is designed to study living conditions and poverty and inequality issues. It was collected in 1993, 1998, 2002, 2004, 2006,
2008 and 2010. The earlier rounds of the survey (in 1993 and 1998) called Vietnam Living Standard Survey, or VLSS,
were representative at the national, rural/urban, and regional levels
In addition, although having not been specifically designed to measure the informal economy, the VHLSSs do
provide essential information for generating the best proxies (in comparison with other existing surveys) of informality
(Roubaud et al., 2008). VHLSS is probably most used survey compared to others and its data quality is considered as
reasonably good. Although it was not designed to be a labor survey, it has an employment section (employment status,
working hours, migration, and wages of all family members). Nevertheless, it still provides an excellent source to study
wage and wage determinants and its relation to poverty and income inequality at the national and provincial levels. The
survey also offers indicators on labor force participation overall and by income sources (farm vs. non-farm, wage vs. nonwage, and by industry and occupation for those in wage employment). The data of VHLSS can be used to examine the
Vietnamese labor market both from the demand and supply sides.
For example Card, D. and A. Krueger (1992)
See Mincer, J. and S. Polachek (1974)
4 See Willis, R. J. (1986)
5 See Bils, M. and P. Klenow (2000)
2
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Two types of data are drawn from the VHLSSs for our analyses. First, time series are constructed from the
successive rounds of the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) in 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. We use
this data in some analyses to detect labor market trends for informal female workers. Second, our research uses the
latest VHLSS available in 2010 for the earning functions for informal female workers. The samples are used after
discarding missing observations.
In this study, informal employment includes informal self-employed (those who self-employed running non-farm
household businesses without business license) and informal waged employed (wage workers) who do not benefit from
social allowances. Thus, Informal sector jobs are identified from VHLSS data by a combination of information related to
both waged workers and self-employed workers in non-farm household businesses.
The VHLSS is the most popular survey of household with multi-objective studies in developing countries,
consisting of all aspects of household economic activities. The VHLSS is not a specific survey for the informal
employment and sector, thus, it has some shortcomings in measuring the informal sector such as income information is
not enough to understand the detail informal sector, information related to job characteristics is also few. In spite of its
shortcomings, we can explore the VHLSS for this study.
With regards to earnings, the wage workers receive wage, it is their individual earnings. For the self- employed
workers, its household earning because the household works together. Therefore, we took the earning on average for
the self- employed workers.
4.2

Estimation results for wage workers

The conventional Jacob Mincers log model of earning for the whole sample were estimated using three sets of data of
overall sample, informal labor and informal female labor in 2010. The results are presented in table 3.
Table 3: Estimation Results of Earning Function for Wage Workers
Variable
Gender

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Overall (Model 1) Informal labor (Model 2) Informal Female labor (Model 3)


0.208***
0.284***
(0.000)
(0.000)
Informal
-0.255
(0.000)
Agetv
0.045***
0.038***
0.034***
(0.000)
(0.000)
(0.000)
Age2
-0.001***
-0.0005***
-0.00045**
(0.000)
(0.000)
(0.000)
0.061***
0.043
Mar
0.060***
(0.000)
(0.004)
(0.225)
0.150***
0.203***
Skill
0.171***
(0.000)
(0.000)
(0.000)
0.013***
0.019***
Schooling
0.026***
(0.000)
(0.000)
(0.000)
0.152***
0.076
Immigration
0.126***
(0.000)
(0.000)
(0.259)
0.096***
0.090***
Urban
0.121***
(0.000)
(0.000)
(0.008)
-0.203***
-0.229***
Sectorpar
-0.175***
(0.000)
(0.000)
(0.000)
1.179***
1.221***
Constant
1.191***
(0.000)
(0.000)
(0.000)
Adjusted R-squared
0.3104
0.156
0.101
Number of Observations
7312
4403
1458
Note: P-value in parentheses
(*): Statistically significant at 10%
(**): Statistically significant at 5%
(***): Statistically significant at 1%

