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SACRED

BOOKS

OF

BUDDHISTS

THE

TRANSLATED

BY

ORIENTAL

VARIOUS

AND

F.

PUBLISHED

HIS

MAJESTY

EDITED

SCHOLARS

BY

MOLLER

MAX

UNDER

OF

PATRONAGE

THE

KING

CHULALANKARANA,

II

VOL.

Bonbon
HENRY
OXFORD

FROWDE
PRESS

UNIVERSITY
AMEN

CORNER,

1899

WAREHOUSE
E.G.

OF

SIAM

DIALOGUES

THE

OF

TRANSLATED

BUDDHA

THE

FROM

pALI

BY

T.

W.

RHYS

DAVIDS

Bonbon
HENRY
OXFORD

UNIVERSITY
AMEN

FROWDE
PRESS

CORNER,

1899
t

WAREHOUSE
E.G.

CONTENTS.

PAGE

PREFACE

ix

Note

on

Note

on

the

probable

of the

age

Dialogues

ix
.

this Version

xx

......

Abbreviations

xxiv
.........

1.

Bkahma-gala

Suttanta.

Introduction

xxv
........

Text

i
.........

(The

2.

Silas, 3-26.)

SUTTANTA.

SAMAiViVA-PHALA
Introduction

56

........

(Index

the

to

Suttantas,

paragraphs

repeated

the

in

other

57-59.)

Text

3.

65

Suttanta.

Ambattha
Introduction.

(Caste)

96

Text

4.

108

Suttanta.

SoiVADAi\ri"A
Introduction

(The

the

Arahat

-137

Brahman.)

true

Text

5.

144

KOrADANTA

Suttanta.

Introduction

.160
.

(The

irony

164;
Text

in

this

Lokayata,

text,

160;

Doctrine

of

sacrifice,

166.)
173

DIALOGUES

duction
For

and

the

that

work

time

whether

that
as

from

early date
Then

them

in the North

again, the

Ceylon

Nikiyas, nearly if

in the

Tissa, the

Katha

at

Moggali, in

the

Patna, in the North

recognised rule

that, if

made

this entry about


Vatthu
the
commentators

accepted

just as it was,

Europe,

in

tlieir faith
of

the

of

tenet

"mutatis
the

at

7nutandis,among

Council

the

See

the

translation.

can

authors
Professor

1896, has added

these

in

the

Takakusu,

in

quoted

it

important details.

was

Katha
was

an

word

the

it had

to

venture

been
diately
imme-

submit,

circumstances,

that

this information

Introduction
an

the

Ra^agaha,

invented

have

they

"

that

of

is, I

It

especially

they mixed
the theologians
in the historyof

canon

held

also

absolutelyimpossible,under
commentators

date

of the

after his decease.

the

whom

entry

when

time

authorship of

among

They

actually recited, at

is

entry

the

at

corresponding

Buddha.

kept by

of his trade, which


that

of

courts

books

believed, and

that the whole

"

third

of the

in the

the

in

Tissa's

those

it, by

the
Pa/aliputta,

at

of evidence

in the

man

was

of India.

ordinary course
speaks against himself, then
Now
worthy of credence.

the
a.d.,

have

middle

the

found

be

entry

an

very

century

now

we

Asoka,

of

court

modern

law

Buddhaghosa)

and
which

in

B.C.,

at

(according to

of the fourth

century
It is

hiow7i

Vatthu

end

form

of

son

quite

not

of India.

by Dhammapala
composed,

conclusion

one

India, and at Anuradhapura


mentaries,
recorded, therefore, in their com-

and

is still

in the Pali, were

prevalent,at the
Ka"/C'ipura in South

in

era.

the

"

views
at

evident

an

drawn

have

now

we

is

composed at or about
Whether
(as M. Sylvain

Milinda, there

our

be

must

is

Milinda^

the
built up on
enlarged work
of the Indian original
books
of the Chinese
;
I
inclined
is
to
(as am
think)that original

foundation
derived

BUDDHA.

been

Christian

L^vy thinks) it
or

have

must

of the

THE

opening chapters of the


adduced
{loco citato^it

reasons

the

the

the

OF

to

article in the

vol. ii of

J. R.

A.

my
S. for

PREFACE.

about

Tissa

in the

records

dared

not

and

Kath^

the
which

on

alter it.

XI

Vatthu.

their

works

best

they

The
And

it away.

found

They
based.

are

could

this

do

it

They
to

was

try

did

they
by a story,
explain
the first scheming out
evidently legendary,attributing
of the book
the Buddha.
But they felt compelled
to
to

hand

to

And

authorship.
it is evidence
attached
The
in

found

they

as

on,

of Tissa's
it,the record
the ground that
deserves, on

this

againstthemselves, to

to

it.

text

of

the

Kath^

have

Vatthu

lies before

now

scholarly edition, prepared for


C. Taylor.
It
Society by Mr. Arnold
a

refutation

Buddhists

by
from

his

250

We

have, from
of

number

data

to

of Buddhism,

and

to

the

likelyto have arisen.


know
something of the growth
different
Pali styles. In all

Katha

Vatthu

fits in with

possible,and
the North
Vatthu

discussions

as

the

for

are

exception
we

as

have

now

the
in

They
word.
two

Asiatic

beginning
language,of

are

time

should
of

the

respects
expect

Asoka,

as

and

in

are

not

Some

articles

to

what

'sects'

the

evident

that

from

any

not

of the

by

part, and

most

on

in

the

on

both

authority?

Kath^

sides, an
Without

discovered, to the Pi/akas, and


the
Thus
on
them, in Pali.
p. 339
translated
below, on p. 278,
passage

Suttanta, and
^

we

of

sort

yet

appeal is to the
" 6 ; and it is quite
our

what

of the

carried

as

appeal to authority.And
any

beginning
development

are

We

these

ously
errone-

of India.
the

Now

what
the

probable, in

often

with

questions are

siderable
con-

different

the

"

We

familiar

be

to

sources,

historical

the

be

to

purports

regards

Sects \'

'

Text

thoughtdifferent

of

Buddhists

thought among
called
the Eighteen
know
something about

Pali

us

opinions held

other

as

of

the

erroneous

schools

belonging to

own.

schools

of

Tissa

by

great weight

at
more

quotationis

other

passage

from

where

of
all,in the modern
European sense
important of these data are collected

present writer

Society'for 1891 and

the

1892.

in

the

'Journal of

the

Royal

THE

Xll

the

DIALOGUES

words

same

might

Suttanta, the

Kevaddha

found

also in

our

other

instances

occur,

p. 344

345

5o6

347

348

351

Kh.

369

M.

I, 85,

404

M.

I, 4.

413

S.

426

D.

440

457

D.

(M.

457

A.

II, 172.

459

M.

I, 94.

48i

D.

1,83,84.

0.

I, 84.

A.

II,

M.

1,490.
M. I, 485
S.IV,

(nearly).

393

P.VII,
111,43.

6, 7.

P. VIII,
92,

5i3

522

9.

525

"c.

528

A.

I, 197.
M. I, 389.

Dhp. 164.
M. 1,447.

549

S.

N.

IV, 362.

P.

I, 70.
S. I, 33.
P. S.

554

554

VI,

Kh.

6.

I, 233.
Vim. V. XXXIV.
25-27.

565
591

126.

0.1,

597, 8
602

156.

P. P. pp. 71,72.
=M.
I, 169.
=

A.

Dh.

J. IV,

227

S.

23).
588, 9=

S. I, 206

Nikayas.

S. I, 33.
A. II, 54.

494

The

p. 505

A.

of the

name

Vatthu.

II, 50.

Kh.

very

Katha

345

483
484

the

as

"

Nikayas.
A.

BUDDHA.

quotations :

The

Vatthu.

THE

(with a difference of reading


MSS.), is given. The followingare

of

Katha

OF

I,

2.

141,

P.

Sutta,

the

older

"" 9-23.

496.
There

are

Pii'aka

books

four
But

times
this

as

is

tlie Katha

in

any

the

enough
;

Kadia
as

many

Vatthu

extant

were

in

and

called

Hofrath

attention

that,

considered
was

themselves, therefore, be

Thirdly,

contained

are

composed,all

were

the

a^

this

in
the

the Five

to be

fact

that

list.

Nikayas

final authorities

Dr.

and

or

tivie when

They
being discussed.
considerably older.

Biihler
to

three

Vatthu, about

show

to

was

question that

from

quotations

more

many

in

Hultsch

must

have

of
inscriptions

descriptionsof donors
the expressions dhammakathika,
to
pe/aki, suttantika, suttantakini, and pa"/6a-nekd-

the

third century
the dagabas,

B.C.

we

Epigr. Ind.; II, 93,

find,as

and

'

Z. D.

U.

G.,'xl,p. 58.

PREFACE.

the

five

before

Nikayas

the

(which were
in the

technical
*

K.

they

as

as

Suttantas

livingmen

of

memory

for

time

some

described

of

the

as

Pi/aka,

of the

Nikayas
only kept alive

or
were

and

women).

the

seem,

be

reciters

yet written, and

not

Simple
Dr.

Dhamma,

of the

Suttantas,and

existed

sisters could

and

guardians of the

as

Pi/akas, the

have

must

brethren

preachers
and

the

Dhamma,

The

yika.

Xlll

force

exact

of

these

designations is

Neumann

thinks

Pi/akas,'but

the

knowing

as
not,
yet, determined.
that Pe/aki
does
not
mean
'

the

knowing

Pi/aka,' that

of the
is,the Nikayas a single Pi/'aka,in the sense
before
the expression
Dhamma,
having been known
"

'

'

Pi/akas

the

title of

into

came

the

old

work

the

are

only parts

called,in

our

tika

one

who

This

was

no

it should

or

MSS.,

of the

passages

the

date,

of the

that

the

Katha

the

uses

word

of the existence,some

considerable

of
inscriptions,
Pitaka

divided

the

or

into

to

the

to

These
1.
2.

3.
4.

to

and

Asoka's

are

as

suttan-

heart

But

term.

Vatthu, of
also for

suttanta

conchcsive

are

time

beforethe

literature

proof
date of

called

either

containing Suttantas,
Edict

Bhabra

of the

the

brethren

of
laydisciples

meditate

to

books

scriptures.

terms

Buddhist

Pitakas,

communities

Order, and
hear

be, the
a

an

and

Nikayas.

Five

Fourthly,on

then

use

parts of the

is

canonical

Was

earliest

recollected

the

only of the
again the Dialogues

So

from
other
passages
this may
However
the

which

preciselythe Dialogues by

doubt

same

points out,

Pi/akas, but

suttantas.

knew

be

the

about

three

his view.

Nikayas, supports

he

Pe/akopadesa,

of the

exposition,not

As

^.

use

follows

upon

seven

he

sisters of the

and

either

recommends

sex,

frequently

selected passages.

"

Vinaya-samukka;;^sa.
Suttanta).
Ariya-vasanifrom the Digha (Sa?;2giti
from the Anguttaralll,105-108.
Anigata-bhayani
Muni-gatha from the Sutta Nipata 206-220.
*

Reden

des

Gotamo,'

pp. x, xi.

DIALOGUES

XIV

Sutta

Moneyya

5.

OF

THE

from

BUDDHA.

the

Iti Vuttaka

67

A.

I, 272.

Upatissa-pasina.

6.

7. Rahulovdda

Rahulovida

Suttanta

(M. I, 414-

420).
Of

these

Nos. i and 6 have


passages
identified.
The
others may
satisfactorily

certain,for

as

No.

also

the

I have

reasons

in the

occurs

tenth

book

time

there

It is clear that in Asoka's


be

to

authoritative

an

of books,

Buddha

already known
of the

out

portionsof
portion of

what

we

them

We

have

What

by

is
M.

general tone
teaching,on the
whole, and

now

to

comprised

the

be

passages
Five

published

in the

Pi/'akas. and

in the

Nikayas, raises the presumption


unpublished portions are

that date.

at

"

the

important

principalpoints of
of

hand

one

the

is the

point to
called attention, and supported
the very clear analogy between

and

on

believed

also, probably,be identified.


ture
that any
other Buddhist litera-

has

details

numerous

the

Five

perhaps stillmore

Senart^

collection

will

two

in existence

was

which

the

evidence

no

call the

called the

other

Ahguttara.

acknowledged

was

found

been

now

that when

printedthe

that it

titles given in his Edict.

having

seven

regarded

elsewhere

out

of the

then

was

and

the

by

be

literature,probably a

containingwhat

of the

words

set

yet been

not

other

of

the
the

the moral

Asoka

edicts

Dhammapada,

as
an

taken, in great part, from


selected by
particularverses

anthology of edifyingverses
the Five
Nikayas. The
characteristic
M. Senart, as being especially
ideas, include

Fifthly,the
of stock
in which

Many
'

of

four

"^

these

'Journal of
xxxvii
'

great

which
passages,
ethical
some

the

are

also

of the

each

Five.

Nikayas contain a number


and
are
constantly recurring,

state

is

found

set

out

in the

Pali Text

Asiatic Society,'1898, p.
j)p.

from

extracts

of Asoka's

Society,'
1896;
639. Compare Milinda
'

foil.

de Piyadasi,'
II, 314-322.
Inscriptions

or

prose

described.
passages

of
'Journal

(S.B,

the

Royal

E., vol. xxxv),

PREFACE.

of the
the

Khuddaka

in

before

before

the

There

the

Nikayas

Suttantas
also

are

ethical

found
in this

or

last.

the

names

which

But

found, in identical terms,

are

they

found

in both

under

one

also
of

of these

other

be

distinguished

probably

the

Sanskrit

Pali and

or

should

are

Most

existing texts.

even

together.
episodes,containingnot only
of persons
and placesand

places. These

more

together,but

put

entire

of events,

two

our

Fifth,

are

translated

put

were

were

teaching,but

accounts

from

of them

the

There

already

at

number

Suttantas

thirteen

the

together in

that such passages


is great probability
existed, as ethical sayings or teachings,not

volume.

only

Nikiya.

of

each

collected

books

various

XV

older

than

parallelpassages,

Buddhist

texts,

come

divisions.

two

Sixthly,the Samyutta Nikaya (III,13) quotes one


both
Suttanta
in the
the
Dialogues by name
; and
and the Ahguttara Nikayas quote, by name
Sa;;2yutta
found
now
only in a parchapter, certain poems
ticular
Sutta
Nipdta, This Suttanta,
chapter of the
and
these poems, must
thereforebe older, and older in
their present arrangement,
than
the final settlement of
the text of these two Nikayas.
and

Seventhly,

several

of

relate conversations
Sutta

One

death

of

began

to

the

in

wife

of

There

interpolation.
but
itself,
be

It

is

of

Magadha,
death

after the
at

reason

all

to

who

of the

suspect

an

only the Sutta


compilation of the Anguttara,

follows

subsequentto

There

no

of the

date

the

king

forty years

is

to

took

Muw^a,

reign about

Buddha.

must

the

Dialogues purport

place between
people,
the
Buddha
but
Buddha,
s
after
the
the Ahguttara is based
on

that

cotemporaries with
death.

the

that,

not

that event.

story

in

Peta

Vatthu

IV,

3,

about

King Pingalaka. Dhammapala, in his commentary,


informs us that this king,of whom
nothing is otherwise

known,

lived

two

follows

that

this poem,

which

it is

which

the

hundred

found,

Peta

and

Vatthu

years after the Buddha.


also the Peta Vatthu
and
also

the

Vimana

reallyforms

one

It
in

Vatthu, with
whole
work,

DIALOGUES

XVI

later than

are

date

And

Pingalaka.

of

there

is

no

date, although

believe that the commentator's

to

reason

the

BUDDHA.

THE

OF

evidentlyonly a round number, is very far wrong.


the
These
books
are
evidently,from their contents,
latest compositions in all the Five
Nikayas.
very
it is

There
another

book

Dhammap^la
by a
of

father

the

in
the

of the

thera

made

accessible

And

^.

give
to

as
even

us

the

their

books.
bear

to

They

are

Fathers

that

to

the

to

And

about

by

Bible.

But

found
be

to

in which

fortunately we
of
enlightened liberality
the

d'Oldenbourg
future.
of

our
so

'

'

zeal
and

of

number

is

the

works

And

found

this

is

may

the

cal
canoni-

Christian
not

duce
reproverses,

Pali

the

been

stated,

or

and

books.

already
inferred,

quoted as authorities.
the
hope, owing to
burg,
Academy of St. Peters-

co-workers,

to

Sanskrit

just what,

of the

to

seem

in prose,

scholarship

in

historyof

Professor

of

have

in the

Texts
the

able
consider-

present

Buddhist

near

state

writings,

desideratum.

Quoted by Prof. Oldenberg at


Miss C. Hughes is preparing

these works

occur

similar,in many

have

are

200

information

of the

in

instances

and

Buddhist

knowledge
great

his

real

the

translation,or

sentences

passages
texts, and are

Most

and

is a

relation

such

older

from

now-

names

though they do
they contain numerous

dozen

know

the

books

borne

half

which

of them

complete episodes,

some

We

one

any complete texts,


whole
numerous
poems,

some

have

texts

of the twenty-seven
independent works ; and

the canonical

respects,

the collection

to

of detailed

one

recension, of any

added

themselves, of nearly

amount

No

posed
com-

Bindusara, the

Buddhist

cataloguesin

contents.

been

Council.

MSS-

considerable

said, by

verses

King

scholars.

to

Gatha,

Thera

have

to

been

Sanskrit

titles,given in the
more

have

of Asoka's

time

of

time

to

Eighthly,several
been

commentator

Asoka, and

the

at

the
among
Fifth
Nikaya,

included

is also

for the

'

Journal of the

p. 46 of his edition.
a

list of
complete alphabetical
Asiatic
Royal
Society,'
1899.

all

PREFACE.

XVU

possibleto construct, in
facts,a working hypothesis as
It is

literature.
evidence
the

on

from

drawn

introduction

and

Buddhist

from

ground
not

few

that there

is

some

Nikayas

which

to

mention,

are

fact that

that certain

P^li

be

commentators

It

Pi/akas

to

they are
rightly called

that

stately

concocted

by

drawn
the

concocted

one,

evidence

drawn

the

on

the

that

ground

point out,

and

they

Indian

And

peculiar,

as

maintained

be

by

passages
have.

now

whole
the

rest

that

books

and
Ceylon forgeries,

the
all

at

should

be

'

Recension

is

from

Suttantas

the

we

Southern

not

that that work

late

therefore

the

'

and

evidence

show

that

even

not

all

that

that

nearly as late,and one


Asoka, is no proof that

may

are

disregarded

are

late,as

the

disregardedon

those

as

passages

older.

are

same

the

quite as

the

they refer, and

the

that

show

one,

aside

be put
inscriptions
may
state
they do not
explicitly

book

So

may

the

the

late

nothing

the

opening chapters,is

impudent forgery,and a
Buddhist
in Ceylon.
The

an

be

may

elaborate

of the

these

historyof

nothing to

the

Vatthu

Katha

the

is

with

object

to

Milinda

forgery,and a
in Ceylon.

impudent

some

the

only

excepting

the

to

possible

that there

ground

work,
an

is also

It

accordance

'

or

the

Si^^^halese Canon.'
of

appearance

reasonable
involves
it

careful

scruple.

scepticism is
But

criticism.

scholastic

In

that

can

belief in

rejects?

Buddhists.

forging

historical
between
held
in

In

the

next

with

accuracy,

ideas

centuries

current

before,

expressing the
II.

documents

extensive

so

among
with

the
the
the

asked

to

are

we

so

capable

were

well, with

themselves

great

such

discrimination

views, that

ancient

of

imbecilityof

delicate

so

those

narrowness,

senile

the

than

reminded

sectarian

dulness, the

scepticism that

are

we

historical

to

incredible

more

breath

aid

of

the

healthy and

propositions implying that they

accept
of

said

be

thingsfar

one

And

valuable

literaryincapacity,even
Ceylon

has
by itself,

taken
propositions,

of these

Each

and

those

literaryskill
not

only

did

XVlll

DIALOGUES

they

deceive

their

OF

involves

hesitate

belief

incredible,

hesitation

consider

that

most

just

The

work

point

to

is

It

not

out
reasonable
un-

scepticismwhich

adopting

unique,

and

this

accept

is

therefore

so

the
lead

involves

to

like other

for the
no

such

priori

likely.

suppose

of his time,

teachers

Indian

it

literatures

similar

history of

one

would

one

we

what

for

Indian^, and

only

not

"

literature

North

is,as

if

reasonable

more

reallyjust what

what

Buddha,

the

seem

that

would

elsewhere

will

"

absurdity,but
expect,

so

pre-Asokan

part

their

but

opponents,

able

been

not

in

in

to

be

to

and

performance.

The

purports

BUDDHA.

contemporaries

European scholars have


a
single discrepancy in
to

THE

A
man
highly educated
taught by conversation.
the
current
at
time),
{according to the education
of similar education, he
speaking constantlyto men
followed
the literary
habit of his time by embodying
in set
which
he
his doctrines
phrases, siitras, on
In
enlarged on different occasions in different ways.
the absence
for though writing was
of books
widely
known, the lack of writing materials made
lengthy
any
books
the
sOtras
written
were
impossible^ such
of preserving and
communicating
recognised form
in Sanskrit,
not
were
opinion. These particularones
"

"

that is

'

As

to

say,

is well

Prof.

which
blunder

ordinary conversational

the

in

but

is

pawalts.

on

No

the

MinayefT

made

In

North
the

single instance
so

the part of the

European

be

the

later than
the

the

modern

reference

such
a

the

day,

discrepancy,

mare's

not
professor,

mw^X.
itself

themselves

of

of, is

the Kaiha

Indian, that is,from

books

much

will accept the


Vatthu
mentions

critical scholar

of

of Pali.

sort

known,

the comvientary on
Vatthu
the Kathd
"^

in

idiom

of the

proposition that
the

Ceylon
because

Vetulyaka,therefore

rise of that school.

European point
is

The

nest.

the

Middle

of view.

Country
the
them
the country
souih
of the
To
to
(Ma^^^ima
Desa).
the
calculation.
How
did
into
not
come
Vindhyas simply
suggestive
!
this is as to the real place of originof these documents
used.
But the earliest records
were
Very probably memoranda
of any extent
the Asoka
Edicts, and they had to be written on
were
'

stone.

to

PREFACE.

When

Buddha

the

died

XIX

these

sayingswere

collected

Four
Great
together by his disciples into the
have
reached
their final form
Nikayas. They cannot
till about
Other
fiftyyears afterwards.
sayings and
of

most

verses,

himself, but

the
in

the

to

ascribed

not

were
disciples,

We

Nikaya.
Nikaya as

this

to

them

know

late

of

time

developed doctrine found in


it notably in the Buddhava?;^sa

and

the

these

and

later than

are

For

Peta-

generationor
handed
together were

and

after the

years

the

Buddhist

as

these

death

Each

of the

canon

there

the

of

for the

two

schools

broke

that

Kanishka,
extant,

remained

except

only

of

and

them,

Of

fragments
Sanskrit

separate

On

Suttas

the

the

as

Council

they all,

But
have

of

then

others

been

And

books,

of

some

lost

in

Chinese

that

my

'

canon

Hinayana
and

of the

schools,

of the

Sanskrit

Milinda,'vol.
b

the

other

translations

repeatederror

numerous

Suttas,

the
in

used

as

Council, see

extant,

now

preserved

been

texts.

the often

Kanishka's

late

as

stock

the

have

represented in

their

books, differing

at

Nikayas,

had

of ethical statement,
passages
episodes, used in the composition of

the

of

and

Pali

present

early

Era,

Each

following

of them

many
among
authorities
\
only

the

our

the

books,

these

in India.

Christian

after the

books.

in

up,

for any
used at

never

canonical

of the canonical
different arrangements
also no
details. Even
doubt
in minor
first century

kept
(orpossibly

used

not

was

schism

schools

two

several

and

was

still in Pali

"

know,

we

centuries, into others

at

Pi/aka,

originally
put
And
they

as

till long afterwards, and

works

far

all,so

books

show

"

memory.
from
the

dialect). Sanskrit

allied

some

of

short

Kariya

by

Buddha's

community.

arrangement

an

And

first,as they
accompanied
About
being taught,by a running commentary.

were

in

down

made

Nikayas.

books

doubtless

were

lOO

old

the

two

mentary
supple-

Asoka.

Vimana-Vatthus

the four

of

certain

"

in

into

put

Buddha

slightadditions

the

as

the

to

fourth

was

are

and

established

ii,pp. xv, xvi.

XX

DIALOGUES

fifth centuries
of

these

method

fail
method

which
and

in

of

FkVi

the

in

all the

marks

the

Buddha,'

history,and

canonical

language and
of

the

after

und

Mara

lighton

method,

comparison

Nikdyas,

'

composition, of

bear

tone,

detailed

and

the

much

style and

in

BUDDHA.

Windisch's

throw

to

careful

with

adopted

cannot

the

a.d.

remains

THE

OF

on

books,
contents

considerable

so

an

antiquity.
Dr.

Hofrath

the

expressed
them

he published,
Biihler, in the last work
have
opinion that these books, as we

Pali,are

in the

for the
good evidence, certainly
sixth, century B.C.
Subject to

fifth,probably for the


what

has

said

been

above, that will probably become,

the

it is this
accepted opinion. And
which
gives to all they tell us, either directlyor by
of the social,political,
life of
and religious
implication,
and

more

India, so

more,

great

valued

in spite of the limitations


is necessary,
of
few words
followed
the method
on
a
space, to add
talk of Pali books.
We
this version.
They are
It

the

in

books

modern

intended

sentences

whole

subordinated

learnt

method
this

to

be

to

style,and

They
by

sense.

heart

of arrangement,

These

the

neither
and

modern

not

their

No

reference

remarks,
on

the

nor
repetitions

that

object.

to

the

point,to

the Introduction

has

history
the
to

the

been

able

of

and

aids

as

to

That

object they

in

these

"

to

convey

them.
But

introduced,

memory
of course
were

are

"

help
was

intended

slight and imperfect


is nothing to add,
Vinaya.
lucid expositionof Prof. Oldenberg in

made,
the

his edition

variations

much.

very

For

to

underlying
slightvariations.

with

repeated

reader

instance,

argument

necessarilyintroduced,

the

'

often

are

the

reader

European

the

entirely
leading

The

of our
one
Suttantas, for
any
expressed in short phrases not intended

not

and

is

in

ideas

in

memorial

are

primary necessity.

our

of the text.

There

DIALOGUES

XXll

OF

BUDDHA.

THE

of

ambiguous, that a knowledge of the state


the particular
India, at
point,in North
on
a

of other

comparison

is necessary
It would
a

to

Nikaya
the

remove

scholar

attempting to
language
European

"

expressing a
of

set

"

that

is

holds

such

and

render

these

evolved

in

should

conceptions

faith

in

him.

such

subject,
that

Suttantas

into

the

reasons

of

the

state

why

he

should

and

real

be

to

the

least

parallelpassages

quote

in

of

process

contradictory,

the

expression

an

explain the

should

the

or

desirable

often

give

He

inappropriate rendering :
from
other
Nikaya texts
He

most

different,and

very

time,

uncertainty.

therefore

seem

the

on

passages

opinion

support

of

his

of
significance

reasons.

the

thesis

of what, in his opinion,


by a statement
it was
the point of view from which
was
put forward,
it fits,
the current
views
the stage of opinion into which
forward

put

it supports
for which

there

the

Pali.

give

In

regard to technical
exact
equivalent,he

controverts.

or

be

can

And

no

in

regard

the

to

each word
in which
groups,
should
give cross-references, and

is

and

differ from

to

down

reasons.

can

hope
of

are

no

reader

most
to

only

can

of
in

comment,

he

ventures

that

we

the

general
loose, inadequate,and

will, I

to

choice

different

would

afraid, be

words
where

as

dwell

has

not
or

reasons

trust,

workers.

to

Each

upon
leave

the

of

his

points he

would
space,

regarded

to

as
commentary,
explain themselves.

that

my

choice

in

happy, and especiallythat

phrases
were

scholar

the

in his

considered

been

with

meet

limitations

consideringthe

pressing to
the points he

many

he

discussions

even

convey

fellow

my

I am
It may,
these respects
too

such

only by

considerations

approval
make

crtix,

ideas.

These

course,

wherever

scholars, and

to

use

usually a

in the interpretation
of the
progress
and
Indian thought. Bare versions

Buddhist

they

inaccurate

of

make

to

historyof

is

It

lists

mnemonic

explanations,as handed
the fact,and
state
give

schools, should

in the

his

Buddhist

the

terms,

should

have

been

necessary.

left without

But

I have

PREFACE.

those

points

those

emphasise
desirable

and

having

these
been

raise

to

historical

before

the

in

endeavoured,

questions
Suttantas

rightly

XXlll

and

notes

which

on

further
of

some

which

can

April,

1899.

the
will

finally

to

elucidation

is

most

important

have

to

be

be

W.

considered

Rhys

of

settled

understood.

T.
'Nalanda,'

introductions,

Davids.

as

ABBREVIATIONS.

INTRODUCTION

BRAHMA-6^ALA

The
meet,

into

detail

in

As

which
the

opening

dialogues

forms

the

first

the

if, in

question

did

as

authoritative
The

the

subtle

attempt
All

old

of

truth

in

the

the

'American

past,

various

going

or

in

entity

separate
the

arrange

of

it, and

from

"

future.

necessarily

And

endeavours,

always
sort

"

to

lations
specu-

out

soul'

'

as

put

so,

this

without

together

retain

theories
The

below,

rejecting
all

grafted

soul

"

to

while

subtle,

speculators

pp.

52,

53

Lectures,'

pp.

31-33.

for

set

out

selves
themwhich

truth

position

1896,

pp.

fully

are

things,

ultimate

more

the
"

sophies
theo-

those

this

the

permanent

theosophies

about

London,
and

to

on

theories

those

the

include

to

grafted

rejecting

given

Buddhism.'

words,

philosophic

the

on

reasons

such

on

had

semi-material,

had

other

thinkers

while

to

Lectures
up

body,

is

of

firstly,that

Summed

and

ancient

separate

condemned.

previous
body,

the

'American

this

to

soul.'

'

themselves.
threefold

of

but

body
the

is

scheme

of

divisions

view

philosophy

thinkers

corollaries

weight

theorisers,

ancient

the

it endeavours

previous

the

the

theories

inside

meaning

real

these

of

sixty-two

leaves

which

savage

entity

the

it

Buddhist

the

of

Buddhist

idea

The

which

speculation

the

ancient

in

reconstruct

to

such

since

in

inside
after

continuing,

much

be

cannot

the

as

Katha

the

We

understand

this

opens

in

question

authors

or

thus

Milinda,

attach

we

out

forms

manikin

the

some

Lectures.'

books.

theories

or

first

to

author

sets

various

in

question

which

to

in

out

set

'American

my

the

intended

is

been

discussion

also

Buddhist

Suttanta

from

the

Buddhism,

original

of

endeavours

our

Suttanta

fits,has

chapter

of

and

this

argument

out',

wrong

all

its

which

pointed

Vatthu,

of

beliefs

there

series

far

of

phase

SUTTA.

38-43.
in

the

list

BRAHMA-GALA

I.

XXVI

either

only

see

the

in

past

do

lead

not

such

thirdly, that

evidence,
insufficient
future, have
^
such
shield
tions
specula; secondly, that
emancipation, to Arahatship ^ ; and

the

or

of the

side

one

SUTTA.

to

theories

the hopes,
from
reallyderived
the
the
sensations
evanescent
feelings,and
arising from
^
of
phenomena
they belong, in other words, to the realm
of the
to that
not
hastily formed, empirical opinion (di////i),
that
wisdom
So
the
first
in
Buddhism,
higher
{pa.nua.).
place,
holds
somewhat
the
similar
modern
to
a
position
Agnostic
position. Secondly, while acknowledging the importance of
it lays special stress upon
the regulation,
feelingand of intellect,
the cultivation, of the will*.
And
it
thirdly, distinguishes
lower
and a higher wisdom
''.
between
a
Several
scholars, and
knowledge
more
especially with
are

"

"

detail

and

analogous
On

have
Neumann,
history of

Buddhism

Schopenhauer

hand,

it is

philosophy is
European philosophy.
Professor

by

Deussen
of

Schopenhauer's position is analogous to that


The
reconciliation
will
Upanashads.
probably be

that

to

what

that

be

Buddhism

modification, from

the

took

part of the

Upanishad doctrine
phraseology, in Schopenhauer
altogether is not to be found
who

however

both

philosophy

own

which

the

as

at the

this

is
in

Suttanta

India
besides
have

their

other
many
those
the

but

that

influence

there

priests

for

take

of

truth,

if not

the

on

the fable

See

below,

"'

See

for instance

See

the paper

"

See

quoted below,

pp.

p. 42,

current

pp.

himself,

the

and
of

results
should

over

be
other

its discussion,

philosophy,
given

of

details
in

Northern

And

Upanishads.
them,
There

the

rejected

narrow

187,

may
was

and

also

who

can

have

always
inexact

had
much
limits

i88.

188.

44,

on

it

all of

outside

European

theosophic speculations
expedient to adopt, and

and

doctrine

new

India

See

the

the

from

then

were

found

in

us

some,

'

below,

to

pre-eminence

it is certain

"

philosophic

philosophising in
'

want

that

preserved

doubt

the

that

as

second-hand

"

pressing

very

am

below,
'

The

of

less

same

in

the

found

or

found,

and
be decided
question may
student
length,by a competent

necessary

our

the

from

standard

to Buddhism
obliged to concede
(systems of philosophy).'

However

is

only

If

'

is about

more

Buddhism
what
; and
He
in Schopenhauer.

systems

authorities, says,

inaccurate
my

knew

with

over,

Upanishads,

the

Indian

in

maintained

that

maintained

in the
of

that

to

other

the

Karl

Dr.

"

position of

pp. 53, 54.


Will in Buddhism,'

"c., of this Suttanta.

J.R.

A. S.,

1898.

INTRODUCTION.

of

the

so-called

scholars

for

their

in

philosophy

such

and

have

we

Pali
as

Buddhist

Sanskrit

and

the

thank

to

works,

wished

priests

the

exclude

to

noticed

from

'

six

and

are

the

rather

beetles,

of

the

very

classification
like
and

of

classification

sparrows.

good

enough
of

restriction
of

use

mutually

not

course

been

attempted

the

opinion,

Darjanas,

has

Cowell

Professor

his

in

Darjanas

preserving,

of

evidences

six

XXVll

the

philosophy
of

animals

all
is

term,

exclusive

under
into

inform

to

and
these
men,

philosophy
late

this,
six

that,

me

the

to

mediaeval.
and

the

heads,

horses,

in

six
The

omissions
render

birds,

ghosts,

it

Step, after the

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

I.

One

Blessed

the

and

of

company

the

brethren.

house

the

in

put

pleasance^

the

him

the

at

up

of

company

royal restthe
pass
brethren.

to

the

Suppiya the mendicant, and with


And
there, at
discipleBrahmadatta.

him

also did

so

his

One

Ambala/Z/^ika

with

night, and
And

Blessed

the

Now

2.

young

rest-house, these

two

carried

on

the

early

dawn

the

discussion

same

before.

as

And

[2]3.

the

in

assembled,

of

number

the

up, in the pavilion;


the trend of the talk that sprang
and this was
up among
there.
seated
How
wonderful
them, as they were
a

brethren

they rose

as

'

thing is it,brethren,
knows

One, he who

Supreme,

should

the inclinations

the

mendicant

sees,

the

Blessed

Arahat, the Buddha

perceived

! For

men

the

strange that

how

see

how

various

while

Suppiya

in dispraise
of the
speaks in many
ways
the Doctrine, and the Order, his own
disciple,

of them.

by

step
the

So

do

speaks,in

many
ways, in praise
teacher
and
pupil,follow

these

two,
step after the Blessed

Now

4.

Blessed

the

drift of their
seat

had

on

the

sat

down

One,

talk,went
he

said

the

the conversation
And

said

he

'

in it

What

'

is the

to the

east

Exhortation
Edict

to

talk

on

is the

And

took
when

his
he

which

you
subject of

they told

'the mango

sapling.'It was, says Buddhaghosa


shady park so called from a mango

and
It

adorned

the
Rahula

(seemy

other

surrounded

was

with

garden

of the Brazen

doubt, after

Bhabra

what

And

the

was

you?'

gateway.
another

was

tradiction
con-

between

well- watered

rest-house

There

views

him

all.

Ambala/Z^ikS,

(pp. 41, 42),a


saplingby the

of

company
in direct

him.

for

out

engaged sittinghere, and

are

the

what
realising
and
pavilion,

on

to

spread

mat

to

and

other.'

the

to

as

One

brethren, giving utterance


one

'

and

of

Buddha,
Brahmadatta,
young

no

how

clearlyhave

so

are

and

paintingsfor
so

Palace
which

with

rampart,

and

had

the

king'samusement.
Anuradhapura in Ceylon,
named,
(Sum. I, 131). This was
so
named

was

at

famous

as

the

startingwith falsehood,'mentioned
'Buddhism,' pp. 224, 225).

scene

of

the

in Asoka's

MINOR

DETAILS

OF

MERE

MORALITY.

Brethren, if outsiders should speak against me,


or
against the Doctrine, [3]or against the Order, you
that
should
either bear
not
account
on
malice, or
*

5.

suffer

should

account,

the

feel

or
heart-burning,

be

of your

illwill. If you,
hurt, that would

and

angry

on

that

stand

in

others
self-conquest.If, when
speak againstus, you feel angry at that,and displeased,
would
then be able to judge how far that speech of
you
way

own

theirs is well said


would

That

'

is false and
that

or

speak

in

of the

Order,

you

'

6.

point

is

in

me,

be

not,

of

or

acknowledge
this
a

that

or

thing is

what

is

found

so,

this
such

should

speak in
praiseof the

account, be filled with


lifted up in heart.
Were

be

of your
in the way
speak in praiseof me,

stand

should
Order, you
be the fact,saying: "For

of

or

the

rightto

is the

fact,that

is so,

such

is in us."

us,

among

For

what

that

on

this

reason

"

of

or

in us."

not

Doctrine, in

outsiders

Doctrine,

the

the

that also would

self-conquest.When

unravel

saying:
wrong,
the fact,that is not

not

gladness,or

so

me,

as

praise of

should

pleasure or
to

should

is
us,
among
also,brethren, if outsiders

Order, you
you

out

of
dispraise

found

not

But

praise of

it

this is

reason

thing

Sir.'

so,

outsiders

Doctrine, or

the

be

not

when

But

'

ill?

or

only of trifling
things,of matters
morality,that an unconverted
when
praisingthe Tathagata,would speak. And
details of mere
minor
such
morality
are
trifling,
he would
praise?

It is in respect
7.
of little value, of mere
'

man,

what

'

that

[4] [The
8.

'

"

Gotama
^

tract

These
that

Moralities

I.]

Part

the
killingof living things,
away
the destruction
aloof from
recluse holds

Putting
the

titles occur,
now

follows.

in the

MSS.,

It forms

at

the end

of the

part of each

sections

of the Suttas

of

the

in the

division
The
first division,the first third,of this collection of Suttas.
the
Silas.
Section
the Sila Vagga or
is called therefore
containing
The

tract

itselfmust

almost

certainlyhave
B

existed

as

separate work

cudgeland
roughness,and full of
laid the

of life. He

has

ashamed

of

and

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

I.

compassionate and

kind

Or

'

the

he

"

speaking in

the

Putting away

say

given, Gotama

been

not

recluse lived

the

onlywhat
he

his life in

passes
'

Or he

honesty
"

might say

from
vulgarpractice,

the
'

9.

Or

he
the

Gotama

He
swerves

word

holds

He

might

"

say

recluse

himself

speaks truth,

^""^
lyingwords,

act

from

aloof from

the

truth

he
trustworthy,

faithful and

aloof, far off,

the sexual

himself

holds

come

Gotama
unchastity,

Putting away

takes

purityof heart."

Puttingaway

the recluse is chaste.


from

and

of

taking

He
graspingwhat is not his own.
will
is given,and expectingthat gifts

aloof from

life."