Source: VHLSS various years, authors calculations

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In three cases using three different sets of data, nearly all estimated coefficients are statistically significant with expected
signs. There were only two coefficients that are statistically insignificant, namely, marital status and the dummy of
immigration (in the case of informal female labor). This result in general meets almost all our expectations.
In all three earning equations, it was found that schooling, skill 6 , and agetv positively impact the earnings of
workers. The positive sign of the coefficient of the dummy variable of skill implies that the more the individual has been
trained and equipped with improved skill, the more she can raise income. These findings are consistent with the common
practice in many countries. Education and skill are often proved to be very important for improving productivity and
management. Improved productivity and management in their turn will bring about more outputs, and hence, generating
more income.
However, in the model for overall sample and informal labor, Gender is statistically significant. Thus, we have
enough evidence to conclude that gender inequality exists in the labor market and informal labor sector, negative
coefficient of gender implies that there is a significant income gap between female and male in the Vietnams labor
market, especially in the informal sector. The results of model 1 and 2 also show that gender was found important in
generating income. Being a man tends to have higher income compared to being a woman, especially when they are
informal employed. This result is quite common in developing countries in Asia such as Vietnam, where men are still in
better position in accessing employment opportunities and raising income than women.
The negative sign of the urban variable indicates that workers working in urban areas also tend to bring about
higher earnings compared to that in rural areas. This result is also consistent with the clear improvement of income level
of the population in urban areas under the current process of industrialization and modernization in Vietnam. That is why
there is an increasing flow of migrants from rural areas to industrial centers and cities to seek jobs and raise income. The
number of unofficial workers (not registered with local authorities) in urban areas may accounts for about 10-15 % of the
population in cities in Vietnam.
The effect of marital status (presented by dummy variable of Mar) on earning was statistically significant in case of
overall sample and informal labor suggesting that earning of married persons are higher 6% than that divorced/separated
and never married persons. This issue can be explained by social and economic benefits of marriage. The social benefits
of marriage include social support during times of stress, which can protect health by reducing inflammation and
increasing serotonin release to elevate moods, and encouragement to engage in healthy behaviors. Economic benefits of
marriage include pooled assets, living in the same household, access to spousal health insurance, and shared household
labor. Some of these benefits can also be gained by cohabiting with a partner, which may partially explain higher income
of marriage person. In fact, working married women had median earnings somewhat higher than never married women or
women of other marital status7. This is because working married women may have the stronger driving force, higher
responsibility than the other marital status.
Similarly, the negative signs of the dummy variables of sector par in all cases of the three earning equations have
shown that keeping other things being constant, the more the workers work in labor-intensive industry where women are
mainly concentrated, the less the income they can earn. In other words, working in labor-intensive sector tends to have
lower earnings compared to that in the other sector. The labor-intensive industries in this study include food and
beverage production, tobacco production, textile, clothing, leather tanning and leather products including wallets, seats.
Immigration has a substantial role in improving the earnings of overall labor and informal labor. Other things being
equal, the earnings are 12.6% higher for overall and 15.2% higher for informal labor for those who are migrant worker.
According to VHLSS, Skill is combination of complicatedness and scope of tasks and responsibilities. In order to understand skill
meaning, VHLSS also gave classification as follows. Professions are classified basing on two main concepts: concept of the job done
before and concept of workmanship. Job is tasks and responsibilities executed or the means employed to fulfill these tasks and
responsibilities by a person that statistics agencies use for classification of professions. Workmanship is the ability to carry out tasks and
responsibilities required by a profession. Workmanship is proven in two aspects: a. Skill; b. Specialisation: includes technical aspects
required by the profession, machineries manipulated, materials used in production, the type of products and services produced. In
consistence and comparison with international standards, the system of profession classification is divided into 4 general workmanship
levels: a. First workmanship level: no technical qualification is required; b. Second workmanship level: equivalent to primary technical
level or technical worker; c. Third workmanship level: equivalent to vocational training of secondary level or higher; d. Fourth
workmanship: equivalent to university level or higher. The use of groupings of educational levels for profession classification does not
necessarily mean that the tasks and responsibilities required by a profession can only be executed if a person has been formally
educated or trained but that workmanship of a person can be accumulated through experience or non-formal education and training.
Moreover, it should be emphasized that profession classification reflects the skill level needed to execute the tasks and responsibilities
required by a profession
7 According to VHLSS, marital status consists of types as follows: Not yet married, Married, Widower/widow, Divorced, and Separated.
6

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For informal female labor, the first important factor for earning is skill. Other things being equal, skilled labor get
20.3% higher than unskilled labor in their earnings. The years of education and experience also have positive effect on
the earnings of female labor but it is still minor since they are able to raise the earnings only by 1.9%. Area seems to be
the important factor that affects earnings of informal female labor. Other things being equal, the gap between the
earnings of those who reside in the urban area and those who reside in the rural area is 9%. The dummy variables of
sectorpar are statistically significant in informal female labor case. Thus, female labor in labor-intensive industries is paid
less than labor of other industries. Vietnamese women's employment is primarily concentrated in a narrow range of
sectors (especially textile, clothing, services, where access to jobs is easier but wages are often lower and job security
minimal). These jobs are not highly value and these are informal sector, so they do not provide the benefits of full-time
work in the formal sector including steady wages, adequate occupational health and safety conditions, job security and
social protection. The main reason for women holds these jobs because they do not require high education and skills.
4.3

Estimation results for self-employed workers

Similarly, the estimations results for self-employed workers are presented in table 4.
Table 4: Estimation Results of Earning Function for Self-employed Workers
Variable
Gender
Informal2
Agetv
Age2
Mar
Skill
Schooling
Immigration
Urban10
Constant

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Adjusted R-squared
Number of Observations
Note: P-value in parentheses
(*): Statistically significant at 10%
(**): Statistically significant at 5%
(***): Statistically significant at 1%

Overall (model 4) informal labor (model 5) informal Female labor (model 6)


0.258***
0.262***
(0.000)
(0.000)
-0.392***
(0.000)
0.007
0.018**
0.011
(0.318)
(0.029)
(0.307)
-0.0002**
-0.0003
-0.0002*
(0.015)
(0.000)
(0.090)
0.003
-0.027
0.090
(0.951)
(0.641)
(0.197)
-0.044
-0.112
-0.338***
(0.387)
(0.132)
(0.003)
0.025
0.027
0.034
(0.000)
(0.000)
(0.000)
0.244
0.303
0.358
( 0.04)
(0.005)
(0.014)
0.232
0.156
0.197
(0.000)
(0.000)
(0.000)
2.635
2.087
1.997
(0.000)
(0.000)
(0.000)
0.097
4495

0.053
2993

0.036
1721

Source: VHLSS various years, authors calculations


The regression based on the data of VHLSS 2010 for self-employed workers VHLSS gives similar results. In general,
influences of the independent variables on level of earnings are almost in the same direction and meet our expectation.
However, there are some differences between the results of two cases (waged worker and self-employed workers). The
sign of gender, informal, agetv, age2, immigration, schooling, urban variables are unchanged in three models in compare
with the above models. Meanwhile, the dummy variable of skill is in the opposite situation. The sign of skill variable is
negative in these models. However, the variables are not statistically significant in cases of overall sample and informal
labor. Thus, we dont have enough evidence to conclude that the more the individual was equipped with improved skill,
the more she increases earning. However, skill is significant negative for female labor that can be explained that the
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questionnaire sometimes does not cover important skills of self-employed workers.


The sign of schooling is positive in three models that mean the high level of education is guaranteed to get a wellpaid job or can run a self-employed activity in the non-farm economy.
5. Conclusions
Female employees in the informal sector often have low and unstable income and high risk of poverty. Female laborers in
the informal sector often have to do so many housework without salary that they do not have time to study and improve
their degree. With the same job, the income of women is usually lower than that of men in both formal and informal
sector. The female workers often face the risk of physical safety and health. Female immigrants often search jobs in the
informal sector, but their workings do not have social protection, and they have to face up with many risks.
Moreover, these findings are also consistent with the common practice in many countries that education and skill
are often proved to be very important for raising income for wage female workers. Gender inequality exists in the labor
market and informal labor sector. There is a significant income gap between female and male in the Vietnams labor
market. Female workers in urban areas also have higher earnings than these in rural areas. Marital status was significant
on earnings for informal female labor. Female workers working in labor-intensive sector tend to have lower earnings in
comparison with those in the other sector. Immigration has also impact on earnings of informal female labor./
References
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Resilience, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2002, Ambio Vol. 3, No. 4, June.
Agion P., Caroli, E., & Garcia-Pealosa, C. (1999). Inequality and economic growth: The perspective of the new growth theories. Journal
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Old Threats, New Approach and National Security in Malaysia:


Issues and Challenges in Dealing With Cross-border Crime in East Coast of Sabah
Ramli Dollah
Wan Shawaluddin Wan Hassan
Diana Peters
Zaini Othman
Faculty of Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s1p
Abstract
For centuries there has been the free movement of people and goods across North Borneo to its neighbouring countries,
primarily Indonesia and Philippines. However, when Sabah gained independence through the formation of Malaysian in 1963,
such activities which were previously considered legal, are now labeled as smuggling and illegal entry, and are thus an
existential security threat to Malaysia. Porous and an extremely long border have made it difficult for the state to address the
rise of these incidents. The intrusion of Sabah by members of so-called the Royal Sulu Army in 2013 was the last straw. The
incident drove the government to establish a civil-military command known as Eastern Sabah Security Command (ESSCOM). It
was an organization under which all enforcement agencies such as police, army, immigration, marine, coast guard etc, will be
coordinated under one command system. The objective of this study is to identify the measures and challenges for ESSCOM
and Malaysian government in dealing with Sabahs East Coast of maritime security. The review will be mainly focused on the
nature of the threat, the reasons for the ESSCOM establishment and policy measures taken to strengthen Sabahs maritime
security.
Keywords: Malaysia, Sabah, Security, Military, Non-Traditional