Tathagata, might speak \

might

has

what

he dwells

that have
when

man,

aside,

sword

mercy,

all creatures

to

It is thus that the unconverted

praiseof

the

hood.
false-

he

never

breaks

not

his

the world."

"^^^y^
Or he might say :
Puttingaway slander, Gotama
he
the recluse holds himself aloof from calumny. What
hears here he repeats not
elsewhere
to raise a quarrel
to

"

'

before the time

when

the discourses,in each

of which

it recurs,

were

first put

together.
Certain
also elsewhere.
So in
paragraphs from this tract occur
the
have
whole
of
the
short
Magg/ilma.I, 179 we
paragraphs; in
have
Ma^^//ima, Nos. 76 and 77, and in IMahavagga V, 8, 3, we
have
in
of
18
and
The
we
II,
most
so
on.
" 17 ;
"
'Maggh'ima. 3
;
whole
of this tract
has been
translated
into English by Gogerly
into
French
(in Grimblot, see
note),
i,
by Burnouf
(alsoin
page
German
Dr.
Neumann
and
into
212
Grimblot, pp.
foil.),
by
(in his
Buddhisiische
Anthologie,pp. 67 foil.).,
This
refrain is repeatedat the end of each clause.
When
the
Silas recur
in
each
the
the
difference
is
refrain.
in
Sutta,
below,
only
*

See, for instance,the


^

Neumann

has

but

patikankhati
waitingfor.' The

'

as
matter
trifling
'
Gama-dhamma,

folk,the

translation of p.

'waitingfor
has

meaning

have
'from

100

in the text.

gift'which

yet been

not

usual
we

found
of the

is

possible
rendering:

elsewhere
word

in the

of

sense

just such

expresses

led, from the context, to expect.


the village
habit,the pracdce of country

been

''

'

if
way.' One might render the phraseby pagan
that word
in English,a slightly
different connotation.
acquired,
It is the opposite of pori, urbane
(appliedto speech,below,
misses the pointhere,but has
hoflich below.
" 9). Dr. Neumann
"

'

pagan
had
not

'

^"^
"X-ihjo it-4,^-L"Lt4,
Cf^

j*^^^^"".

'

DETAILS

MINOR

against the people


here

repeats

not

there.

Thus

those

who

here
raise

to

does

he

for peace,
he
Or

speech, Gotama
harsh

urbane
such

are

Or

he

'

Gotama

he

might

say

the

the

himself
word

aloof

is
to

of
from

blameless,
the
heart,

of the

people

holds

himself
he

season

full of

the

aloof

He

from

in

speaks,

meaning,

Order.

talk

frivolous

Putting away

facts,words

disciplineof

peace."

rudeness

away

people,beloved
*'

In

he

speaks."

recluse

conversation.
with

the

words

the

holds

for

lovely, reaching

ear,

pleasingto

Putting

Whatsoever

the

to

elsewhere

that make

recluse

the

language.

pleasant

say

hears

of those
who
encourager
lover of peace, impassioned

an

"

might

he

quarrel against the people


live as
binder
a
together of

of words

speaker

'

MORALITY.

divided,

are

MERE

what

friends, a peacemaker,

are

"

OF

-,

vain

accordance
on
religion,

on

speaks,

and

the

at

righttime, words worthy to be laid up in one's heart,


illustrated,
[5]fitly
clearlydivided, to the point."
"Gotama
Or he might say:
the recluse holds
10.
himself
aloof from
causing injuryto seeds or plants^
takes but one
meal
He
a
day, not eating at night,
refrainingfrom food after hours (aftermidday).
'

He
with

refrains

spectator

at

shows

at

wearing, adorning,or ornamenting


and

unguents.

large and loftybeds.


acceptingsilver or gold.

abstains

He

abstains

from

He

abstains

He

abstains

He

abstains

grain.
accepting uncooked
from accepting raw
meat.
from accepting women
or
girls.
from
or
accepting bondmen

note

above

Sampha-ppalapa.
at

Samarambha

renders

it.

use

from

abstains

See

the

of

from

Pori.

fairs,

music.

He

Sutta, and
^

garlands,scents,

with

He

'

from

abstains

himself

being

dances, singing,and

nautch

He

from

"

on

8.

Sampha

Gat. VI, 295;


cannot

A.
mean

women.
bond-

occurs

alone

in

the

Hemavata

II, 23.

'planting' as

Dr.

Neumann

BRAHMA-GALA

I.

He

abstains

from

He

abstains

from

He

abstains

from

and

SUTTA.

acceptingsheep or goats.
acceptingfowls or swine.
acceptingelephants,cattle,horses,

mares.

abstains

He

acceptingcultivated fields or waste.


the acting as
from
a
go-between or

from

abstains

He

messenger.
abstains
He

from

abstains

from

He

buying and selling.


cheating with scales

or

bronzes

measures.

or

from

abstains

He

cheating,and

the

crooked

of

ways

bribery,

fraud.
from

maiming, murder, puttingin bonds,


highway robbery,dacoity,and violence."
the things, brethren, which
Such
are
an
verted
unconwhen
speaking in praise of the Tathagata,
man,
abstains

He

'

might say.'
ends

Here

the A'llla Sila

[the Short
Conduct].

on

II.

Or

he

might

Paragraphs

"Whereas

say:

some

recluses

Brahmans, while livingon food provided by the


addicted
the injury of seedlings
to
faithful,continue

and

growing plantswhether
propagated from roots
Gotama
cuttingsor jointsor buddings or seeds

and

"

'

Kawsa-k(i/a.
refer to

here
is

actually

so

the

"

oldest

The

coins, just as
used

in the

reference

context
we

nth

(bronze)may
English a copper,'and the word
12th Bhikkhunt
Nissaggiya Rules

suggests that ka.msz


in

say
and

in Indian

or

the

'

books

to

coins.

The

most

ancient

either of bronze
private(not state)coinage,were
the
or
expression here used as
gold. Buddhaghosa (p.79) explains
vessels as
lates
meaning the passing off of bronze
gold. Gogerly transsud
and
Neumann
has
counterfeit metal,'
voce
weights/Childers
Maass.'
has
in the meaning
Buddhaghosa is obligedto take kawzsa

coins, which

'

were

of

'

'

of

there is no
gold pot,'which seems
authorityfor
very forced ; and
ka/wsa
On
the coin
the whole
meaning either weight or mass.
the
be
to
to
me
explanation seems
simplest.
Buddhaghosa gives examples of each of these five classes of the
But
it is only the
vegetablekingdom without explainingthe terms.
is doubtful.
It may
fourth which
if the art of
mean
'graftings,'
in
then
known
the
graftingwas
Ganges valley.
'

MINOR

recluse

DETAILS

holds

OF

aloof from

MERE

such

growing plants."
1 2.
[6] Or he might say :
and
Brahmans, while livingon

"

'

MORALITY.

injuryto

seedlingsand

Whereas

some

food

recluses

provided by

the

addicted
the use
of things stored
to
faithful,continue
equipages,
up ; stores, to wit, of foods, drinks, clothing,
and

bedding, perfumes,
recluse

Or

13.

and

aloof

holds
*

he

"

from

might

such

Brahmans,

the

thingsstored

"Whereas

say:

Gotama

up."

recluses

some

food

provided by the
livingon
addicted
is
to
visitingshows
; that
^

say,
Nautch

(i)

dances

(2) Singing

of

(3) Instrumental music


(vadita?;^).
(4) Shows at fairs (pekkham) *.

songs

(gita.m).
^

Amis

under
a

something nice,
^

its

secondary

This

pp.
renders

Dancing

referred

word

has

only been

puppet

Serissaka

Vimana

here

It must

part.

shows

be

in

dancing
ballet

to

means

elsewhere

heresy'(Ma^26). The

which

nautch

or

the

persons

dancing.

here, has always

representations.'
Clough

theatrical

vi'ord

found
of

LXXXIV,

word, only found

This

'

rendered

of articles

the

meaning

'the

mean

Literallyshows.'
'

all sorts

wiparita-darj'awa.

cannot

took

to

it

; and

'

dainty.'

relish,a

8, 486

Sinhalese

Neumann's

phrase di//^i-visftkaOT,

g/i\mz I,
^

In

'

'

Visiika-dassanawi.

in the

(p. 83) gives a long list of curry-stuffs


If he is right then Gogerly's raw
grain

translation,and

extensive.

too

use

this term.

limited

is too
'

Buddhaghosa

a.

included

of

use

while

continue
faithful,
to

curry-stuffs^

first translated

it

been
so

in

followed
by Gogerly,
Dictionary,p. 665, and he was
Neumann
and
Dr.
Suttas,'p. 192),
Burnouf, myself (in 'Buddhist
to
(Indian Literature, pp. 199, 319) seems
(p. 69), and Weber
his

Sinhalese

"

approve
known

this.

But

unlikely that

it is most

the

theatre

was

already

Buddhaghosa (p.84) explains it,


is a very interesting
Now
sama^^o
quitesimply,as na/a-sama^^a.
cording
acold word
(at least in its Pali form). The Sanskrit sama^ya,
in
modern
found
has
been
to the PetersburgDictionary,
only
such
old
in other
as
The
texts
dictionaries.
Pali occurs
Vinaya
it does
context
as
IV, 267 (both times in the very same
II, 107;
and
it is
here); ibid. II, 150; IV, 85; Sigalovada Sutta, p. 300;
in the fifth century

undoubtedly
Edicts
at

such

the

of Asoka.
a

sama^^o;
tricks,and

same

In

in the first of the fourteen


samara
Sigalovadathere are said to be six dangers

word
the
to

And

b.c.

as

juring
wit, dancing,singing,music, recitations,con-

acrobatic

shows.

And

in

the

Vinaya

passages

we

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

I.

recitations
(7) The
chanting of
(5) Ballad
bards
(vet^lamjK
(akkhana;;^)\
playing
(8) Tam-tam
(6) Hand music (piwis(kumbhathiina;;^)\
sara;;^)^.
also food
but
was
not
at a
only amusements
sama^^o
and
had
officials
that
seats
invited,
were
special
; and
high
provided;
that it took
place at the top of a hill. This last detail of 'high
that

learn

'

places (thatis
the

places)points to

sacred

whole

procedure.
stock

The

the

act

Gataka

Many

'

with

III, 541

which

I have

the bout
(7ataka

I, 394

'fair' is nevertheless

These

ballad

from

source

Bharata

occurs
^

that

old

'

communistic

exogamic

simply 'fair,'as

means

at

has

no

and

is here

in the

mind

of

at

the

it is
the

doubt

author

The

inadequate rendering.

fair,'
no

; but

Sinhalese

dance-figures'
(ranga-mawd'alu).

recitations

which

Buddhaghosa
the

Were

our
means

carryingon together ?
they confined to one

played with quarterstaves


And
be compared.
may

very

in

'rapidmovement
'

'

and

this side of the festival which

has

ag

this

lying
under-

as

whence

(aym, ago,
Aryan roots,

root

of

common
') belongs to
What
of
the
on.
was
meaning
carrying
took
the
Who
were
part?
people who
survival
from
have
here
a
we
or
village?
Later
word
the
dancings together?

'

motive
religious

in

and

prose

combined

verse

the

were

afterwards

epic poetry was


explanationof
the
Ramayawa.

graduallydeveloped.
gives as examples
negative anakkhanazw

the word, but


The

Ma^^^ima I, 503.
Buddhaghosa explains this as 'playing on cymbals';
it is also called pa"ita/a/?i. The
word
is only found

adds

and
here

and

literallyhand-sounds.'
raising
Buddhaghosa says 'deep music, but some
say
bodies to life by spells.'His own
explanationis,I think,meant

dead

at

(rataka V, 506, and

'

means

'

etymological;and

be

This

to show

that he

derives

from

the word

to

vi-|-ta/a.

with the Sanskrit


vaitSinto connection
bring the word
the
word
bard.'
The
other
with
lika, 'royal
explanationconnects
vetala, 'a demon,' supposed to play pranks (as in the stories of the
Dr.
Neumann
Vetala-pa"^a-vi;;/sati) by reanimating corpses.
would

adopts

it.

But

it does

not

so

agree

in

with

well

the

context;

this ancient

and

it

reference

to
to
a
list,
scarcelyjustifiable
see,
than
thousand
can
a
only be traced in literature more
I prelater. Gogerly's rendering funeral ceremonies,' which
viously
to me
now
followed,seems
quiteout of the question.

seems

beliefs which

'

years
*

It is clear

music.

And

connection
is here

Gataka

V, 506

Vinaya IV, 285

obscure

and

probably
Gogerly'sguess seems
Sinhalese has 'strikinga

gallons.'

that

this word

kumbhathfinika

with dancers, acrobats, and

uncertain.
The

at

from

hired

means
are

sort

mentioned

of
in

Buddhaghosa

mourners.

the derivation
is quite
corrupt, and
better than Burnouf's
Neumann's.
or
drum

big enough

to

hold

sixteen

lO

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

I.

with

such

played by imagining

drawn

ground so
only where

that

the

on

steps

one

ought

one

to

from

men

them

into

heap,

or

on

'

hand

ground

wall, callingout

What

the

on

shall

it be

'

and

in each

toy pipes made

one's nail,or

with

wet

heap
putting

the

(4)Either removing
pieces or

the

showing the form required


horses, "c.^
elephants,
with balls ^.
(8) Games
(9) Blowing
through

2.

go

in

out

(3)Keeping going over


diagrams

fingersstretched

lac, or red dye, or


flour-water, and
striking

in the air '.

boards

the

"

of leaves

^.

with
(10) Ploughing
shaking it.
shakes
who
the heap, toy ploughs ^.
He
loses '.
(11) Turning summersaults
^".
(5)Throwing dice *.
(12) Playing with toy
(6)Hittinga short stick
windmills
of palmwith a lonofone
made
^
leaves ^^
(7)Dipping the hand
without

case

played with dice and piecessuch as kings and


piecesis poru (from purisa) justour 'men.'

was

for

so

The

on.

word

"

'^

Akasaw.

How

very

like blindfold
kind

chess

of

primitive'hop-scotch.' The
Sinhalese
be made
hopping.
says the steps must
Santika.
and
Spellicans,
simple.
pure
Khalika.
of playing is not
stated.
Unfortunately the method
his
in
note
as
I
II,
Eggeling's
"S"atapatha-Brahma"a
106, 7.
Compare
the Bharhut
In the gambling-scene on
Tope (Cunningham, PI. XLV.
No.
the stone
five
of six times
on
out
9) there is a board marked
the sides
on
squares (not six by six),and six little cubes with marks
Parihara-pathawz.

'

visible lie

on

the stone

"

Gha/ika;".

'

Salaka-hatthaw.

Gataka
"'

Something

Text

like

On

agrees

The

'tip-cat.'
Si/7Z-kelimayain Sinhalese.
as
colouring matter, see

flour-water

usual

with

The

Panga^iraw.
in J. P. T. S., 1889,

Vankakaw.

From

Society,1889,

"Mokkha^ika.

die.'

is 'a

meaning
Buddhaghosa.

Morris
*

the board.

I, 220.

Akkhaw.

translator
*

outside

Neither

Sinhalese

for

p. 205, compares
Sanskrit
vr/ka.

But

gives any

this

toy

details.

is

the Marathi
See

Sinhalese

the

Journal

pat-kulal.
pungi.
of

the

Pali

p. 206.
So the Sinhalese.

tive
Buddhaghosa has an alternatrapeze, but givesthis also. See

explanationof turning over on a


Vinaya I, 275, and J. P. T. S., 1885, p. 49.
"
See Morris in the J. P. T. S., 1885,
^ingulikaw.
^ingulayitva at Angutlara 111, 15, 2.
compares

p. 50, who

MINOR

DETAILS

with

(13) Playing
made

measures

OF

of

MERE

traced

toy

palm-

carts

toy

with

toy bows\

or

(16) Guessing

[7]Gotama

letters

at

the

II

in the

air,or

"

holds aloof from

recluse

on

back ^.
playfellow's
(17) Guessing the playfellow's
thoughts.
ities
(18)Mimicry of deform-

leaves.

(14, 15) Playing

MORALITY.

such

games

recreations."

and

'Or

15.

he

might

"Whereas

say:

recluses

some

Brahmans, while livingon food provided by the


faithful,continue addicted to the use of high and large
and

couches

that is

to

say

(i) Moveable
high,

six

and

(2) Divans with animal


figurescarved on the supports
(Pallanko)^

settees,

feet

long

(Asandi)*.
^

All

these

Ma^^^ima,
^

six, from

Akkharika.

writing

It

known

was

is

mentioned

inclusive,are

10

the

in

children's

as

important

games.
evidence

that such

in India

fifth century b.c.


'
The
followinglist

I, 181,

No.

vol. i, p. 266,

game

Vinaya I,

recurs

for

the

should

192

date

II, 163

which

at

known

be

in the

Ahguttara

"c.

Asandi.

beyond the allowed


refer to height,as the only rule as to measure
measure,' but that must
in seats
the height of beds or chairs is
is the 87th Pa-^ittiya
in which
limited to eight great
inches (probablyabout eighteeninches).The
Sinhalese
Sanna
adds
a
long chair for supportingthe whole body.'
Buddhaghosa merely

says

'a

seat

'

'

'

At

Gs-t. J, 208

lies down

man

on

an

asandi

so

be

to

as

able

look

to

Digha I, 55
Ma^^^ima I, 5i5=:SaOTis
be corrected),the asandt
reading must
The
the
of
used as a bier.
asandi
is selected
for
seat
as
rightsort
because
the king in both the Va^apeya and Inauguration ceremonies
of its height (Eggeling,6'at.-Brah. Ill, 35, 105). It is there said to
be made
of common
sorts of wood, and
perforated;which probably
and

up

watch

yutta III, 307

that

means
cane

or

made
Order
tall

the frame

the

was

The

of

wood

and

diminutive

the

seat

asandiko,

interlaced

of

was

legs and

short

with

is allowed

in

Buddhist

the

not
lying on),
(forsitting,
is allowed, if the
And
the asandt
even
by Vinaya II, 149.
be
cut
legs
down, by Vinaya II, 169, 170 (where the reading

square

I, 88).

and
is
preferable,
cushion
renderings large

seems

The

'

stuffed couch

translates

'bequeme
**

At

stars.

(where

wickerwork.

^^inditva

'

the

'

'

III, 209 must


large couch,' Burnouf
at

be
'

une

read
'

at

in
'

the

Sum.

quotation at

Vinaya Texts,' II, 27

accordinglycorrected.
chaise
longue,'and

and

Gogerly
Neumann

Lehnstuhl.'

Pallanko.

It is

noteworthy that,in spiteof

the

use

of

divan

BRAHMA-GALA

12

(3) Goats'
with

hair

(Gonako) '.
(4) Patchwork
of

colours

(i^ittaka).
(5) White

coverlets
flowers

with

(Pa/alika).
(7) Quilts

with

stuffed

(Tulikd).

wool

one

(8) Coverlets

sa;;^).

(12) Silk
(Koseyya;/?).
(13) Carpets

blankets

(Pa^'ika).
(6) Woollen

cotton

fleece

panes
counter-

many

embroidered

(10) Rugs with fur on


side (Ekantalomi).
dered
embroi(11) Coverlets
with gems
(K a///? is-

lets
cover-

long

very

SUTTA.

enough

coverlets

for sixteen

large
dancers

(Kuttaka;;^).
Elephant,
(14-16)
horse, and

chariot

rugs.

(17) Rugs of antelope


skins sewn
together (A^i-

dered
embroi-

figuresof lions, na-pave;2i).


"c. (Vikatika).
(18) Rugs of skins
tigers,
the plantain antelope.
(9) Rugs with fur on
both sides (Uddalomi).
(19) Carpets with awnwith

with

animals

carved

its

on

here

objected to,

it is

Buddhist

the Buddha
himself,or
in
later
often,
sculptures,representedas
personages
kunst,' pp. iii, 124, 137; INIitra,
silting(Griinwedel, Buddhistische
'Budh
Plates
"c.
XI,
XX,
"c.). At Mahavawisa
Gaya,'
25 sihasana

preciselythe

of

being

supports

of

sort

seat

on

which

of distinction,are
'

and

pallanko
is used

throne
but

an

used

are

Du/Ma

of

of Nissanka

actual

stone

vol. i,p. 135.

of the

same

Gamini's

throne, ibid. 157.


Pollonnaruwa, is not

Malla, found at
lion, larger than

Compare

the similar

(Asoka's throne),and

seat

life size

seat

in

But
a

('Indian

Griinwedel, p.

the

sana
siha-

Lion

pallanko,
Antiquary,'
95).

allowed
to
pallanka was
if the animal
in
broken
off (the translation
the Order
figureswere
altered
be
va/e
for
must
Texts,'III,
reading
accordingly,
Vinaya
209,
that
vale, as at Vinaya IV, 312). By Vinaya II, 163 it is laid down
of the Order were
in
members
even
not
to use
a
complete pallanko
laymen's houses, so that Nigrodha's action in the passage just quoted
(Mahavawsa 25) was
reallya breach of the regulations.
from
The
words
down
ka////issaw
to
inclusive, and
gonako
found
also kuttaka;w,are
and
in
this
list,
to
only
Buddhaghosa seems

By Vinaya II, 170

the

possession

of

'

be

No.

uncertain

as

be

7 might
all might

to

the

used

exact

in

meaning

of

laymen's houses

of

them.

All

except
('Vinaya Texts,' III, 197),

some

if used
possessed by the Order
only as floorNo.
the
wool
of
cotton
coverings (ibid.Ill, 209) ; except again
7,
which
the
might be utilised for pillows. As there is a doubt about
it
noticed
be
Sanna
and
that
the
reads
spelling may
gowakawz
and

be

MINOR

DETAILS

OF

MERE

MORALITY.

them
(Sa(20) Sofas with red pilings above
lows for the head and feet."
uttara-"^"^^adaw).
'Or
he might say:
"Whereas
16.
recluses
some
while
and
Brahmans,
livingon food provided by the

faithful, continue

adorning
Rubbing
shampooing
of

in

scented

it, and
after

clubs

the

to

of

use

beautifyingthemselves;

and

with

addicted

Patting

of wrestlers

manner

whisks

diadems,
white

robes

the

recluse

the

The

use

for

cases

turbans,
slippers,

yak's tail,and
holds

long-fringed

aloof

from

such

means

and

'

and

limbs

beautifyingthe person ^."


he might say :
Whereas
Or
recluses
some
7.
food
Brahmans, while livingon
provided by the

adorning
1

body,

"

Gotama
of

of

"

cosmetics,

reed
bracelets, necklaces, walking-sticks,
embroidered

say,

the

mirrors, eye-ointments, garlands,rouge,

sunshades,
drugs,rapiers,

to

one's

on

it.

bathing

the

that is

powders

for

means

"

faithful,continue
these

addicted

such

to

low

conversation

as

Tales
tales

of

of

kings, of robbers,
of

war,

of

ministers

of battles

terrors,

talk

of

state

about

foods

garlands,perfumes ; talks
about
relationships,equipages, villages,town, cities,
tales about
countries
and
women
[8], and about
;
heroes ; gossip at street
^ or
corners
places whence
drinks, clothes, beds,

and

and

uddalomiw:

MS.

the

in

and

sentence) has

R.

the

(which

S.

A.

both

uddalomiOT

repeats

each

times.

gonaka/"
Perhaps rubbing the limbs with flat pieces of
wood.
See Buddhaghosa here and at
Vinaya Texts,' III, 60.
This is not quiteaccurate.
Out of the twenty items here objected
of sunshades) were
(shampooing, bathing, and the use
to, three
himself.
Bathrooms,
in the Order, and
allowed
practisedby Gotama
III,
Texts,'
and
halls attached
to
them, are
permitted by 'Vinaya
^

Sambahanawz.

'

shampooing

189;

for the
in

observed
streams

or

by

ibid.

provisionof

them

rivers

; and
are

frequent.

Visikha-katha.

in the
'street-talk')

situate,and

whether

hot

of the

instances

'Vinaya Texts,' III, 132-3,


'

There
297.
baths
and
steam

Ill, 68,

and

The

of

use

of

use

is referred

talk

the inhabitants

about
are

the
the

of sunshades
to

Buddhaghosa (p. 90)


sense

are

elaborate

ordinary bath
is

in

permittedby

ibid. Ill, 88, 274.


takes this word
(literally

streets, whether

bold

regulations
be

etiquetteto

or

poor,

"c.

ill

or

well

14

I.

fetched

is

water

ghost

the

speculationsabout
existence

about

or

Gotama

8.

recluse

he

might

stones

"

such

You

as

don't

land

or

sea

such

low

"Whereas

say:

^,

"

aloof from

holds

versation."
con-

recluses

some

food

Brahmans, while livingon


addicted
to
faithful,continue
^

talk

non-existence

and

phrases

desultory
the

of

creation

and

the

Or

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

provided by the
of wrangling
use

the

"

understand

doctrine

this

and

discipline,

I do."
"

should

How

know

you

this

about

doctrine

and

"

?
discipline
"

am
"

"

You

have

in the

right."
speaking to the point,you are
are
ought
putting last what

am

You

and

fallen

first what

"

What

into

ougrht to

It is I who

views.

wrong

not

^"

to

come

first,

last ^."

come

long, that's

you've excogitatedso

all

quite

upset."

'

The

Pubba-peta-katha.

talk about

deceased

relatives

this to

confines

commentator

boasting

ancestors.

or

The
Nanatta-kathazw,
literally'difference-talk.'
expression
somewhat
forced,if taken as meaning
desultory ; but I see

'

seems

better

explanation.
Lokakkhayika.
Buddhaghosa refers this speciallyto such
speculations as are
put forth according to the Lokayata system
Vita""/as
the
materialistic
are
by
(also called Lokayalikas). These
no

of whose
theorisers,
system very little is,so
vol.
I have
at
Texts,'
iii,
Vinaya
p. 151.

far,known.
collected

'

them

to

in

120,

114,

'

my
and

probably referred
*

'

is

now

3, may

to

be

these
added.

Digha I,
They

chap, iii of

in

this Sutta, "" 10,


in Suttas 76-78 in the

recurs

1,

are

20.

Ma^^Aima,

188,

side,'or
the

found

only

the context

'

and

expressionsall recur at Ma^^^ima II, 3.


Sahita"i
'the put together is to me,'
literally
me,

idiom

by

Salint,p.
below

the note

references

These

'

Vinaya I,

at

to

listof foolish talks

This

and

Milinda,' vol. i, p. 7

Attha

See

other

is

merely
Sanna,

on
'

here, and

my
that which

amounts

Puttingthe cart

to

before

mean

may

side,'or

is of
the

same

either

the

text

use

is
as

the horse.

as

rendered

The

"c.

above,

is
(of the Scriptures)

on

or

my
side.' This last,given
my
the version adopted above.
on

MINOR

"

Your

"

You

"

OF

challengehas

"

DETAILS

proved

are

MERE

been

MORALITY.

up ^"
2/'

wrong
clear
views
to
to
your
Disentangle yourselfif you can

Set

work

the recluse

Gotama

taken

be

to

^."
*"
"

holds

aloof

say:

"Whereas

from

such

wrangling

phrases."
he

'Or

19.

might
while

Brahmans,

and

faithful, continue

addicted

errands, and

acting

on

ministers

kings,

of

food

livingon

provided by

taking

to

recluses

some

going

messages,

go-betweens ; to wit,
Kshatriyas, Brahmans,

as

state,

the

on
or

hither, take this


men,
saying : Go there, come
young
with you, bring that from thence
Gotama
the
recluse
from
abstains
such
servile
*

'

"

duties."
Or

'

20.

Brahmans,

might say :
while livingon

Whereas

"

food

tricksters^,droners

are

he

Aropito
on

te

the

On

vado.
Theri

out

the

Gatha,

p.

use

recluses and

some

provided by
(ofholy words

of this idiom
There

101.

ful,
faith-

for

pay)^

the Commentary

compare

is

misprint here in
joined against you'
a

aropito. 'Issue has been


a
one
possiblerendering. It is the phrase used, when some
has offered to hold
debate
(maintain a thesis)againstall comers,
by
the
takes
who
an
challenge.
opponent
up
the opening paragraphs
Niggahito si. On this idiom compare
and
the
the
Katha
Vatthu
of
Commentary on them (especially
pp. 9,
10). It is literally
'you are censured.'
So
ATara
Buddhaghosa. But Gogerly
vada-pamokkhaya.
and
this disputation;
be freed from
renders, Depart, that you may
is
this view.
It
the only parallel
to support
seems
Ma^^^ima
passage
for the
the
learn
is
said
be
where
it
to
to
Scriptures
I, 133,
wrong
where
debate
sake of the advantage of being freed from discussion
or
besides
Pamokkha
at Samoccurs
texts
are
quoted against one.
the text,

would

aropito

for

the

be

'

'

'

'

yutta I,

2,

G^ataka

V,

31,

30,

and

Mahavawsa

158,

but

not

in

this

connection.
*

such

So

the author

of Milinda

phrase (Mil. p. 27)


propriety.
a

in
is

making
making

his hero
him

Nagasena

commit

use

breach

of

just
of

trickery,'
without
also referred
to
These
explanation
are
says Buddhaghosa.
read
I
(zataka
kuhana).
think,
at
IV, 297 (where we should,
Ahguttara I, 165, 168;
Lapaka.
Compare Itivuttaka,No. 99
*

Kuhaka.

'Astonish

the world

with

"

and

the

also Milinda

228, Gataka

III, 349.

three

sorts

l6

I.

diviners

\ and

gain

to

BRAHMA-GALA

exorcists

Gotama

^
"

SUTTA.

hungering

^, ever

holds

recluse

the

add

to

aloof

gain

from

such

'

deceptionand patter."
ends

Here

Ma;f^^/^imaSila [the Longer

the

Paragraphs on

[9]21.

Or

'

he

might

Conduct].
"

say

Whereas

Brahmans, while living on food


their livingby wrong
faithful,earn
and

recluses

some

provided by
of

means

the

hood,
liveli-

by low arts, such as these :


(i) Palmistry prophe(2) Diviningby means
sying
of
and signs ^
omens
long life,prosperity,
"c. (or the reverse), from
drawn
(3) Auguries
"

"

marks

on

child's

from

hands,

feet,"c.*
'

Nemittaka,

Gat
*

the

IV,

in

'

found
All

portents *'.

omens.'
of signs and
'interpreters
the
next
paragraph. Compare

See

the

Milinda

note

299;

away' (?of ghosts,or


Sanna
give no help, and

and

omens).

bad

'scarers

the

word

has

But

only

in this hst.

the
there

context

and

124.

Nippesika,
Commentary

been

celestial

other

nimittaw

on

thunderbolts

five words
is

dt of the Turnour

as

in

undecisive

MS.

at

this
as

list
it is

the India

A.

at

recur

here, and

the

Ill,

in,

but

Commentary

the

(fol.

different,
though slightly
Office),

givesno better help.


this from
'limbs.'
Buddhaghosa distinguishes
Ahga.m, literally
lakkha"aw?
this
from
in
and
(No.
(No. 5
anga-vi^^a
list),
16). It
is not found, in this sense, anywhere in ihe texts.
'marks,' or
Nimittaw/, literally
'signs.' Buddhaghosa tells
a
King Pa""/u, they say (Pa""fiin the Sanna),
story in illustration.
took three pearlsin his closed hand, and asked a diviner what he had
this way
that for a sign; and
and
in it. The
latter looked
seeing
Sanna
which
had
house-lizard
been
a
a
(the
by
caught by
fly
says
a
dog,' perhaps the meaning is simply in sugar ') getting free
in Pali).'How
(mutta), said at once
'pearls'(alsomutta
many?'
the king. The
diviner,hearing a dog bark thrice,answered
says
Mil.
'three.' Compare
the note
the last section
to
on
178, and
*

"^

'

'

the story at RIahavawsa


82.
the portents of the great ones,
Uppado,
on,' says Buddhaghosa. The Great Ones

nemittika,
*

so

and
'

thunderbolts
here

mean,

and
falling,
I think, the

planets(seethe note
spirits gods presiding
Sanskrit
the
The
word
on
correspondsto
Utpata, though the
" 26).
for by overwhelming authority. But
this is only
d
is vouched
Ed.
another
has shown,
MUller
instance of a change not infrequent
(as
or

over

the sun,

moon,

and

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

(i6) Looking

(18) Advising

the

at

law ^

knuckles, "c., and, after

muttering
whether
born

ing
divin-

charm,

(20)Laying ghosts^.
(21) Knowledge of the

lucky or not ^
ther
(17) Determining whesite, for

house
is

lucky or

p.

176, on

the

of blood

use

here

I.

simply that
bad, and

charming"'.
Rig-vidh.Ill,
the specific
from
paralleled

for sorcery.
In one
passage,
that is to be used.
But

by Buddhaghosa

be

cannot

books.

Anga-vi^^a.

of No.

when

earth house

an

blood

own

interpretationgiven
'

used

be

to

(22) Snake

not

Brahmanical

charms

posed
pro-

pleasance, lodgingin

or

18, 3, it is one's
the

*.

cemetery

or

the

in

demons

(19) Laying

is well

man

tomary
cus-

on

i8

Buddhaghosa

thus

the

Gat.

In

both

of

judging

it is the

good

the ah gam

separates this from

knowledge is
250
that he is rough or
appearance
in the story (in the second
the Bodisat
case
II, 200,

passages
from
man's
a

man

the

So at Gat. V, 458 it is
himself)who is the anga-vi^^a-pa/^ako.
that
Bodisat
that
will be cruel.
the
a
man
prophesies
by anga-vi^^a
Childers (Diet.,p. 559) has 'pool' instead of
Vatthu-vi^^a.
misread
for ghara (s and
sara
'house,'having
gh are nearlyalike in
craft is further explained by Buddhaghosa in his
Sinhalese). The
pended
dethe Maha-parinibbana Sutta
Its success
comment
on
I, 26.
the belief that the sites were
haunted
on
by spirits.See
"^

further
^

below, " 27.

The
Khatta-vij^^jD^a.

into the familiar

khetta.

Burmese

MSS.

the

correct

Khetta-vi^^a

indeed

occurs

khatta

rare

at

Ud.

Ill, 9.

just possiblythere

with writing,arithmetic,
(in connection
of
tion.'
land-surveying,mensurameaning
Buddhaghosa, though his explanation is corrupt, evidently
understands
the phrase in a sense
similar to that of khatta-dhamma
Gat. V, 489, 490;
Mil. 164 (see also 178); and
his gloss nitiat
and

may

tables, "c.) be

satthawi

is

correct

in the

'

the mark

.Sahkara's

KM.nd.

Up.
is dhanur-veda.
It is the craft of government,
2),which
then
lying in great part in adhering to custom.
The
Sutta only follows the Upanishad in looking at all these crafts
minor
but it goes
as
matters,
beyond it in looking upon them as a
VII,

'

low
*

probably nearer

than

(on

I,

'

way,

for

Brahman,

of

here

'

"

have

It is clear

gaining
that

livelihood.

and
euphemistically,
afterwards developed
an
we
early reference to
may
into the cult of the god ^Slva.
alternadve
Buddhaghosa gives an
of
the
cries
of
explanationas knowledge
jackals.
Bhfita-vi^^a. Also in the A7;andogya list (loc.
at).
as
Bhflri-vi^^a. It is the same
bhQri-kammaw,
explainedin
the same
below.
on
by
Buddhaghosa
"
27
way
^
One
method
is described
Gii. IV, 457, 8.
at
Ahi-vi^^a.

S\ya.-v'\ggL

siva

is used
what

MINOR

DETAILS

OF

(23)The poison craft ^.


(24)The scorpioncraft^.
(25) The

MERE

number

ward

he

might

off

wheel

live.

to

charms

to

^.

arrows

The

animal

^
"

aloof from

low arts."

such

"Whereas

say:

that

years

yet

(30)

the recluse holds

'Or

22.

(29) Giving

(26) The bird craft ^


craft *.
(27) The crow
(28) Foretelling the
Gotama

of

has

man

craft 2.

mouse

MORALITY.

recluses

some

Brahmans, while livingon food provided by the


their living
of livelihood,
faithful,
earn
means
by wrong
and

low

by
in

arts, such as these


Knowledge of the signs of

good

the

of

"

followingthings
denoting the health or luck

and

women

weapons,

the

of their

bad

qualities

marks

in them

owners

swords, arrows,
garments,
*, men
^, boys ^ girls
^,

"^ystaves,

gems

and

wit,

to

:
"

bows, other

slaves,slave-

girls,
elephants,horses, buffaloes,bulls,oxen, goats",
and
tortoises,
sheep ^,fowls ^,quails^iguanas'^earrings'",
animals

other

the recluse holds aloof from

Gotama
Or

23.

Perhaps

"

he

might

such charms

"Whereas

say:

againstsnake

bite

as

low arts."

such

recluses

some

Ath.-v.

V,

13 ;

VI,

12,

56

included.

VII, 88, are


*
Buddhaghosa

(compare
^

poison spells

curing or giving poison, or


100).
simply curing the
explained to mean
says

Ath.-v. VI, 90, 93,

These

are

bites of these

creatures.

Understanding their language.


and
Diviningby the appearance
Compare the Amba/Ma-vi^^a

'
*
"

the text,

"

the

cawings of

at Sum.

'

The

in

of this

whole

series of

below, p. 96

of

23.

Miga-^akkawi.Understanding the

255

crows.

and

'

'

low

manuals

art

as

language

appliedto gems
by L. Finot

edited

now

of all creatures.
has
in

been
his

collected

'Lapidaires

Indiens,'Paris, 1896.
The

art

these

four

cases

whether

is to determine

ihey will bring good (or bad)

show

them

in

luck

to

the marks

the houses

on

in which

they dwell.
*

The

to eat
"

the
as

art

in these

five

cases

is to say whether

it is unclean

or

not

them.
This

same

comes

very oddly. But the old commentator


in its ordinarysenses, not
takes the word

in here

reading,and

amulet.
C

had
even

20

I.

BRAHMA-GALA

SUTTA.

Brahmans, while livingon food provided by the


of livelihood,
their livingby wrong
faithful,earn
means
and

low

by

arts, such

[lo]The
The

will march

chiefs

chiefs will march

The

home

"

out.

back.
will

chiefs

effect that

the

soothsaying,to

as

enemies'

the

attack, and

retreat.

The

chiefs will attack, and

enemies'

The

home

will

chiefs

gain

the

foreignchiefs suffer defeat.


The
foreign chiefs will gain

the

will suffer defeat


Thus

that

will

will

ours

retreat.

the

victory, and
victory, and

ours

^
"

there

be

victory

on

this

side, defeat

on

"

Gotama

recluse

the
Or

holds

he

might say :
Brahmans, while livingon
their livingby wrong
earn
low arts as foretelling
'

24.

"

aloof from

Whereas

food

low

such

arts."

recluses

some

and

the

faithful,
of livelihood,by such

provided by

means

"

(i) There
eclipseof the
(2) There
eclipseof the
(3) There

eclipse
shatra)

of

will
moon.

be

ration
(5)The

an

will

sun.

will
star

be

sun

to

return

(6) There

an

of the

(Nak-

(7)The

'\

(4) There

the

or

sun

moon.

will be

the

of

an

will be aber-

to

its usual

path.

rations
will be aberstars.

stars

their usual

themoon

or

will

course

return

^.

This cannot
be
paragraphs the pluralis used.
of
of
that
in
time
are
always spoken
great kings
the singular. Yet all the previous translators,except Burnouf, translate
will
inarch
It
evident
the
the
"c.
is
out,'
king
by
singular
that we
have
and not the
to understand
chiefs,'
king : and that not
less
absolute
or
monarchies, but republican institutions of a more
of the composer
of the paragraph.
aristocratic type, were
in the mind
'
translated
a
Nakkhatta,
by Gogerly and Neumann
'planet.'
Mars
This
and
on.'
so
Buddhaghosa explainsit by
apply to
may
know
and
I
other
but
in
also
to
no
stars
general,
planets,
passage
is confined
where
the meaning of the word
has
to planets. Burnouf
but what
the eclipse
of a constellation
mean?
'constellation,'
can
Prof.
and
Kielhorn
Patha-gamana
uppatha-gamana.
says
this section):
on
(in a note he has been kind enough to send me
What
I do
know.
But
the author
not
means
by these words

Throughout

honorific,as

these

the few

'

"

'

'

'

"''

'

'

MINOR

DETAILS

will be

(8) There
of

OF

MERE

fall

MORALITY.

rising and

will be

(9)There

gle
jun-

or

sun

fire 2.