1. Introduction
Sabah is one of 13 states in Malaysia located on the island of Borneo which is strategically located and shares its borders
with three countries Indonesia, the Philippines, and Brunei. There are various threats to the survival of this state,
especially in the east coast of Sabah, which involve traditional threats such as continuous territorial claims by Manila, and
also non-traditional threats such as kidnapping, trafficking, and illegal immigrants. This paper will focus on non-traditional
threats in Sabah as well as policies and measures that have been taken to address the problem. This paper will also
delve the Tanduo incident which eventually led to the establishment of the Eastern Sabah Security Command
(ESSCOM). In addition, a number of issues and challenges will also be discussed to enable us to understand this issue in
greater detail. Discussion in this paper will be divided into several sections, the first focuses on a brief background of
Sabah; second, identifying the threats, either traditional or non-traditional threat facing the state; third, focusing on the
effort to counter such threats and establishment of ESSCOM, fourth, focuses on the measures by the ESSCOM to
strengthen Sabah's maritime security by looking at the several policies that has been undertaken and finally addressing
the problems and challenges by the ESSCOM and the Malaysian government in dealing with the problem of maritime
security in the East Coast of Sabah. It concludes that to boost the security along the coastal lines of Sabah were just one
part in tackling cross-border maritime issue between Sabah and its neighboring countries. Therefore, the government has
to look into other possibilities by focusing more on the software aspect (which is non-military approach) of security,
instead of focusing more on the hardware aspect which is military in nature in managing maritime security issues in the
east coast of Sabah.