^,

stars

will be

(10) There

each

an

dimness, of the
the

moon

or

foretellingof

god

will thunder.

fifteen

that

they

betoken
result

such
"

the

or

of these

earthquake.

(11) The

ness
setting,clear-

and

meteors

21

and

nomena
phewill

such

[ll]

will be
(12-15) There
he might say:
"Whereas
recluses
some
25. 'Or
and
while
Brahmans,
livingon food provided by the
their livingby wrong
of livelihood,
faithful,
earn
means
by low arts, such as these :
rainfall.
Foretellingan abundant
Foretellinga deficient rainfall.
Foretellinga good harvest.
Foretellingscarcityof food.
Foretellingtranquillity.
"

Foretellinofdisturbances.

Foretellinga pestilence.
Foretellinga healthy season.
Counting on the fingers*.
would

uppatha-gamana
one's

from

"aberration, the going away


literally
therefore
should
be
patha-gamana

path"; and
proper
followingone's proper course."

"

'

Ukka-pato.

Disa-daho.

Burnouf

the two

sure

words

could

Burnouf

Mud

made

these

at
'

means

also

There

da.
the
seal

meaning
'

'

or

of

four

take

has
in

them

been

213,

words
as

to

178.

to

this word

four

occurrences.

Buddhaghosa
the

various

muddd,

which

in
diversity

great

of

has

'

guesses

'

'

the future
foretelling
services.
Neumann
administrative
has
Verwaltungsdienste,'
is very curt.
He
ga"ana.
says only hattha-mudda
mudda
is found
Git.
elsewhere
Ill, 528, where
only at
sense

seems

usually
conveyancing,'and so
and the next
as
one
compound
by calculatingdiagrams ; and

this connection

takes

374.
refer

only two.

seal-ring.'Gogerly

Childers; Burnouf

the

Gat. I, 212,

Compare
takes

Mil.

and

the

But

Gogerly and Neumann


to imply four.
*

I, 374;

not

sion.
declen-

lightning,'
according to Neumann;
atmosphere,'according to Gogerly,whom
are
Buddhaghosa's words
only explicableof

in

follows.

jungle fire.
'

Git.

See

'Thunder

fierycorruscalions

in

am

opposition; nor, I think,ascension and


that Buddhaghosa has not explainedthem.'

It is curious

conjunction and

mean

'

be

'

ghosa
BuddhaHatthahattha-

T.

12

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

Counting without using the fingers^


Summing up large totals ^
Composing ballads, poetizing^
Casuistry,sophistry^
"

Gotama

holds

recluse

the

low-

such

from

aloof

arts."
he

Or

'

26.

Whereas

"

might

say

recluses

some

food provided by the


Brahmans, while livingon
of livelihood,
their living
faithful,earn
means
by wrong
and

by low

arts, such

karoti

muddawz

with

his

beckon,' and

'to

politemember

hand,

nor

our

But

mudda

it is called

honourable),at

Milinda

78, 178 of the


practises that craft at

(pp. 3,

person
Sinhalese

who

doubt
'

the

M.

the

of

as

I, 85,
Pali
D.

craft

muddiko

I,

the

in

the

as

IV,

The

8.

(quoted in my translation of the Milinda,


there was
simply arithmetic, using the joints

this

fingers as

aid

an

to

our
paragraph.
meaning
Buddhaghosa's comment

in

contradistinction

gawana,
broken
not

up

The

simple.
(D. I, 51;

is

passage
akkhi/"/aka.

this

And

memory.

to

the

by using

who

accountant

Vin.

the

this

on

It is

last.

is

no

this

uses

evidently calculation

method

IV,

on
a

who

He

gawako
latter

the

reading,

wrong
has

and

pure

is called

8). Buddhaghosa's comment


given by MinayefF at Pat. 84, but with

this can,

a^^Aiddaka-

is

arithmetic

fingers,mental

Saw^khana;^^, literally
'counting up.'

of

times

Vin.

and

here

(where

Vin. IV, 7

at

text),and
51

are

passages
beckoning is

several

and

Mil.

compare
these

of

sense

is mentioned

sign

no

in

Gawana.

"^

on

that the art

knuckles

or

the

59,

comment

I, 91) shows

text, and

where

163,

makes

he

Both

II, 216.)

I, i57=Vin.

impossible.

later

that

V,

hattha-vikdra

(On

than

much

Vin.

at

the Order

of

beckons.

547 =Vin.

I, 207,

"

means

of the

it is said

as

the

faculty

it has,
looking
doing
tree, say
many
But
the
doubtful.
first words
of his comment
are
says Buddhaghosa.
the
of
He
mean
means
masses
perhaps
calculating
by
rosary.
may
Burnouf
has simply counting.'
skipsthis word, and Neumann
The
word
in a bad
at A. I, 72
sense,
recurs,
Kaveyyawt.
S.
and
also
the
in
at
I, no
III, 107,
phrase kaveyya-matto,
in the
drunk
with prophecy, inspired.'Buddhaghosa enumerates,
at

on

leaves

how

'

'

'

words

of

nearly the
passage.

A.

II, 230,

same

None

words
of

the

four
as

four

kinds
found
refer

of
in
to

poetry,
the

and

Manoraiha

sacrificial

explains
Pfirawi

hymns.

are
rhyming, ballad singing,and the composition of poems
rendered
'materialism.'
But
Lokayataw.
Usually
clear that this meaning is impossible in this connection.
*

hnda

174.

them
on

in
that

Impromptu
meant.

it is
See

quite
Mi-

MINOR

DETAILS

OF

MERE

(1)Arranging a lucky
day for marriagesin which
the
bride
or
bridegroom
is

brought

home

23

(6) Fixing a lucky time


for

the

expenditure

[orcharms
money
ill luck
to
an

(2) Arranging

MORALITY.

of

bring

to

opponent

lucky throwingdice]^
day for marriages in which
(7) Using charms
to
the
bride
make
or
bridegroom
people lucky *.
is sent
forth ^.
(8) Using charms
to
make
(3) Fixing a lucky time
people unlucky.
for the conclusion
of treaties
(9) Using charms
to
of
[or using procure abortion.
peace
charms
mony]
harto
(10) Incantations
to
procure
^
bring on dumbness.
(4) Fixinga lucky time
to
(11) Incantations
for the outbreak
of hostilities
a
keep
man
s
jaws
charms
fixed.
[or using
to
make
discord]^
to
(12) Incantations
make
throw
(5) Fixing a lucky time
a
man
up his
for the callingin of debts
hands.
a

for success
[or charms
throwingdice]^
*

is

into the house

live in the

to

express
^

Burnouf
The

diga marriage

sorcery,
Sanskrit,and

calls

they

The

Indian

books

them

of

none

in which

of the actual
which

concord

charms
*

have

no

useless

one

exceptionmentioned

the

charms

which

in

now

out

English

elsewhere

occur

either

had

not

till

wait

must

examples

of the words, not

in

Pali

be

at

fault

to

later

may
survived

clear, but
sufficiently

be

in

or

for absolute
are

mere

found

but
lists,

in
in

Ath.-v. Ill, 30 is a charm


to
meaning.
several
and
there
are
VII, 52 ;
family,compare
for

are

to

in the

such

5;

3;

seek

supposed

to

charms

XVI,

in the
notes

gambling,

in

success

Many

(forinstance, X,
be

the bride is sent

words

and

of the word

use

use

Subhaga-karanaw.
It would

bridegroom

the

shows

in the Atharva-veda

Atharva-veda
'

in

the

preserved by Buddhaghosa

the

general sense
may
certainty of interpretationwe
connection

'.

giving in marriage.
Childers
calls
this
a
magic art, following
it sorcery.
Buddhaghosa explains it as astrology.
expressionsare technical terms for acts of astrology

the tradition

cases

times.

secure

in which

bridegroom'sfamily.
between
marrying

who

or

marriage in which
family.

this difference

fact is all these

in those

btna

We

Sa;?ivadanaw.

deafness

to

of the bride's

the Sinhalese

Compare

to

.(13) Incantations
bring on

the Sinhalese

Compare

brought

in

4;

are

preserved in

the

9).
(with the
section)gives only

Atharva-veda, which
to

the

next

bring benefits, for instances

of

I.

24

BRAHMA-GALA

(14) Obtaining
by

answers

SUTTA.

of

means

Sun

the

malevolent

black

magic,

sixth century
'

mirror

discard
hidden

and

the

god,

The

events.

Kumari-pa""^o.

"

Deva-pa"/iO.
the

under

same

have

have

cult of Brahma
much

the

173.
Great

It is at

instructive

century

to
b.

the

find,

even

that

men

c,

the

from

gods through

and

little

the

grant

might
no

was

monial
cere-

And

however

the

dominant

of Brahma.

none

the

duced
intro-

Buddhists

there

the

This

find Brahma

to

that

in

Brahma.

Maha

as

sorceries,but

or

hold

One

ridiculed

is

least odd

may
list of

gospel might

new

of

(Par.Dip. 235).
girlof good familyand repute.
through a girl,but this time

We

sun-worship into

put

give pictures

sun-worship

No.

explains the

me

in

Such

very doubtful.
this connection.

to

not

god appear in
conception to

later

itself

communications

name,

Buddhaghosa

seems

need

We

woman.

of the

the

in

recorded.
made

It is

temple prostitute. It is
patriarchalregime of the sixth
of

that

evidence

white.

not

they

arts."

low

fully trusted

as

are

says

obtained

Adi^^upa/Z^anam.

Gataka

Ganges

"

direct

as

or

thought they
the rnedium

mouth.

such

here

mirror

Through

best

forth

is of metal

Also

could

one's

from

have

the

the

mirror

deva-dasi

aloof

charms

make

of Luck

o^oddess

questions put

and

of

(20) Invoking Siri,the

Buddhaghosa

answer

worship

One

from

inevitable,was

the malevolent

The

Great

flames

we

valleyof

in the

b.c.

Adasa-paw^o.

the

indeed

was

as

that
sujprised

be

But

practices.

of

(19) Bringing

recluse holds

the

these

the

worship

*.

(18)

magic mirror \
lar
(15) Obtaining oracuanswers
through a girl
possessed^.
lar
(16) Obtaining oracufrom
answers
a
god
the

Gotama

The

(17)

lar
oracu-

speculations of

theosophy in contempt, that would scarcelyexplain their being ranked


this by rendering the
avoids
as
privatesin this regiment. Burnouf
'

sorcery.'

Neither

of

is elsewhere
a

sandhi

Great

give

for

sense,

the

certainlymeant,

guesses
in Pali, and
always maha

the

as

covert

worship

popular mind
and

Neumann

one

so

with

in

the

of the

we

to

would

of

practising
in

worship
This

Earth
A

be

Mahat

mahi.

Mother

witchcraft.

'

possiblyhave

sense

allusion

associated

has

happy.

seems

the Earth, with

excellent

associated

these

mahati-upa//"^anaw,

Mother,
in

great,'and

the

phrase generally serving

god
best

position
com-

here

of the
would

closely
goddess is
place here.

was
or

in

perhaps worthy of note that in the oldest portion of the Taittiriya


Upanishad, Sun, Moon, Earth, and Sri occur
together in a set of
and
all identified
food are
mystic groups, and Sun, Moon, Brahma,
(SiLra-valli4-7).
by a word-play with Mahas
It is

'^

See

Milinda

191,

and

GkL

II, 410.

26

I.

(24)
Gotama
*

brethren,

dicines
aloof

the

are

in rotation

from

such

^
"

arts."

low

minor

the

matters,
trifling

morality,of which the unconverted


praisingthe Tathagata, might speak.'

details, of

mere

when
Here

28.

(25)Administering me-

recluse holds

the

These,

man,

SUTTA.

Administering
drugs.

and

roots

BRAHMA-GALA

the

end

There

Conduct.

Long Paragraphs on
other

brethren,

things,profound,
to
to
understand, tranquillising,
be grasped by mere
not
to
subtle,compresweet,
logic,
hensible
gata,
Tathathe
These
only by the wise ^
things
them
face
having himself realised them and seen
forth ; and it is of them
that they,who
to face,hath
set
would
with
rightlypraise the Tathagata in accordance
'

difficult

the
'

realise,hard

truth, should
And

what
'

29.

who

speak.

they ?

are

There

recluses

are

the

reconstruct

whose

past
'

are,

Brahmans,

and

ultimate

Buddhist

of Nos.

view

of

beginnings

concerned
speculationsare
^,and who on eighteengrounds

The

brethren,
ultimate

put forward

various

must

11-25

things,

the

with

not

mistaken.

be

It is

the numerous
clear from
sufficiently
examples in the Vinaya (see
'Vinaya Texts,' II, pp. 41-144), and from the high praise
especially
accorded
and
other
that the objectionwas
to (rivaka
to
physicians,
recluses and Brahmans
livelihood.
of
medicine
as
a
means
practising
and
for their coreligionists,
or
They might do so gratisfor themselves
do
for
so
laymen might
gain.
The
of pa/imokkha
It is when, for
in No.
use
25 is curious.

instance, a purgative is first given and then a tonic


other, to set free from its effect. Compare Gat. V,
^

No

The

Gogerly in

terms
at DivySvadana, p. 492.
occur
reading there ought to be nipuwo.
also
anuddi///ii
S. Ill, 45.
On
see
phrases recur
the 'Ceylon Friend,'i875,p. i33,andI\Iorris
in thej.P. T. S.,

and

1886, p. 113;
1 1

almost
occurs,

As

19.

in

compare

have

and
history,

atianuddi////i

anudi//^i

connotation

in all the

of contempt
The

"

seven
mere

Greek

delusion.

opinion,
dogma or speculationis
a

at

colloquialexpression

our

always, and

considered

belief.

25.

the

These

S. N.

the

counteract

Sanskrit
correspondint?

doubt
'

to

better

Mil.

146, 160, 352;

'viewy man,'
passages

view,

86^a has

an

di//^i

where
offhand

had

rendering than

it
ill-

similar
view

or

THE

assertions

'There
who

mans

what, do those

to

Eternalists

are

proclaim that
And

both

venerable

do

ones

the

In

Brahman

by

mind

his various

birth, or

one

twenty,

laks

of

such

Brah-

grounds,
eternal.

are

what, do

to

those

recluse

some

or

ardour, of exertion, of application,

thence
such

and

the

to

"

such

such
a

span

reborn

was

such

name,

such
caste, livingon
and
such
pains and
a

span
reborn

'

Sassata-vada.

Gotra,
be

that
of

was

such

pains

There

and

and

had

and

such

and

such

food,

pleasures,had

and

1 fell from

of years.
And
when
in such
and
such a
in such

or

such

such

on

in

"

thousands

"

to

five,or ten,
hundred, or

or

to

such

place under
lineageand

food, experiencing such

such

pleasures, with

such

such

and

I was
I fell from
thence
of years.
And
when
here."
Thus
he recollect, in full detail
does

of condition

both

or
fifty,

by

gone

four, or

or

effect

^ lived

and

times

hundreds

name,

caste

such

and

three,

or

several

in

births

and

such

in
dwelling-places

or

experienced

to

the world

or
forty,or
thirty,

or

lineage^ and

and

and

four

on

place, brethren,

in two,

thousand,

who,

reference

of

means

recluses

so

so

first

do

of earnestness,
of careful thought, reaches
up
rapture of heart that, rapt in heart, he calls

such

or

soul

what, with

ones

some

\ and

what, with

about

31.

the

about

venerable

brethren,

are,

27

[is]And

it.

regarding

reference
30.

ETERNALISTS,

and

his various

of custom,

'cow-stall.'
literally
written.
It probably meant

historyof

The

the

at

dwelling-

word

this

this Sutta

time

has

was

yet

written

the meaning of
On
lineage traced through the father.
(the gentiles of Roman
Law) in the later law-books see
gotra^a
Law
of Inheritance/ p. 171.
West
and Biihler, Hindu
'
it 'appearance,'
'colour.'
Gogerly renders
Va;/"a, literally
a

family

or

'

and

Neumann

'

in its strictest

mentioned

Beruf.'

sense)because
often

so

in the

it

See

J. R.

and
A.

"

caste

doubt

no

Sultas.

Brahmans, Vessas, and Suddas


the people,each
consisting of
connubium

chosen

I have

were

many
commensality) which

S., 1897, pp. 180-190.

it is not

refers to the ^attaro

It is
not

(though

true

these"

that

castes, but

subdivisions

afterwards

caste
va""a

Khattiyas,

four divisions

(by customs
hardened

as

of
to

into castes.

28

I.

placesin
"

times

and

spring
And

ever.

why

in

peak,

these

though

to

call

to

"

is eternal

soul

the

[The

32.

that

save

same

the world

and

second

the

previous

and

as

that

maintain

things

on

recluses
that both

put is in all respects


births thus called to

the

same

mind

tend
ex-

still longer period up to ten world


a
over
aeons
\]
[The third case
33. [15]
put is in all respects the
that the previous births thus called to mind
save

extend

over

stilllongerperiod up

[i6] And in the fourth


ground is it,startingfrom what,
ones

Eternalists, and

are

world
'

maintain

to

that

those

on

what

venerable

that the soul and

the

eternal.

are

this case,

In

aeons.]

fortyworld
place,brethren,

'

34.

'

the

eternal.

are

case

that

and

is stedfast

new,

Eternalists, and

are

in

and

of custom,
various
my
by by that is it that

'

Brahmaiis

rapture

mind,

and ever."
for ever
another, yet they are
of
This, brethren, is the first state
of which, starting from
account
which, some
and

ness
earnest-

transmigrate and pass


and
existence
spring up in

of

state

one

and

I, by

such

pillarfirmly fixed

migrate
trans-

Because

up

to

pillar

ever

of
application

nothing

livingcreatures

fall from

away,

for

are

so

can

and

soul

to

as

gone

the

world, giving birth


mountain

heart,

times

that

"

be

reach

of condition

dwelling-placesin

they

of existence

state

one

of

thought,can

full detail both

this

that

must

that, rapt

I know

these

of exertion

of careful
of heart

peak,as
livingcreatures

mountain

though

of ardour

means

as

himself

to

says

world, giving birth

the

fall from
pass away,
in another, yet
up

and
and

and

is stedfast

nothing new,
firmly fixed

he

by. [l4]And

gone
is the soul

Eternal

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

brethren,

some

recluse

or

Brahman

Sa"zva//a-viva//a"z

It is the

period of

world.

Needless
in

expressed
Neither

is found

notion

But

in the Maha

of

to

figures.

the idea

the Buddha.

(rolling
up and evolution,from va//,to turn).
and
of a
conformation
gradual disintegration
that the length of this period cannot
add
be

the

pralaya

the word

nor

both

are

Bharata
is

occurs

Indian
and

rather

the

closelyallied.

in books
than

Ramayawa;

known

Buddhist.
and

to

be

before

Sa/wvarta

the later Sahkhya

THE

is addicted

"

Eternal

is the

nothing new,

soul

fixed

these

and

existence

and

and

spring up

of which,

and

Brahmans

soul

and

w^ho

the

whosoever

of

state

for

are

of the

recluses

in which

this
Now

opinion

and

is arrived

thus
speculations

will

such

eternal.

are

For

such

are

four

ways,

or

these

there

is

arrived
a

maintain

and

in
no

one

way

at.

Tath^gata

at, thus

result, such
of

condition

future

the

on

such

and

the

mans
Brah-

and

ways

Brahmans

outside

that these
have

world

these, brethren, the

of

that

recluses

in four

in these

so

and

same,

the

recluses

some

maintain

those

are

the

and

this, they do

other

things on

eternal,

are

soul

of the

maintain

which,

Eternalists, and

are

both

effect

they

of

state

Eternalists, and

are

These, brethren,

'

'

one

in another, yet

starting from

the world

35.

36.

out

pillar
though they

fall from

away,

beaten

peak, as

livingcreatures,

pass

ance
utter-

ever."

ground

that

gives

his own,
his
on

mountain

This, brethren, is the fourth

'

or

as

He

sophistry ;
world, giving birth to

the

and

is stedfast

transmigrate and
ever

reasoning.

followingconclusion of
argumentations and based

his

firmly

logicand

to

29

the

to

by

ETERNALISTS.

those

knows

insisted
and

such

who

trust

on,
an

in

also
[17]That does he know, and he knows
tions)
things far beyond (farbetter than those speculahaving that knowledge he is not puffed
; and

them.
other

up, and
realised

they

as

from
them
of escape
reallyare, the rising up and

the way

sensations, their
be

cannot

'
^

to

a
'

117;

relied

sweet
on

below, chap, iii,


""
phrase recurs
and
for
and
samadhi,
instance,
Stla,
Buddha, says Buddhaghosa, p. io8.
M.

I, 188

See

the

422;

M.

hearty
understood,

own

^,has

of
passing away
danger, how they

taste, their
and
not
grasping after

This

Pa^^attawz,

his

has, in

he

untarnished

thus

common

I,

251,

14,

any

20.

all the other

thingsknown

phrases A. II, ipSrrS. I, 9,


2F2

10,

S. N.
S. Ill, 54, "c.; and
Without
depending on any one
=

Sum.
Mil. 96, 347;
182.
611,906;
else,himself by himself,'says Buddhaghosa.
*
Nirvawa, says Buddhaghosa.
'

(of

I.

30

those

BRAHMA-GALA

things men

are

SUTTA.

the

for)he,

eager

Tathdgata, is

free \

quite set

^ brethren,

other

things,profound,
difficult to reaHse,
to
understand, tranquilbe grasped by mere
not
to
sweet,
logic,subtle,
lising,
comprehensible only by the wise, which the Tathagata,
*

37.

These

those

are

hard

havinor

himself

forth

and

realised

it is

and

concerning

face

to

these

that

they

in

rightlypraise the Tathagata


truth, should speak.'
Here

the

ends

First

There

'

who

mans

Eternalists

are

others

in

and

regard to
grounds maintain
partly eternal and
what

'And

conclusion
'

2.

is it that

Now

there

world-system

beings

have

Radiance,

soul

the

these

they

comes

3.

Now

to

things,

who

the

and

Brah-

and

some

venerable

from, in

start

on

world

four
are

depend
arrivingat this
ones

the

of

lapse

passes

mostly

and

time, brethren, when,

there

away.
been

they

long long period of


'

regard

Non-Eternalists

there

sooner

long long period, this


And
this happens
when

reborn

dwell

air, continuing in glory ;


a

recluses

some

with

in

the

World

made

of mind,

thus

they

of

feeding
themselves, traversingthe

joy, radiatinglightfrom

on

for Recitation.

later, after

or

the

partly not.

is it that

what

upon,

that

with

II.

brethren,

are,

set

would

who

accordance

Portion

Chapter
1.

face, hath

seen

and

remain

for

time.
also

comes

time, brethren, when,

sad mess
of this
a
Gogerly (pp. 77, 78 in Grimblot) has made
the
construction
of
the
first
grammatical
paragraph,misunderstanding
in the second, and
nisclause, and
misinterpreting paramasati
in

sara"a/w
'

Not

which

of

the
course

has led him

third.
the
to

four

but
speculations,

rejectthem.

the

higher knowledge

ETERNALISTS

When

NON-ETERNALISTS.

3I

later, this world-system begins

or

sooner

AND

this

the

happens

Palace

re-evolve.

to

of Brahm^

but

appears,

it is empty.
And
some
being or other, either because
his span
of years has passed or his merit is exhausted,
falls from that World
of Radiance, and comes
to life in
the

of Brahma.

Palace

of

mind, feeding

And

there

also

he

lives made

joy, radiatinglight from

on

traversing the air,continuing in glory ; and


he remain
for a long long period of time.

himself,

Now

'

4.

there

long alone,

so

would

that

place!

"

World

of Brahma

like him.

respects
On

5.
thinks

the

as

join me

to

in this

their

because

of

span

exhausted, other

was

companions

and

in all

him, and

to

in

appear

[is]

himself:

to

"

of Radiance,

this, brethren, the

thus

does

dwellingthere
O !
longing:

come

just then, either


passed or their merit

Palace

'

beings might

his

and

And

beings fall from


the

him, from

dissatisfaction

other

had

years

arises in

thus

"

who

one

first reborn

was

the

Brahmd,

am

Great

Brahma, the Supreme One, the Mighty, the All-seeing,


the Ruler, the Lord
of all,the Maker,
the Creator, the
Chief
of

of all,appointing to

days,

These
that

other
?

so

Father

the

beings
while

A
!

'

might come
the beings came."
*And

of

those

each

all that

and

are

Ancient
be ^

to

are

why is
I thought, Would
that they
behold
mental
aspiration,
my
of my

are

place,the

his

creation.

And

'

ago

And

on

too, think

beings themselves,

thus

"

This

Brahma, the Supreme, the


of all,the
the Ruler, the Lord
Mighty, the All-seeing,
Maker, the Creator, the Chief of all,appointingto each
be

must

his
^

place,the
This

the

Brahm4,

Great

of

Ancient

stringof epithetsrecurs

story of the Brahma,

named

Baka,

at

who

M.

I, 327
is

the very conclusion


section.
in our
set out
three recensions
of it have
been
one, and
S.

i, 142-144,

and

himself the Maha


The

omission

Story may

be

fact that it is not

(?at. No.

Brahma
in the

405).

Mr.

in the

The

story

was

are

of the

course

representedas

coming
a

to

favourite

preserved(M. I, 326-331
Crow
evidentlyconsidered

of the

period.
Dialogue of all reference

be
it may
of greater age or
there.
for
the
argument
required

sign

of all that

Father

days, the

to

the Kesava

due

Birth

simply to

the

I.

and
him.

And
here

was

6.

'

And

be.

to

are

why

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

Because,

first,and

we

have

must

we

as

been
it

see,

we

by

created

who

he

was

after that."

came

first came
into
who
this,brethren, the one
there is of longer Hfe, and more
and
glorious,

On

existence

powerful than those who


appeared after him.
And
it might well be, brethren, that some
being on his
hither.
And
from that state, should come
having
falling
life
hither he might go forth from the household
come
And
into the homeless
state.
a
having thus become
of ardour
of exertion
recluse he, by reason
of application
of earnestness
of careful thought, reaches
to
up
more

such

rapture

mind

his last

He

of

but
dwelling-place,

Brahma,

Great

Creator, the Chief


of

Ancient

the

be,

to

he

he

and

by

mutable

[19]

'

Father

we

will remain

created

were

days, the

eternal, of

immutable

so

him

of

all,the Maker,

for
have

limited

created,
that

nature

and

ever

in duration

first

This, brethren, is the

Non-eternalists
the world
7. 'And
There

are

as

are,

others, maintain

partlyeternal

what

'

to

is the second

and

the
the

place,

and

are

is stedfast
no

But

ever.

change,
who

we

being impermanent

as

of life.
state

from which,
out
which, starting
Brahmans, being Eternalists as to some

and

are

he

of

account

his

knows

hither

come

the

Mighty,

each

to

ones.

Brahma,

of all that

were

calls

previous

the

all,appointingto

of

whom

by

Lord

the

the

not

One,

Supreme

the Ruler,
All-seeing,

heart, he

illustrious

"That

the

in

that, rapt

himself:

to

says

heart

of
some

things

on

recluses

things,and
the soul

that

and

partlynot.

gods called
ages they pass

brethren, certain

the

"

bauched
De-

For
their time
by Pleasure'."
in the pursuitof the laughterand sport of sensual
lusts.
thereof their self-possession
In consequence
is corrupted,
and through the loss of their self-control they fall from
that
*

state

-.

Khi"/i/a-padosika.

in the list of

gods

They are not mentioned


Samaya (p.287),

elsewhere

except

in the ]\Iaha

The
Buddhaghosa on this has a curious note.
gods, though of
delicate
in
A
body.
having gone without food
man,
great glory,are
'

34

BRAHMA-GALA

I-

hither

that

fallingfrom

his

being, on

SUTTA.

recluse

a
having become
other cases, acquire the power
birth,but only his last one.

'And

12.

who

and

with
become

evil

bodies

feeble

they

fall not

disposed
from

they

corrupted

envy

against one

and

corrupt

imbecile, and
hither

3.

In

And

this

body

what

is the

that

and

state,

our

minds

have

come

limited

mutable,

in

case.

fourth

brethren,

case,

recluse

some

to

and

is called eye and


is a self which

eternal, subject

heart, or

based
ear

on

and

for

of

Brahman

or

gives

utterance

beaten

own,

out

sophistry:
and

nose

is

"

tongue

by
This
and

is

impermanent, unstable, not


is called
change. But this which

to

and

ever

ever

self which

is manent,
perand
it
change,

no

\"

This, brethren, is the fourth

ground

He

his

is
mind, or consciousness
stedfast,eternal,and knows

will remain
*

feeble, and

became

impermanent,

argumentations

which

and

ever.

logic and reasoning.


followingconclusion of his

the

change,

no

of life."

addicted

his

and

ever

fell from

we

table,
stedfast,immu-

are

knows

This, brethren, is the third

'

to

for

bodies

being

as

duration

'

in

our

their

nor

[21]But w^e
mind, being constantlyexcited by
another.
And
being thus envious

so

were

not

Therefore

imbecile.

that

do

hearts

another,

they

nature

will remain

state

last

"Those

their

so

minds

in the

as

gods
burn
continually

not

towards

one

that

eternal, of

do

other,

their

and

himself:

in mind

againsteach

envy

should,

come

his
recollecting

of

to

say

debauched

not

are

would

he

should

state,

which, startingfrom

state

of

which,

things,on
some

the

recluses

Buddhaghosa explains that these speculatorsperceive how the


break
of sense
impressionspass away) ; but
organs
up (and sense
fail
that
holds
the
same
to
see
more
even
thing
they
strongly in the
of thoughts, since no
has each
mental
case
sooner
impression given
rise to the
and

succeeding
the

than

it passes
away.
analogy of birds,who

one

Not

perceiving that,

depending on
flyaway from
that the mind,
only to alighton another, (hey conclude
is broken
individuality
up, goes (as a unity)elsewhere.

one

when

tree

this

THE

Brahmans

and

maintain

soul

the

respects eternal,and
14.

who

in

the

Brahmans

For

such

are

four ways
or
there
outside these
these

arrived

knows

'Now

such

on,

in

no

puffed

in which

way

things

up,

and

cases

in

so

same

this

and

opinion

is

such

he

of escape
really are, the

knows
those

from

way

sweet

is

not

has, in his own


stood,
them, has under-

rising up

and

taste, their

danger,how

passing

grasping after any


for)he, the Tathdgata,
not

things,profound,
understand, tranquillising,
to
prehensible
to be grasped by mere
logic,subtle, comthe Tath^gata,
only by the wise, which

not

having

himself

forth

and

realised

it is

those

and

concerning

There
are

the

are,

other

face

seen

these

rightlypraise the Tathagata


truth, should speak.'

forth

he

who

free.

sweet,

who

he

and

of those

know, and

untarnished

These, brethren, are


difficult to realise,hard
'

result,such

beyond

relied on, and


be
they cannot
are
(ofthose thingsmen
eager

at, thus

(farbetter than
having that knowledge, he

far

of sensations, their

quite set

Tathdgata

arrived

condition

future
does

thus

and

they

as

such

That

heart,realised the

6.

of the

these, brethren, the

the

on

them.

other

away

other

or

some

this, they do

speculationsthus

speculations)
; and

set

some

of the recluses and

maintain

one

is

will have

effect

an

trust

in

eternal in

are

whosoever

and

of

these

that

insisted

ways

in

are

at.

[22]15.

is

world

not.

some

the world

in others.

not

also

and

in four

'These, brethren,are those recluses and Brahmans


maintain
Semi-eternalists, and in four ways
are

that the soul and


and

35

Semi-eternalists,and

are

that

EXTENSIONISTS.

in

to

that

face, hath

they

accordance

who

^ and

Extensionists
or
infinity

finiteness

Antanantikd.
D

who

in

would

with

brethren, certain recluses and


four

of the world.

set

the

mans
Brahways

And

venerable

maintain

ones

by

of

means

ardour

exertion

of

Finite

is the
it ^

traced

round

means

of ardour

of

heart

in

8.

limit.

The

in

that

of

man,
Brah-

application

heart,

that

by

such

to

thus

in the
self:
him-

to

path could

so

up
dwell

ness
earnest-

such

to

in

I know

be

I, by

Since

applicationof

reach

"

second
is

the

rapture
world

this."

wrong

recluses

that

The

third

is that

upward

and

declares
20.

be

without

who

traced

round

it is

say

it, are

the

by

out

sophistry:

his

This

"

Those

directions,but

infinite

the

conclusions

brethren,

case,

to
some

clusion
con-

in the
across

be wrong.
recluse

or

logicand reasoning. He gives


of his
own,
following conclusion
to

argumentations
world

recluses

the first,or

and

is neither
and

the second,

[24] Neither

wrong.

limited

the former

fourth

the

world

imagines

is addicted
to

similar, only that

is

downward

the

utterance

either

could

case

he

both

'In

Brahman

beaten

world

Brahmans

and

path

is the

Infinite

the

2."
'

19.

"

similar, only that

is

case

[23]

Those

finite, so

are

or

up

says

is this

why

finite

be

these

This, brethren, is the first case.

conclusion

he

And

that, rapt

do

heart, dwells

he

so

thought,can

perceivingit to
'

w^orld,

of exertion

of careful

of

thought,reaches

rapture of heart that he, rapt


world imagining it finite. And
**

recluse

brethren,some

of careful

earnestness

what,

this ?

17. 'In the first case,


of

from

ground, starting out

what

on

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

I.

finite

Brahmans
or

is the

based

the

world

nor

who

on

yet

his
finite.
in-

maintain

third

conclusion,
is it
finite,nor

infinite."
'

This, brethren, is the fourth

case.

Only found here.


Buddhaghosa says nothing.
According to Buddhaghosa (Ats.160) there are four thingsthat
infinite
the
of world-systems,the
number
of
number
are
space,
of a Buddha.
Had
this doctrine
Hving creatures, and the wisdom
formed
of
the
should
Buddhism
we
original
part
expect to find these
^attSri
anantani
in the chapter on
the 'Fours' in the Ahguttara,
Pariva/umo.

'

"

but

I do

not

find them

there.

THE

mans

world

the

this, they do
the

this

opinion

Now

22.

effect

and

there

arrived

he

sensations, their

(ofthose thingsmen

not

sweet,

and

eager
those

are

realised

he

them

to

are,

and

In

Brahman
nature,

on

the
does

nor

puffed

not
own

other

seen

brethren,
eels

wriggle like

venerable
'

tions)
specula-

passing away
danger, how

their

face, hath

face

to

that

they

set

would

who

with

accordance

this

that

or

recluses

some

and

the

the

ones

first
not

evil.

do

so

they resort

to

what, do

from

place,brethren,
understand
And

mans
Brah-

and

question is
equivocation,

when

and this in four ways.


eel-wriggling,
Now
what
on
ground, startingout

24.

those

and

'

those

also

knows

is

in

trust

speak.'

'There
who

to

who

an

grasping after any


for)he, the Tathagata,

it is

truth, should

23.

such

not

concerning these
rightlypraise the Tathagata in
;

and

things,profound,
realise,hard to understand, tranquillising,
be
to
prehensible
logic,subtle, comgrasped by mere
the Tathagata,
only by the wise, which

himself

having

and

insisted

heart,
them, has understood,

taste,

on,

are

These, brethren,
to

in

way

free.

quite set

difficult

no

has, in his

rising up

sweet

relied

be

cannot

other

or

at, thus

and

from

of escape
really are, the

of

forth

he

the way

they

put

is

of those

know,

untarnished

as

they

maintain

one

result,such

condition

does

thus

realised

in

things far beyond (farbetter than


having that knowledge he
; and

other

is

such

and

future

That

them.

up,

such

the

on

whosoever

at.

speculationsthus

will have

on,

these

is arrived

maintain

For

or

ways

Brah-

these, brethren, the Tathdgata knows

of

these

outside

and

and

such, and

are

four

in these

infinite.

or

Brahmans

and

so

same

which

that

is finite

recluses

of the

of

37

those
recluses
'These, brethren, are
who
Extensionists, and in four ways
are

21.

that

EEL-WRIGGLERS.

good

the

he thinks

some

"

recluse
in

or

its real

1 neither

know

3$
the

it

good, as

so,

were

to

evil, I might

this to be
pronounce
be influenced
therein

circumstances

might
of

sense

Thus

cause

be

; and
my
wrong
the pain of remorse

me

might become
abhorring

remorse

expressed opinion, he
be
be good, nor
to
to
him

to

this

on

it the

take

other

it is neither

say

This

'

is the

what

And

the one,
first case.

is the

but

on

resorts

But

deny
nor

second

wrong

me

^"

in

an

anything
question being
to eel-wriggling,

I don't take

"

way.

being

the

and
to

declare

says:

I don't

And

opinion.

bad

neither

that, he

or

equivocation,and

to

will

the

been

having

hindrance

these

under

And

resentment.

or

might

fearing and

put

[25]That being
good or that to be
by my feelingsor

evil.

the

reallyis,nor

desires, by illwill
wrong

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

I.

I don't

it thus.

advance

different

no

I don't

your position. And


the other ^."

Under
these circumstances
[The same, reading]'.
I might fall into that graspingcondition of heart
rebirth ; and
causes
so
fallingmight cause
my
"

25.

which

the

me

become

might
and

of

remorse

hindrance

This

is the second

And

what

'

and

to

the

is the

[26]
that

there

are

recluses

ing
fear-

Thus

^, he will

state

third ?
*

know

remorse

case.

[The same, reading] And he


the good, as
it reallyis, nor

26.

of

sense

me."

abhorring the fallinginto


declare ("c.,as in " 24).

neither
'

pain

and

thinks

Brahmans

the
who

"

I neither

evil.
are

Now

clever,

who
subtle, experienced in controversy, hair-splitters,
go about, methinks, breaking to pieces by their wisdom

'

Either in self-training
of bliss in heaven/
in the attainment
or
Buddhaghosa
(p. 115).
says
Buddhaghosa gives examples of these five equivocations.
Buddhaghosa explains that if,in his ignorance,he should, by
chance, declare the good to be good, he will be puffed up by the
But if he should
blunder, he will be filled with
approval of the wise.
'

'

'

vexation
states

of

and
mind

illwill when
will be

called
technically

his
the

Upadana,

error

fuel

is

pointed

keep
'grasping.'
to

out.

the fire

Either

of

burning, the

these
state

EEL-WRIGGLERS.

THE

be

to

good,

issue with

me,

errors.

my

remorse

the

to

me."

'

third

is the

This

reasons,

might join
point out
be

might

the

me

unable

pain

of

remorse

[27]

case.

is the fourth

what

And

men

this

pronounce

a
might become
Thus
fearing and abhorring the
will neither declare ("c.,as in " 24).

of

sense

he

joinder of issue,
'

for my

doing so,
might cause

that

And

and

hindrance

evil,these

be

to

call upon
me
their
And
on

explain \

to

that

or

I to

Were

others.

speculationsof

the

39

recluse or Brahman
In this case, brethren, some
of his dullness,
it is by reason
is dull, stupid. And
*

27.

stupidity,that

his

him, he

to

put
like

resorts

to

"

"

"

so.

And

I don't

think

I don't

But

thus.

And

say

And

I don't

another

world."

Thus

manner

about

deny

question on this or that is


equivocation, to wriggling

whether
If you ask me
well, if I thought there were,

eel

an

world,

when

it.

say

so.

it is thus

or

neither

there

say

I don't

And

it is otherwise.

is not,
in like

is,nor

equivocate,and
propositionsas the foUowhe

does

of such

each

I would

think

I don't

is another

there

mg^:"

(2)There

a.

is not

and

another

world.