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2. Sabah Background
Historically Sabah 1 (formerly known as North Borneo) is the second largest state in the Malaysia Federation and is
located in Eastern Malaysia. Before joining the federal government in 1963, the state was under the British government. It
is noteworthy to mention that the state is the product of 65 years of Chartered Company rule and 17 years of British
Colonial administration. This began in 1881 when the state was under the British North Borneo Chartered Company
(BNBC). In 1888, it became one of the protectorates of the British colonial administration but was maintained under
BNBC administration. However, after the Pacific War (1946-1963), it came under direct British colonial rule (Tregonning,
1965). On 31 August 1963, less than 16 days before the formation of Malaysia, the British granted the status of the selfgovernment to Sabah.
Sabah covers 72,689 km2 of land (this does not include the land area of the islands which represent approximately
1,549 km2), while its maritime area covers 54,360 km2, constituting 30 percent of the Malaysias Economic Exclusive
Zone (EEZ). It stretches from the South China Sea in the west and the Sulu Sea to the north of Kudat and extends to the
eastern coast, covering the Sulu Sea, and the Celebes Sea in the districts of Semporna and Tawau. The marine coastal
zone is delimited by the interstate boundary of Sarawak and international boundaries of Brunei, Indonesia and the
Philippines. According to the official government sources of Sabah, the major part of the area lies in the South China Sea
extending to the limit of the continental shelf off the West Coast of Sabah. To the Southeast, off the East Coast of Sabah
between Semporna and Pulau Sebatik, the area again extends to the continental shelf boundary in the Celebes Sea. The
remaining part of the area between Semporna and Kudat lies in the Sulu Sea with the boundary being the
Malaysia/Philippines international boundary. Around 30 percent of the marine coastal zone areas, or approximately
54,360 km2, are the territorial waters of Sabah.
3. Defining Security
Traditionally, the threat to national security was perceived to be generated externally, specifically those associated with
military threats to the state, territorial integrity, and political independence. Having such conceptions, it cannot be avoided
that most of the definitions of security place the issues above as a core of national security concern.2 In the national
security concept, the state is the key actor because it has legitimate force in society and represents the greatest
concentration of power, in particular having legitimacy to use military force to protect its sovereignty; it has instruments of
force to use both domestically and externally. The most important task of the state is to provide security and protect its
citizens against internal and external threats. Indeed defending a country against military threats has traditionally been
considered the greatest duty of government (Buzan et. al, 1998: 51). Giving the state such a responsibility, it is not
surprising that the conception of national security is closely tied to military capability. Although it is recognized that military
threats are not the only challenges to national survival as other threats to states may be even more severe, military force
remains crucial to the maintenance of national security.3
The narrow and traditional definition of national security being advocated by Walt, stresses security as the study of
threat, use, and control of military force with the emphasis being on examining the causes, consequences, and resolution
for war and on explaining how national governments use military forces effectively to cope with foreign military threats
(Walt, 1991). However, in practice, the military security agenda revolves largely around the ability of governments to
shield themselves against internal and external military threats though it can also involve the use of military power to
defend states or governments against non-military threats, such as migration or rival ideologies (Buzan et. al, 1998: 51).
Nevertheless, since the 1980s this narrow interpretation of security is being challenged by new concepts of security.
Looking at these new challenges, many suggested that non-military threats should be included under the rubric of
national security so as to include other issues such as the economy, poverty and the environment (Ullman, 1983: 129135; Kolodziej, 1992: 421-438; Buzan, 1991). In Sabah, it is this non-traditional threats that pose the greatest challenge
to the states security compared to the traditional concept of security. This is evident when we look at the threats
The term Sabah or Saba was given by the Brunei and perhaps derives from Biblical name (Tregonning, 1965: 16).
According to Hans Morgenthau National security must be defined as integrity of the national territory and its institutions. For Azar and
Moon, national security covers a broad of spectrum of vital interest such as organic survival of a given national population, protection of
sovereignty, well being of citizens, and political status and prestige (Morgenthau, 1960: 562; Azar and -In Moon, 1984: 109).
3 However, Park and Park contended that there is a more serious problem if one to define national security only in quantitative terms. By
evaluating non-material aspects of national security, they demonstrated how self-reliance constitutes part of national security (Park and
Park, 1988).
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emanating from non-state actors such as terrorism, Kidnapping for Ransom (KfR)4, armed robberies, piracy and so on as
will be discussed in the following section. Therefore, this paper argues that these new type of threats to national security
cannot be managed by traditional military policy alone because it also requires a non-military approach to deal with such
threat.
4. Non-Traditional Threats in East Coast of Sabah
The main issues in the east coast of Sabah revolve around non-traditional threats from non-state actors. Therefore, cases
of kidnapping and robberies by armed groups are rampant in Sabah. It is not a new issue since such incidences also
occurred in Sabah when it was under colonial rule. During the armed robberies in the Lahad Datu district in 1984 and also
in the Semporna district in 1996 for example, a group of gunmen, believed to be a group of Filipino pirates, attacked the
police station and military outposts in these districts causing the injury and deaths of several local people. In 2000, two
more serious incidents took place in Sabah when a group of people from the Philippines identifying themselves as the
Abu Sayyaf group (ASG) abducted foreign tourists in the Sipadan and Pandanan islands. The first occurred on April 23,
2000, when the ASG, using small boats (called Tempel among Filipinso), armed with Bazooka and M16 abducted 10
Malaysian workers and 11 foreign tourists (Polumpung, 2002). The ASG made various demands for the release of the
hostages including, the separation of southern Philippines administration from the central government of Manila, the
establishment of an Islamic state in Mindanao, US$1 million ransom for each victim and involvement of the OIC and the
UN in negotiations. The ASG also put forward several demands among those was the establishment of a commissioner
to look after the rights of refugees in Sabah (Berita Mingguan, 30 Apr. 2000; Utusan, 30 April 2000; NST, 30 April 2000).
The group finally offered to release all hostages on April 28, 2000 (Utusan, 19 August 2000; Berita Harian, 19 August
2000; Mingguan Malaysia, 19 August 2000). It was believed that millions of dollars had been paid to the ASG for the
release of 20 victims from the Sipadan incident. Libya itself, the main negotiator in this incident, was said to have paid
US$20 million to release all hostages (Desker and Ramakrishna, 2002: 165).
The second kidnapping at Pandanan Island took place on September 11, 2000, when members from the same
group, armed with M16 and two speedboats, kidnapped three Malaysians off a resort; only a few kilometers from the
Sipadan island (Ramli, 2004 and Polumpung, 2002). Their modus operandi was similar to the previous one in which ASG
made demands for the government to pay ransom for the release of all hostages. However, following the major military
operation by the Philippines army in the ASG stronghold, Jolo, in October 2000, all hostages were rescued (For details
see, Liss, (2010: 237-268); Ramli, (2004); Peters & De Silva, (2002); Che Moin Umar, 2002 and 2002a). In October 2003,
another incident took place in the Borneo Paradise Eco Resort Farm (BPERF), Lahad Datu when a similar group
kidnapped five BPERF employees. Similar to the Sipadan and Pandanan hostage-taking incident, the group demanded a
ransom for the release of all victims. All hostages were eventually released after a Miri-based shipping company paid the
ransom.
Apart from the threat posed from KfR, another major threat to Sabahs security is associated with the presence
terrorist- linked group. This was based on the Indonesian intelligence information which claimed the most wanted
individuals such as Nordin Top and Azahari were roaming freely between the Indonesian-Malaysia-Philippines territory of
Kalimantan, Sabah and Mindanao (the Southern Philippines) (Abuza. 2003: 46). Hambali, the JI prominent leader
revealed that since 2003, the organization had transferred more than US$27,000 money to the MILF. More alarming was
when it claimed that some of the JI members open bank accounts in Malaysia, deposit funds, and then hand over ATM
cards to MILF operatives based in Sabah (Abuza. 2003: 46). This was based on information gathered during
interrogation on Darul Islam members detained in Sabah, another extremist group believed to aspire in establishing an
Islamic state in this region. Eventually, the Counter Terrorism Officer (CTO) revealed that the existence of the JI
movement in Sabah can be traced back to the late 1980s. This revelation triggered the government to take serious
counter measures (see, for example, M. Shah Hussin Shah, 2006: 110). Apparently, this pattern of the JI activities in
Sabah emerged during interrogation of Nasir Abbas, the head of Mantiqi III, which covered the areas of Brunei, Sabah,
the southern Philippines, and Sulawesi and Kalimantan (Indonesia) (For comprehensive view on the JI organization, see
Nasir Abas, 2005); Singapore Government, 2003) and Desker, 2003: 409-507; Atran, 2005: 78-80). Nasir, a Singaporeborn Malaysian captured by Indonesian police in April 2003, told investigators that weapons and explosives used by his
group were obtained from Zamboanga in the southern Philippines, which is also the stronghold of the Moro Islamic
Liberation Front (MILF). The intelligence claims that based on Nasir confession, Sabah is a susceptible to the terrorists
For a more detailed work on KfR particularly in Southeast Asia please refer to Mohd Kassim (2008): 61-73; Storey (2008): 95-128;
Thayer (2003)

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activity.
The weapons and explosives were ferried by boats to Tawi-Tawi, then to Sandakan They were then taken over
land to Tawau JI members also used the sea route from Tawi-Tawi to Sandakan JI also used public transport to
smuggle the weapons and explosives into Nunukan, a border town on the Sunda Islands in East Kalimantan They
used public transport to avoid detection of their activities by the authorities.
(Chua, 21. Aug. 2003)
5. What Measures Has been Taken to Boost Sabahs Security
Following the Sipadan and Pandanan incidents, the government responded immediately and launched a major operation
codenamed Ops Pasir (Pandanan and Sipadan) in September 2000 with the deployment of security forces at strategic
spots. It was a major operation in Sabah combining all branches of Malaysian security forces such as the Police and the
Armed Force. Its main purpose was to boost security in the Sabahs territorial waters especially to avoid intrusion, piracy,
terrorism and any other cross-border elements. Under this operation, the Army had mobilized almost 200 of its Special
Force (PAC) and almost 600 personnel to tighten the security in Sabah territorial waters. Meanwhile, the General
Operation Force (GOF), one of the branches under the Malaysian Royal Police (previously called Jungle Squad) had
deployed 5 battalions to boost security in this area. Over 1,000 GOF personnel were stationed in 23 posts in islands and
35 in the coastal area. In the district of Semporna, for instance, GOF was stationed in 16 outposts such as Sipadan,
Mabul, and Si Amil islands.5 The operation also included over 100 of Special Force personnel and about 40 combatant
boats. Additionally, the police air unit supported by 6 surveillance aircraft had mobilized 30 of its vessel and 17 patrol
boats in Sandakan, Tawau, and Semporna (Musa Aman, 02 Nov. 2000). The navy was also involved with 30 ships and
boats, as well as 2 teams of special forces, while the air force deployed six aircraft, including 3 Hawk jets fighter. Safie
Apdal, Deputy Minister of Defence in 2001 announced that as a result of this operation, over 790 boats were detected
and out of these 174 boats were detained, 4,697 people were checked and many were arrested including 40 Malaysian,
505 Indonesian and 1,070 Filipino and 31 others, mostly illegal immigrants or suspected extremist group members
(Mohd. Shafie Apdal, 31 May 2001). It was later revealed in 2010 that the cost for executing Ops Pasir cost more than
RM300 million annually (Malay Mail, 27 Jan. 2010).
The government also strengthened and widened its border patrol area. Among measures taken was the
implementation of seven designated lanes for commercial vessels or passenger boat into Sabah waters. This policy
effectively came into force on 1st April 2002 which included areas such as Kota Kinabalu, Tawau, Lahad Datu, Labuan,
Kudat, Semporna and Sandakan. Through this policy, several previously favored routes like those through Nunukan
Island in Indonesia to Tawau via Wallace Bay was no longer available. All vessels were not allowed to travel outside of
the designated route and failure to comply with the policy would be regarded as a serious offence (Sabah Times, 09 Jan.
2002; New Straits Times, 05 Dec. 2001; New Straits Times, 04 Jan. 2002; New Straits Times, 02 Mar. 2002). Meanwhile,
for foreign merchants vessels involved in barter trading in Sabah, the government identified several points where they
were required to leave their arms before entering Sabahs territory. Vessels which failed to comply with this requirement
would be subject to heavy punishment (Mohd. Shafie Apdal, 13 Dec. 2000). The main purpose of this policy was to
ensure the effectiveness of enforcement agencies to monitor the movement of people between Sabah and neighboring
countries and to ensure Sabahs security.
In line with these policies, the government also decided to ban the uses of pump boats in April 2002 to avoid any
intrusion by outside elements (NST, 23 Feb. 2002; NST, 02 Apr. 2002; Berita Harian, 26 Aug. 2002). The Pump boat is a
small boat powered by motorized water pumps and very popular among dwellers in the coastal area. However, it was
frequently used by criminal perpetrators in Sabah waters, especially immigrants, and extremist group because of its
maneuverability in shallow waters, thus avoiding detection or arrests by the Malaysian security agencies (See Ramli
Dollah et. al. 2003).
This incident had also forced the government to place more emphasis on strengthening the role of the Malaysian
navy especially in the vulnerable point of eastern part of Sabah (MMEA, 2015). The government moved to set up a new
Navy submarine base in Kota Kinabalu and the PASKAL base (Special Force unit for Navy) in Semporna, as well as
announce a proposal to set up a new air base in Tawau (Najib Razak, 09 Apr. 2001). In fact, in 2010, the government
publicly revealed that in order to prevent a similar incident, the government had spent millions of ringgits to ensure Sabah
and Malaysia security, Security operations to prevent a repeat of the Sipadan and Pandanan hostage incident had taken
5 Meanwhile, Army had deployed in several other islands and coastal areas such as Danawan, Sibuan, Boheyan, Roach Reef, and
Kapalai. Interview with Senior Police Officer