(3) There

to

both

(4)

There
is

nor

not,

(2) There

world.

neither

of
^

Sampayati,

compare
^
Such

M.

See

neither

are,

such

not,

are

y.

(i) There
of

is fruit, result,

good

and

bad

actions.
at

'

Vinaya Texts,' III,

317,

and

I, 85, 96, 472.

questionsare
among

nor

parents,
note

not,

are

(4) There

vention
inter-

the

are,

such

beings.

existence,either here
in another
world,
or
the

both

beings.

Chance

cause
Beings (socalled betheyspringinto

without

such

no

are

(3) There

another

and
are

beings.

is,

world.

/3.(i) There

without

come

cause).

is,and

is not, another

therefore

seem

Brahmans.

called elsewhere

the

common

basis

cussions
of dis-

I.

40

(2) There
(3) There
is

is

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

truth

not.

(2) He
(3) He

not.

is

nor

(i) A

is,

neither

(4) There

after

exist

is,and

both

penetrated

(4)

has

who

man

the

to

to

death.

does

not.

both

does, and

does

not.

continues

not.

does,

neither

He

does

nor

^.
This, brethren, is the fourth case
those
[28] 28. These, brethren, are

not.

'

reckises

'

is put

question

them

to

eels

Hke

wriggle

who

Brahmans

; and
equivocation,to eel-wriggling
do so, they do so
For whosoever

in

or

will have

such

effect

the

such

and

is

ways.

four

ways,

other

no

way

he

knows

Tathagata

at, thus insisted


result, such and such

arrived
a

he

know, and

thingsfar beyond (farbetter


and
having that knowledge

who

of those

condition

future
does

That

them.

in these

there

in four

that

so.

speculationsthus

these

on

same

or

these, brethren, the

of

Now

'

29.

that

do

they

in which

of the

other

or

one

who, when
to
that, resort

and

this

on

and

he

is

in

other

speculations)
;

those

than

an

trust

also

knows

on,

puffed

not

up,

and

heart, realised the


has, in his own
from
of escape
they
them, has understood, as
way
reallyare, the risingup and passingaway of sensations,
he

untarnished

thus

be
danger, how they cannot
relied on, and
not
grasping after any (of those things
is quite set free.
are
men
eager for)he, the Tathdgata,
those
other
things, profound,
These, brethren, are
difficult to realise, hard to understand, tranquillising,

their

sweet

their

taste,

'

word

The

perhaps come,
Jan.,1898, and
S. N.

467.

the

to

gone
other

sects

derivation

meaning
"

This

mouth

the

to

of

furthest

that
and

is,on

See

Ill, iii,

of sammaggato

use

(D. I, 57, "c.) shows


'

S.

that gata
was
aimed
point

arose

the

at

same

historyof the word


the

whole,

is the identical

clear

answer

has

who

'he

Tathagata,

truth.'

compare

The

is

used

here

Chalmers

in

the

116-118;

M.

I, 140,

J.

gone,
R. A.
171,

or

S.,

486;

(D. I,55, "c.) and of gatatto


of
in the sense
used
ellipiically
'

at

time

the

among
as

followers

Buddhism.

TathSgata may

be

The

of

the

exact

doubtful,but

its

enough.
put below

Saw^aya Bela/Maputta.

(p. 57

of the

text)into

the

I.

42

BRAHMA-GALA

in

origin are the soul


Because
formerly I was

been, I have

'This,

become

that the

soul and

this

addicted

his

case,

from

of

which,

the

world

34.

is the

brethren,

the world

Now

second

He

thus
speculations

will

have

such

future

the
That

them.

such

and

does

untarnished

way

of

escape

reallyare,

the

gives utterance
beaten

out

sophistry:

by
The

"

case.

Tathagata

knows

arrived

at, thus insisted on,


result,such and such an

of

those
he

know, and

things far beyond (farbetter


and
having that knowledge
thus

is

cause."

condition

he

cause.

Brahman

or

own,

of these, brethren, the

these

on

and

his

on

without

arose

recluse

some

based

that

effect

not

account

recluses

arise without

This, brethren, is the second


'

so

maintain
and
Fortuitous-Originists,

argumentations, and

'

thingson

some

logicand reasoning.
followingconclusion of his

soul and

why

Having

am.

to

the

to

now

And

[29]

be."

what

'And

33.

In

not, but

startingout

Brahmans

'

the world.

and

brethren, is the first state

of which,

32,

to

come

SUTTA.

he

knows

those

than
is

who

not

trust

also

in

other

speculations)
;
puffed up, and

has, in his own


heart, realised the
from
them, has understood, as they
he

passingaway of sensations,
their sweet
be
they cannot
taste, their danger, how
relied on, and
not
grasping after any (ofthose things
are
men
eager for)he, the Tathagata, is quite set free.
These, brethren, are those other things,profound,
difficult to realise,hard
understand, tranquillising,
to
be grasped by mere
not
to
prehensible
sweet,
logic,subtle, comthe
only by the wise, which
Tathagata,
face to face, hath set
having himself realised and seen
forth ; and it is concerning these that they who
would
with the
rightlypraise the Tathagata in accordance
truth, should speak.'
risingup

and

'

[so] 35.
Brahmans

These,

who

things, whose

brethren,

reconstruct

the

speculationsare

are

the

ultimate

recluses

and

beginningsof

concerned

with

the

BELIEVERS

THE

ultimate

who

past, and

all of

those

who

these

eighteen ways.

do

so,

of

Now

'

on

assertions

various

36.

IN

them, do
There

will

such

them.

such

and

future

the

on

That

is

untarnished

one

ward
forAnd

other

or

Tathagata

those

of

he

and

know,

than
he

of

beside.

none

knows

at, thus insisted


result, such and such

condition

he

does

43

arrived

thingsfar beyond (farbetter


and
having that knowledge
thus

in

so

these, brethren, the

thus
speculations

effect

LIFE.

eighteen grounds put


regarding the past^

that these
have

FUTURE

knows

those
is

who

not

on,
an

in

trust

also

other

speculations)
;
puffed

up,

and

has, in his own


heart, realised the
of escape
from
them, has understood, as they
way
reallyare, the risingup and passingaway of sensations,
their

sweet

relied on,

he

their

danger,
grasping after

taste,

and

not

how
any

they

be

cannot

(ofthose things

Tathagata, is quite set free.


those other things,profound,
These, brethren, are
difficult to realise,hard
to
understand, tranquillising,
be grasped by mere
not
to
prehensible
sweet,
logic,subtle, comonly by the wise, which the Tathagata,
face to face, hath set
having himself realised and seen
forth ; and
would
it is concerning these that they who
the
with
rightlypraise the Tathagata in accordance
truth,should speak.'
men

are

for)he,

eager

the

'There

37.
who

are,

the

arrange
with

the future, and

forward

put
And

they

do

so
'

38.

There

[31]hold

after

death

See

of

I, I,

the

2, and

29

(p. 12
are

are
epithets

to

doctrine
who

'

adds

on

brethren, recluses

are,

Literally who

summary
for death

who

who

grounds
forty-four
assertions
regarding the future.
what, startingout from what, do

various

account

on

brethren, recluses and Brahmans


future, whose
cerned
speculationsare con-

of

maintain

of the

and

conscious
in sixteen

Brahmans
existence
ways

text).

After-deathers,Conscious-maintainers.'

meant

to

that

These

chosen
be contemptuous, and the word
the
usual
It
is
not
word.
phrase.

the force of the

44

BRAHMA-GALA

I-

the

soul

do

after death

how

And

is conscious.

they

do

so

They

'

SUTTA.

of the

say

soul

subject to decay, and


(i) has form \

(2)is

formless

(3)has,

not

conscious,

(lo) has

various

modes

of consciousness,

^,

and

soul after death,

The

"

has

not,

(ii) has

limited

sciousness,
con-

has

(12) has

infinite

sciousness,
con-

form,

(4)neither has, nor


form,
(5)is finite,
(6)is infinite,

(1 3)is altogetherhappy,
able,
(14)is altogethermiser-

(7)is both,
(8) is neither,
mode
(9)has one

(15)is both,
(16)is neither."

not,

of

consciousness,
39. 'These, brethren,
hold

the

death, and

who

who

mans

after

doctrine

is conscious.

all of

so

them, do
There

ways.

'Now

40.

that
on,

these

is

them.

one

And

and

future

That

does

such

their

sweet

relied on,

he

men

are

eager

than
he

So

So the

the

sixteen

Tathagata

knows

at, thus

insisted

those
he

who

knows

those
is

and

not

such
trust

an

in

also other

speculations)
;
and
puffed up,

in his

and

passing away

of sensations,

their

read
The

in

the

'shambles,
text),meaning literally
ordinaryphrase would have been param-

mara"ika.
^

so,

be
they cannot
danger, how
not
grasping after any (of those things
for)he, the Tathagata, is quite set free.

aghatana
(so
place of execution.'

but

of

know, and

risingup

taste,
and

do

these

result,such

condition

he

of

escape
reallyare, the

who

heart, realised the


has,
own
from
as
them, has understood,
they

untarnished

way

of

arrived
a

thingsfar beyond (farbetter


and
having that knowledge
thus

that the

beside.

none

such

existence

ways

those

other

or

speculationsthus
the

on

in

in sixteen

Brah-

and

conscious

of these, brethren, the

will have

effect

of

maintain

soul after death

recluses

those

are

A^ivakas, says Buddhaghosa.


NigawMas, says Buddhaghosa.

THE

BELIEVERS

those

These, brethren, are


difficult to reahse, hard
not

having
forth

himself
and

realised

hold

it is

ends

concerning

the Second

There

the

other

face

to

these

that

they who

of

doctrine

death, and

who

maintain

after death

is unconscious.

in

not

And

how

the

soul

they

do

do

3.

has

so,

brethren,

These,
who

hold

after

death, and

soul

after

all of

'Now

4.

these

is

them.

on

(8) is
those

are

death,

after

who

maintain

in

one

such

the

and

future
does

such

he

he

that

And

who

those

of those

know,

Tathagata

at, thus
result,such and

arrived
a

of those

condition

things far beyond (farbetter


and
having that knowledge
untarnished

tence
exis-

eightways

other

or

mans
Brah-

eight

beside.

none

speculations thus

That

in

is unconscious.
so

and

unconscious

an

these, brethren, the

of

neither."

recluses

of

doctrine

them, do

will have

effect

the

death

There

ways.

that

so

(7) is both,
'

thus

that

(5)is finite,
(6)is infinite,

not,

(4)neither has, nor

on,

after

form,

not,

form,

do

[32]

existence

The
soul
They say of the soul :
subject to decay, and unconscious,

the

the

who

"

(i) has form,


(2)is formless,
(3) has, and has

with

Brahmans

and

eight ways

'

2.

would

III.

unconscious

an

set

for Recitation.

brethren, recluses

are,

face, hath

in accordance

Portion

Chapter
1.

45

seen

and

rightlypraise the Tathagata


truth, should speak.'
Here

LIFE.

things,profound,
understand.
to
tranquilHsing,
be grasped by mere
to
logic,subtle, comprehensible
which
the
the
wise,
only by
Tathdgata,

'

sweet,

FUTURE

IN

he

and

he

has, in his

knows

those

than

is not
own

who

knows
insisted

such
trust

an

in

also other

speculations)
;

puffedup,

and

heart, realised the

46

I.

of escape

way

the

reallyare,
their

BRAHMA-GALA

SUTTA.

from

them,

risingup

and

has

understood,

they

as

of sensations,

passing away

taste, their

be
danger, how they cannot
relied on, and
not
grasping after any (of those things
are
men
eager for)he, the Tathagata, is quite set free.
These, brethren, are those other things,profound,
difficult to realise,hard
to
understand, tranquillising,
be grasped by mere
to
prehensible
logic,subtle, comsweet, not
only by the wise, which the Tathagata,
sweet

'

himself

having

realised

and

face

seen

face, hath

to

set

concerningthese that they who would


with
the
rightlypraise the Tathagata in accordance
truth, should speak.
5-8. [33] [Similarsections for those who maintain in
eightways that the soul after death is neither conscious
nor
unconscious.]

forth

it is

and

[34] There

brethren, recluses and

'

'

9.

who

are,

Annihilationists, who

are

in

seven

Brahmans
maintain

ways

of
cutting off, the destruction, the annihilation
of what, starting
out
a living
being ^. And on account
from what, do they do so ?
the

the

In

10.

Brahman

recluse or
place, brethren, some
the followingopinion, the following

first

puts forth

Since, Sir, this soul has form, is built up


of the four elements, and is the offspringof father and
mother, it is cut off,destroyed,on the dissolution of the
"

view

body

soul

some

as

you

there

is

'

p. 47.
*
Sato

sensuous

know

"There

says:

That
then

not

further

neither

you

soul

"

I do

are

sattassa.

42).

The

then,

Thus

is it

destruction,

Insert

word

the

longing
divine, having form, be-

plane,feeding on
of nor
perceive.

the

But

deny.

completely annihilated.

discussed

Ka/Aa

and

is, Sir, such

not

by James D'Ahvis
II, 236,
Comp. Jacobi,'JainaSfltras,'

"" 9-18

19, 41,

another

describe.

the

to

That

death

living:being".

soul, Sir, is

whole
For

of

him

'To

soul

after

is

the annihilation
11.

continue

not

completely annihilated."
maintain
the cuttingoff, the

Sir, the
that

does

and

sato

Upanishad I, 20

in

solid food.
But

'Buddhist

I know
Nirvana/

339.

in the
alludes

to

text

such

(as in ""
belief.

17,

THE

experiencedit.

have

and

of the

dissolution

47

And
is

body,

after

continue

not

ANNIHILATIONISTS.

since

this

off and

cut

death, then

is

soul, on

the

destroyed,does

it,Sir, that the soul

Thus
is it that some
completely annihilated."
the cuttingoff,the destruction, the annihilation
maintain
is

of

him

'To

12.
a

livingbeing.

soul

as

is

there

with

of mind,

deficient

not

all its

major

in any

And

off and

cut

"

But

But

deny.

not

minor

and

This

the

neither

have

continue

not

of

know

experienced
of the body,

dissolution

destroyed, does

complete,

parts

you

and

the

on

is. Sir, such

completely annihilated.
divine, having form, made

organ.
I know

this soul,

since

I do

then

not

soul

perceive.

nor

That

further

"There

says:

describe.

you

soul, Sir, is

whole
For

another

after

it.
is

death,

completely annihilated."
is it that
maintain
the cutting off, the
Thus
some
of a livingbeing.
destruction, the annihilation
is it,Sir, that the soul

then

To

1
a

3.

soul

as

is

of

no

that

is

space

infinityof

[35]
off and

This

soul, on

the

destroyed, does
the

it that

is

'To

soul

as

whole

another

soul. Sir, is

The

the

idea

senses.

muscular
the view

not

4th Vimokha.

See

not

D.

'

effort.

put forth

no

sense

death, then

is, Sir, such

deny.

Buddhist

of resistance, pa/igha, is here

Having

cut

annihilated."

completely
Rh.

is

cutting off, the


livingbeing.

I do

then

ceive.
per-

the

"There

says:

That

describe.

you

Compare

213.
the

to

him

of

nor

body,

after

completely

maintain

destruction, the annihilation


14.

of the

continue
is

of

know

of the

experiencedit. And

have

dissolution
not

plane

the

to

neither

and

soul

some

difference, conscious

up

you

I know

But

it, Sir, that

Thus

of

ideas

to

reaches
infinite,

space

this

since

heed

the

completely annihilated.
soul, which
by passing beyond
dying out of ideas of resistance,

form, by the

by paying

But

deny.

not

then

not

further

I do

That

is, Sir, such

There

"

says

describe.

you

there

ideas

is

another

soul. Sir, is

whole
For

him

is

of reaction

to

not

But

the

annihilated.

Suttas,'pp.

52,

ethical,but refers

touch, of oppositionto

It appears
from M. I, 164 that this was
Gotama's
first teacher A/ara Kalama.
by

pretty much

48

I.

For

there

is a further

the

plane

of

soul, which

infinite,reaches

of consciousness
infinity
But

perceive.

nor

having passed beyond


sciousness
space, knowing that conthe plane of the
to
up

of
infinity

the

is

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

you

and

have

I know

since this

And

soul,on the
destroyed, does

off and

cut

neither

This

experienced it.
of the body, is

dissolution

after death,

continue

not

of

know

it.Sir, that the soul is completely annihilated."


is it that some
Thus
maintain
the cutting off, the
destruction, the annihilation of a livingbeing,

then

is

15. 'To
a

soul

him

as

another

describe.

you

soul, Sir, is

whole
For

there

is

the

knowing

that there

obstruction

no

But
this

since
off and
is

soul,
the

infinityof consciousness,
nothing,reaches up to the plane

is

^.

This

I know

and

soul,

the

on

destroyed, does

it, Sir, that

Thus

of

plane

is it that

soul

as

continue
is

is

there

is

cut

annihilated."

the

cutting off, the

livingbeing.

"There
I do

is, Sir, such

deny. But the


completely annihilated.

then

not

And

completely
of

That

further

ceive.
per-

death, then

says:

describe.

you

nor

after

maintain

another

soul, Sir, is

whole
For

him

'To

of

experienced it.
dissolution of the body,

not

some

know

have

destruction, the annihilation


16.

neither

you

soul

the

is, Sir, such

deny. But the


completely annihilated.
which
by passing quite

then

not

further

beyond
of

"There
says:
That
I do not

not

soul, which

by passing quite

beyond the plane of no obstruction, realises This is


good, this is excellent,'and reaches up to the plane of
'

neither

been

'

the

much
was

Compare
Though

theorisers is
soul

held
the

of anna,

by

second

the 6th

Vimokha.

it is not
doubt

Buddhist

be

each

seems

from

This

"^.

M.

whose

stated,this

he

vi^"a"a,

joy),described
of

as

believes
than

subtle

more

modification

ideas

by Rdma,

considered

that

manas,

of

I, 165
son

and

you
to

have

pupil,

teacher.

so
explicitly

to

the others, so

five souls
pra"a,

This
held

the view

as

same

no

absence

5th Vimokha.

Gotama's

consciousness, and
The

the

nor

the

Compare

Uddaka,
^

ideas

and

in the

these

last of

these

seven

believingin all the sorts


in

seven.

One

may

of

pare
com-

the last,made

respectively
(food,breath, mind,
Taittirtya
Upanishad II, 1-5.
ananda

theories

omits

the

souls, and

50

I.

of the

sion

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

pleasuresof

five

indulges

sense,

all its

functions,then. Sir,the soul has attained, in this visible


\"
Thus
do
world, to the highest Nirvana
some
maintain
of

complete happiness,in

visible world,

the

livingbeing.

'To

21.
a

the

soul

soul

him

as

And

Nirva;2a.

why

I do

alone
?

not

involve

transitory,
they
fluctuate.

That

that

by

not

"There

says:

describe.

you

does

another

is, Sir, such

attain

Sensuous

pain, their

But

deny.

not

the

the

highest
Sir, are
delights.
to

is

nature

very

to

and
grief,lamentation, pain, sorrow,
of their inconstancy and
out
change.

And

loathing arise

the soul, putting away


[37]But whensoever
sensuous
into and abides in
enters
delightsand evil dispositions,
the First 6^/^ana,the state
of joy and
of
born
ease,
seclusion, accompanied by reflection,accompanied by
then. Sir, has the soul attained, in this
investigation,
visible

world,
maintain

some

world, of
a

soul

soul

as

him

And

involves

being

as

and

why

of

state

"There
says:
I do not
That

deny.

alone

to

But

the

inasmuch

the

highest
that

as

G/iana.,the

Second

serenity,without
of

elevation

of

of

state

reflection

joy and
tion,
investiga-

or

calm
of
mind,
attained, in this visible

complete happiness,in

internal

Thus
the

do

some

tain
main-

visible world, of

livingbeing.
'

Buddhaghosa here (Sum. I, 121) explainsNirva"a


of pain ; pain,dukha,
being bodily,as opposed

mental.

'

II,

happens

to

be

at

'

means

the time.

in

whatever

On

ra^a

Commentary.

as

to

the suppression

domanassa,

world

the

ticular
par-

pari^areti compare
king indulged himself,

pari/taresi,'the
uyyane
himself,in the garden.' * All its functions

290

enjoyed

this visible world

In

soul
V.

is. Sir, such

attain

Because

not

heart, then, Sir, has the soul


world, to the highest Nirvawa."
the

visible

it is stamped
reasoning and investigation

in the

born
a

the

But
Sir, the soul, supwhensoever,
pressing
gross.
into
both
enters
reasoning and investigation,

abides

ease,

that

by

not

Nirvawa.

another

describe.

you

does

state

the

do

livingbeing.

'To

22.

Thus

highest Nirva72a."
complete happiness,in

the

to

'

is added

from

the

THE

'To

23.
a

soul

as

soul

him

another

And

involves the

state

5I

"There

That

I do

of

sense

joy,of

is, Sir, such

deny.

not

by that alone attain


why not ? Because

not

Nirvana.

NET.

says:

describe.

you

does

PERFECT

But

the

to

the

highest

inasmuch

that

as

exhilaration

heart,
whensoever, Sir,

it is

of

But
stamped as being gross.
the soul, by absence
of the longing after joy remains
and
in equanimity, mindful
and experiself-possessed,
ences
in the body that ease
of which
the Arahats
and
serene
speak (when they say) the man
ful
thought*

dwells

into and abides in the


ease,'and so enters
6^//ana
then. Sir, has the soul attained, in this

Third

at

"

visible

world,

the

highest Nirvana..*'
maintain
the complete happiness,in
some
world, of a livingbeing.
soul

as

soul

him

To

'

24.

to

describe.

you

does

And

involves
it has

ease

puttingaway
joys and griefshas

(7Mna

the

to

highest

Nirva;2a."

soul

into

entered
made

pain

Thus

do

the visible

happiness,in

and

mind

abides

without

world, of

The

; the

of the

(see
often

shows

text

'

as

older

maintain

some

world, of

that
than

note

on

mentioned

Buddhistic

These

" 19),
in

to

the

GMnas

the four

were

The

Buddhism.

very
in Buddhism

introduced

the

four, togetherwith
make
the

up

the

Gataka

livingbeing.

and

Brahmans

life,who

Eight

recluses.
E

regarded by
words

used

four

as

in
this
do

the

are

being the

early

cal
identi-

omission

Arfipa Vimokhas

Attainments

commentary

the

plete
com-

complete salvation, in
those who
livingbeing. And

only modification
souls.'

then.

"

the

maintain

ways

in the

ease

These, brethren, are


25.
who
hold the doctrine
of happiness in this

Buddhists

the

on

by self-possession

pure

and

the recluses

'

that

as

attained, in this visible world,

the

visible

the

highest

inasmuch
the

it is

state

"

Sir, has

five

But

deny.

attain

Because

visible

is, Sir, such

not

dwelling of

equanimity, without

and

alone

the

do

stamped as gross.
[38]But
Sir, the soul, by putting away
by
ease,
pain,by the previous dying away both of

enjoyed

whensoever.

Fourth

I do

That

constant

There

"

says

by that
why not

not

Nirva^za.
state

another

Thus

(Samapatiiyo),
practisedby pre-

52

I.

all of

SO,

them, do

There

ways.
26.

SUTTA.

BRAHMA-GALA

is

in

so

other

or

one

these

of

five

beside.

none

[Repetitionof ^ 40, above p. 44, settingforth that


other, higher, knowledge of a Tathdgata, for which
alone he can
be rightlypraised.]
These, brethren, are the recluses and Brahmans
the future, whose
cerned
speculationsare conarrange
with the future, and
who
on
forty-four
grounds
'

27.
who

put

forward

And

those

other

of these

various
who

regarding the

assertions

do

all of

so,

them, do
There

forty-fourways.

in

so

is

future.
one

or

beside.

none

[Repetitionof ^ 40, above p. 44, settingforth that


other, higher, knowledge of a Tathagata, for which
alone he can
be rightlypraised.]
28.

[39]29.
who
who

or

These, brethren, are

'

the

both, whose
who

both, and

in

regard

those

who

do

these

sixty-twoways.

the

to

all of

so,

and

past, and

put forward

sixty-two ways

with

recluses

the
arrange
speculationsare concerned

reconstruct

do

the

past

and

them, do
There

is

so

to

in

mans
Brah-

future,
with

tions
proposi-

the

future,and

one

or

other

of

beside.

none

[Repetitionof ^ 40, above p. 44, settingforth that


other, higher,knowledge of a Tathagata, for which
alone he can
be rightlypraised.]
30.

'Of

[40] 32.
who
that the

mans
these, brethren, those recluses and Brahin four ways
maintain
Eternalists,who

are

soul and

(2)those

who

the world
are

eternal

who
Semi-eternalists,

soul and

that the

maintain

are

the

world

are

in four ways

partlyeternal

and

partlynot :
{3)those who
the

maintain

(4) those
is put
to

to

them

cause

who

maintain
:

are

the

this

that resort,
wrigglinglike eels :
on

in

four

ways

finiteness of the world:

who
Eel-wrigglers,

are

equivocation,

ways
a

or
infinity

who

to

(5) those

Extensionists, who

are

or

when

in four

who
Fortuitous-Originists,

that the soul and

the world

arose

tion
ques-

ways,
in two

without

THE

(6)those

who

the

past

(7)those

in any
hold

soul after death

existence

maintain

hold

after

the

death, who

the soul after death


who

after death

maintain

who

of

struct
recon-

conscious

in sixteen

doctrine

of

maintain

in

in

that the

ways

unconscious

an

eight ways

that

that

soul

eight ways

conscious

the

unconscious

nor

Annihilationists, who

are

tence
exis-

is unconscious

is neither

(10)those

53

eighteen ways

doctrine

is conscious

who

(9) those

of these

the

death, who

(8)those

NET.

who

after

PERFECT

maintain

in

the

lation
cuttingoff,the destruction, the annihiof a livingbeing :
(11) those who hold the doctrine of happiness in this

seven

ways

life,who

in five ways
maintain
the complete
in this visible world, of a livingbeing

salvation,

"

That

opinion of

sensations,
thereon
who

the

on

^ of those

know

kinds

theirs is based

of

not,

and

worry

recluses

venerable

neither

only on the personal


writhing consequent

perceive,and

Brahmans,

and

subjectto

are

craving :
therefore

42] 'Those opinions of theirs are


45 foil. [41,
based
contact
(through the senses).
upon
58 foil. [43]'That
without
could

not

they

such

contact,

all of

[44] They,
through continual

contact

them

of

'

account

of

account

experience those

such

of

condition

the

become

them, receive
in the

sations
sen-

things

craving

arises

the

arises

fuel

food, the

results

of touch.

arises

the

sensations

those

spheres

sensations

the

condition,
necessary
lives),from the fuel
to

should

be.

71.

on

all

craving, on

(that is, the

basis, of

becoming,

rebirth, and

To

from
from

future

the

dency
ten-

rebirth

and
death, and grief,lamentation, pain, sorrow,
brother understands.
a
despair. It is,brethren, when
comes

paritassati, 'is
or
worry,'
worried
at what
paritassana, 'fidgetiness'
On vipphandita,
Mil. 253, 400.
M. 1, 136 ; S. Ill, 15-19
; and
G^at.
Dh.
S.
IV,
I, 8, 486 J
495.
381 (Asl.253);

not
at

M.

On

paritasita

compare
is not':

M.

I, 36

na

asati

'

54'

BRAHMA-GALA

I-

the

they reallyare,

as

the

danger,

the

and

[45]

For

'

Brahmans,

or

of the

arrangers

brethren, whether

thus

who

future, or

both, who

sixty-twomodes

to

to

the

net

lad should

drag a tiny pool of water


might fairlythink : Whatever

he

in it.

fisher-

about

pond, every one


they may, they
just so is it with

as

caught"

"

past and

the

they

included

are
'

it

The

rebirth

last,so

long

neither
'

do

of

gods

before

in twain.

nor

been

cut, all the

So

in twain.

long

shall
'

see

In

of each

form
'

the

it ;

long

the end

may,

just

binds
his
him.

so,

has
it

body
On

his

as

binds

body

him.

shall

On

of

his

bunch

of

end

has

the

life,

him.

see

mangoes

who

as

behold

gods and men


body, beyond

the

who

that which

the stalk of

when

that which

you,

but

you,

So

shall

men

that stalk go with


on
form
of him
outward
before

in it,and

speculatorsabout
flounder
they
as

behold
gods and men
the body, beyond the

Just,brethren, as
has

these

included

form, brethren, of him

^,stands
cut

fine-meshed

caught. [46]

and

outward

is

dissolution

be

future, in this net,

73.
the truth
to

will be
will

with

or

fish of size may


in this net ; flounder

"

in this

won

of

this way
and
that they plunge
in it ; this way
that they may
and

'

be

the

and

about, but they are


flounder,but they are included in it,caught
Just,brethren, as when a skilful fisherman
net

or

lations
specuforward

put

the

regard
past
them, are
entrapped in

future, they, all of

past

both, whose

are

with

recluses

the

of

reconstructors

with
propositions

various

these

to

concerned

are

of escape
from
the six realms
know
what
is above, beyond,

way

whosoever,

are

the end, the attraction,

originand

of contact, that he gets


them
all '.
72.

SUTTA-

that

goes
man-

hanging
brethren, though the
the

won

to

were

rebirth

shall
the

truth
has

stands

been

last,so

long

dissolution

of his life,neither

gods

cut

do

of the
nor

men

him.'
the first three

text

of the eleven

which,

to

avoid

Tathagata,

classes

of these

four

of theorisers.

propositionsare
The

I have adopted
repetition,
speaker himself,the

that is the

fourth

repeated

is put in the
for all the four.
Buddha.

THE

Ananda

said

this,

'

the

Ananda,

Net

of

even

the

spake

this

and

Here

One

And

the
'

what

venerable

Strange,
has

name

remember

as

as

the

the

Net

Net

Blessed

the

this

Lord,

this

is

tion
exposi-

his

word.

thousandfold

ends

the

the

and

And

Truth,

Theories
in

One,

exposition

of

of

Victory

Glorious

the

discourse

spoken,

thus

and

exalted

brethren

55

'

may

you

Net,
as

Thus

Advantage,

Supreme
it

truth

NET.

Blessed

the

to

wonderful

and
of

had

he

When

74.

PERFECT

day

the

world-system

Brahma-^

dla

Sutta.

the

as

the

remember

glad
on

and

as

of

battle

!'

at

heart

the

delivery
shook.

of

INTRODUCTION

THE

TO

sAmaa^a^a-phala

first

The

forth

puts

his

enunciation

law

by

is

answer

of

The

list

of

such

of

in

Dialogue
which

each

he

king

The
out

six

any,

have

other

six

they

are

goes

answering
these

having

into
the

teachers

of

great

with

from

put.

one

summary
as

here

evidence

the

by

time.

Each

point.
But

replies

fact, pointed
of

as

of the

his

the

Niga"///a

"

six

the

statement

question

held

the

in

story,

the

at

this

when

views

the

social

of

similar

is

later

the

time

gives

the

be

to

question

notes,

current

to

question

importance

the

the

and

general

save

said

put

not

are

ascending

an

had

interesting

The

theirs.

introductory

beliefs

sponding
corre-

any

the

of

of

described.

the

at

of

list

members

being

in

the

out

long

in

given in
compared

orders,

irretrievably lost, the


is

use,

derive

before

to

he

to

as

off

doctrines

particular
of

the

arranged

evidence

interesting

king, that

been

is

any

life, from

this

just

one

how

the

all

world,

And

teachers

of

the

valley

less

of

of

by

mentioned

Ganges

no

instead

whether

referred

Dialogue

replies

by

asks

one

explains

is
the

of

precepts

pointing

occupations

in

the

kind

of

received,

authors

after

occupations
especially as

the

founders

the

to

selves
them-

question

the

to

canon

Rules

The

as

of

ethical

desirability

up

composed.

was

the

certain

for

Order,

rules

The

words.

ordinary

similar

conditions

only

advantages,

than

sweeter

is

his

second

the

"

the

practical

regulated.

world,

visible

importance,

of

life
of

is

their

the

interesting evidence,
lists

the

Magadha,

advantage,

list

of

view

ceptions
con-

doctrine,

foundation

the

given

and

better

Buddha's

many

have

who

the

advantage,

from
in

people

Order,

scale

the

of

derived

ordinary

so

than

A^atasattu

advantages
the

in

to

as

most

all.

at

King

It

one

It is

Order

Order

to

wider

and

injunction.
any

the

fundamental

the

philosophical

discussed.

referred

larger

of

root

and

life in
not

are

with

justification for the


of the
Vinaya,

which
are

the

at

ethical

the

that

lay

his

Dharma,

deals

Dialogue

that

sutta.

theory

N^ta-putta

given
of

the

if

works,

of
sort

"

their
of

58

SAMAATiVA-PHALA

ir.

b.

SUTTA.

Honesty.
Chastity.

c.

d.

Truthfulness, peacefulness,courtesy,

and

good

in

sense

speech; "44.
different
kinds, and
luxury of twelve
from
trickeryand violence ; " 45.
injuringplants ; " 46.
kinds ; " 47.
laying up treasure, of seven
frequentingshows, of twenty-six specifiedkinds ; " 48.
playing games,
by name
;
eighteen being mentioned

Abstinence

e.

from

freedom
Not

/.

g. Not
h. Not
i. Not

"
j.

49.

Not

k.

using luxurious
rugs, "c., of twenty different
"50Not
are
using toilet luxuries,of which twenty-two

kinds

fied;
speci-

"51.
/. Not

instances
talking vain things,of which
twenty-seven
are
given ; " 52.
Not
7n.
using sophisticaland rude phrases when
talking of
higher things ; " ^'^.
Not
11.
acting as go-between ; " 54.
Not
o.
practising trickery and mystery under the guise of
religion\ \ SSp. Not gaining a livingby low arts, such as auguries ("56) ;
advising as to the best sorts of various things (" 57) ;
and
its results (" 5^) ; astrology
prophesying as to war
or
(" 59); foretellingfamine
plague or the reverse
ping
(" 60) ; arranging marriages, using spells,or worshipmedical
of
various
sorts
trickery
gods {" 61);

(" 62).

of

of fear, resultingfrom
heart, absence
rightdoing ; " 63.
keeping guarded the door of his senses;

of

he thus gains ; " 65.


self-possession
with simplicityof
with little,
being content

confidence
3. The
the consciousness
of
4.

The

habit

of

"64.
5. The
6. The
life ;

"

constant

power

66.

emancipation of heart from the Five Hindrances


self-mastery covetousness,
ill-temper,laziness, worry
flurry,and perplexity; "" 68-74.
of
8. The
joy and peace that, as a result of the sense
emancipation, fills his whole being ; " 75.
7. The

"

to

and

this

opposites of the three bad acts of the body, and the four bad acis of
speech, kaya- and va"ti-du^'ii'aritani, so often referred to in the
The
three others
Sottas, and in the Abhidhamma.
(of the mind),
making up the ten given in my manual, p. 142, are omiited here
because

they belong to

the

highermorality.

INTRODUCTION.

9. The
The
10.

practice of the Four


Insight arising from

59

6^^anas

"" 75-82*.
knowledge ("a"a-dassana)
;

"" 83, "4.


1 1

of
power
Thefivemodesof

12.

The

a.

practice of

b. The
c.

Heavenly
Knowledge of

d.

Memory

13;. The
the

Ear

hearing heavenly
thoughts.

"

others'

people'spreviousbirths (theHeavenly

of other

of the

attainment

and

sounds.

births.

previous

own

realisation

Asavas,
Now

Iddhi.

of his

Knowledge
Eye).

e.

projectingmental
images ; "" 85, 86.
mystic Insight(abhi";H); ""87-96"

The
.

Four
of

the

Truths,

Arahatship

No.

97, 98.
thirteen
consecutive

the

is exclusively Buddhist.
But
13, which
of the whole
of those
union
included

the

order

they

in which
treated

are

value

depends

point of

it,the order
of

to

name

the

it,must

have

early

Buddhists.

whole,
Sutta

our

of
as

it
the

into

whole
soaked

very

For

oldest

and

details

thoroughly
find

we

repeated (with

culminating
distinctively

the

statement,

the

into

complete

of
the

whole,

reference

direct

most

or

by

tion
enumera-

dialogues translated

in all the

not

the

up to the
all this is also

"

system,

one

in which
way
ladder
whose
chief

only
it)
subsequent
others.
volume, but also in many
In these repetitions the order
is always
details (so far as they occur)are
the same.
of the thirteen
is often omitted, and
groups
of

only the last,


thingsomitted,

it leads

Arahatship

further, the

of

the

nearly

in

And

steps of

is

the

arranged,

are

many
fact that

the

on

ideas

so

as

Nirva;za

Buddhist.

minds

the

of

""

perfectlytrue that of these


of propositions,it
propositions,or groups
it is

destruction

in this

those

of them

that

remain

is

always

enumerated

in

the

same,

But

the
other

or

application of

the

different

one

and

that

"

of
illustration,

is to

say,

different

in support, or
a
they are
proposition.
of these
other
A
applicationsof the
comparison of some
list is full of suggestion as to its real meaning here.
The
In the Amba/f///a
the point is as to caste.
Kshatriya
caste

is the

higher
*

still.

What

then

wisdom

and

right conduct,

is the

are

conduct

what

(p. 219) says that though the


mentioned
not
they are
explicitly

Buddhaghosa

Vimokkhas

but

honourable,

most

the

Four
to

are

right
Arfipa

be

stood
under-

Samapattis). This may be so:


up the Eight
later writer reading his own
opinion into the older

(thusmaking
but
text.

like

it looks

They

is difficult to

they were

are

put

into

why they
reallyimplied.
see

the

text

should

at

not

Po/Mapada,
have

been

pp. 183, 184, and it


also inserted here, if

6o

II.

wisdom
from

The

(/Tarawa)is all the


wisdom
(vi^^a) is

conduct

inclusive

2-9
the

In

; the

Sowadawrt'a
?'

Brahman
So"ada"^a

SUTTA.

SAMAiVATA-PHALA

the

question

his

usual

After, by

(2-9

In

Ku/adanta

the

After

rejectinganimal

the

sacrifice.

(of various
sacrifice

each

kinds,

than

the

same

the

is other

Buddha

who

asks,
t/iat

do

the

in

our

omitting
the

groupis
In
of

them

better

by

And

docs
the

is

(omitting

12)

and

men

themselves

trouble
the

being,

answer

the

counter-

subdivision, whether

to

as

of course,

he.
is

question
mystic

to

is

soul

the

answer

2-13

the

3)

and

then

then

takes

is

disparaging all

Buddha's
should

training

then

4-9,
groups
The
Dialogue

10-13.
the talk

way
The

trance.

training; and

in which

the

to

as

and

Lohi"^^a

out

the

and

be

tioned
things menFour
the
Arupa
other
questions,

in

in
up

the

miracles, mystic
others, calls attention
on

powers.
to

our

the
the

question

is

it is the

is that

answer

is the

who

to

as

right

pupil

whose

one

sort

our

2-13.
groups
the
Tevi^^a
question is
to

gives

answer

in

2-13.

attain

can

of

11

Buddha,

teacher;
In

we

The

likely to

attain

groups
Kevadd/isi

the

carries

right sort of
have
generosity

each

body.

soul?

neither

our

In the

explained

are

the

is whether

of each

(our groups

Vimokkhas.

And

be
the

it is

first in morals

last

quisites
re-

faith,training
last),

as

sections
end

Po^//^apada

is that

the

our

would

recluses

answer

essential

two

to

as

the

forth

question

the

at

speculations
'No,' rejoins that
In

leading

method,

sacrifice

than

set

than,

about

various

J 0-13
\
is the true

last.

the

question. Repeating
the

is

question

better

2-13,

Caliya
or

as,

rest,

10-13),

and

precepts, and
In

Socratic

acknowledge that the only


these
goodness and intelligence,

are

the

the

paragraphs

'What

is:

to

above

as

above

union
our

1-8, and

groups

the

to

way

which

by

then

the

adds

one

The

(Brahma-sahavyat^).

God

with

as

Four

Brahma-viharas.
In
^

other

the

of

shorter

Possibly Nos.
Suttas,to

11

be

the

and

12

omitted.

are

The

Suttas

Hatthipadopama

two

meant,

both

wording

is

here

and

ambiguous.

in

all the

Buddha-

the Eightfold
^s
ghosa, who talks here (see p. 268) of Nos, 10-13
include
them
could
otherwise
to
means
not
(he
apparently
pawwa,
But
of
the
Mahaii
them.
the argument
to exclude
seems
get eight).
The
texts
alway.s
jump from the last words of 10 to the last words of 13.
Now

as

in the Mahaii

No.

12

only Nos. 10 and 13 are meant.


the phraseologyin the Mahaii

is excluded, it is clear that at lea'^t there


And

and

there

that used

is

no

difference

in the other

between

Suttas.

6r

INTRODUCTION.

the

over

an

teachers

other

as

clauses/"
6, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9,
two
only, the last

to

question discussed

the

to

the

of

the full reason,

however

The

repeats

then

omitting

the

Ma^^/zima),
(omitting /

have

we

the

6,

/"),then

to

repeats

groups
first

groups

quotes

11,

three)^

with

(omitting

our

and

10

(omittingthe

two

himself
2

group

Buddha

Buddha

our

then
inclusive^),

between

of the

ascendancy

time.

in group
concludes
12, and
Maha
Tawha-sankhaya

Abhi""as
In

is

ascetic

afterwards

giving

the

Ma^^//ima),

27 in the
Brahman
and

(No.

of the

five

13 in full.
(No. 38 in the

group

Sutta

same

sequence
8, and
5,
7,
3, 4,

our

"

group
The

9.

is

rest

omitted.
the

In

in different

summary

have

2, we
then
Sutta,

group

Then

our

be

to

Buddha,

but

for the

not

the

the

Besides
Suttas

sake

of the

paragraphs
last two
13

the

true

those

sama"a.

of

pointed

Ma^^ima,

Order

matters

two

it
that

under
forth

set

the

in

our

and

Abhi""as,

Arahatship.
above

out

of

all enumerated

"

last of the

attainment

our

out

realising happiness
the

our

in

not

only

79 of the

No.
of

of

contents

the

between

Digha, and in the Ma^^/^ima, respectively


in
the
difference
I
to
due,
think, solely

in the

differences
under

subjects

of

the

the

life in

of the

differences

preserved
"

of

group

sake

celibate

up
for the

2-9
all for the sake

above

our

after

Assapuras,

two

Brahman,
Sakuludayi,

inclusive

groups

the

most

true

in the

again
take

of

4, then

group

is the

recluses

of

words

5, 7, 8,
groups
then (as a climax)

our

is declared

longer

9, and

12, and
group
what
to show

the

the

Sutta,

next

discussion

there

"

also

are

verbal

few

ings,'
readthan
various
scarcely more
of
traditions
the
due, perhaps, to the divergent
Digha
and
bh^/^aka
and
the Ma^^^ima-bha;^ak^
(the students

differences, amounting

"

'

to

of

repeaters
handed

of

difference
So

knowing

that

advantage

Sutta

our

the

of

power

is

between
Sutta

life in

an

the

and

sum

regarded

are

as

matters, he

of

saw

Iddhi, of hearing heavenly sounds, and of

people's thoughts,
our

Dialogues

the

infer that, as
respects those
may
himself and the other teachers.
between

in

of

that

be, it is clear
in

the

we

other

included

may

in which

collections

paragraphs

the

ground

common
are

us).

which

From

to

this

sequence

no

two

down

However

"

the

apparently supposed

are

and

the Buddhists
because
Order

"

they
in

supposed

are

any

tlie other

Order,

that

to

sects.

be

to

be

They

part of the

is,not

only

the

Buddhist.
^

from
as

we

Ma^^^ima II, 37, 38. Perhaps the pe


the twenty-seventhSutta just quoted
have seen, is not of great importance.
"

is meant
the

to

be

supplied

difference, however,

62

SAMAAT^A-PHALA

II.

importance, not as
Buddhist
philosophy, or

great

of the

statement

of life in

result

narrower

of

one

call the

Buddhist

The

difference

the

shortened

and

for

looked

that

as

the

as

has
is the

question
which

particularcommunity

the

the statement

when

of

ethics, or

religion,but
be

may

further

we

Order.

interesting

is

the

"a"a-dassana,

of

the

of

power
oneself, which

modern

body),
sounds

(something like hearing

the

dhist
Bud-

projecting a
the

like

seems

ideas

Yoga

germ
the powers

of

for

scheme

in the

"

image (apparentlyof

mental
earliest

Buddhist

that

And

life in the

the

Order

of

Order.

slightlymodified

be

to

of Buddhist

statement

advantages

an

SUTTA.

the

about

astral

Iddhi, the

of hearing heavenly
power
the music
of the spheres),and

knowing the thoughts of others, are all omitted.


given above, I have called these last three,
of calling to mind
one's own,
and
together with the power
the

of

power
In the

abstract

peoples', previous births, the

other

Intuitions.

And

Childers's

article

not

called

so

The

would

sense

be

sub

either

published.
to

this is in accord

of

use

seem

later

(tojudge
of

date

the

or

which
on
passages
these
are
powers
other
Dialogue yet

But

in any
abhi;/;7a

text, or
the
word

therefore

sign of the

our

Abhi""as,

the

is based.

voce

in

Five

with

this

in

from

the

book

in which

technical

published texts)
it

occurs

portions of the Pi/akas the word is always used


of insight,
and
if any
in the general sense
special limitation
it
is
of
the
is hinted
simply
insight
Arahatship that is
at,
is a quotation
emphasised
(as in Dhammapada
423, which
from
Iti-Vuttaka, No. 99, and is quoted also at Aiiguttara I,
the

In

oldest

Eightfold Path
merely because

The
is not

The

oldest

is not

it is not

of the technical

case

in

mentioned

Sutta.

our

possible always
of the word,

use

introductorystory of the Maha


(Vin. Ill,87). This is later than

is in the

Vibhahj^a

^ika

the

Old

so

on

mention

to

far

the

Five

the

of

tlie groups
among
Abhi77"a
is used

exclusivelyin
And
Six

Abhiw"as

translated

here under
'

as

in my

ordinary

Commentary

in

and

Abhi""as

divisions

(III, 277,

sense

as

actualjygiven

in

the

what
full

Akahkheyya

'Buddhist

also A.

given
in the Ahguttara.
containing the Fives

But

I, 100;

are

Sixes

instructive

discussion.

Compare

the

more

are

words

same

its

this is the

Fives

in

Six

the

nor

II, 249;

451 ; comp.
afterwards

Parathe

on

and

as

The
and

this

groups
word
Sixes

IV, 348).
called

the

(IV, 17-19, "" 6-1 1) in the


(No. 6 of the Ma^^^^ima,

SuitA

and
Suttas'),

they are

were

I know,

as

fourth

which
it incorporates many
from
Patimokkha,
passages,
itself.
again is later,of course, than the Patimokkha
Neither

This

not

in
very nearly as
called Abhi""as.

III,3,

9, 277.

our

Sutta,

6^

INTRODUCTION.

The

everything.
advantages

walk

Arahatship, to
Order.

path,

Path

bhikshu

open

also to

Sutta.

They

which

deals

The

1.

course

The

2.

rules

of

the

3. The
Sutta

is

for

of

have

Four

Truths,

of

entered

down

the

the

Path

Buddhism

of the

limited

have

we

sense,

the essential

have,

as

ordinary

of

the

Patimokkha

in

bers
mem-

in

and

higher

things

this

present

our

the

and
of

those

(The

Arahatship.

to

the

for

Asavas.)
little
a

rules

beyond
great

very

the
deal

found

expedient
non-Brahman,
though
the positiveregulations

Even
things deliberately omitted.
be considered, except in a
cannot
seen,
Buddhist.
It is in the fourth
exclusively
of Buddhism

become

are

welded

But

parts has

of its various

down

the

of

whole.

consistent

laid

goes very
the second

In

day.

doctrines

doubt,

no

the

Of

and

differences,both
also

included, and

third, as

the

self-training

upon

numerous

are

and

Gahapati-vaggas

Order.

been

there

for

the

in

simply incorporated from


by previous recluses,both Brahman
has

speculation

conduct

Eightfold Path,

the

ethics

current

ethics, to
a
system)

^.

of

first of these

the

our

training,of

in such

both

self-training

members

method

who

In

in

out

of

striking example.

The

4.

set

Buddhist
be

down
in

outward

laid

to

system

prescribed

the

to

Order,

Khandhakas

the

laid

nikayas

as

Path

contained

various

special

one

are

conduct

layman,

in the

found

These

upon

process
methods

(and must
along which

run.

of

the

understand

to

the
the

enter

are

lines

edifying teaching
Buddhist

order

there

different

several

quite
only with

within

of the
peculiar to members
the goal either along that

not

distinct

two

that

in mind

come

To

might reach
laymen *, or by

It is essential, in
bear

not

Order.

along it,is

are

Sutta

our

does

of life in the

to
to

to

together

be
into

found.
a

more

whole, the
kept constantly in view.
the

understand
be

All
or

very
that
four
less

relation

last Sutta
The
explain an apparent contradiction.
quoted, the Sakuludayi, states that the aim of the religiousor
celibate life as led in the Buddha's
Order, is the attainment, in
will

This

order, of the various

For

there
'^

which
"'

are

set

out

in

our

Sutta

(groups a-9,

13).

and

12

things

other

good
is

list of

twenty-one

instances

given

in my

in

'

Arahats

see

A.

Ill, 451;

and

recorded.

of this is in the

summary

Translated

laymen

Manual,

Vinaya

pp.
Texts

143
'

SigdlovadaSutta,an
foil.

(S. B. E.).

abstract

of

64

II-

Now

in other

Thus

represented

X'ariya)'
book
the

with

that

explaining

the

stated

are

of

(VI, 253
suggestive

V,

27)

6,

addition

that

is

the

on

prevent

88,

pp.

occur)
the

one

one

the

much

to

the

(IV, 272)

book

way

is said

object

is stated

argument
does

further

not

in

on

for the

be

to

be

to

Bonds

seven

The

And

thing.

same

the

repeated,
to
this,to

brahma-^arinya

word

in the

on

times

attaining Arahatship.

(though

99

comes

same

from

is

complete

Further

Eightfold Path.
wit, the Noble
Again, in the Anguttara (IV, 7) the higher life
of getting rid of, of cutting through,
for the sake
which

aim.

(the brahma-

of

is three

there

the

himself

life

celibate

this

be

to

Buddha

the

by his followers for the sake


pain (dukkha-pari""a).

is led

understanding
same

things
(IV, 51)

Sawyutta

as

SUTTA.

other

passages

the

in

SAMAiV;VA-PHALA

sake

of

getting rid of five particularsorts of envy.


that
the
he
Nagasena is therefore
quite right when
says
is for the
object of renouncing the world to live in the Order
'^
of righteousness and
sake
in another
place that
; and
peace
it is to

the

that

end

sorrow

the

explanations belong

to

They

inconsistent

really

not

are

Sutta

sets

out.

that

needed,

were

phrase (as some


the object
or
a

similar

various

hesitate
had

add

joined

the

and

of

of

as

That

have

set

is

terror

no

The

it would

to
to

the

aims

the

at

are

be

to

gain

were

up in
for which

sum

object
necessarily
of

various

the

does
"

as

that

not
some

of

kings, some
harassed
by debt,

tyranny

they

livelihood.

Orders

other

with

our

the

advantages

of

up in a single
of Buddhism,

aim

the

our

proof, if such

sum

the

Order.

that

aim

And
Nagasena
up.
in speaking to a king

consistent

quite

to

these

All
of the

other

circumstances

because

some

forth

their

is, of

celibacy.

We

in

likely results

the

Order

'

and

to

purports

an

add

also

elsewhere,
be

to

perhaps merely
would
apply

some

This

Order

do)

to

The

and

them

and

robbers,

tried

Order.

take
"

possible

Christianity, or

character

who

the

rules

additional

only

are

the

to

Order, than

of

aim

not

with

more

have

Christian

to

in fear

to

the

the

individuals

no

of life in the

as

they

it is

writers

way

enter

men

And

Path,

^.

away

pass

may

joining,from

both

in

India

Sutta, which

early
whatever

Buddhists

motive,

and

only
held
such

own.

'

course,

German

expression so
I, 31 (of my

'

Milinda

'

Ibid. I, 51 ; compare

the

best

of life ' with

course

Wandel'

is

the

connotation

good rendering of ^ariya.


See Saw/yuttaV, 16, 17.
good.
translation).
'

I, loi.

66

SAMAA'iC^A-PHALA

II.

SUTTA.

the full moon


water-lily),
day of the fourth month ^, at
seated on
the upper
full,was
was
night,when the moon
roof of his palace surrounded
terrace
by his ministers.
that sacred
And
the king, on
to
day, gave utterance
a
hymn of joy, saying:
How
pleasant,friends,is the moonlight night !
How
beautiful,friends,is the moonlight night!
How
lovely,friends,is the moonlight night!
How
soothing,friends,is the moonlight night!
How
grand a sign,friends, is the moonlight night!
'

Who

is the

able

When

2.

to

the

of

an

visit

call

may

him, shall be

'

spoken, a

certain

minister

said

is,Sire, Piira;2a Kassapa, the head


the teacher
of a school, well
following,

of repute

as

sophist,revered
has

long

the

by

been

people,

recluse,old

Let
Majesty pay
your
years.
him.
It may
well be^ that, on
callingupon
shall
But
he
when
find
heart, Sire,
peace,'

your

thus

in

silence.

spoken A.^atasattuthe king kept


Then

other

of Makkhali

terms

we

There

stricken

to

3-7.

thus

whom

call upon

we

experience,who

well

had

and

man

him,

'

order, of
of

and

had

he

king

known

Brahman

or

to-night,who, when
hearts
to satisfyour

upon

recluse

five ministers
of the

spake

in the

[48]of Ajnta

cow-pen,

same

of the

of Sa;l^aya
hair, of Pakudha
Ka"('/'ayana,
of the N^ta
of the Bela/Z/^a clan, and of the Niga;2/'//a
And
clan.
still,to each, A^atasattu the king kept
of

garment

silence.

it shows
that the year, for the compilers
as
interesting,
Savana
in
Sutta,began
(middle of July to middle of August),
our
three Uposatha days in
There
that is,with the rainy season.
were
the 7th, 14th, and
each
The
month, on
15th day of the month.
Kattika
ber)
full moon
(middle of October to middle of Novemnight of

This

is

of

is called
that flower

is

Komudi
*

The

Dosina,

same

the

(from Kumuda,

Komudi

supposed
as

the

lines

to

then.

white

because
water-lily),
is wrong

in translating

of the month,

name

recur,

but

of which

etymology
ghosa (p. 141),is^yotsna.
Both
nam
a.
Appeva
*to a cenainiy,'
but compare
'

bloom

Burnouf

in

order,

puzzled Childers

Gogerly
D,

different

and

Burnouf

I, 179, 205;

at

and

take

G'at, I, 105.
also Buddhathis to

V, II, 85, 262,

mean

FRUITS

THE

8.

[49] Now

OF

THE

time

that

at

OF

LIFE

6^1vaka

seated, in silence,not

far from

And

him

the

why

do

king

said

nothing ?

you
say
I31essed

'The

to

'

67

RECLUSE.

the

physicianwas
A^dtasattu the king.

But

friend

you,

Qvaka,

'

One, Sire,the Arahat, the all-awakenedis now


one,
lodging in our Mango Grove, with a great
of the brethren, with twelve
hundred
and
fifty
company
brethren.
noised

And

this is the

abroad

Gotama

to

as

in wisdom

the

Blessed

is the exalted

Arahat, fullyawakened,

that has

good report

One

been
"

An

One, abounding

and

goodness, happy, with knowledge of


the worlds, unsurpassed as
a
guide to mortals willing
be led, the teacher
of gods and
blessed
to
a
men,
Buddha."
Let your
It
Majesty pay a visit to him.
well be

may

shall find

'Then,

peace.'
friend

Qvaka,

ready.'
Very good. Sire
9.
'

assent

heart. Sire,

him, your

callingupon

that,on

the

to

hundred

words

'

! said Civaka

of the

she-elephants

elephant the
brought to

wont
king was
The
the
king :

to

he
and

the

ride, and

had

seemeth

now

Then

five hundred

what

five

had

state

word

elephants, Sire,

'

king had

And

ready,

made

physician in

the

king.

caparisoned. Do
the

made
riding-elephants

the

have

to

of his

are

meet.'

you

mounted

women

each ; and himself mounted


one
on
she-elephants,
the state
forth,the attendants
elephant ; and he went
from
Ra^agaha to
bearing torches, in royal pomp,
6^ivaka the physician's
Mango Grove.
the Mango Grove,
close upon
And
the king,when
10.
the

on

seized

was

the

hairs

with

excited, he

said

body stood
Qvaka

to

tricks,C'ivaka ?

no

not

are

that
a

his

on

cough,

should
in

so

be

You

betraying me

there

fear and

sudden

not

my

sound

no

large

[50]'You

at

How

all,not

assembly

an

playingme

are

of

You

deceiving me

foes ?

and

anxious

And

erect.

are

to

consternation, and

it be

can
a

the

nor

sneeze

brethren,
'

of the brethren ?
twelve hundred
and fifty
among
Fear not, O king. I play no trick,neither deceive
Go on, O king,
you ; nor would I betray you to the foe.
'

68

SAMAi^i"^A-PHALA

II.

There, in the pavilionhall,the lamps

Straighton

go

SUTTA.

burninof.'

are

Then

1 1.

the

path
the

to

king went on, on his elephant as far as


passable for elephants,and then on foot,
of the pavilion; and then said to 6^ivaka :
the

was

door

'

where, 6"ivaka, is the Blessed One ?


That
is he, O king,sitting
againstthe middle pillar,
him.'
and facingthe East, with the brethren
around
'

But
'

Then

1 2.
on

side.

one

the

the

king went

And

assembly,seated

brethren

'

Do

them
'

I love

the

boy,

3. Then

the

stretchingforth
Order

took

One

'

certain
the
'

looked

that

calm

such

Udayi
assembly of
son,

my

this

as

as

on

clear

'

then

go

wish

that

love

where

guides

'

his

I would
matter,

and

calm

might enjoy such


1

thoughts

your

and

there

Would

has !

now

stood

perfect silence,calm

in

lake, he broke
out
Bhadda, might have
the

he

as

respectfully

stood

and

up,

as

this

he, Uddyi Bhadda,

assembly has.'

the
to
king bowed
his joined palms in

aside, [5i]and

seat

fain
if he

question

give

question.'
Ask, O king,whatsoever

Blessed

salutation

said

the

the

to

Blessed

opportunityto

me

you

One, and
the

to

Blessed

One
set

on

forth

desire.'

of ordinary crafts :
Sir, a number
mahouts,
horsemen,
charioteers, archers, standard
marshalls, camp
bearers, camp
followers,high military
officers of royal birth,militaryscouts
brave
\ men
as
*

14.

There

are.

"

elephants,champions, heroes,
home-born

in

warriors

buckskin,

slaves, cooks, barbers,


attendants,
confectioners, garland-makers, washermen,
weavers,
basket-makers, potters, arithmeticians, accountants, and
whatsoever

in
in

of

others

of like

kind

there

may

be.

All

forth.' The
'rushers
exact
Pakkhandino,
meaning of some
and
still
is
was
uncertain,
apparentlyuncertain
militaryterms
differences
of reading,
Buddhaghosa. They all recur, with some
the Milinda
much
and
also
later
and
in
a
(p. 331,
longer list),
the Ahguttara {IV, 107),as the names
of the constituent elements
a standingarmy.

of these
to

bath

FRUITS

THE

these

OF

THE

LIFE

OF

enjoy,in

craft.

this very world, the visible fruits of their


maintain
themselves, and their parents and

They

children

and

keep

the object
gifts,

up

recluses

friends, in happiness and

and

Brahmans,

heaven, that
result.

redound

to

of which

comfort.

is

giftsthat
happiness,and
"

gain

lead

Do

5.

the

admit

you

question to

same

'

'

Then

to

us,

in

immediate
recluse' .-*'

have

you

put

Brahmans

to

or

rebirth

bliss as their

have

king,that

recluses

other

high, to

to

Can

'

They

on

any such
you, Sir,declare to me
visible in this very world, of the life of
fruit,
1

69

RECLUSE.

'

do, Lord.'
tell

how

us

answered

they

it,if

do

you

not

mind.'
'

have

others

like

[52]

objection where

no

One,

or

him, are.'

speak, O king.'

Then

'

Blessed

the

after
Kassapa ^. And
exchanging with him the greetings and compliments
of friendshipand courtesy, I seated myself beside him,
the same
and
question as I have now
put,
put to him
16.

Lord,

went

you.
'Then
O

acts,

mutilates

Plara^a

king, or

or

tremble,

takes

Furana

another

is

what

him

to

punish,to

to

trembles

kills

who

given,who

not

act, to

to

to

him

who

him

who

who

him
or

him

"To

me:

mutilate,

to

who

him

to

another

another

to

said

Kassapa
causes

causes

punishesor causes
griefor torment,
to

to

to

17.

who

Once

'

causes

others

causes

who

living creature,

breaks

into

houses, who

dacoity,or robbery, or highway robbery, or


adultery,or who speaks lies,to him thus acting there
is no
guilt. If with a discus with an edge sharp as
commits

'

Burnouf

repeated

clause.

declare

to

world,

such

fruit of

has

them

who

He

has

sad

it then

important and
possible,Sir, that
this

the

'

But

the
the

foreseen

king

and

as

the Buddha

asks
of

members

constantly
should

one

in

just mentioned)

craftsmen

(oftheir actions)as

conduct

benefit

of

mess

'Is

(that is, to

himself)whether

their life any


from

result

their

(the king

made

the

correspondingto that which

Order

the
to

general
tell him

derive

the craftsmen

this

from
derive

theirs.

According
went

about

to

Buddhaghosa (p. 142)

naked.

he

was

one

of the

teachers

70
a

earth

heap,

one

all the

make

should

he

razor

SUTTA.

SAMAiViVA-PHALA

II.

of flesh, there

mass,

one

on

the

would

be

livingcreatures

increase
of guiltwould
no
resulting,
of the
bank
Were
he to go along the south
ensue.
Ganges strikingand slaying,mutilating and having
mutilated, oppressing and having men
oppressed,
men
be no
there would
guiltthence resulting,no increase
Were
he to go along the north
of guiltwould
ensue.
of the Ganges giving alms, and ordering giftsto
bank
be
to
be
given, offeringsacrifices or causing them
be
merit
thence
no
offered,there would
no
resulting,
of merit.
increase
[53] In generosity,in self-mastery,
is
in speaking truth there
in control of the
senses,

guiltthence

no

neither

merit,

of merit."

increase

nor

Kassapa,
advantage in the

when

of

Just, Lord,

Purawa

non-action

what

life of

what

the

was

recluse, expound

should

was,

mango
did
so

asked

as

if

Lord, did

Thus,

his

theory
asked

when

man,

immediate

explain what

fruit

bread

Pura;ia Kassapa, when


asked
what
was
is,just
of being, of the life of
the fruit,in this present
state
Then,
recluse, expound his theory of non-action.
a

Lord,

it occurred

think

of

blamed

giving

what

utterance

he

to

no

acceptingnor
seat, and

my

19.

['In

set

not

forth.

How

should

dissatisfaction
?

"

said, and

So

to

any

I neither

though

such

one

as

recluse

or

applauded

dissatisfied

nor

gave

and neither
expression of dissatisfaction,
of his, I arose
from
rejectingthat answer
departed thence.

the

teachers, and
answer

me

realm

in my

Brahman

"

to

to

And

same

manner

went

receiving to this same


the point,I behaved
the

answers

of the

to

five

other

question put
in each

five

were

case

as

thus

an

just

:]
^

'Akiriya;w vyakasi. Gogerly interpretsthis 'he replied by


affirmingthat there are no future rewards and punishments.' Burnouf
But
has simply 'm'a
vaine.'
the corresponding
donnd
une
reponse
summarises
the theory of the teacher
in the subsequent sections
word
A. I, 62 ; V. I, 235.
questioned. On this theory compare
In the text the framework
of the interview is repeatedeach time
in the same
above.
words
differ. The
as
Only the answers
answers
all recur
in the Magg/iima.I, 513 foil.
'

FRUITS

THE

'When

20.

the

^, he

either

uhimate

for the

of

rectitude
and

reason

of

given condition,
either
or

on

human

on

or

one's

or

energy,

animals, all

and

proximate
become

or

the

on

human

strength or human
(with one, two, or

all

beings (produced
souls (in plants) are

of their own.
energy
by their fate,by the

such

no

or
eggs
force
without

They

of

more

depend
another,
power
All

and

senses),
womb), all
and

power

this way
of
conditions

necessary

and

they belong,by their individual nature


it is according to their position in one
other
or
six classes that they experience ease
or
pain.
'

There

is

this Makkhali

about

who

and

Gosala,

here,

Buddhaghosa

followers

whose
the
of

sophists. Some

the

referred

are

the Buddhist

both

in

regarded, from

was

of

worst

deal

good

of

point

class
:

and

of the

texts
the^G^ain

called

were

Buddhist

A^tvakas,
view,

as

the

Gaina

the

and
also
passages,
'
Uvasaka
Hoernle,
dasao,'

by

to

and

that

the

which

to

any

vigour.

bent

are

of

thing as

in

from

without

not

acts

There

is

remote,

or

attainment

effort.

creatures

of

without

pure

character, does

acts,

king, no cause,
depravityof beings;

The

any

own

Makkhali

reason

either

cause.

is,O

beings ; they

without

asked

without

cause,

no

RECLUSE.

thus

for the

remote,

is

OF

There

depraved

There

cause.

"

said

or

become

they

LIFE

I had

day

one

cow-pen

THE

OF

principalPi/aka passages
I, 66, 68 ; III, 69, 211;
are
I,31, 198, 238, 250, 483, 516, 524.
IV, 398. A. I, 33, 286; III, 276, 384. V. I. 8, 291 ; II, III, 130,
As the sect is
and G. V, 68.
See also Git. I, 493
165, 284; IV, 74.
Edicts
thrice mentioned
in the Asoka
as
receivingroyal giftsit is
retained
certain that it
an
important position for several centuries at
See Senart, 'Inscriptions
de Piyadasi,'
least.
II, 82, 209.
pp.

foil.: and

108

in the

The

Appendixes.

S.

M.

From

beginning of

the

S. Ill, 211, and


is ascribed
answer
at

down

answer

and

of it at ibid. 212,

the rest

the end

to

the

of p. 53 recurs
first part of the

at ibid. p. 69 to P(ira"a
Kassapa.
dhaghosa
Budsabbe
sabbe
Sabbe
bh(ita,
givL
satta, sabbe
pa"a,
of
classes
these
four
details
of
livingbeings, showing
gives

how

they are

men

down

the

the

in

renders

the
them

no

same

which

is much

means

order

the Buddhists

They

mutually exclusive.
in

animal

better ; but

this earth,from
on
life,
confused, and makes

has

explanationis very

The

the

G^aina-Sfltras,and

accordingly'Every

livingthing,whether
This

all that

include

to

plants.

to

by

terms

used

meant

we

sentient

or

vegetable.'

supposed

in our

Gosala

frequently
Jacobi

every insect, every


Gaina-Sutras,' II, xxv.

being,
'

have,

are

Professor

version, to give the

to have

taken

sense

the words.

in

72

II.

[54] "There
principalsorts
and again six

SAMAiV/^A-PHALA

fourteen

'

are

SUTTA.

hundred

of birth, and

again

There

hundred.

of the

thousands

six thousand

others,

five hundred

are

sorts

again five (accordingto the five senses),


and again three (accordingto act, word, and thought);
Karma
and
half Karma
and
there is a whole
a
(the
of act or word, the half a Karma
whole
being a Karma
of thought).
There
of conduct),
are
sixty-two paths (or modes
sixty-two periods, six classes (or distinctions among
men)\ eight stages of a prophet's existence^,forty-nine
of occupation ^, forty-nine
hundred
hundred
sorts
sorts
of wandering mendicants, forty-ninehundred
regions
dwelt
in by
thousand
faculties,three
Nagas, two
thousand
mulates,
purgatories,thirty-six
placeswhere dust accuof

and

Karma,

'

"

of animate

sorts

seven

production,and seven
of
of gods, and
sorts
lakes, and
minor
'

"

seven

of

sorts

There

of inanimate

seven

seven
production by grafting,

and

men,

of devils, and

principal and again seven


Pa^u/as
of precipices,
and
*

eighty-fourhundred

are

during which

of

and

fools

both

wise

and

of great
hundred

of dreams.

thousand

periods

alike,wandering in

of pain.
end
an
transmigration,shall at last make
Though the wise should hope :
By this virtue or
this performance of duty, or
this penance,
this
or
(I have inherited),
righteousnesswill I make the Karma
mature'
that is not yet mature,
though the fool should
to get graduallyrid of Karma
hope, by the same
means,
*

"

that
ease

cannot

has
and

matured

"

neither

pain,measured

be altered

in the

out,

of

them

as

it were,
of

course

can

do

with

it.

The

measure,

transmigration
;

there

Compare the correspondingtheory of the (?ains as given in the


vol. ii,p. 213:
and
Uttaradhyayana SQtra in Jacobi'sGaina-Sfitras,
that of P(ira"a Kassapa quoted in Ahguttara III, 383.
Buddhaghosa gives the details babyhood, playtime,trial time,
erect
time, learning time, ascetic time, prophet time, and prostrate
time' with (very necessary)comments
each.
One
on
may
compare
of
Man.'
Seven
Shakspere's
Ages
The
Siamese
edition reads d^g'ivaka.
A^iva.
*
I think this is the rightreading,but don't know
what it means.
*

'

'

'

74

SAMAiV^A-PHALA

II-

and

SUTTA.

his

It is a doctrine
offerings^end In ashes.
fools,this talk of gifts. It is an empty lie,mere
Fools
therein.
talk,when
men
say there is profit

wise

the

alike,on

dissolution

of the

body,

cut

are

of

idle
and

off,

annihilated,and after death they are not."


of hair, when
Thus, Lord, did A^ita of the garment
*

what

asked
a

the immediate

was

life of

in the

advantage

recluse,expound his theory of annihilation.

[56]26.

day, I

When, one
he said :
Ka/('/^ayana,
O

'

neither

king,are

neither

created

The

"

made

thus

Pakudha

asked

things,

following seven
commanded

nor

caused

nor

had

be

to

to

be

made,

created, they

are

produced out of them),


stedfast
mountain
a
as
peak, as a pillarfirmly fixed.
not
not, neither do they vary, they trench
They move
one
another, nor avail aught as to ease
or
pain or
upon

barren

(so

both.

And

that

nothing

what

are

the

is

The

seven

four elements

"

pain,and the
soul as
seventh.
So
is neither
there
a
slayer nor
of slaying,hearer
causer
plainer.
exor
or
speaker, knower
When
with a sharp sword
cleaves a head
one
in twain, no
of life,
one
thereby deprives any one
sword
has only penetrated into the interval between
a

earth, water,

seven
*

what
a

fire,and

air

and

"

and

ease,

elementarysubstances."
Thus, Lord, did Pakudha
the

was

immediate

recluse, expound

the

asked

when
Ka/^/fayana,

advantage in the life


thing
matter
by expounding some-

of

else.

[57]28.

'

When,

of
N\ga.n//ici
O king (a man

the

day,

one

he

water

washed

sense

of

restraint.

asked

thus

the

Nata

clan, he said: "A


Niga;^//za,
with a
restrained
free from
is
bonds),

fourfold self-restraint.
all

had

restrained
away

evil held
And

as

and
at

lives restrained

He

regards
he

bay.

since he

all evil

lives
Such

is thus

as

regards

all evil has

suffused

with

is his fourfold

tied with

the
self-

this fourfold

The
XXVII, 10; KathaVatlhu
Ahuliyo. See Buddhavawsa
550.
in the G^aina
phrase is omitted in the parallel
Sfltrakr/iahga
passage
xxiv.
II,
pointed out by Jacobi, Gaina-SQtras,'
'

'

'

THE

FRUITS

THE

OF

bond, therefore

is he, the

called

(whose

Gatatto

summit,

LIFE

OF

RECLUSE.

75

Niga"///o(freefrom

heart

has

that

gone;

bonds),
is,to the

the attainment, of his

aim) Yatatto
(whose
is
heart
is kept down
that
under
is,
;
command), and
T'^itatto
(whose heart is fixed)\"
of the Nata
Thus, Lord, did the N\ga.n//ia.
clan,
when
the immediate
asked
what
was
advantage in the
to

'

life of

recluse, expound

bis

theory

of the

fourfold

asked

Sa^^aya

bond.

[58]31. 'When,
of the

Bela/'Ma

there

would

think

it is thus

neither

there

don't

not, after death


I give the same

world.

And

who

has
or

or

the truth

won

each

to

"

chance

result,of good
any

of these

I don't

it is otherwise.
there

say

if you
ask
whether
or

bad

actions

continues,

or

questions do

reply^."
did

'Thus, Lord,

clan,when

I don't

beings produced by
man

think

And

it.

deny

And

so.

say

I don't

And

fruit,any

is any
whether

[59]33.

"

is not, another

the

thus

"

If you ask me
whether
well, if I thought there were,

thus.

don't

said

But

or

is,nor

about

or

world

so.

say

And

me

clan, he

is another

had

day, I

one

asked

what

immediate

the

was

Bela////a

of the

Saw^aya

advantage

in

of prevarication.
recluse,show his manner
And
to
him, as to all the others, I expressed neither
but neither
acceptingnor
approval nor dissatisfaction,
the

'

life of

The

be

to

has

ironical

an

caught

the

first of
to

not

See

it.

is

the

Professor

Restraints'
followers

of

two

the

of the

words,

of

but

fairlyenough,

sense

and

it

originalis couched.

probably intended
talking. Gogerly

his version

gives no
Burnouf

idea
s

is very
of the

rendering

of the mark.

quite wide

Grains

general

as
to
wrong
form
in which

oracular

The

in this difficult passage


imitation of the Niga"/^a'sway

series of riddles

free,and
is

the

'

Four

Restraints

'

is the

well-known

rule

of the
'

in
are
ground
discussion
in the Milinda
(II,85-91 of my translation).
the
Four
II, xxiii) thinks
Jacobi ('6?aina-S(itras,'
intended
kept by the
to
are
represent the four vows
these
for
be so,
vows
were
Parjva.
But this surelycannot
drink

cold

water,

on

the

that there

'

souls

'

quitedifferent.
2

The

text)into

text

repeats the whole

the mouth

of the Eel-

paragraph put
wriggler.

above

(p. 27

of

the

76

II.

rejectingwhat
departed thence

now.

Blessed

One.

34.

the

this

fruit,in
those

I can,

Can

of

to

seat, and

my

recluse, such

tioned
men-

fain put
think
may

I would

end
it

have

as

?'

show

to

to

immediate

any

occupations I

Answer

you.

me

that

to

question

same

life of

of the

And

the

show

you

them, able

king.

question

Lord, I put

world, of the

each

are,

from

arose

follow each

who

SUTTA.

said, I

was

And

'

SAMAiVJVA-PHALA

as

you

fit.

most

[eo]35.

Now

what

do

you think, O king.


household
there were

Suppose

the people of your


a slave
among
does
who
work
for you, rises up in the morning before
do and retires earlier to rest, who
is keen
to carry
you
out

your

in what

pleasure, anxious
does

he
look.

every
and

and

Suppose

who

agreeable

watches

your

should

think, "Strange is it
of meritorious
deeds, this

wonderful, this issue

result of merit!

himself

man

says,

he

make

to

king of Magadha, A^ataof the Videha


sattu, the son
princess he is a man, and
I. But the king lives in the full enjoyment and
so
am
possession of the five pleasuresof sense
a
god,
very
methinks
I
and
here
for
him,
slave, working
am
a
risingbefore him and retiringearlier to rest, keen to
his pleasure,
anxious
make
out
to
myself agreecarry
able
in deed and word, watching his very looks.
Would
is this

Here

"

"

"

that

Why

should

"

Of

and

like

were

I have

six teachers

these

vice

not

him, that

versa

my

Pftra"a

might

too

hair

beard

and

denies

the

shaved

evil Karma

A^ita,in preaching annihilation

at

merit.

earn

in

off,

bad

act

death, shuts

out

of any effect to be worked


Makkhali
by Karma
possibility
; and
and
its eff"ect. The
to
seems
theory of Pakudha
rejectsboth Karma
the
exclude
the
Niga"///asimply begs
question, by
responsibility
;
assertingthat a NigawMa has attained the end; and Sa"^aya gives
the

no

The

only

evidence

be

in

one

is at

theory).
it out

all.

at

answer

hoped

But
manner

that

of these

six

theories

of

life

present accessible is that of


no
attempt has yet been made

intelligibleWestern
to

this want

may

soon

be

on

the
to

readers.

which

independent
Niga"//5a(the Gain
summarise
It is very

suppliedby

the excellent scholars familiar with the texts.

one

or

it,or

set

much

to

other

of

THE

and

FRUITS

don

THE

LIFE

OF

and

going

yellow robes,

the

household

OF

state,

the world

renounce

RECLUSE.

77

forth

?"

from

And

the

suppose,

And
do so.
a time, he should
having been admitted
dwell
into an
restrained
in act
Order, should
and

after

with

thought,content
delighting in solitude.

word

and

tell you
majesty, do you

of

should

slave, who
has

into

with

food

mere

Would
him

become

36.

slave

should

have

recluse

made

"

we

kept

for him

do

of the life of
*

This

then, O

visible in this

'

37.
in this

now

seat

back

him

with

let

the

of deference

out

be

to

him

and

seated.

And

lodging place,

requisitesof

to

ward

accept
and

of them.

guard

be

to

the law.'
That

king.

being so,

is

fruit,visible in this world,

that is so.'

I maintained

world, which

of the

first kind

the

king, is

arise

to

fruit,
from

recluse.'

you. Lord, show


world, of the life of a

put

greet

our

all

"

beg

some

Can

I can,

"

for me"?'
we

me

recluse

that

of

free

end

of

who

man

fruit,visible

'

I would

end

being

other

any

king. And to that


question,"c. [as before, to the
*

been

recluse?'

Certainly,Lord,

life of

sick

watch

not,

come

bowl, and

think, O

you

the

the

order

is there

there, or

and

accordingto

what

But

man

should

ready, and

should

And

'

for

has

restrained,content

work

again,and

robes

medicine

and

the

rise up from
and
him
press

him,

towards

Let

rather

and
[ei],

reverence

we

"

say

Nay, Lord,

'

dwells

and

shelter, delightingin solitude ?

and

then

you

one,

for you, and so on


the
yellow robes,

Order, and

an

your

If it

"

shelter,

people
please your
formerly your
(allas before)

suppose

that such

know

donned

admitted

And

this, saying :

worked

now

food and

mere

"

fain

36, the

cultivates

put
case

his

and thus increases


householder, who pays taxes
his little property and
the king'swealth, but gives up
his positionin his clan, and enters
Order.]
an
other
fruit,
[62]39. 'Can you, Lord, show me
any
visible in this world, of the life of a recluse,a fruit

land,

'

higher

and

sweeter

than

these

78

SAMAA^iV^A-PHALA

II.

*I can,

Give

king.

SUTTA.

therefore, O

ear

give good heed, and I will speak.