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a huge toll on our national security budget (Malay Mail, 27 Jan. 2010).
To ensure the effectiveness of security in the Malaysian territorial waters, Sabah in particular, the government on
21 August 2002 decided to establish the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency (MMEA) or the Malaysian Coast Guard
(Mohamed Nazri Aziz, (16 Jun. 2006). In terms of allocation, until May 2006, the government has spent around RM176
million for the MMEA. Meanwhile, for the same period, around RM132 million has been spent to strengthen the MMEA
management and development (Nazri Aziz, 18 Dec. 2006; A. Rahman Sulaiman, 05 Jul. 2006 and Mashita Ibrahim, 23
Jul. 2008). In 2010, the government reveals that the cost for maintenance of MMEA is over RM100 million annually
(Malay Mail, 27 Jan. 2010). Clearly the establishment of this maritime agency which cost millions of ringgit could not be
realized without the context. Therefore, even though the MMEA only formally established through the enactment of the
Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency Act 2004 (Act 633), the justification for the agencys establishment came during
the period when Malaysia was threatened by the issue of terrorism, illegal immigrants and extremist group. This
perception of the governing elites indicates the seriousness of the issue to Malaysias security and Sabah in particular.
6. Tanduo Incident and Establishment of ESSCOM
The Tanduo incident started when an armed group arrived by boats in Tanduo, Lahad Datu, Sabah on February 11,
2013. The group, identifying themselves as the Royal Security Army (RSA), was reportedly sent by Jamalul Kiram III,
self-proclaimed Sultan of Sulu. Their main objective was to reclaim Sabah from Malaysia. Malaysian security forces
cordoned the area where the group had gathered and after several days of failed negotiations, finally decided to use force
to neutralize the threat. On March 1, 2013, three days after Malaysia's extended deadline for the group to leave the area
peacefully, a confrontation occurred between Malaysian forces and the group. Two Malaysian police lost their lives while
10 members of the RSA group were killed with four more injured. Following the shootout, Najib announced that the
Malaysian security forces were given the mandate to take any action to deal with this militant. On March 3, 2013,
another incident took place in Kampung Sri Jaya Siminul in Semporna, some 200 km from the Tanduo when Malaysian
police were attacked by an armed group believed to be the same group in Tanduo. In the incident, six Malaysian police
officers and seven militan members were killed.
After a three-week standoff, the Malaysian armed forces started their massive campaign by launching air strikes.
On March 5, 2013, Royal Malaysian Air Force F/A-18 and Hawk fighters bombed the militant position in Tanduo. This was
followed by the clean-up operations codenamed Ops Sulu (referring to Suluk community). It was later changed to Ops
Daulat (Operation Sovereignty) due to ethnic sensitivity in Sabah. During the crackdown, the Malaysian forces
recovered 22 bodies of suspected Kiram followers. However, Agbimuddin Kiram, the leader who led the armed incursion
and several of his members had managed to escape. On 11 March, Tanduo village was declared secured by Malaysian
security forces after a week of air operations.
Following the intrusion Tanduo, on March 7, 2013, Prime Minister, Najib Razak during his visit to Lahad Datu,
declared the east coast of Sabah as Special Security Area (SSA). However during the Sabahs State Security
Committee meeting chaired by the Sabah Chief Minister, Musa Aman on March 11, the SSA was changed to the Eastern
Sabah Security Command (ESSCOM) (Borneo Post, 12 March 2013) with its headquarters based in Lahad Datu. The
ESSCOM operations will cover the area of the eastern coast of Sabah from northern Kudat to southeastern Tawau. The
ESSCOM combines several enforcement agencies such as the Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM), Royal Malaysia Police
(PDRM), Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency (MMEA), Royal Malaysian Customs and Immigration under one
command system. ESSCOM will be responsible for coordinating operations, intelligence gathering etc to ensure safety
and secure the waters off Sabah from external threats (ESSCOM Times, 2015).
On March 25, 2013, Najib Razak announced the creation of the Eastern Sabah Security Zone (ESSZONE) which
will cover 10 districts in the East Coast such as Kudat, Kota Marudu, Pitas, Beluran, Sandakan, Kinabatangan, Lahad
Datu, Kunak, Semporna and Tawau (ESSCOM Times, 2015). The entire area covers approximately around 52,262.90
km2 (James Collins, Ramli Dollah & Zaini Othman (2014)).