Suppose, O king, there appears
40.

in the

has

who

one

awakened

mortals

truth,
in

abounding

one,

who

happy,

the

won

Arahat,

an

wisdom

world

fully
goodness,
a guide to

and

all worlds, unsurpassed

knows

king, and

as

led, a teacher for gods and men,


Blessed
One, a Buddha.
He, by himself, thoroughly
a
face to face this universe,
knows
and sees, as it were,
includingthe worlds above of the gods, the Brahmas,
be

willingto

"

and

the

Maras,

and

and

Brahmans,

its

it, he

known
The

the

world

below

princes and

makes

his

with

its recluses
and

peoples,
"

knowledo^e known

having
others.

to

origin,lovely in its progress,


lovelyin its consummation, doth he proclaim,both in
the spiritand
in the letter,the higher life doth
he
make
known, in all its fullness and in all its purity^
lovely

truth,

'A

41.

in its

householder-

or

children,or

of his

one

man

class listens to that truth ; and


in any
it he has faith in the Tathagata (theone

of inferior birth

hearing

on

who

has found

truth);

the

that faith,he considers


'

Full

"

dust

of

has

of hindrances

all

in all its

me

clothe

me

go

Let

home

at

to

then

myself in

forth from

the

the

off my

cut

who

difficult is it

How

worldly things.

me

life,a path for the

higher life
its brightperfection

live the

fullness,in all its purity,in all

possessed of

the air is the life of him

as

dwells

who

man

is

himself

within

is household

Free

passion.

renounced

for the

thus

he

when

and

hair

beard, let

and

orange-colouredrobes,

and

let

life into the homeless

household

state,"
*

be

it great

they
beard,
^

to

he

they few,

be

or

many

life.

refer them
'

or

clothes himself

Buddhaghosa appliesthese
the

to

long,forsakinghis portion of wealth,


small, forsakinghis circle of relatives,be

Then, before

But
to

Gahapati,

ryot.

it

seems

more

he

in the

last two

cuts

off his hair

and

orange-colouredrobes,
adjectivesto

in accord

with

the

the truth, not

next

paragraph

the life.
which

Buddhaghosa

takes here in the

sense

of peasant,

THE

he

and

FRUITS

forth

goes

homeless

self-restrained
on

recluse

from

the

OF

RECLUSE.

household

has

thus

by

that

restraint

79

Hfe

into

and

Pure

conduct,

recluse

that should

himself

trains

himself

encompasses

word.

become

he

be

the

with

his

are

self-possessedhe

in

of livelihood,
of

door

his

he

sees

avoid.
He

precepts.

deeds

good

means

the

guarded

in, the

lives

binding

Uprightness is his delight,and


least of those
things he should

adopts,

and

LIFE

he

in the

danger
He

THE

state.

'When

42.

OF

and

act

is his

good

Mindful

senses.

is

altogetherhappy.
And
how, O king, is his conduct
good ?
43.
In this, O king,that the Bhikshu,
puttingaway the
of livingthings,holds aloof from
the destruction
killing
of life. The
cudgel and the sword he has laid aside,
and ashamed
of roughness,and full of mercy,
he dwells
*

and

compassionate

kind

all

to

that have

creatures

life.

is part of the goodness that he has.


of the Silas
(the graphs
[Here follow the whole
parathe
in
minor
words
on
morality),
already
This

translated

Only

'the

Bhikshu';
the

[69]63.
;

'

that

from

body

it,O

side

far

And

'

morals,

is, so

how,
of his

of

ease

Bhikshu

the

king, is

senses

On

compare

the
M.

'

restrained

far

confident.

worthy

sense

danger

from

any
self-restraint in

sovereign,duly crowned,
beaten
no
down, sees
danger

been

so

no

enemies

as

And

are

endowed

of honour, he

cerned,
con-

with

experiences,

alloy. Thus
becomes
righteous.
the Bhikshu
guarded as
without

is

to

.'*

Patimokkha-sazwvara-sawzvuto.
mean

words

the

case

his

concerns

as

Bhikshu

is the

of

each

read

should

one

Bhikshu, O king,being thus

that

[7o]that

himself,

doors

this to
^

in

moralities,sees

have

king, that

64.
the

then

enemies

so

within

recluse'

Just, O king,as

any

this

And

is, so

conduct.
whose

the

to

accordingly.]

of the minor

side

Brahma-^ala Sutta, "" 8

alter

and

refrain

master

the

for 'Gotama

27.

of

in

above

according to

Buddhaghosa,

I think, takes

the rules of the Patimokkha.'

followingimportant and constantly repeated paragraph


1, 180, 268; K. V. 424-6, 463-4; Mil. 367; Asl. 400, "c.

8o

When,

king,he

of it\

He

in

And

it.
with

sound
tastes

or

his

he

is

and

not

of

it.

He

He

faculty,and
with

regards the
of

sense

ease

in

his

watch

attains

to

doors

65.

'

hears

his

nose,

touch

with

or

that

long

he

as

(representative)
his

mastery

his

covetousness

so

mental
upon

representative
it.

over

And

dowed
en-

self-restraint,
so
worthy of honour, as
he
experiences, within himself, a
senses,

this

into which

of his

And

him

over

no

evil

it,O king,that the Bhikshu

the

mastery

he

restrain

to

for evil states,

to

as

keeps
he

himself

sets

flow

unrestrained

faculty.

feels

or

watch

to

with

odour

an

restrained
un-

cognisesa phenomenon with


entranced
in the general appearance

dejection,to

dwells

keeps

attains

manner,

tion,
dejec-

dwells

he

might give occasion

which

he

when

his tongue,

with

when

details

the

he

mieht

and

long as
sight. He

smells

or

ear,

flavour

in like

so,

his

body, or

mind

so

of

sense

which

covetousness

him

his

his eye he is
the details
or

that

restrain

to

facultyof sight,and

his

over

general appearance

over

to

as

upon

objectwith

for evil states,

flow

to

SUTTA.

an

himself

sets

occasion

give

sees

in the

entranced

not

is

SAMAiViVA-PHALA

II.

state

can

becomes

enter

^. Thus

guarded

as

to

senses.

how, O

king, is

the

Bhikshu

mindful

and

going

forth

?
self-possessed
'

or

In this matter,
in coming back

(allthat

is wrapt

king,the Bhikshu
keeps clearlybefore
up

therein

"

the

in

his mind's

immediate

eye

object of

hoti
The
nimittaggahi
nanuvya"^anaggahi.
phrase
either to seize upon
nimittaw
the
as
gawhati means
anything
one's
the
exclusion
of
of
else
everything
(see,for
thought to
object
Buddhaghosa's note on it given in the
instance, Vin. I, 183, and
Vinaya Texts,' II, 9), or to seize upon the outward sign of anything
so
keenly as to recognisewhat it is the mark of (Vin. Ill, 17). And
of the other sex
when
the object is a person
this phrase is the idiom
used for our
in love with.' Buddhaghosa gives,as an
instance
falling
of the nimitta, the generalconclusion that the objectseen, heard, "c.,
of the anuvya"^ana,
is a man
the perception of the
or
woman;
"
c.
detail that he or she is smiling,
talking,
'with
dhaghosa).
no
besprinkling'(of evil,says BudAvyaseka, literally
'

Na

'

'

'

82

SAMANNA-PHALA

11.

Then,

'

67.
moral

mindfulness
excellent
at
a

hill

field.
he

he

in the woods,

side, in

charnel

mountain

at

his

body

this

with

the

erect,

lent
excelthis
to

so

rest

tree,

on

in

cave,

in

straw

self-

so

rocky

the

open

for alms

his round

cross-legged,
intelligencealert,

is done,
his

and

of

foot

glen, in

his meal

himself, when

keeping

excellent

so

place,or on a heap of
returningthither after

And

seats

this

of

body

filled with
self-possession,
chooses
some
lonely spot

and

"

excellent

so

endowed

senses,

content,

his way

on

this

gifted with

the

to

as

of

master

precepts,

restraint

SUTTA.

intent.
68.

'

he remains

with

injure,he

to

of

and
heart
and

mind

69.

purifies
corruptionof the
free

heart

from

of malevolence.

mind

and

not,

the
a

world

the

mind^, keeping

ill-

Putting
his

ideas

he
self-possessed,
purifieshis
of sloth.
flurry
Putting away

and

of

as

of

hankers

with

and

free from

remains

vexation

longer in

after

fretfulness,and

with

purifieshimself of irritability
spirit. Putting away
wavering, he
passed beyond perplexity; and no
his
is good, he purifies
to what
as

within, he

serene

remains

one

suspense

doubt.

Then
a

'

he

worry,

that

remains

and

of weakness

hankering

Putting away

heart

torpor
alight^ mindful
away

mind

heart

purifieshis

and

temper,

of lusts.

his mind
wish

the

Putting away

just,O

king,as

loan *, should

set

when

after

man,

business

foot, and

on

tracting
con-

his

Gogerly renders 'banishes desire


pahaya.
and
from
in
loke
altogether,
rendering Mmgghz
and
defiance
both
of the derivation
of the traditional explanation
Even
desire
for words
Burnouf
of the word.
uses
(who frequently
lusts or
excitement
in the Pali meaning
')has here cupidit^.'
But
the
here
Dhamma
So Buddhaghosa
Sangam 1156,
(p.211).
of
mind
and
it
as
body.
ii57^explains
torpor
ideas
'whose
are
Aloka-sa""t,
light.' Neumann
literally
which
('Reden des Gotamo,' I, 434, "c.) translates 'lovingthe light,'
of
his
Burnouf
has
be
connotation.
the
being aware
right
may
visual sensation
(de son regard),which is certainly
wrong.
ghosa
Inzm
has 'oppressed by debt,'but Buddhaadaya. Neumann
and this is confirmed
(p.212) says 'taking goods on interest';
Gat.
IV, 256, V, 436.
by
loke
Khh\ggh2im
him,' leavingout

'

'

'

'

'

'

THE

FRUITS

business
able

to

should
be

would

old

surplus over

me

83

RECLUSE.

should

he had

only

not

maintain

wife."

that, would

at

wife.

Then

And

be

he

on

'Then

just,O
there

and

after

he

and

his food
him

well

so

have

would

be

of heart

glad

should

he

state,

his

digest,and
he

would

at

of

his

in

that

and

after

man

time

his bonds, safe and

back
and

bound

were

should

he

be

without

sound, and

his present state, he would


be glad of heart
he would

be

of

just,O

Then
72.
his own
'

would

if

king,as
and

from

that

after

on

'

prosperous,
desert,where
time

his

safe,
peace

on

the

then,

'Just so,

of

that

at

go
be

master,

own

whither

go
his
and

his

good

man,

he

present

would

be

rich and

long road, in a
danger ; and after
a

desert, arrived

of the

out

realisinghis
be

on

but much

was,

of

borders

state, he would
glad of heart
74.

find himself

food

on

to

should

to

if

king, as

find himself

to

slave,

"

to

no

that,

just, O

were

were

unable

his former
realising
be of good cheer at that, he

Then

and

at

he

time

that

state, he would
glad of heart at that

["^3]
73-

cheer

were

man

slavery,become
emancipated
not
subjectto others, a free man, free
then,

fiscation
con-

"

subject to another,

master,

he

at

good

free

any

realised his former

goods

in

set

he

his

that, he

at

when

of his

would

"

prison house,

whither

him

disease,

former
cheer

good

glad of heart at that :


'Then
just,O king,as if

prey
would

strength come

realised
be

his food

from

recover

be

71.
from

to

were

strength left

no

were

man

ill,and

very

were

then, when

present
would

time

if

king, as

digest,and

my

"

not

not

be

incurred,but there

maintain

to

disease, in pain, and

to

he

70.
to

OF

"

to
surplus over
of good cheer

debt

realise

business

that

LIFE

[72]: I used to have to carry


by gettinginto debt, but it has gone
that 1 have
paid off what I owed, and

he

with

THE

succeed, and

off the

pay

should

OF

village,in security and


former

cheer

at

his present
that,he would be
and

"

king,the Bhikshu,
G

so

long as

these

84

II.

five

Hindrances
himself

upon

lost

SAMAiViVA-PHALA

on

have

been

and

man,

road.

put

freed

as

in debt,

as

desert

not

are

put

within

away

him

looks

diseased, in prison,in slavery,

But

when

five Hindrances

these

within

self
him, he looks upon himfree
debt, rid of disease,out of jail,
a

away

from

secure

SUTTA.

'And

gladnesssprings up within him on his


realisingthat, and joy arises to him thus gladdened,
and
and
at
so
rejoicingall his frame becomes
ease,
he is filled with a sense
of peace,
being thus at ease
75.

in that

and

75

A.

his heart

peace

Then

reasoningand
and

with

suffuse

that

is

there

and

no

he

does
the

spot

evil
First

of detachment

^,

the while.

pervade, drench, permeate,

so

and

joy

in the

remains

of

body

very

into

enters

lusts, aloof from

joy and ease born


investigation
going on

"

His

stayed ^

estranged from

he
dispositions,
a state
Rapture
'

is

of

born

ease

in his whole

frame

detachment,
not

suffused

therewith.
his
or
[74]76. 'Just,O king, as a skilful bathman
apprenticewill scatter perfumed soap powder in a metal
basin, and then besprinklingit with water,
drop by
it together that the ball of lather,
drop, will so knead
with it,
moisture, is drenched
taking up the unctuous
pervaded by it, permeated by it within and without,
and there is no leakage possible.
'

the

From

beginning of "

paragraphs

for

sentence

paragraph of much

or

the

convenience

68

the
of

text,

the

though

here

reader, is

eloquence and

splitup into
long
reallyone

force

in the Pali ; and


favourite
passage

the GMnas,
is a
to
peroration,leading on
Mil.
The
M.
Vin.
five similes are
to
I, 294;
I, 71 ;
84.
recurring
be taken, in order, as
referringto the Five Hindrances
(Nivara"a)
The
Dhamma
six
in
68.
hindrances,
Sangam 1152 gives
given
"
and M. I. 360-3 gives eight.
of the body, 'seclusion';intellectually,
Viveka, 'separation' physically
of the objectsof thought, discrimination
of the
; ethically,
have no word
in English
heart, being separate from the world.' We
suggestingthese three, all of which are implied. The stress is upon
in the sense
of all the
separation from the world, taking 'world'
arid
the
hindrances
five chief
to
spiritual
especiallyof
progress,
Hindrances
set
out.
(Nivarawa) just above
Buddhaghosa has
Asl.
166.
nothing here, but compare

the

"^

"

'

'

'

FRUITS

THE

This,

THE

OF

king, is

LIFE

OF

immediate

an

fruit of

recluse,visible in this world, higher and

85

RECLUSE.

Hfe of

the

than

sweeter

the last.

all

further,O king,the Bhikshu

Then

'

"j^.

reasoning and

in the

Second

investigation

6^Mna,

of

state

serenity of concentration,

the

investigation
on,
goes
of
a
tranquillisationthe

concentration, that
suffused

water

there

reasoning or

no

of elevation

into

inlet from

the

south, and

is

of mind,

spot in his whole

no

the

it from
east

should

god

were

spring beneath,

or

west,

not

from

from

suffuse

and

permeate,
would

be

part

no

the
or

pool

to

the

and

north
time

current

or

send

of cool

pervade, fill,

cool waters,

with

portionof

the

time

it. Still the


of rain upon
risingup from that spring would

waters

frame

deep pool,with

showers

there

within.

if there

king,as

welling up
no

down

of

therewith.

Just,O

78.
with

born

ease,

body does he so pervade, drench,


very
and
suffuse with the joy and
born
of
ease

permeate,
not

abides

his

And

heart

and

when

state

"

joy

suppressing

into and

enters

and

pool unsuffused

therewith.
O

[75] This,
'

of

king,is

recluse, visible

the

than

sweeter

in

an

fruit of the

immediate

this

world, and

higher

life
and

last.

king, the Bhikshu, holding


aloof from joy, becomes
equable ; and mindful and
he experiences in his body that
ease
self-possessed
talk of when
which
the Arahats
man
they say: "The
he
is well at ease," and
so
and
serene
self-possessed
*

79.

further, O

Then

enters
'

'

and
2

into and

And

his

Ekodibhava.
the notes

in

Upekhako,

abides

very

in the

body

does

Gh^xvs,.

Third
he

pervade, drench,

so

Compare Asl. 169, Senart


J.P. T. S., 1884, p. 32 foil.
literally'looking on,' that

in Mah^vastu

is, looking

I, 554,
on

rival

Imperturbable,impartial,tolerant,
equal mind.
and
all
all possiblerenderings,
are
stoical,composed,
unsusceptible,
translated
unsatisfactory.The ten kinds of Upekkha, equanimity,'
Sinhalese
into English from
by Spence Hardy (Manual,p. 505),can
mental

states

with

'

now

be

corrected

from

the Pali at Asl. 172.

86

SAMAA^iVA-PHALA

II.

and

permeate,
with

it,that

there

is

'Just, O

king,

when

as

in the
up
grown
surface of the water,
depths of the water,
and

their

with

joy

no

frame

not

roots

not

drawing

up

the

blue, born

in the

risingup

above

from

nourishment

pervaded, drenched,
their very tips down
to

so

from

cool

the

or

tank

moisture

thereof, that

there

of the red lotus,


plant,whether
spot in the whole
of the white, or of the blue, not suffused therewith.

is

no

or

This, O

'

has

lotus

water,

are

suffused

permeated,

in

white

or

water,

the

that

ease

in his whole

spot

no

several lotus flowers, red


the

that

therewith.

suffused
80.

with

suffuse

SUTTA.

recluse,visible

than

is

king,

immediate

fruit of the

world, and

higher and

an

in this

life of
sweeter

the last.

alike of

putting away
alike

away

of

without

state

pain

into

with

that

that

there

abides

sits there

the

passing

in the

had

Fourth

equanimity,

his body
suffusingeven
of translucence, of heart,
purification,

of

so

spot in his whole

no

the

by

dejection, he

of pure
and
self-possession
and without
ease.

sense

is

and

Bhikshu,

pain,by

elation, any

any

he

[76]'And

of

and

ease

previouslyfelt,enters
G/iana,

king, the

further, O

'Then

81.

frame

not

suffused

therewith.

from

head

white

foot in

robe

of

frame

not

the

recluse,
'

king, is an immediate
and higher and sweeter

With

his heart

thus

firm,

and

his mind
grasps

is built up

of

serene,

that
the

insightthat

fact:

of the

"This

is

tion,
purifica-

no

fruit of the
than

spot

in

made

appliesand
comes

life of

the last.
pure,

evil, supple,ready

imperturbable,he
to

sit there,
of

sense

clean

the

Bhikshu

that

were

therewith.

suffused

cultured, devoid

He

with

with

contact

king,does
body

wrapt

robe, that there

This, O

83.

in

not

sittingso

were

clean white

frame

his

man

translucence, of heart, that there

his whole
'

just so,

"

suffusingeven

so

to

spot in his whole

no

if a

'Just,O king,as

82.

from
of mine

bends

lucent,
transto

act,

down

knowledge.

has Jorny it
body
four elements, it springs from father

FRUITS

THE

and

OF

THE

LIFE

OF

renewed
mother, it is continually

87

RECLUSE.

by

much

so

boiled

rice and
it is

is impermanence,
juicy foods, its very nature
integrati
subject to erasion, abrasion, dissolution,and distherein

and

mine, too, bound


up,
O
84. 'Just,
king, as

on

is

this

that

does

the purest water, with


cut, clear,translucent,without
a
And

red,

or

white,

or

had

who

man,

hand, he would
the

with

up

to

the

than

the

With

is

king,

immediate

an

it into

his heart

thus

to

from

up

is bound

one

fruit

of

the

higher

callingup

this

applies and
of

and

lucent,
trans-

pure,

to

bends

act,

down

mental

image. He
body, having form,

another

body

made

serene,

evil, supple, ready

of

his

the

his

last.

imperturbable, he

mind

If

firm, and

threaded.
take

to

were

see,

cultured, devoid

calls

be

recluse,visible in this world, and

sweeter

85.

should

yellow

eyes

other

[77] This,

flaw,excellent in every
string,blue, or orange-coloured,

or

it

clearlyperceive how

life of

it

through

of

depend."
were
a
Veluriya gem,
eightfacets,excellently

if there

bright,of
way.

consciousness

descriptionof the body. (See M. I, 500 ;


IV, 83;
11,17;
"c.) The words for erasion,abrasion,
are
They are also
cunningly chosen (u^^'^adana, parimaddana).
and
used
familiar technical
of the Indian
so
terms
are
shampooer,
have been
above
(p.7, " 16 of the text). The double meaning must
words
and
the
the
Indian
to
hearer,
clearlypresent
are, therefore,
This

is

favourite

S.

G^at. 1, 146,

reallyuntranslatable.
^

five senses, sensations


intellectual processes,'
says

Vi""a"a.

'

all emotions
^

and

The

In

spiteof this and


theory (having nothing
Buddhist

the
their

own

member
that

he

must,

body, but

most

earnest

Buddha

who

as

did not

the

he

and

to
a

as
an

went

the
passages
fasten on) were

possible point
of

admirer
so

far

the

of

apt

fasten

of

reallydepend

upon,
the link in

was

not

to

Buddha

the

to

on

with

(one Sati, a
himself

Buddha
meant

reallybound

that
up

the

wiih,

transmigration.In perhaps the


the
emphatic of all the Dialogues (M. I, 256 foil.),
of
refutes at lengththis erroneous
representation his

it still survives.

I know

two

livingwriters

on

Buddhism

(in blissful ignoranceof the Dialogue in question)stillfasten

Buddha

soul

the

reconciliation

tell the

to

as

adherents

have
transmigration,

admitted

that it formed
and

meets

But

view.

else

Vi?/"a"a

theory. Even
of the Order)

Vi""a"a

similar

and
objects,
Buddhaghosa (p. 221).

arisingfrom

opinion he

so

expresslyrefused

to

accept.

upon

88

made

of mind,

parts,

not

deprived of

from

reed

the

scabbard

The

is

reed

draw

that

the
he

take

to

its

^.

This, O king, is an immediate


recluse, visible in this life,and

life of

fruit of the

higher

and

sweeter

the last.

than

his heart thus


made
87. 'With
serene,
pure,
devoid
of
cultured,
evil, supple, ready
firm

and

mind

to

being

imperturbable,he appliesand
in

or
many,
he becomes

penetrates

or

down

his

[78]He
modes

visible
the

or

and

up

water

he

down

through

walks

water

on

point

is

is not

solid

invisible

further

Bhikshu
the

ground,

without
have

"

many

obstruction,
hill,as if through air
or
rampart

Buddhaghosa explains that, if the


pierced,so will the image, and so on.
^
old simile occurs
This
already in

Kara""/a

act,

become

having
to

3, 3, 16.
*
The

lucent,
transto

Gift^

its various

feeling no

wall

through

bends

Wondrous

Gift

becomes

again

one

goes,
a

of the

Wondrous
he

one

becomes
he

modes

the
the

enjoys

of

reed

from

sword

is

thing,the

were
similarly

slough,or

out

This

"

one

sheath

the

know

and

pull

to

were

would

He

sheath.

its

body's)limbs

organ \
if a man

forth 2." And


of

out

SUTTA.

(his own

It is from

drawn

snake

any

its sheath.

another.

has been

all

king, as

reed, this the

sheath

having

'Just, O

86.
a

SAMA^iVA-PHALA

II.

side
;
as

he
if

breaking
his

ears

un-

6"atapatha-Brahma"aIV,

the

similarity.Buddhaghosa explains that the


renders
basket (asBurnouf
but the skin which
it),

is like the sword,


sloughs off; and that the scabbard
the sword's shape. He
that of course
whatever
adds
could
a
man
of its slough with his hand.
take a snake
He
is supposed
out
not
in the simile to do so in imagination.
Iddhi, literally
'well-being,prosperity.'The four Iddhis of a
king are personalbeauty,lengthof life,
strong health, and popularity
Sud.
Sutta
'Buddhist
in
Iddhis
Suttas,'
(M.
my
pp. 259-261). The
when
the possession of a beautiful
of Gotama
a
at home,
as
boy, were
soft
comfortable
garden,
clothing,
lodging,pleasantmusic, and good
food
(A. I, 145). Worldly Iddhi is distinguished from spiritual
tual,
at A. I, 93.
Buddhaghosa gives nine sorts of Iddhi, mostly intellecThere
Asl.
at
are
no
examples in the
237.
compare
91, and

the

snake

Pi/akas
S.

of concrete

IV, 289,

290

instances
; A.

Ill,340,

of any
341

of these
; M.

except

P. S. 43-

the last ; but

see

II.

90

The

SAMANNA-THALA

attentive

mind

wandering

The

mind

broad

narrow

mind

SUTTA.

be

to

attentive,and

the

ing
wander-

broad, and

be

to

the

mind

narrow

The

mind

mean

lofty

be

to

the

and

mean,

loftymind

'

The
mind

stedfast

The

stedfast, and

to

be

be

free, and

the

wavering

wavering;

be

to

mind

free

mind

to

mind

enslaved

the

enslaved.

Just, O

'

92.

young
of his
a

and
own

of clear

vessel

know

that

[8l]

than

sweeter
'

93.

the

With

directs and

in

world,

and

thus

down

his mind

births,or

ten
or

evolution

^.

experience
limits

of

of

my

state, I took

Sa-uitara

the Dhamma
in

heaven,
*

and

This

discomfort
life.

form

and

again in

^, such
of

or

days

or

five

four

forty or

hundred

fiftyor
thousand

was

such

Unless

food, such

my
ease,

passed

name,

my

and

away

place.

such
from

There

an

and
such
my
the
that
I had

the interpretationgiven in

Sangawi 1292, 1293, 1596, 1597 ('occupiedwith rebirth


occupied with Arahatship')reveals a change in the
the evil disposition,
in this case
only,is put first.
Indian
based
the
of
the periodicdestruction
on
theory

is

renovation

of the

accomplish.
'

When

anuttara.

aeon

place such

caste

my

in

of dissolution, many
of both dissolution

aeon
an

or

states

and

of terms,

use

to

In such

family,such

my

and

He

states.

or

thirtyor

or

an

three

or

thousand

births,through many
of evolution, many
aeon
"

two

twenty

or

hundred

birth, or

one

"

higher

he
("c. as before),
the knowledge of
to

serene

of his previous temporary


memory
recalls to mind
his various
temporary

by

it,

on

last.

his heart
bends

this

the

gone

mole

if not, would
know
it had not.
fruit of the life
king,is an immediate

recluse, visible

would, if it had

water

it had, and

This, O

'

of

lad,
or
man
or
a
a
king,as a woman
the image
smart, on
consideringattentively
face in a bright and
brilliant mirror
in
or

Va,nna, 'colour.'

universe, each

of

which

takes countless

years

FRUITS

THE

such

and

and

such

OF

THE

LIFE

and

family and

name

of discomfort

experience

Hmit

Hfe.
When
of my
I took form
again here

his temporary
in
state
and in all their modes.
'

another

own

to

and

from

other

"

From

spake

and

other

that
such

[82] This,

'

the

With

95.
directs

from

thus

that

in another
well

; he

favoured

wretched,
"

Such

serene

to

With

beings.

and

wrong
which

one

recognises the
and

such

of

state

not

after

death,

sufferingor

three

revilers

The

Bhfimis,

formless
^

three

worlds

of the

the

this Sutta.

life
and

in

See

of

to

the

lust, the
note

world

Karma

such

beings,
thought,
rightviews,

and

word

three

to

unhappy

some

and

holding

ones,

Rfipa,
the

and

act

word

holding
that

the dissolution

in

such

But

deeds

and

act

the

and

their

to

ones,

reborn

noble, the

happy

themselves

for

are

noble

world

the

noble

the

woe.

(the Kama,

Dibba-"^akkhu.

higher

the

brethren, in

villagescorrespond
"

village,

Heavenly
beings as they
and
take shape

views, they, on

wrong

brethren, well doers

my

held

pure

and

mean

according

away

beings,my

results from

body,

other

in

("c. as before),he
the knowledge of

the

ill favoured,

the

thought, revilers of
views, acquiring

of the

way,

I stood

and

of men,
he sees
of existence
form

passing

and

Thence

fruit of the

world,

his mind

down

rise of

from

away

that

thus.

Eye ^, surpassing that


pass

to

last.

bends

fall and

the

he

such

there

his

Then

thus, spake thus, and

in this

his heart

and

and

details,

came

and

peace

my

now,

Visible

than

sweeter

home.

in such

mind

to

another,

to

villageI

own

state

from

go

one

again home \"


king, is an immediate

recluse.

to

the

that

call

food

was

in all their

return

sat

way,

such

he

that

village;

thus.
And
peace
I have
returned
back
'

from

and

from

were

man

held

thus, and

my

of

by

my
stood

There

to

came

such

if

gone

should

one

one.

thus,

sat

days

does

caste

away

thus

and
village,

that

know

passed

"

RECLUSE.

of ease,

or

"

Just, O king,as

94.

would

OF

to

stages of being, the


the
of form, and

Ariipa Lokas).
below
at
on
" 102

and

the

end

of

92

II.

acquiringfor

themselves

SUTTA.

SAMAiViVA-PHALA

right views, they, on

that

results from

that

Karma

dissolution of the

the

after

body,

men,

in heaven."
happy state
with the pure
Heavenly Eye, surpassingthat of
from
one
[83]he sees beings as they pass away

state

of

death,
Thus

reborn

are

96. 'Just,O
terrace

happy

the
Then
a

he

house,

and

to

This, O

'

the
'

97.

'

Those

men

those

street, and

in

square

along

the

midst.

entering

are

leaving it,and

are

king, is

an

in this

With

his heart
bends

those

ing
walk-

are

in the

seated

are

immediate

fruit of the

world, and

higherand

of

Vatthu

of

action

of

thus
his

down

paragraph forms
III, 9 (p. 250).

the

the

coming

thither

and

eyes

midst."

destruction

This

"

with

and

an

four

place where

walking hither
in

with

life of
sweeter

last.

directs and
the

of

house

entering a house,

men

fro in the

recluse,visible

than

were

standingthereon, and

know

those

in the

square

and

'.

midst

seated

^, and
would

street

wretched, passing

the

and

if there

it in the

meet, and a man


watch
to see, should
forth out
of it,and

he nises
recogand
well favoured

in another

noble, the

the

king, as

on

form

their deeds

according to

upper
roads

take

and

mean

ill favoured, the

away

some

existence,and

the
the

in

the

the

mind

("c. as before),he
to the knowledge of

Deadly

Floods

subjectof

the

The

Karma

serene

discussion

knowledge

mere

is there

of the

distinguishedfrom

He

knows

in the'KathS

general fact
the

Dibba-

"takkhu,the Heavenly Eye


had

who

Arahat

an

not

that

of Sariputtais quoted,
the instance
; and
the
knowledge, but not
Heavenly Eye. As he was

it follows

that

the

necessary
consequence
that the sphere of

(p. 224)
extend

to the Formless

for the

Truth,' see

Vltisa"/('arante

Vithiffz.

possessionof the Heavenly Eye


of Arahatship, Buddhaghosa
vision
of the Heavenly Eye did

Worlds.

below,
is

p. no,

Qn

"

the Dhamma-^akkhu,
21

'

the

was

adds
not

Eye

of the text.

Buddhaghosa's reading.

The

Siamese

has

Compare M. I, 279.
untranslatable
mann
Neuterm.
Asavas, Deadly Floods, another
has
Illusion
has
defilement
(Wahn) ; Burnouf
(souillures).
the
mentioned
three
here
They are sometimes
(M. I, 23, 155; A.
I, 167; S. IV, 256, "c.); but speculation,
theorising(Di////i)is
added
the
P.
and
fourth in
M.
S.
elsewhere.
a
as
Unfortunately,
'

FRUITS

THE

it

OF

THE

LIFE

OF

RECLUSE.

93

reallyis : This is pain." [84] He knows as it


reallyis : This is the originof pain." He knows
as
it really
is :
This is the cessation of pain." He
knows
This
is the Path
it reallyis :
that leads to the
as
of pain." He
cessation
knows
as
they reallyare :
These
the Deadly Floods."
He knows
it really
are
as
is :
This
is the origin of the Deadly Floods."
He
it reallyis :
This
knows
is the cessation
of the
as
He knows
it reallyis: "This is the
as
Deadly Floods."
Path that leads to the cessation of the Deadly Floods."
To
him, thus knowing, thus seeing,the heart is set free
from
the Deadly Taint
of Lusts \ is set free from
the
Deadly Taint of Becomings ^ is set free from the Deadly
Taint of Ignorance ^
In him, thus set free,there arises
the knowledge of his emancipation, and
he knows
:
has been destroyed. The
Rebirth
life
has
been
higher
had to be done
has been accomplished.
fulfilled. What
as

"

"

"

"

"

*'

*'

"

this present life there will be no


Just, O king,as if in a mountain

After

and

see,

should

gravel and

the

about

clear,translucent, and

lie within

or

has

word

been

not

it : he

yet found

in

would

its concrete,

taint

or

of

idea

ooze,

Subhfiti

overwhelming

ought to consider.
quoting the above passage
PadJpika SM, p. 43) reads
that

"

This

primary, sense;
48) that welltaken
It
literally.

intoxication,and

that

underlies

Perhaps
not

after

of flood

or

we

in

Abhidhana

Asl.

statement

seasoned

all it is the

serene

know

Buddhaghosa's
(at
called Ssava
be
liquorswere
spirituous
is
the
simile
what
be
is therefore
to
sure
impossible
in its secondary, ethical sense.
the use
of the word
indeed

unless

"

standing on the bank, and with eyes to


perceive the oysters and the shells,the
the pebbles and the shoals of fish,as they

man,

move

of water,

pool

fastness there

'

98.
were

beyond

Buddhaghosa (in the


parivas" throughout for

from

piriv"s".
^

with

Kamasava,

future

the

life in

specialreference to the taint of hankering after


sensuous
plane (Kama Loka); that is, in the

world.
^

future

and
'

life in

specialreference
plane of form and

with

Bhavdsava,

the

ArQpa Lokas); that is,in heaven.


Avi^^as ava, with specialreference

Truths, justabove

summarised.

hankering after
plane (theRfipa

to the taint of

the

to

formless

ignoranceof

the Four

Great

94

II-

SAMAiViVA-PHALA

pool is clear,transparent,
it

the

oysters and
gravel,and the shoals
are

SUTTA.

and

and

serene,

shells,and

the
of

fish

there within
the

sand
about

moving

are

and
or

lying stilP."

[85] This, O king,is


of

recluse, visible

than

sweeter

life of
and

99.

And

king

said

than
when

has

which

is hidden

lamp

could
truth
the

has

fruit of

no

as

who, from

taken

his

higher

just

"

point
or

even

and

now

for the sake

of sovranty,

foolish

that

the

out

right
bring

to

who

have

eyes

Lord, has the

so.

the

One

Truth, and

accept

me

as

them.
and

Sin

that

wrong

I put

to

has

death

life

day forth,as long as

Lord, weak

reveal

in many
a
figure,by
me,
I betake
myself,Lord, to

to

refuge in

that

were

those

that

so

to

were

astray,

refuge,to

my

this

or

the

up

set

to

were

to

gone

Blessed

the

May

is

the

excellent. Lord,

Most

man

were

or

And

One

down,

known

One.

'

if a

as

forms

made

Blessed

one

is

and

higher

spoken, A^atasattu

One

darkness

external

been

thus

thrown

into the

Order.

Just

away,
who
has

him

see

had

Blessed

been

the Blessed

as

he

the

to

which

to

there

life

this ^.'

excellent !

road

And

and

recluse, visible in this world, that

sweeter

most

world,

this

last.

the

an

in

fruit of the

immediate

'

to

disciple,
endures,
me,

overcome

I am,
my

the

in

that,

father, that

righteousking ! May the Blessed


One
accept it of me. Lord, that do so acknowledge it as
restrain myself.'
sin,to the end that in future I may
a
sin that overcame
100.
'Verily,O king,it was
you
look
in acting thus.
But
inasmuch
it
as
as
upon
you
confess
it
what
is
and
sin,
we
right,
according to
accept
For that, O king,is custom
confession as to that.
your
of the noble
in the discipline
ones
^, that whosoever
that

righteousman,

The

simile

M.

recurs

I, 279;

Gat. V, 197;

sippi-sambuka

A.

A.

I, 9.

Ill,395;

Compare

for the

Trenckner, 'Pali

words
cellany,'
Mis-

p. 60.
'

Because,
NirvSwa; and
'

as

it

Ariyanawz.

of the Arahats.

points out, this is reallyArahatship,


this,to Arahatship,that all the rest led up.
is, either of previous Buddhas, or perhaps

Buddhaghosa
was

to

That

FRUITS

THE

looks

attain

said

We

go.
*

bowed

the

right

hand

king,

touched

in

king,
truth

brethren,

heart.

would

have

Thus

the
in

arisen
the

spake

the

ends

Here

conversion,

for
It
of
the

Dhamma-^akkhu

is
the

higher
text,

Eye

Arahat

of

than

" 95)

for

entering

which

Wisdom

(Itivuttaka,p.

on

Heavenly
sees

other

was

put

righteous
the

for

eye

^'

there

sat

brethren

were

the

Fruits

of

the

Recluse.

is ended.

Sutta

for

(Eye

the

he
not

and

The

on

Sama/2"a-phala

The

he

said

and

words.

Discourse
of

A^atasattu

had

king
man,

One.
his

at

after

spotless

as

even

Blessed

Life

and

on

thence.

affected,

the

seat,

him

keeping

deeply

clear

his

brethren,

righteous

him,

delighted

and

pleased

that

delighted

from

long

the

was

and

arose

not

fain

fit'

departed

If, brethren,

death,

to

then

One,

addressed

gone,

This

father

Blessed

the

him,

passed

thee

and

One,

king

do.'

pleased

One,

the

would

we

to
to

king,

Blessed
he

Lord,

is much

Blessed

the

as

had

king

his

the

the

to

Now

102.

'

of

A^^tasattu

seemeth

whatever

words

and

there

confesses

future.'

Now,

95

rightfully

spoken,

One

RECLUSE.

and

in

'

and

OF

fault,

thus

A^atasattu

the

the

had

busy,

king,

Then

LIFE

as

Blessed

are

Do,

with

he

the

to

THE

self-restraint

to

When

1 01.

fault

his

upon

it, shall

OF

the

Eye

the

Path

that

is

ends

(dibba-^akkhu,

people's

(pa""a-/^akkhu)
52, " 61).

Truth)

technical

above,

previous births,

which

is

the

term

Arahatship.

in

wisdom

and

p.

82

below

of

the

INTRODUCTION

AMBArr^A

This

is

celebrated

It is

discussions

this

was

composed.

often

; and

No

it

comparative

the

to

I) which

Chapter

at

Brahman

the

time

social

would

not

deal

when

unless

the

on

to

had

between

real,

so

has

as

taken

position
there

subject

though

Dialogues

represented

the

at

of

that

referred

is

often

so

Buddhists

early

the

problem
be

frequency

pretensions

indignation

difference,

the

of

other

difference

But

the

or

the

by

serious

schools.

from
matter

astonishment

regarding

of

question

Brahmans

expressing
been

the

on

were

end

notes

caste.

burning

in the

the

at

sufficiently evident

the

up

of

subject

(mentioned

Suttas

quoted

verse

the

with

several

of

one

SUTTA.

really

the

been

two

gravely

misunderstood.
Some

writers

Gotama

the

role

him
rich

the

abolish
of

the

Other

leaders

of

social

humble

and

abolish,

or

Both

to

views

writers

this
the

and

their

with

successful

well-to-do,

the

; and

from

with

for

the

of

It

is well

of
divided
into
India
is now
population
them
call
the
members
sections
'castes'),
(we
debarred
of
from
the
intermarriage
right
(from
those

their

outside
from

varying

degrees,
the
viensality) with

'

'

caste

has

which

and

The

of

all

settles

been

view,
often

right

members

of

council

or

of

disputes

these

also,

of

eating

other

by

regarding
the

of
the

but

grossly exaggerated,

and
and

of

number

which

are

connubiuni)

in

constantly
together (of com-

which

the

such

Each
it is

governed,

caste.

ethical, social,

restrictions,

to

that

known

sections.

committee

effects, from

disastrous

points
have

also

caste,

the

and

influence

rules.

the

with

the

keeping
neglecting

for
his

caste

unhistorical.

of

in

him

using

not

most

ranks

education

an

harshness

because

Buddha

disparage

wretched,

mitigate, the
equally
are

as

the

at

senting
repre-

despised against
far
to
having
gone

poor

and

by

to

and

drawn

were

position

ascribe

to

political reformer,

gird

Order

hesitate

not

having fought
privileged classes,

as

and

respectable

of

do

for the

caste.

the

Buddhism

on

of

caste

the

and
as

benefits

political
a

whole,
of

the

98

III.

the

details, as

each

in which

groups
This

the

to

complexity of the
ought to be observed.

and

size
detail

last statement

be

may

When

Chaliyas.

SUTTA.

AWBATTHA

Dutch

the

illustrated

started

the

by

of the

case

cultivation

cinnamon
labourers.

wanted

particular

in

The

Ceylon on a largescale,they
peasantry,
the
almost
to
one
Goigamas,
caste,
exclusively
belonged
for hire. Some
to work
regarded it as unworthy of a free man
of them, however, in the struggleof motives, found the pressure
of poverty too strong for them, and accepted service as coolies.
The
to giving
others, thinking this bad form, became
averse
These
their daughters in marriage to such
coolies.
feelings
first
of
the
were
naturallystronger at
Goigamas
good
among
social position,and it became
mark
of
have
to
not
a
superiority
who

relative

such

married

workers

families

of

for the

male

to

find

size of

had
group
of persons

In other

what

This

all did

of it
in

of

an

in

are

now

as

we

of

when

the

returning

wealthy

and

honoured.

What

had

happened

and

the

by

the

new

and

caste

had

English

took

new

of cinnamon.

there

gamas.
Goi-

even

of

are,

them

two

not

was,

therefore,still

though the members


largely,employed

survives

case

the

preciselycontrary
But
gradually arose.

caste

many

in this

among

change

; and

the caste

gardens

cultivation

longer exclusively, or

no

call

reabsorbed

became

instance

happened

cinnamon

engaged

in

of

eyes

of the

them,

work,

very
diminished

lessening numbers, by
Chaliyas consequently
to
they gradually returned

number

Chaliyas left. And

some

And

gardens.

the

When

Chaliyas.

The

succeed

not

been

up the government
in ever
carried
on,

was

which

words,

the

Numbers

ordinary peasant
that

of

one

under

thus,

number

arisen, the caste


Ceylon they gave
The
gardens were
private individuals.

to

And

elsewhere.
the

declined.

cinnamon

Chaliyas. By the time that the


numerous
Chaliyas were
enough to afford mates
female
or
coolies,the Chaliyas found it impossible

trade.

despised

in the

called

considerable

very

worker

Avere

wives

Europeans,

to

have

become

separate

and

striking revolutions, but a long series of slight changes in


public opinion,no doubt quite imperceptibleat the time to the
whom
the changes were
taking place. And
very people among
after

all the

generations

would
years,
similar

were

India,
be
and

to

through

variations

still to-day.

to

Who
had

if we

found

not

were

enough

results.

consequent
ancient

changes

cover

can

only

cover,

very
the

access

that

whole
that

Three
series
the

or

with

four
the

history

of

the

evidence,
necessary
five hundred
thousand

to

territory,a
similar

slow.

but

doubt

in its two

its wide
and

so

constant

variations

succession
are

of

recurring

INTRODUCTION.

Owing
worked

their

grounds,

the

particular set
based

top

politicalpower
longer in India

on

restrictions

of

remains

more

less

or

than

And

to

in

trace

in

in

literature

the

people who
religious

its claims
the

wealth,

or

of

has, no
public

But

Europe.

India

the

on

system

circles,even
defined
kind, both

eating together.

to

as

the

still insists in considerable

opinion
and

that

to

way

not

lasted

doubt,

fact

the

to

99

in

Europe,

the

on

marriage

to

as

still

problem

gradual growth

of the

of new
sections
the
gradual formation
among
of
the
institution
extension
the
families
to
gradual
of people engaged in certain
trades, belonging to the same
sect or tribe,tracing their ancestry (whetherrightly
or
wrongly)

system

the

"

people, the

the

to

same

All

source.

real factors.

But

they are

explanations of

not

There

is

origin,of

the

in the

sixth

difference, as

regards

peoples dwelling

dwelling

the

on

in

time

the

at

Dialogues

valley

in the

that

barriers

the

besides,are
and

growth^

system.

B.C.) there

century

others

the extension

the

show

to

recorded

the

in

say,

factors, and

phases of

evidence

no

conversations

these

when

the

took

place (thatis

was

any

question,

substantial
between

the

their

of the

Ganges

and

shores

of

Mediterranean.

the

to

temporaries
con-

of the great
point of greatest weight in the establishment
the supremacy,
difference
in
in the subsequent development
And
all
still being hotly debated.
India, of the priests was
The

"

"

evidence

our

tends

being
There

thousand
decided

would

of

modern
little

or

sense, among
conclusive
no

There
which

was

non-Aryan

The
in

5udras

of

support
that

also clear
was

each.

that

neither

members

this

of
The

was

no

one

conmidmm
one

va""a,

fourth

remaining

was

three

was

for

them.

endogamous

and

the

lower

probably,

amounted,

what

to

castes, in the
majority there is
of

But

preponderating
phrase

current

into four

world

the

among

people,

(coloursor

vann^

Aryan

priests,the other

plexions)
com-

people,and

(Khattiya,Brahma"^,Vess^,andSuddd).

admitted

of these

divisions

was

there

was

it is
There

caste.

governing

distinguishedfrom
were
distinguishedfrom
2

And

all the

between

the

the

from

nobles.

the

commensality

nor
nor

by

theologicallegend

it is clear

But

contention.
not

had

and
first,

themselves
their

struggle

than
;

upon

evidence.

nobles,the

priests put

Pi/akas

The

all the

the

the

the

"

instances, all among

caste-divisions.

common

divided
"

the

called

be

now

area

Brahmans

marriage

to

as

In a few
groups.
the people, these

exogamous

classes

against

distinctions

were

the

of

extent

close

countries

"

in

miles

square

rather

least in the wide

at

Pi/akas

the

by

territory covered
hundred

that

to show

council

others

by

each

other

for

race.

by

lOO

III.

SUTTA.

AMBATTffA

though in a general rough way the


position. And
classification corresponded to the actual
facts of life, there
four
the
insensible
the
were
classes, and
gradations within
undefined.
them
variable
both
and
was
boundary between
this enumeration
And
of the populace was
not
complete.
these
classes there
Outside
others, resembling in many
were
social

the

points
the

low

modern

castes, and

followingafter the

Pi/akas

I, 162 ^,the argument


in oxen,
in spite of
classes by difference

is that
the

above

four.

just as

there

fact

when

always

that

mentioned

Thus
is

in

in

Ahguttara

real difference

no

arranged in
of colour
and the strong, active,
(va;z;/a),
well-trained
selected
is
ox
regard to
by preference,without
his colour
when
also,
so
(vanna.);
presenting gifts,the man
of strong, active,well-trained
should
mind
be selected as donee
without

"

the

four

or

reference
classes

of

Pukkusa.

last

the

the

four

and

vanna.

be

can

belonging to
of his being

society(vauna), or
It is plain that this

from

two

fact of his

the

to

they

of

one

any

A'a;/^ala

distinguishes
passage
therefore
from
the

.Sudras.
Other
names

"

that

old
the

is to

makers.

say,

the

By

these

hina-gatiyo,
modern

marriage

insert
the

Vewas,

hereditarycraftsmen
the

texts

low

sense,

Nesadas.

workers

three

two

further

the

and

in rushes

Rathakaras,
^ bird-catchers,and cart-

who
were
aboriginal tribesmen
called
in these three crafts ; for they are
formed
in
tribes.
castes
They no doubt
to their
as
though we have no information
meant

are

They

customs.

these

between

represented

are

6"ataka

in the

book

in which
livingin villagesof their own, outside the towns
ordinary people dwelt, and formed
evidently a numerically
insignificant
portion of the populace.
there are
In the last passage
quoted in the previous note
mentioned, as distinct from these low tribes (the hina-^atiyo),
certain low occupations (hina-sippani) mat-makers, potters,
As they are
excluded
leather-workers, and barbers.
weavers,
from the list of those distinguishedby birth [gkX.\),
it is implied
as

"

that

there

those
be

was

who

no

gained

hard
their

natural

tendency

Compare

Petavaithu

'

Assalayana (No.

IV,
'

and

93

fast line, determined

living by

for the

II, 6,
in

the

son

to

trades.

follow

There

for

would

father's craft

the

12.

Moj^jo'^ima)
; Anguttara II, 85

Sawyutta I, 93 ; Vinaya IV, 6-10,


19;
Sometimes
explained as carpenters, sometimes

?. P.

"c.

sometimes

as

makers

Further

as

basket-makers,

of sunshades.

exemplified by the
keva//a-putto, assaroha-putto,
*

these

by birth,

number

of

na/a-putto,

people

described

suda-putio,

as

"c.

INTRODUCTION.

afterwards

centuries
then

the

on

Besides

line.

border
the

We

slaves.

they

they

houses

very rich.
raids,and reduced

predatory
been
220) ; or
deprived of
punishment (Gat. I, 200) ; or had

born

slaves

such

they

there

also

were

yet.

as

also

were

domestic

Individuals

had

been

slavery(Cat. IV,
as
a
judicial
to slaveryof their

to

their

freedom

submitted

('Vinaya Texts,' I, 191

accord

castes

as
quite occasionally,

had

own

not

were

of the

in

captured

castes, and

all freemen,

were

of them

hear

only

become

But

who

above,

servants, in the

had

lOI

; Sum.

slaves, and

Children

I, 168).
the

emancipation of
we
nothing of such later
the Roman
or
developments of slaveryas rendered
latifundia^
the plantations
of some
Christian
of misery
slave-owners, scenes
to

slaves

and

is often

and

have

been

the

find

we

lines

boundary
scale

the

other

then,

in

of the
classes
and

vague

of the

time,

people
social

"

to

seem

is caste

of which

"

At

in

forward

caste

the

one

know

little

very

gotta

barriers, not

seldom

upon

that

broken

than

upon

through, as

crafts
At

yet universally
the

about

(and dependent

rather

of

end

occupations)

of

not

were

customs

the

(not necessarily

birth

all sorts

followed
claims

social

were

by

the

distinguished

were

strata

uncertain.

Brahmans

scale

the

exactly

numbers

certain

There

we

raised

were

Buddha's

the

priests,for they

putting

admitted.
which

their

household

were

hereditary
outlying tribes,and
kind,
were
despised
already,probably, castes.

end

sacrificial
were

and

certain

dirtyor

part the slaves

most

badly treated,

not

The
making.
great mass
quite roughly into four

of

hear

^.
insignificant

What

the

But

to.

For

oppression.

servants,

were

referred

details

probably,
the
to

of

more

^ati),which
intermarriage

and
a
people admittedly belonging
based
social code,
And
there
on
a
was
fortiori of others.
familiar
intercourse
the
idea of impurity, which
prevented
between
people of different rank ; and
(such as commensality)
ever,
We
rendered
find,howdisgracefulthe use of certain foods.
be amply paralleledin the history
which
cannot
no
usages
of other peoples throughout the world in similar stages of social
of

to

key-stone of the
organisation the absolute

evolution.
caste

not

made

the term,
In

"

D.
437

yet been

ready.
did

the

See

face

The
not

of the

vanna.,

Indian
peculiarly
of the

exist.

of this

also A. 1, 145,

I, 5, 60, 72, 93,

arch

same

Brahmans
supremacy
put in position,had not, in fact, been yet
use
of
caste-system, in any proper or exact

"

had

"

The

the

141

i^hp.Cy. 238,

set

of

circumstances

Gotama

took

up

11,67; 111,36,132,217; Vin. IV, 224;


above) ; G2X. I, 226, 385 ; III, 343,
(translated
206;

"c.

I02

AUBATTHA

in.

distinct

it forms

SUTTA.

It meets

position.

phases;

but

logicalwhole.
In the first place,as regards his own
which
alone
Order, over
he had
he
complete control,
ignorescompletely and absolutelyall advantages or disadvantages arisingfrom
birth, occupation,
and

consistent

it is true, in two

us,

one

social

and

status, and

arising from

the

sweeps

all barriers

away

arbitraryrules

of

disabilities

and

ceremonial

mere

social

or

impurity.
of the

One

who

of them

one

very
after

Gotama
had

who

Sunita,

for insertion

in

low

tribes.

Sati, the

the

sons

then

of

Nanda
of

out

was

wedlock,

with

slave

Subha

could

does

numbers

themselves

the

with

sixty, of

whom

Whether

the
Order

similar

books
silence
had
the

much

Pi/akas.

of the

differed
which

having already
silent

few

pared
com-

Theris

positionof

is,84 per

cent,

likelythat
social

in similar

in this
are

existed

respect from
in

mentioned
when

the

Buddhist

the

of controversy.
The
dhist
Budthe matter.
But that very

is still matter

the

of

population.

on

It is

difference, there
And

persons

as

of the

social

that

"

of the

sippas

Thus
the

for

speak

percentage

It is most

which

Order

evidence.

the

and

above

proportion

mostly

are

we

communities

as

is valuable

been

31,

daughter of
slave
girls.

members

to

base-born.

were

founded,

was

in Manu

facts

low-born

know

mentioned

Buddhist

books

The

population.

Gatha

are

rest

the

other

Buddhist

of the

the

the

to

been

proportion
despised ^atis

the

number

just about

bore

had

in fair

Theri

five

of

percentage

rest

in the

whole

this is
rank

the

; and

mentioned

was

the

pretence.

mere

probably
belonging to

of the

laid down

historical

to

was

persons

were

course
inter-

are

much

liberalitywas

or

Order

show

small, and

as

Pa"//;akas

published.
the
at
insight to sneer
ment
suggest that the supposed enlighten-

texts

more

not

even

cruelty, particularly
two

rule

the

of

and

caste,

the

was

good family through

Pu""ika

and

of

in rushes,
daughter and wife to workers
More
the daughter
of a smith.
instances
others
will
be quoted
become
already, and

was

when

It

(so that by

are

verses

low

The

girl of

occupations.
chosen

was

doubtless

known

to

Pu""a

Sumangalamata
and

actually outcasts). Kap^

were

deer-stalker,

despised

Pukkusa,
deadly heresy,

its

cowherd.

Upali,

was

one

of

propounder

the

whose

was

Order, the
chief authority,
his

Order,

the

of

one

afterwards
fisherfolk,
of
account
occupation, on

an

they

of

brethren

Gatha,

the

as

the

abhorred.
born

Thera

to

rules

barber,

of the

one

the

the

on

been

formerly

referred

was

himself,

So

of

distinguished members

most

scarcelylikelythat,

should

passages

in

be

no

allusion

print confirm

if there
to

this.

it in

We

INTRODUCTION.

have
taken

for

in the

the

not

and

Digha,

Madhura

of

and

recognised

a
potter, and
(not Buddhist

On
the

the
custom

recluses

back

it is

To

Buddhist,

the

had

that

what

view
is

of

hear

of

in these

passages
Order
is

Buddhist
anachronism.

an

The

after truth,

of hermits
upper

were

no

religious

or

hand.

5udras, and

privilege,is

But

all the

valid

of them,

number

Order,

below

than

the

present doubtful.
probably extended,

But

the

the

most

time.
which

in

he

have

to

seems

reason)the existing

It is

custom.

just referred

from

the passage
p. 77),that the existing orders,
Now
slaves to their ranks.
among

admitted

of rules

tribes

other

point, however,
a

the

at

and

at the

current
one

(and for

Buddhist

were

time

Samawas

communities

in

accorded,

similar

the

impossible to avoid
to (inthe Sama""a-phala, above,
a

as

is

is the

extent

certainlyadopted,

most

is

community

the inference

or

the

in

in their search

any
Brahmans

.Sudras, were

restricted

there
if it

Khattiyas, Brahmawas, and


by public opinion, in becoming
certainlyjustified,

Samawas.

There

of

become

just possible that

from

(the Dvi^s,

Vessas) were

rational

followed

earnest

in which

Buddha

Sama"as,

Kanclala.,who

earlier times, and

to

however

twice-born

the

392

hand,

excluded

doubt

Sutta

Aggannn
Ma^^ima,

of the

long before the


Cataka
(III,381) we

in the
of

afterwards

low-born,

in the

(that is

Samawas) ^.

other

simply put

And

Order

an

occurrence,

So

IV,

(above,p. 77) it is

join

becoming

common

at

Sutta

would

Sutta

5udras

rise of Buddhism.

the

slave

Buddhist).

the

mention

express

SAma""a-phala

that

granted

order,

any
the

how

seen

03

laid

down

to

in such

wise

that

the
to
regulate admission
the existing rights of third

lated
parties should not be encroached
upon, there is a rule (transslave
in Vinaya Texts,' S. B. E., I, 199) that no runaway
'

shall be

admitted.

chapter held
of
questions asked

the

Whenever

slaves

previously
think, have

obtained
been

Secondly,
call

'

questions

adopted
is to
the

as

say,

the

'
'

the

the

consent

of

observances

'

caste

course

to

in

to

of

open
influence
that

the

the

Are

their

as

fairly
; that

sense

which

public opinion,on

constant

Amagandha

inculcation
Sutta

of

of

able
reason-

the

pp.
Pick, Sociale Gliederung im nordostlichen Indien,'
'Vinaya Texts,' I, 230.
Translated
by Fausboll, S. B. E., pp. 40-42.
See

'

'

'"^P

Buddha

the
of

man

the

also, I

now

may

at

have

must

and

Order,

any

of

freeman

you

we

used

one

masters,

the
to

be

to

Order, they

matters

outside

then

depend, by
Thus

is

words

members,

new

candidate
admitted

of

form

admitting

emancipated.
regards all such

strove

views.

for

were

only

he

in the

And

Sutta
50, 5

in.

I04

AMBArr^A

sutta.

of the very oldest


(certainlyone
laid down, in eloquent words, that
from
eating this or that, prepared

of

Nipata
it is
come

evil deeds

defilement

but

few

particularlyinterestingpassage,
sayings of previous Buddhas

in which

it

this

or

and

forward

the
In

recorded.

are

this

view

having
long ago
implicationthat
self-evident
was
common
a
proposition which
ground
No
wise.
on
originality,no specialinsight,is claimed

enunciated

was

the

to

Buddhists

the

words

other
been

not

thoughts.
of
being one

words

and

does

given by

or

that

person,
This
is a

from

documents)

our

of

account

foolish

"

view

again

forward

already put
As

Gotama

as

intended

have

put

end

an

on

superstition. The

in

this

the

matter,

to

so

Buddha's
sensible

many

position
position

others.

by

details

other

to

adopt,

to

the

would

that

prejudices based

is

put

with

also, which

followed

take

it would

long to set
general

too

On

the

the

same
here,
plan.
For
question, however, he had opinions, presumably his own.
And
found
elsewhere.
in the early Buddhist
not
they are
credit
texts
to
even
others, and
(always ready to give
wherever
their
anxious
views
to
possible
by showing
support
that others, especiallyin ancient
times, had held them) these

out

views

the

the

have

what

makes

reminds

his

birds, there

pointed

the

then
He

and

goes
between
custom

valid

even,
to

different
; that

in

(several verses

Nipata

As
fact

the

his

below, is
the

answer

that

the

Dhammapada)

the

Sutta, translated

Chalmers

whereas,

to

as

Buddha
the

in

case

'

Gotama

with

in accord

was

the AntJiropidaeare
that
biologists,
and
clusion
cona
species. Man"
single genus
"

"

remarkable

more

on

Mr.

the

Gotama'

mislead

also

of modern

represented by
the

Sutta

the

'

by

conclusion

three

under

"

no

out

point

are

which
are

either

small), insects,quadrupeds, serpents, fish,


marks
(due to the
species and
many
of
be distinguished in the case
they can
such species,and
marks.
such
Herein,'
no

plants (largeor

and

species)by

of

doctrine

historical.

Brahman.

questioners of

of

there

of

Son"danda.

man

the

this

on

inserted

been

in the

question,as

as

utterances

Sutta

Yasett/ia

which

man

part of

as

ethical,and
biological,

"

In
of

class

may

heads

to

teachers.

contemporary

or

We

referred

not

are

earlier

as

it did

as

within

men

'

of

many

conclusion

are

it is wisdom

distinction,that

so

make

J. R.

A.

man

did

of
that
Brahman

S., 1894, p. 396.

not

contemporaries

in the
many
distinctions

so

that

goodness
a

his

matters

mere

and

of colour

accident

living memory,
the

draw

the

West.
made

prejudice and
the only
make
;

that

the

I06

of

Buddhist

of

Genesis.

Gotama

forward

put

are

from

above

quoted

AMBATTHA

book

Biahmans

the

of the

the

makes

real

daily
just like

not

we
sons

they

are

of the

feeding on
air.

neither

sun

Then

have

class

not

How

And

stars, nor
in the midst

earth

rose

and

became

colour

of the

more

ceased

rice

be

to

result.

households
instead

the

of

beautiful

and

and

moon

their

also

then

each

Then

them.

among

the

ground
fine-tasting

despised others, on
thereupon the

And

and

and

of

appeared

stored

and

evening

with

thereof

ate

sex

lazy

the

delicate

and

creepers,

beings

differences

it each

gathering

sweet

the

time

formed

together, and

in

wise

no

doers

by
Kshatriyas.

Brahmans,

the

up

rice,

; and

morning

Then

certain
their

these

homes

were

and
alike

to

men,

(dhamma),

banishment.

or

chose

they
evil doing.

the

The

in

words

translation.

others,

the

to

others

keep

wives, started
the

first

became

in virtue.

others

differingfrom

maintain

was

fines

differingfrom

to

And
in

were

the

restrain
these

evil

the

evil

the

first

tions
disposifirst

only

wise, except

no

men,

the

were

the
lusts

others

the

restrain

to

These

and

in

(dhamma).

virtue

were

certain

in virtue

or

And
led

which

And

chose

except
blame

of

differences

material, and

when
rightsof property arose, and were
infringed. And
become
were
felt,and thefts committed, the beings,now
met

as

beings, eating

And

manifest

moss,

Then

were

the
sun

run.

of time.

so.

and

appeared,

then

and

coarse

successivelyfine

similar

that

waters,

and

smell,

and

complexion (vanna) became


some
prided themselves, and
of their
finer complexion.
Then

say

origin, when

measures

nor

sex,

thereof, lost their brightness,and


stars
appeared, and time began to

earth

their

Do

bearing

and

then

they

to

nor

moon,

in taste

bodies

child

can

as

man^.

and

man

It is

(va""a)

distinction

with

women

forget-

in fact.

basis

no

in

world

nor

the

honey

of

just

those

as

claims

these

between

folk ?

God

the

at first immaterial,
began, beings were
joy, giving light from themselves, passing through
There
thick
about
darkness
round
them, and
was

evolution

the

and

difference

other

born

terms

same

make

claims

Brahman

see

of

pretensions

Sutta.

they

past. The

it the

the

in

righteousness (dhamma)
that

In

Madhura

that

replies

fulness

SUTTA.

III.

the

vessas.

their

households

occupations
And

first recluses

of

some

are

quoted

in the

various

kinds.
their

abandoned

(samawas).

origin,and the only distinction


the highest of them
And
all was

here

going, and

But

between

all
them

acknowledged

Milinda, vol. i,p.

229

of my

lO*J

INTRODUCTION.

the

be

to

of

the

the

laid

had

Mental

Four

breaking

aside

We
Indeed

with

whole

story,

the

four

va;/"4;

healthy

and
than
Had

insight,

the

followed
never

caste,
of
his
has

is
the

on

in

caste

Sociale

'

with

Epics,

great
are

the

they

in

social

little
views

entitled

'

Gliederung

to

actual

facts

they

similar

very

tions
distincthose

to

India

of

the

won

and

grades

system

by
it,

Castes

and

found

desired.

in

monographs

M,

Senart
the

on

Indien
the

on

present

I'lnde.'

dans

nordostlichen

Similar
be

caste

sound

others,

lines

on

book

about
Les

im

evidence

skill.

India
the

reveals

question
by

were,

the

on

replace.

to

whole

of

and

admirable

India,

much

intended

of

names

lost

the

to

through

the

be
it

legend.

it

would

tip^.

built

an

the

would

it

But

was

and

runs

of

nearer

on

on

Brahman

collected

it

as

West,

been

There

of

much

end,

this

of

irony

s"ietix.
is

had

etymologies

evolution

gone

the

have

grand

life,

his

accuracy

aroma

bywho

man

the

gained

"

have
in

the

views

the

prevailed
would

fanciful

shared,

good-humoured

legend

widely

and

of

and

Buddha's

"

nearly

att

Brahman

the

day

it

free

set

and
the

lived

had

historical

the

its

had

done,

was

and

took

be

to

note

the

who

had

accept

continual

hearer

that

not

may

to

destruction

Asavas)

rebirths

who

burden,

knowledge

highest

the

(the
him

tied

the

by

so

Intoxications

every
all

himself

made

that

bonds

accomplished
by

had

who

Arahat,

Gataka
on

Dr.

zu

book,
the

the

facts

actual
Fick

also

Pi/akas,

in

Zeit

Buddha's
and

of

origin

it

analysed
and

on

'

the

AMBATTiYA

III.

[A

SUTTA.

Brahman's

YOUNG

rudeness

one's

old

an

and

FAITH.]
1.
once

Thus

I.
on

of

company

the

I/'/'/^anankala
nankala

much

So

woodland

granted

him

by

gift, with
the

grant,
pp.

probable

revenue,

course

full

the

The

be

as

Pali
*

His

2co);
local

and
full

where
name.

the

the

by
first

the
the

word

the

See

of

part

in

second
the

has

the

Brahmans

part

the

is

the

Introduction

terms
recurs

Vin.

at

only

for

been

to

the

own

If

then

the

judicial
applied
has

literally

that
a

full

But

meaning
gift.'

Subhagavaniko
and

name

Sutta.

to

always

themselves.

'

the

to

them.

as

has

Mahali

with

his

purposes

(brahma)

{gens)

gotta

of

to

found

to

is the

half, and

all

If

either

is correct,

never

Opama"/7o

which

be,

remain

referring

means

tithe.

be

other

would

compound

passage

our

would

compound
as

of

well,

as

brahmadeyyaw

word

the

to

be

would

grant

king's representative

Pokkharasadi

was

name

of

news:

adjectives

would

share

to

woods,

and

the

first

The

peasants

waste

Elsewhere

and

brahma

the

interpretation
also

interpreted

been

rights
and

executive.

marriage;

one

of

the

as

of

king^

ra^a-bhoggaw

rights

his

half

details

kind,

in

rd^a-bhoggaw,
tax,

common

would

grantee

in

of

land

the

the

as

620.

proprietary (zemindary)

meaning

Buddhaghosa's
and

payable

Kosala

heard

string
and

text,
p.

rights only.
of

131

the

of

without

use

of

further

royal

were
^

whole

Divyavadana,

had

if he

as

no

The

Compare
land

king

gives

tenancy.

127,

114,

he

on

of

Pokkharas^di

but

the

it

was

life, with

corn,

Pasenadi

King

Brahman

of

or

Ill,

222.

The

or

\kkJi2L-

the

with

and

over

power

Buddhaghosa

below,

the

in

named

Pokkharasddi

teeming

spot

and

Now

2.

Ill,

Kosala

in

stayed

Brahman

grassland

royal

the

he

hundred

five

village

there

the

time

Ukka///^a,

at

domain,

of

that

at

dwelling

'

while

and

Brahman

about

great

Wood.

Now

at

with

country

with

when

One,

Blessed

Kosala

brethren,

arrived

brethren,

The

the

through

tour

I heard.

have

(M. II,
the

third

OF

PRIDE

They

who

from

out
now

brethren

of his Order,

venerable
been
a

abroad

as

guide

gods

and

"

men,

One,

the

Brahmas,

and

and

known

having

The

others.

to

it,he

and
its

Brahmans,

is

has

Arahat,

an

and

led, a teacher

Buddha.

for

self,
He, by himface

it were,

above

"

its recluses

staying

goodness,
worlds, unsurpassed

be

this

the Maras,

is

the

regardingthat

One

of the

thoroughly knows and sees, as


universe, includingthe worlds
and

of

in wisdom

willingto

Blessed

religious

high reputationthat

Blessed

knowledge

mortals

to

the

company

Now

abounding

one,

with

happy,

is the
That

great

Wood.

such

Gotama,

fullyawakened

Sakya clan,

and
I/^y{'^anankala,

at

I^^X'Mnankala

noised

lOQ

of the

Gotama,

arrived, with

in the

FALL.

Sakya familyto adopt

life,has
there

ITS

AND

that the Sama;2a

say

went

BIRTH

of the

the world

face

to

gods,

below

with

peoples,
knowledge known
origin,lovelyin its

princes and
his

makes

truth, lovelyin its

"

progress, lovely in its consummation, doth he proclaim,


both in the spiritand
in the letter,the higher life doth
he

in all its fullness

known,

make

[88] 'And

is it

good

to

in all its

and
visits

pay

purity.
like

Arahats

to

that.'
3.

Now

ba/Ma

And
the

he

was

was

mystic

Three

we

says
Pali texts
as

have

who

do

not

the Athabbawa

not

Veda,

whole

the

take

point of the

as

in the A//y^akathas
silent reference

suggested in

three

Vedas,

Tevi^^a

Sutta

and

and

farmers.

It

T'ikas.

And

The

the translation.
a

mystic

and

of

art

only

occurs,

it is
fourth

The

older

quite
place

Athabbawa,

(togetherwith

lucky signs, and

witchcraft

three

the

But

Veda.

to it here.

were

ghosa (p. 247)

Buddha

Veda, the Atharva.

the Atharva

legends
there

366)

by birth, but

Brahmans

of
given (in S. IV, 927) as the name
astrology,the interpretationof dreams
forth),is probably not the Veda, but

always

the

mastered

Ga.t. IV,

(compare

fourth

acknowledge

to suppose
a
unnecessary
is quitesufficiently
filled as

Pi/akas

had

expresslymentioned.

supply the

Brahman.

indices, the ritual,the phonology,

IV, 363

were

is not

to

the

Am-

an

words) knowing

sacred
who

by heart, one

Gat.

to

fourth

The

Brahman,
young
the
Pokkharasadi

exegesis (as a fourth)^, and

the

also Amba/Mas

pupilunder
repeater (of the

verses

According

"^

time

Vedas, with
and

that

at

or

sorcery.
And

only,for granted.

in full in my
(translated

'

so

The
the

Buddhist

I TO

in.

as

AMBATTHA

fifth, learned

versed

in

said

find

told

dear

now,

and

Gotama,
whether

Amba///^a, go
the

ledge
know-

could

say

what

you

news,

and

Gotama

the Sama?/a

to

noised

reputationso

is in accord

Samana.

the

the

Amba//"^a

whether

out

regardinghim

abroad

his master,
that he
that you know, and

by

Pokkarasadi
Come

so

"

grammar,

theory of the
recognised an

in the

I know.'

And
'

the

threefold Vedic

of the

I know

What

that

4.

and

idioms

great man\

system

expounded

as

know

of

body

authority in the
of him

the

Lokayata sophistry,and
the

signs on

in

SUTTA.

the

with

is such

as

facts

or

they

say

not,
or

not.'

how, Sir, shall I know

But

'

5.

whether

that is

so

or

not?'
There

have

handed

been

down,

Amba//^a,

in

our

thirty-twobodily signs of a great man,


mystic verses
of two
one
has, he will become
signs which, if a man
he will
things,and no other ^. If he dwells at home
of the world, a righteousking,bearing
become
a sovran
"

rule

the

that

treasures

he

Horse, the Gem,


Suttas
in
^

of his

protector

four great oceans,

has

of the
possessor
these are
the seven

Wheel,

the

"

Woman,

the

queror,
con-

people,

[89] And

royal treasures.

seven

to

of the

the shores

to

even

Elephant,the

the

Treasurer, and

the

')is this three-,not four-,fold division. Four Vedas are


the Milinda, at p. 3, and the Atharva-veda, at p. 117.

the

referred

in the Suttas of a learned Brahman.


standingdescription
See below, pp. 114, 120
(ofthe text);A.I, 163; Mil. 10; Divyavadana
of
the details are
One
""c.
two
not
or
620,
quitecertain,as yet.
of a Great
The
knowledge of these thirty-two marks
Being
details
the
is
of
the
in
one
(Maha-purusha)
often-recurring
paragraph
have
we
wisdom, which
just
giving the points of Brahman
This

is the

had

at

3.
portions of
And

the

such

from

through the
list (see the

scattered

and

probablythrow

list has

both

the

our

Brahman

found,

so

far

texts.

collection

lightupon

of

that
the

in those

know,
have

survived.

knowledge

Many

of

the

details

106

of

the

text)

on

p.
older

them, and

upon
will write us

Maha-purusha

in India

the

as

is that

passages

below

note

superstition. Who

course)on
the Aryans

been

pre-Buddhisticpriestlyliterature

the

inference

Buddhist
obscure

No

"

theoryas

Brahman
a
a

curious

are

passages
chapterin

of

is

the

very
would

mythological
of
monograph (historical
held in earlytimes among

PRIDE

Adviser

as

thousand
the

And

he

of

the

And

foe.

wide

the

over

of sword.

But

into the

houseless

I, Amba/Ma,
have

if he

than

more

dwells

earth

forth

go

state, then

the veil from

removes

Ill

has

he

rulinof it in riofhteousness without

who

FALL.

heroes, mighty in frame, beating down

sons,

ascendancy

ITS

AND

seventh^.

armies

BIRTH

OF

am

received

giver

from

the

the eyes
of the

sea,

of baton

or

life

household

the

will become

he

to

sea

need

from

complete

Buddha

of the world.

mystic

Now

verses;

you

me/

from

them

in

in reply;and rising
'Very good, Sir,'said Amba//"^a
from
his seat
and
to
Pokkharasadi,
paying reverence
and
he mounted
chariot drawn
a
by mares,
proceeded,
6.

with
Wood.
far

of young
when
he

retinue

And
the

as

road

down, and
Now

7.

walking up
went

and

Gotama

be

said

and

lodging

of the

number

is of

Where

now

will

such.'

And

is his
and
knock

the

on

for

door
9.

Then

opened
the

other

exchanged

pp.
^

has

For

the

were

Amba///^a

the venerable
hither

come

Pokkharasadi.

to

to

door

conversation

There, Amba/Ma,
is shut, go quietlyup
:

give

Blessed

The

with

'

porch gently,and
cross-bar.

Blessed

The

hold

to

Amba/fMa
the

cough,

will

One

and
open

you.'
Amba///^a

the

got

'

lodging^,where
the

brethren

may

have

We

it difficult

they said

enter

the

find

not

as

thought: This young Brahman


family,and a pupil of the
distinguished

distinguishedBrahman
One

chariot

And

air.

open
*

call upon
him.'
8. Then
the brethren
Amba///^a

l^Manankaia,

in the

on

gone

in the

down

them,

to

up

on,

that time

at

had

the

to

practicablefor vehicles, he
into the park, on
foot.

was

went

Brahmans,

did

door, and
the

details

of

also

these

seven

see

Blessed

One

in.

And

and

they

in ;

went

One

Blessed

the

entered

Amba/Ma

Brahmans

young
with

And

so.

further

the

greetings and

'

my

Buddhist

Suttas,'

251-259.

Vihara;

often

rendered

in the older texts.

a
meaning
'monastery,'

the word

never

I 1 2

III.

compliments
But

seats.

of

other

or

about

the

AMBATTHA

SUTTA.

of

and courtesy,
politeness
Amba////a, walking about,
civil kind

while,

in

an

took

said

off-hand
to

said

to

their

something
fidgeting

way,

the

standing up,

or

and

Blessed

One

sittingthere.

[90] 10.

Blessed

the

And

One

would

Amba/Z/Ja, that you


aged teachers, and teachers

the

way,

with

stricken

in years,

you

as

with

Brahman

his seat, or recliningto


with shavelings,
sham
of
offscouring
talk

as

But

'

rather

to

heels

object

you had
Amba/Ma

Brahman
young
prides himself on his culture
from

with

the

of

want

Blessed

in view

fellows,the
I would

them

what

training ?
at

this

can

came.

you

though

he

from

come

'

displeased and

was

One

when

is ill bred,
^

Amba///^a

Then

12.

with

"

But

wanting something, AmTurn


here.
thoughts
your

came

This

except

black

taken

reclines.

who

friars,menial

has

you !
have
been

you

the

who

to

must

when

ba/Ma,

speak

to

'

do

you

Brahman

Brahman

kinsman's

our

now

to

the

about

the
along only when
standingto a Brahman

one

seated

stands, and

well

'

It is proper

goes
is walking,and

himself

Brahman
who

as

teachers

seated

or

11.

converse

do, moving

now

Is that

'

hold

of your

standing,with me thus
'Certainlynot, Gotama.

while

him

being called

rude

and

angry
the
at

with him, he
vexed
thought that the Blessed One was
said, scoffing,jeering,and
sneering at the Blessed
One
:
Rough is this Sakya breed of yours, Gotama,
of yours
and
and
rude ; touchy is this Sakya breed
*

another's

one

on

heels.'

Braliman

theory that

this may

well

have

his

admitted

it,and

^I.
"^

to

been

prejudicewhen
I, 334;
And

teacher.

were

Amba/Ma
he

the

refers the

born

is

from
For

meaning.

well

born, still

("" 10-13)

this is the

below.

Brahma's

though

Gotama

certainly
representedas

calls the brethren

implicationis

heels.

others,of low
'

black

S. IV, 117, and below, D. I, 103.


is therefore, after all,not
much
so
That

says 'treading
expression to the

loc. cit. p. 521,

Buddhaghosa

the 6"fidras were

order

majority of
caste

Neumann,

Bandhupadapa^^'a.

his

clear from

and
caste,

the
were

giving vent

fellows.'

fault

And

as

to

Compare
that

of his

the text, pp. 90, 91

^^T.

114

'Why

14.

she

be,

And

say
the

there

what

she

Sakyas

are

'There

nobles, the

of

tradesfolk, and

the
the

is neither

nor
fitting,

menials

they

as

venerate,
nor

honour

pay

Thus

the

"

it

is

the

that

seemly,

esteem,
Brahmans.'

nor

neither

give gifts to,

nor

Amba////a

the

that

Sakyas,

menials, should

mere

the

verily, but

[92] So, Gotama,

Brahman
young
charge the Sakyas with

did

in

offence

take

are,

"

are,

to

home,

own

"

work-people

value,

nor

nest.

own

grades^, Gotama,

Brahmans.

on

though

people.
tradesfolk, and the workthe nobles, the
four, three

these

attendants

her

to

you

bird

the

Brahmans,

And

in

their

at

four

these

are

likes

for
fitting

Kapilavatthu. It is not
at so
a
thing.'
trifling
15.

little hen

quail,Amba/Z/^a,

can

SUTTA.

AMBATTHA

for

the

being menials.
Then
the
One
Blessed
16.
thought thus: 'This
AmhaU/ia.
is very
set
on
humbling the Sakyas with
if I were
ask
his charge of servile origin. What
to
him
to his own
as
lineage.' And he said to him :
And
what
long
family do you then, Amba///za, bethird

time

'

to
'

am

'

Ka;^hayana.'

Yes, but

'

if

follow

to

were

one

name

and

lineage, Amba^Ma,

the

mother's

side, it would

were

of

of their slave

one

line back
'

to

girls.
the

ago, Amba///^a,
the
succession
in

favourite

favour

land.

And

dwelling
borders

being

of

YannL

'

On

the

on
a

this famous

Mahavastu

lake

old

I, 348;

thus

and

banished

slopes

of

where

king

see

the

Git. II, 311

the
the

Sakyas

Okkaka,
of

elder

his

Karanda., Hatthinika,

mukha,

father's

that
are

ancient

your

and

Sakyas

offspring
their

trace

^.