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Figure 1: The Location of East Coast of Sabah


Source: Collins, et. al. (2014)
In order to strengthen ESSCOM and to ensure the success of the organization, the government in April 2013 outlined a
four-pronged strategic and technical approach to beef up security in national waters, to provide protection to the
ESSZONE community. The four elements are: first, enhancement of intelligence capability; second, effective coastal
surveillance 24-hours a day; third, boosting the country's capability to intercept incoming threats from the sea; and fourth,
strict enforcement of the law with immediate action taken once the threats reached the shores (Daily Express, 14 Apr.
2013).
The government also took additional measures to further increase security in the area. In the 2014 budget, for
example, ESSCOM obtained an additional allocation of RM75 million for its administrations and RM2.4 million for the
purchase of defense equipment. Meanwhile in the 2015 budget, the government allocated RM17.7 billion to the
Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM), and RM9.1 billion for the Royal Malaysian Police. A total of RM804 million was allocated
to the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency (MMEA) to strengthen maritime enforcement (Najib Abdul Razak, 10
October 2014: 51). The government also allocated RM660 million to set up two new battalions of PGA camp in
ESSZONE and another Army battalion camp will be set-up in Felda Sahabat in Lahad Datu (Najib Abdul Razak, 2014:
34). In order to boost the Malaysian enforcement agencies capability especially to provide prompt respond for any
intrusion, the government has allocated RM230 million for the use of a modified oil platform and an auxiliary vessel as
seabasing in the ESSZONE through its wholly-owned oil and gas company Petronas, through its social responsibility
program. The government also decided to upgrade the airport runway in Lahad Datu to cater high capacity of aircraft in
this area. The governme