King

banished

queen,

the

But

king

Long

divert

13;

Okkaka

on

appear
that you

and

masters,

your

once

up
the

the

wanting

the

children
"

they took
Himalaya,
oak

legendspreservedin
I, 258.

the
their

up

tree

his

Okka-

"

from

Sinipura

mighty

; Sum.

of

son

to

the

on

grew.

the M.

B.

V,

PRIDE

And

OF

through fear
they intermarried

hne

Now

'

Okkdka

BIRTH

of

the

AND

ITS

FALL.

injuring the

TI5

purity

with

their sisters.

king

asked

the

of

ministers
"

their
his

at
'

i
?
Sirs,are the children now
There
is a spot, Sire,on the slopesof the Himalaya,
the borders
of a lake, where
there grows
a
mighty
"

court
*

on

Where,

(sako).

oak

There

should

injure

married

their

they dwell.

do

the

of

And

their

lest

they

line

purity
they
sisters.'
own
(sakahi)
Then
did Okkaka
the king burst forth in admiration
["3]: Hearts of oak (sakya) are those young
fellows!
Right well they hold their own
(parama!
sakya)
have

'

"

"

'

That

is

known

no

Dis^.

sooner

Wash

"

birth

gave
it born than

mother.

Bathe

mother, of this dirt.


Now

'

just

devils," so

"

then

he

as

that
the

devil

of

ancestor

and

name

and

masters,
of their slave
7. When
said to
the
1

'

26
"^

The

oak

Set

free,
you."

to

use

devils

me

black

"

black

been

born

follow

to

were

the father's
that

that

the

spoke

as

thing (kawha)
!

"

And

that

up

your

on

the

Sakyas
the

are

you

and

"

fellows

fellow

"This

is

was

is

it,

ancient
mother's

were

once

offspringof

one

girls.'
he

had

thus

Blessed

the young
the
'Let
not

spoken

One:

Sammanti,
'dwell,'not in Childers
Sum.
I, 125 and Cat. V, 396.

the

in

one

appear

your

mother.

thing said,

Ka^/hayanas ^. He
thus
Ka/^hayanas *. And

lineage,on

side, it would

girl
And

of the

the

that if

Amba///^a,

me,

'Tis
has

Amba/Ma,
origin,

the

slave

baby.

little black

of

are

Amba//"^a, people call devils

born.

black

they

the

they called
they said:

was

is born,

to

had

shall I be

So

now,

as

(ka?2he). And
soon

Okkaka

Now

She

was

me,

Amba//"^a, why

reason,

Sakyas.

as

called

the

(which

Terai)has

doesn't

been

in

grow
introduced

to

in this

the

enable

the

venerable

But

sense.

text, and

Brahmans

could
word

S.

see

not

play

'
*

grow
be

to

herb.
The Pali Saka
a
means
adequatelyrendered.
Ka"hayana is the regularform of patronymic from Ka"ha.
Buddhaghosa givesfurther details as to his subsequentlife*

I,

Il6

TII.

humble

Gotama

of
well

is

in the

man.

And

for

as

you
19.

think

in these

Brahman

ba^Ma,

venerable

the

to

said

and

so;

give

to

it would

then

speak ^'

will hold

we

answer

Blessed

Then

One

this

reasonable

very

said

further

should
unwillingly,
you
clear reply, or
a
go

our

peace.
venerable

to

the

to

Amba//^a

which,

one

off

though
not
give

even

If you
do
issue ^,
another

upon
then

old

head
split
your
have
heard, when
you
of
stricken
teachers
in years,

the

their

or

yours
whence

the

teachers,

draw

they

when

silent.

he

had

And

thus

the

Blessed

silent.

Then

One

well be

whole

speech of

to

since

pa/ijfarasi.

Vin.

I, 250;

Gotama's

that

conclusion.

said

In

if all

to

same

remained
him

to
objectwas
spoke at once,

the text

Gotama

You

confine
it could

repeats the

the Brahmans.

a""am

It is answering

One

singleopponent,

brought

A""ena
M.

see

to

the

asked

still Amba/Ma

Blessed

Buddhaghosa (p. 263) says

the discussion

the

remained

Amba///^a

spoken

question again. [95] And

not

themselves

trace

'

And

to

who

origin,and

their

whom

to

was

talking together, as

were

Ka;^h^yanas

ancestor

back

well

and

or

will

silent,or go away,
What
pieces on the spot ^

Brahmans

the

question arises, Am-

answer.

remain
in

But

further.

discussion

himself

'Quite

them:

to

matters,'

the

Then

20.

is

reciter,a learned

thought otherwise,

is able

Gotama

One

our
carry on
so, let Amba//"^a

do

He

girl.
family; he

good

give answer

to

proach
re-

slave

able

an

to

We

Amba//"^a

of

and

Blessed

[94] you

from

this

matters.'

the

you
think

sternlywith

too

hymns,

is able

he

Then
If

be

sacred

in these

8.

so.

Amba//y^a

born, Gotama,

Gotama

SUTTA.

beino^ descended

versed

AMBArr^A

one

For

this

idiom, not
Mil. 94;

; A. I, 187, 198;
by
alleginganother.
thing

I, 85

inChilders,
Sum. I, 264.

the
anything,among
is a frequentform^of
to
meant
Buddhists, and is apparentlynever
and
Indian
is
in
books,
pre-Buddhistic.Comp. Brzhad Ar.
expression
Buddhist
M. I, 231 ; Dhp. 72 ;
are
Up. Ill,6. 2 and 9. 26.
passages
'

This

curious

threat

"

which

never

to

comes

"

Dhp.

A.

87,

140;

Git. I, 54;

V,

21,

33,

87,

92, 493,

"c.

PRIDE

had

better

time

for

answer,

does

with

aglow, with
and

then

did

so

the

and

One,

said
it

Say

'

of

of

by

head

bears

Amba/Z/^a

the

in the

sky
fiery,dazzling,and
not

there

answer,

j ust

so,

hayanas,
themselves

Brahman

not

and

And

when

Low

awe.

even

ancestor

stricken

in

talking

whom

their

they

the venerable

as

origin of
whom

to

he

the

tumult, and

the

Kaw-

they

trace

say

he

Sakyas
the

Sama/^a

Blessed
to

not

One

the

of

good

his

were

young
turmoil

uproar,
say, is Amba///^a

say, is
descended

is

the

spoken

and

they
family, they

that

the

thus

had

born,

his

Va^ira-pa"{:
Upanisldati;

in

have

draw

to

was

is the

was
righteousness itself,

23.

What

Kawhayanas

hear,

That

the

that

'

suppose

are

said ?

'

did

said.

standing ; they

girl;

awe^

One

teachers, were

ancestor

back

fell into

said

the

back.'

Brahmans
and

the

the

Gotama,

And

22.

in

well

and

their

or

whence

old

Brahmans

who

and

from

him

Blessed

think, Amba/Ma

of yours

hath

Gotama

it the

agitated,

help

beside

on

'

you

themselves

trace

down

was

to

Amba///^a

and

protection

What

teachers

And

it,terrified,startled,and

crouched

do

together,as
origin,and

Brahman.

and

heard, when

years,

to

above

the

again !

once

What

you

'

time

his
truth),

spiritwho

of

Amba///^a

Blessed

third

to

becoming aware
seeking safety

the

won

no

whosoever,

question put

the

over

mass

is

splithis head in pieces. And the Blessed


perceived the spiritbearing the thunderbolt, and

One

'

the

to

iron, all
intention, if he did

mighty

This

spot.'

time

stood

II

For

peace.

has

the

FALL.

Amba//^a.

your

who

that

at

thunderbolt^

ITS

not, even
up
reasonable
a

asking, answer
Tathagata (by one
splitsinto pieces on
Now

AND

now,

hold

to

you

Amba///za,

21.

BIRTH

OF

not

from

We

masters.

whose

Gotama,
man

to

be

slave
did
words

trusted

'

thought: [96] 'They

wit,Indra, says Buddhaghosa.

whence

Upanishad,

mystery, secret, listened

I 1

III.

go too
Amba/Z/za

AMBATTHA

SUTTA.

in their

Brahmans,

far, these

depreciationof

offspringof a slave girl. Let me


he said to
him
free from
their reproach.' And
set
in disparaging Amba///^a
them
Be
not
too
severe
:
the
Brahman
the ground of his descent.
That
on
He
into the
became
Ka7/ha
went
a
mighty seer^
and
Dekkan, there he learnt mystic verses,
returning
the
he
demanded
his
Okkaka
to
king,
daughter
him
the
To
Madda-rupl in marriage.
king in
the

as

'

said

answer

slave

of my

son

in

marriage ;

Then

'

the

go
The

shoot

far

as

Let

"

The
he

The

"

ministers

and

courtiers

"

shall

as

Let

the

suffer

shoot

the
years

his

(p. 265),was
'

the
*

eldest

known

Sotthihotu.
use

charm

Ka"ha
; let the

as

far

suffer

as

let

But
The

son.

nor

dry

of

prince

charm

the Ambz/f/ta.
is the old

But

would

god

extends

^"
too

the land

and

either,

aim

the

suffer

no

king
shall

not

touched."

shall be

the

too."

his land.

the

told this

magician being no doubt


(verse90). Compare Merlin.

This

earth

the

the country

harm,

no

the

his realm

sage,

as

he

country

nor

upwards,

arrow

of him

course

should

to

Okkaka,

implied,as

in B. V.

which, Buddhaghosa tells

us

charm.

mystic

word

swasti.

We

have lost

of such

expressions,
Faustumfac regent.
brutum
this,says Buddhaghosa, was
fulmen.
had only power
to stop the arrow
going off; not

All

results

the

to

But

the

harm,

no

shall rain.

god

G'at. I, 17
effect of

let

he

went

would

then

king.Sir,go safe,and

Rishi, mystic
The

an

stringagain ^.

harm.

no

harm, not a
'Then, O Brahmans, the ministers

II, 8i

fitted

extends."

shall suffer

hair

"

daughter

king go safe,Sir

king, Sir, go safe,and

god rain."
king shall
at

arrow

it off the

downwards,

seven

the

and

could

take

his realm

Let the

let the

for my
he
displeased,

he

said

king

rain for
"

asks

neither

arrow

the

should

"

But

king

the

"

is

fellow, who

safe^"

king
"

this

is

and

angry

could

and

he

girlas

bow.

the

seer,

forsooth

and,

fly,nor

arrow

up

"

his

to

arrow

Who

"

as

these.

The

Amba/Ma

to work

such

OF

PRIDE

and

said

the

Let

*'

and

harm

no

?
you, Amba//-^a
should
have
connection

think
from

their

would

intercourse

the

Ka^^ha
said

with

was

to
a

mighty

seer.'

'What

Kshatriya

young

maiden, and

be

the

to

be

of his

matter
a

born.

Now

Brahman

through the Kshatriya youth receive a


(as tokens of respect)from the Brahmans

maiden
and

seat

water

'

Yes, he would, Gotama.'

'

would

'But
the

feast

milk
as

Brahmans,

Amba////a:

should

come

king did

king,terrified at
his daughter
man

Brahman

son

the

not, O
in the

Suppose
a

thus

son

the

should

One

the Blessed

Then

24.

And

He

son.

the

But

That

ancestress.
slave-girl

I 1

his eldest

at

Amba/Ma

disparage

to

severe

FALL.

terror."

nor

You

wife.

Madda-rtapi to
too

given him, [97]gave

lesson

the

aim

done.

was

ITS

AND

king

harm

will suffer neither


so,

BIRTH

2,

offered
of the

or

present

the

allow

Brahmans
the

to

dead,

partake of

to

of the

or

the

to
offerings

him

food

boiled

of food

gods, or

in

sent

'

Yes, they would, Gotama.'

But

would

teach him

Brahmans

the

their

verses

or

not?'
'

They would, Gotama.'

But

would

he be shut

He

would

not

But

would

be

off,or not, from their women?'

shut

off.'

of
ceremony
Certainlynot, Gotama.'

consecration
'

Why

'

Because

not

that ?
he

is

allow

Kshatriyas

the

him

Kshatriya?

to

receive

the

'

'

of pure

not

descent

the mother's

on

side.'
Then
25.
Brahman

youth

Kshatriya maiden,
should

be born.

Kshatriya
*

Literallyplacethe
on

and

and

Now

maiden
'

?
you, Amba////a
connection
should
have

Suppose

think

what

would

through
arrow

their

from

the
the

intercourse
thus

son

Brahman

(whichhad

with

barb

the

receive

youth
shaped

son

to

come

like

shoe)
horse-

his son.'

See Git. I, 186;


Thalipaka.
also on specialoccasions.

Mil. 249.

It is used

in

sacrifices,

I20

III.

and

seat

Brahmans

tokens

(as

water

Yes, he would, Gotama.'

'

But

would

of

the

to

dead,
the

offering to

an

respect)

allow

Brahmans

the

feast offered

or

of

from

the

'

'

the

SUTTA.

AMBATTHA

him

of food

or

boiled

of

gods, or

partake

to

food

of

in milk,

sent

as

'

present ?
'

Yes, they would, Gotama/

But

would

the

Brahmans

him

teach

their

verses

or

not?'

They would, Gotama.'


he
[98] But would
*

He

'

not, from

off,or

would

not,

would

the

Gotama.'

Kshatriyas allow him


consecration
of a Kshatriya ?
ceremony
Certainlynot, Gotama.'
Why not that ?'
But

'

their

'

women

shut

be

'

the

receive

to
'

'

Because

'

he

is

of

not

descent

pure

father's

the

on

side.'
*

26.

with

Then, Amba////a, whether


or

women,

higher and
And

the

his head
the

think

for

Brahman

Brahmans

what

Brahmans,

the

Would
?

Certainly not, Gotama.'

'

Or

food

the

milk,

in
as

or

present

a
'

offered
of the
?

and

be

Suppose

other, were

or

him

from

the

offered

ashes

land
seat

the

outlaw

to

pouring

allow

Brahmans
to

are

over

from

or

water

or

'

'

the

him

he

Brahmans

would

Amba///^a

you,

banish

to

Kshatriyas

inferior.

by shaving
'^,
were

women

compares

the

men,

offence

some

township.

among

with

men

one

the

dead,

to
offerings

or

the

him
of the

gods, or

to

partake
food

of

boiled

of food

sent

'

Certainlynot,

Gotama.'

Pakarawe.

of some
Perhaps 'in consequence
regulation or
Mil. 189.
but
'offence,'
Buddhaghosa (p.267) says
compare
him with (theproceeding
Assa-pu/ena vadhitva, literally
'killing
the
idiom
him
dead.'
It is
cut
called)the Ash-basket.'
Compare
other.'
"^

'

also mentioned

at A.

II, 242.

The

"

is

who
is the

he

this

Now

ill sung

too

who

is the

he

of

from

quotation

the

editors

Brahman

of

Sutta

our

the

twisted

have

"

folk

righteousness,
'

Recitation*.

of

the

of

the

legend,

same

or

Mahabharata,

"

composers

this

men."

for

recension

and

and

Portion

First

said

And

among

and

gods

older

the

lineage

not

say

in wisdom

among

an

either

two

perfect

the

ends

Here

in

and

thereof.

those

of

best

trust

best

sung
well

void

not

also, Amba////a,

is the

is

who

he

But

text

their

put

and

meaning

Kshatriya

The

"

it

approve

well

was

Sana^w-kum^ra,

Brahma

the

by

righteousness,

men."

and

gods

Amba/Z/^a,

stanza,

and

in wisdom

among

folk

this

among

Hneage.

in

trust

best

of those

best

perfect

ill said, full of

not

their

put

he

But

'

is the

Kshatriya
who

SUTTA.

AMBATTHA

III.

122

legend

little in

one

the

or

their

own

favour.
^

The

is

verse

and

II, 284;

153;
^

favourite

one.

It

below

the

Aggaw^a

in

Either

Gotta-patisarino.
back

'referring
Chifders

their

to

Biihler,

kiwzkara-pa/isarini.
gotras.'
The
to

the
*

line

next

question

of caste,

is described

translated

caste

Mr.

S. I,

'

gotras'

we

-v/smar.
of

the

derive

the

It

or

word
also

occurs

ideal

as

woman

their

'record

it

cit., renders

rendered

into

as

disclosed
zu

in India

all

German

J.
in

Buddha's
see

besides

length

at

Suttas,

Chalmers,

in Indien
caste

be

I, 358

"c., referring
perfect,'

when

Kshatriya.

This

passages,
Madhura
and

by

also

might

as

from

Sutta)
/oc.

M.

their

back

according

Sudassana

at

Sutta.

Biihler

with

description (Maha

the

also

occurs

'tracing

gotras'

-y/sar,or

from

with
in

R.

in

being often

also
the

in

the

Assalayana,
The
Ma^^ima.

by

Professor

Pischel

A.

S,, 1894,

p.

the

Crdtaka

book

Zeit,'Kiel, 1897

Senart's

'Les

referred

Castes

and
and

341
see

Fick's

; and

dans

on

the
foil.
'

the

in

to

isolated

Ka""akathala,
first

has

last

into

On

the

Sociale

been

English
facts

of

Gliederung

general history

I'lnde,'Paris, 1896.

of

PRIDE

BIRTH

OF

AND

ITS

Chapter

II.
what

the

what, Gotama,

wisdom

spoken

is the

of in that

and
righteousness,
?

verse

wisdom

perfectionin

In the supreme

'

12

II.

But

I.

FALL.

'

and

ness,
righteous-

the question
to
Amba^'/z^a, there is no reference
either of birth,or of hneage, or of the pride which
says :
You

"

held

are

worthy

as

worthy

as

I."

as

I,"or

as

It is where

You

"

talk is of

the

not

are

held

marrying,

giving in marriage,that reference is made to such


For
in
whosoever, Amba//i^a, are
things as that.
bondage to the notions of birth or of lineage,or to the
by marriage,
pride of social position,or of connection
of

or

far from

the

are

It is

only by having got

one

realise

can

for

in wisdom
'

2.

But

wisdom

wisdom

best

they

himself

conduct, and

is that

what, Gotama,

his

each
'

idam

of the

world

Silas, above, pp.

then

comes

is reckoned

to

that

much

p.

the

in him

268,

"

Sd-

the

appearance of
of a hearer, and

7J of

8-2

here,

at

the text.

the end

of

repeatedpassage
morality!

to

seems

silasmiw
same

as

0/

come

4-12

the

Buddhaghosa,
p'assa hoti

bhikkhu.

what

the

conversion

refrain differs. It runs


clause,through the whole of

This

fection
per-

\
Morality (Sila)

preaching, the

his renunciation

Only

supreme

in conduct.'

and

introductory paragraphs {""40-42

The

that

'

Buddha,
I.

bondage

[lOO] that

manha-phala,pp. 62, 63 of the text)on


a

righteousness.

rid of all such

\Here follow,under
The

and

from

result,but

this

have
that
is

had

different

preservedin

better,as

our

reading
"

text.

omitting the

It

word

III-

124

AUBATTHA

Conduct

under

TAen

SUTTA.

{Karana),

above, p. 69 of the
paragraph on Confidence,
is :
The
This
text,f 63.
refram from here onwards
T/ie

2.

'

to him

is reckoned

conduct J

paragraph

The

3.

as

'

on

Guarded

is the

door

of

his

I above,p. 70 of the text, J 64.

senses

Mi^idful and self-possessed,'


paragraph on
above,p. 70 of the text, ^65.
5. The paragraph on Content,above,p. 71 of the text,
The

4.

"66.
6.

The

paragraph

The

paragraphs

Solitude,above,p. 71 of the text,

on

"67.
7.

pp. 71-2
The

8
.

on

the

of the text, ""68-74.


paragraphs on the Four

above, pp. 73-76, "\ 75-82.

of them

each

of
a

course,

to

recluse,but

{^higherand
be read
as

The

7iot

above,

Rapt Contemplatiotis^
refrain at the end of
,

The

last')is here,
higher fruit of the lifeof

better
as

Hindrances,

than

the

higher conduct.
Under

9.

Five

Wisdom

(Vi^a),

The

ledge
paragraphs on Insight arising frofn Knowabove,p. 76 of the text, ""83, 84.
(A^a/^a-dassana;;^),
is :
This is reckoned in
refrainfrom here onwards
than
the
wisdom, and it is higher and sweeter
as
*

him,
last!

The

I o.

of the

paragraphs

on

the Mental

Image, above,p.TJ

text, "" 85, 86.


The

paragraphs on Mystic Gifts {}.^^\),above,


p. 77 of the text, J 87, 88.
The paragraphs on the Heavenly Ear
1 2
(Dibbasota),
above, /".79 of the text, ^J 89, 90.
The paragraphs on
1 3.
Knowledge of the hearts of
11.

others

above, p. 79 of the text,


(A'eto-pariya-wdwaw),
#91,92.
The paragraphs on Memory
1 4.
ofonis own previous

under

It is

important to

conduct.

notice

that these

are

put,

not

under

wisdom,

but

OF

PRIDE

BIRTH

ITS

AND

FALL.

25

above,p. 81 of the
(Pubbe-nivisa-anussati-^awa),
text,""93, 94.
The paragraph on the Divine Eye (Dibba/^akkhu),
1 5
above,p. 82 of the text,f 95, 96.
the Destruction of the Deadly
1 6. The paragraphson
Floods (Asav^na;;^
above,p' ^Z ^f ^-^^
khaya-/la;^aw),
text,""97, 98 \]
births

Such

Amhatths.,is

man,

said

be

to

perfectin

in conduct, perfect
in wisdom
wisdom, perfect
there is

And

higherand

conduct
3.

what

And
'

the four ?

are

In case,

wisdom

and

this supreme
perfectionin
there are Four Leakages^.
goodness [loi]

and

wisdom

in
perfection

duct.
con-

than this,'

sweeter

Amhattha,

Now,

other

no

and

to

'

recluse

Amba//"^a, any

or

Brahman,

out
with-

havingthoroughlyattained
in wisdom

rest

into the

depthsof

henceforth be

the

his

on

of those who

one

be

worthyonlyto

himself:
I will
live only on fruitsthat

forest,
vowing
"

fallen of themselves

have

fection
per-

a
(tocarry fire-sticks,
water-pot, needles,and
friar's outfit),
of a mendicant
should plunge

shoulder
the

and

this supreme
unto
conduct,with his yoke

he
then, verily,

"

servant

"

to

him

unto

turns

out

that hath attained

and

righteousness.
recluse or
again,Amba///i!a, in case
any
Brahman, without having thoroughlyattained unto
in wisdom
and conduct, and
this supreme
perfection
without having attained to livingonly on fruits fallen
of themselves, takinga hoe and a basket with him,
should plungeinto the depthsof the forest,
vowing to
wisdom

to

And

himself:

bulbs

only on
hath
^

attained

There

and

are

wisdom

to

therefore

be
be

and

of those

one

fruits

and

roots

worthy only to

out

turns

I will henceforth

**

"

live

he
then, verily,

"

servant

who

unto

him

who

righteousness.

eightdivisions

of

conduct,and eightof

the

higherwisdom.
^

The

so
'outlets,leakages,
Apaya-mukhani,
word
aya-mukha/w, inlet,is used in its

74, and
a

both words

secondarysense,

at
as

A. II, 166; and


in this passage,

t AYA-MHK\1/\M

that it cannot

fillup.'

concrete

at

'outlet'

in the

sense

D. I,

in
figuratively,
S
utta,
Sigalovada
p. 299.
occurs

CANAL

126

III.

SUTTA.

AMBArrHA

man,
again,Amba//"^a, in case any recluse or Brahthis
without
unto
having thoroughly attained
in wisdom
and conduct, and without
perfection
supreme
selves,
having attained to livingonly on fruits fallen of themand without
having attained to livingonly on
*

And

bulbs

and

shrine
town,

near

the

and

there

he
verily,

boundaries
dwell

of

serving

attained

wisdom

to

himself

build

fire-

villageor
fire-god

some

worthy only

out

turns

that hath

him

fruits,should

and

roots

the

some

then,

'

"

be

to

servant

unto

righteousness.

and

again,Amba/Z/^a, in case any recluse or Brahman,


without
having thoroughly attained unto this supreme
and
conduct, and without having
perfectionin wisdom
attained
to
livingonly on fruits fallen of themselves,
and
without
having attained to livingonly on bulbs
and
and
fruits,and without
roots
having attained to
[102]should build himself a fourserving the fire-god,
'And

almshouse

doored

meet, and dwell


recluse
whether
either

of

these

him

'

who

These
Now

4.

of

one

hath

attained

class

instructed

roads

"

think

of

in this

to

my

to

be

and

wisdom

power

"

servant

ness.
righteous-

Leakages, Amba///^a,
righteousnessand conduct ^.

Four

the

what

worthy only

out

perfectionin

'

high

"Whosoever,
there,saying to himself:
shall pass
here, from
Brahman,
or
will I entertain
four directions, him
turns

are

supreme

four

crossingwhere

abilityand accordingto

accordingto my
he
then, verily,
unto

at

you,

Amba/Ma

to

.'* Have

pupilsunder the same


perfectionof
supreme

you, as
teacher, been
wisdom

and

conduct^?'
*

Not

For

paid to

that, Gotama.

instances
a

the minor

god

has

of this

How

see

Gai. I, 285, 494

alreadybeen

details of

little is it that

condemned

II, 43.

in the

tract

can

Such
on

pro-

service

the

Silas,

morality(above, pp. 24, 25).


ascetics
here
Buddhaghosa
(p.270) says that all sorts of Brahman
he gives further details of eight
here intended
are
to be included,and
different sorts (discussedin the Journal of the P. T. S. for 1891,
pp. 34 foil.).
Sandissasi
sa^^ariyako. Compare M. P. S. 6, 7, 8, 9, 24, 25.
*

'

mere

PRIDE

fess

wisdom

therein

Far

the

and

yoke

Not

'

have

what

upon

wisdom

and

hoe

forest

as

Not

'

have

one

plunge

into

'

Although

perfection of

livingon

to

been
trained to
you
into the depths of the

fain observe

the

of

vow

living

fruits ?'

and

roots

you

that, Gotama.'

what

think

attained
and

Amba///^a

you,

this

unto

of

Although

attained

not

themselves,

and

you

perfection of

supreme

have

goodness, and

fruits fallen

on

have

plunge

would

and

supreme
have
attained

nor

who

even

wisdom

you

fain observe

this

basket, and

not

Although

would

Amba^/y^a

unto

and

Then

'

been

fruits fallen of themselves

themselves,

of

bulbs

only on

who

one

you,

goodness,

fruits fallen
take

shoulders, and

your

think

attained

not

have

to

me

that, Gotama.'

even

Then

perfectionof

this supreme
fection
perhave
been
trained
you

goodness,

depths of the forest as


of livingonly on
vow

the

12/

this

supreme
is it from

you, Amba/Ma
thoroughly attained unto

not

the

FALL.

'

of wisdom
to

ITS

think

what

'Then

take

AND

How

conduct

and

trained

have

learnt !

have

to

BIRTH

OF

have

living

to

attained

not

have you been


livingon bulbs and roots and fruits,
taught to build yourselfa fire-shrine on the borders of
who
some
villageor some
town, and dwell there as one
would
fain serve
?
the fire-god
that, Gotama.'
[103] Not even
what
think you, Amba//^a
?
Then
Although you
to

'

'

'

have

attained

not

wisdom

and

bulbs

livingon

to

attained

to

build

to

yourself a

would

who

themselves,
and

high
fain

might
your
Not

power

'

even

and

have

pass

roads

cross,

observe

the

that

way,

to

your

'

that,Gotama.'

attained

not

almshouse
and

dwell
to

vow

from

have

been

you

at

there

entertain
any

of

abilityand

living

to

fruits,and

and

four-doored

directions, according
to

roots

attained

not

have
serving the fire-god,

four

where

of

perfection of

supreme

have

goodness, and

fruits fallen

on

this

unto

not

taught
a

as

spot
one

ever
whosothe

four

according

128

III.

then

So

'

5.

short

of due

and

conduct,

but
which
And

Pokkharasadi,

has

the

should

claim

threefold

Vedic

6.

is in

of

king

into

How
he

his

Pasenadi

having even
(which

not

lesser

these

in the

versed

himself

duties

Brahman

Pokkharasadi,

from

grant

the

that the

pure

and

Kosala, does
not
See, Amba///^a, how

him

consults

with

behind

curtain.

king,from

whom

maintenance.
him

admit

King
his

to

deeply

teacher,
your
herein
done
you

has

Pokkharasadi,

allow

not

he

very

lawful

Amba^Ma,

Pasenadi, the

does

king

of

'

Now

what

king, either
on

the

footrug

should

come

up

on

his

chariot
with

left

he

workman

in the matter

of

state

side, a

Parihtnako

seated

his
of

as

suppose

think

back

of

resolution

are

^.'

wrong

or

to

this

?
presence
Brahman
the

saying :

When
presence.
him
only from

it,Amba/Ma,

accepts

7.

of

But

speaks

is

he

"

of

enjoyment
Kosala.

he

him

Who

"

you wrong.'
Brahman
Pokkharasadi,

the

come

Brahman

the

too,

Brahmans

teacher, the

done

the

thereof

attainment

neglectthe higher ones). See, Amba^'Z/za,

And

'

"

even

deeply your
herein

fallen

black fellows,
friars,menial
kinsman's
heels, that they
with

lore !

one

to

men

how

to

teacher
your
told you
this

converse

fulfilled any

has

complete

shavelings,sham
offscouring of our

these

pupil,have

in the supreme
wisdom
of the
Four
one
any

in

the

as

only

even

is debarred.

lead

Amba/Z/^a,

you,

not
training,

Leakages by

SUTTA.

A-MBATTHA

the

Amba/Z-^a

you,

the

neck

horse,

or

Suppose
elephant
the
standing on

of, defrauded

his

of

[i04],should
his

chiefs

spot

and

discuss

'Have

been

some

princes.

or

stepped

the slave
(^Siidra)
or
and, standing there,

sS^ariyako.

of

out

one

workman

should

done

on

And

discuss

of,neglected

of, this wisdom,' "c.


^
this
By concealing
suggestive fact, and
thereby leaving you
ignorantthat the king,a Kshatriya,looked down on a Brahman, even
whom
he considered, as a Brahman, of great merit.
So at Ga.t.
one
'low born' (hina-^a^^o) compared
V, 257 a king calls a Brahman
with

himself.

III.

I30

furbelows

and

teacher

did

they

with

mares

and

now
'

Not

'

Or

let

have

they

with

before

down
as

the
and

you,

them

round

out

gates*, by

So

'

then, Amba//"^a, neither

teacher,

do

nor

the

which

live

you

lived.

Rishis

Then

11.

chamber,

Blessed

the
and

Amba/Z/za

began

did

the

of

the very

goddesses

We

elaborate

wear

the

on

old

reliefs

and

"

the

women

shoulders

the

from
and

necklaces,

and

handsome

bas

the neck

Kutta-valehi.
had
reliefs,

any

The

over

to

to

the

the

top

king
But

of

walked

thus

To

his
And

ancient

fashionable

women
'

Stfipaof

judge from the


contradicting

passage
Sisterhood

wore

elaborate

ankles, and
of the

robes

headdresses
a

skirt.

very

broad

They

were

the waist.
chariot

standing room

for

of the
four

lime,

representedon

as

passengers,
and

heads, and had their manes


plumes
plaited. Stiipaof Bharhut,'PI. XII, shows us
on

their

all the

details of them.

the waist

girdle

from

probably the

here

Pi/aka

I will

down.

he

as

of course,
the
(lay women
have
downwards)
only very

skirt from

it may
in doubt

reliefs. Cunningham,

bas

call to mind

worn

from

unclothed
^

I cannot

and

up

have

conditions

forth

went

girdleswhich

and
Bharhut,' PI. LI, givesfigures

"

'

Rishi, nor

that.

to

as

And

are

you

walk

same.

Ve/^aka-nata-passahi.

them

now

whatever

But

One

to

you
the

under

perplexityabout me, ask me


make
it clear by explanation,'

bas

too, do

are

or

and

bars
cross-

girt with

men

teacher

your

and

that, Gotama.'

Not

name

too,

in fortified

guarded

be, Amba////a, concerning which

teacher

your

themselves

dug

moats

long swords,

your
under

and

you,

'

did

10.

your

that, Gotama.'

towns,

while, as

the

and

you,

by
driving chariots,drawn
and tails ^,using long wands

about

go

loins, as

'

plaitedmanes

goads

do

now

SUTTA.

their

round

do

too,

Or

'

AMBATTHA

the

the

steeds

the
wore

tails

elaborately
chariot of Pasenadi,

is not
in Childers.
(seeibid. pp. 124, 125). Kutta
See
Gat. I, 296, 433;
frequently.
11,127,128; IV, 219;

Kosala

it occurs

Asl. 321.

Compare Gat. IV, 106 ; Mil. 330.


Childers
Okkhitta-palighasu.
says (followingthe Sanskrit
But
iron.'
This
'of
where
does
the iron come
in ?
bars
dictionaries)
is surely a modern
improvement. Unfortunatelythe word is found
elsewhere (M. 1, 139;
A. Ill,84; Dhp. 398) only in an ethical sense.
'

PRIDE

OF

BIRTH

ITS

AND

FALL.

131

following the Blessed One, he took


stock of the thirty-two
signs of a great man, whether
they appeared on the body of the Blessed One or not.
all save
And
he perceived them
only two.
[loe]With
and

Up

down,

those

to

respect

two

of tongue

extent

"

satisfied,not

not

And

12.

in

he

'

he

Gift that

One

so

bent

round

stroked

both

his
the

nostrils,and

Neither

text

and

the

perplexity,

that

in

ought

and

was

he

how
hidden

be

Blessed

the

touched

stroked

circumference

his

saw

to

And

so

by

Brahman

that

tongue

he

matters

sheath.

touched

ears,

that

the

One

his

whole

with

covered

he

knew

Amba/Ma

part of the Blessed


clothes was
enclosed

One

and

arranged

so

that

by

in doubt

was

Blessed

And

Wondrous

member

sure.

the

doubt.

concealed

the

"

and

both

his

of his forehead

his tongue ^.

make

commentary

nor

it clear what

these

marks

two

first,
says Buddhaghosa, is like an elephant's,'
what
follows,to be the power of extending
seems,
tongue, like a snake's, to a great length. This last is possibly
The

really
quitemeant.
and

from

the second

the

derived

of
poeticaldescriptions

from

the disk of the

playinground
As

the

to

'

tongues

of flame

light

or

sun.

which

by

means

the

the

Buddha

the

made

first visible to

simply quotes Nagasena (at Mil. 169) to


dressed in his robes.
show
that he made
a visible image of himself fully
is to see
how that would
have helped matters.
And
the difficulty
Only
here guide
historical explanationof the meaning of the marks
can
an
Amba//i^a, Buddhaghosa

us

what

to
"^

is inferred.

thirty-twobodilymarks

of

Great

Being
(see note
(Maha-purisa), as
among
They
above, p. 88 of the text, " 5) and adopted by the Buddhists.
the
of
to
in
to
man
a
are
poeticalepithetsapplied
part adaptations
sacrifice
the
human
the personification
of
to
or
; partly
mystic
sun,
characteristics of personalbeauty such as any man
might have ; and
These

of

two

are

the

handed

or

one

white

two

hair

of them
on

"

it,and

possiblybe added

the

down

Brahmans

the eyes with


the top of the head
may

the littlewart, for instance,between


the

protuberance
of

in reminiscence

at

"

which
personalbodilypeculiarities

had.
actually
the Dialogues in the Digha, the Lakhawa
Sutta, is devoted
marks.
these thirty-two
to
They are also enumerated, with slight
differences,in the Mahapadhana Sutta; and later books
give other
small
in many
the old lists,
from each other,and from
lists differing
points.
in the
in identical words
The
story told here in "" 11, 12 recurs

Gotama
One

of

III.

132

'

The

Samawa

with

And

'

One

We

Do,

Amha^l/ia.
and

mares,

that

at

forth

gone

waiting

the

to

on

chariots, he
where

to

his

took
he

path

Pokkharasddi

was,

Amba///^a!

he

had

in

come

came

saluted

one

side.

said

And

when

the

see

you

him, and

him

to

foot

on

and

Did

came

practicable for

was

it, and

on
respectfully

pleasaunce

own

Amba////a

when

from

'Well,

14.

And
the

as

And

retinue

great

in his

seated, Pokkharasadi

so

was

by

Pokkharasddi

with

Amba/'^/^a.

descended

seat

you fit.'
chariot
drawn

Brahman

seated

was

far

as

his

the

pleasaunce.

chariot

his

to

Ukka///^a

from

for

there

depart.

do.'

seemeth

time

and

Brahmans,

of

fain

thence.

departed

Now

13.

only

Blessed

the

to

would

to

mounted

all, not

said

we

much

what

Amha^l/ia,

And

had

have

them

he

Gotama,

now,

busy, and

are
*

And

thought :
the thirty-

with

with

man,

them.'

of

some

is endowed

great

Brahman,

young

Gotama

of

signs

two

the

Amba//^a,

And

SUTTA.

AMBATTi^A

Blessed

One?'
'

Yes, Sir, we
Well

is the

[107]about
otherwise.
'

He

so,

'

him

Sir, as

with

all of them,

so

of declares

reputation declares, and

not

is he

or

one,

not

different.

not

only

did

tion
reputanot

you

thirty-two signs

not

the

as

and

he,

have
you
Gotama
?

And

of

'

And
a

great

is

man,

some.*

with

talk, Amba/Z/^a,

any

he

with

the

'

Sama^za
'

Yes, Sir, I had.'

And

'

did the talk go ?


Amba////a
told the
Brahman

how

Then
all the

his

is

the

Gotama

I told

such

Such

otherwise.
with

venerable

Is he

is

endowed

him.'

saw

talk that he

he
15. W^hen
him : Oh ! you
'

Sela Sutta
ilie dilemmas

(S.N.

No.

had

thus

had

wiseacre

33

had

put by King

with

spoken,
! Oh

M. No.

92)

Milinda

to

Pokkharasddi

the

Blessed

One.

Pokkharasadi

! you

dullard

said
! Oh

subjectof
Nagasena (Mil.167).
and

forms

the

to

! you

one

of

PRIDE

OF

expert, forsooth, in
the

on

into

dissolution

some

the

words

lead

Vedic

Gotama

lore.'

he

the

there

Blessed

[ids] 16.

But

the

on

road

when

he

too

hard
and
food, both
taken
on
house, and
to
blazing torches, out

own

of

himself

driving in his chariot as


practicablefor vehicles, and

far

to

had

his

took

where

the

went

on

compliments
on

Blessed

with

exchanged

seat

to

sweet

light
he

to

venerable

The

the

greetingsand
he

call

spake thus
late,Sir, to-day

to

foot,

And

and

go

Wood,

on

struck

there

Gotama.

his

at

And

was

what

threefold

our

to

the

to-morrow.'

so

had

the

Ukka/^/^a.

on,

do

ready
by

nankala

thus, must,

wiseacre

then, himself,

Sama/^a

can

soft, made

What

is much

It

Pokkharasadi

wagons,

man,

disclosures

very

Brahmans

the

Pokkharasadi
So

the

to
^

and

'

call

to

33

One.

Pokkharasidi
go

displeased,he
angr}'^ and
rolled Amba///Ja
and
over.

foot,

wanted,

on

lore !

expert, forsooth, in

an

And

his

not

made

what

with

out

to, if

up

venerable
dullard

Vedic

his business

out

carry
of the

FALL.

body, after death, be reborn


dismal
of misery and
What
state
woe.
points you pressed in your insolent
very

could

ITS

AND

threefold

our

should

who

they say,

BIRTH

side, and

one

said

to

And

One

politenessand

of

going

was.

Blessed

the

as

then

One

the

I^/^M-

the

courtesy,
Blessed

the

One:
17.

'Has

Amba//"^a,

been

here

'

Yes, Brahman,

'

And

did you,

has.'

he

have

Gotama,

Yes, Brahman,

I had.'

And

wise

with

what

any
the

was

talk with
talk

that

him

you

'

had

him.'

18. Then

the Blessed

all the

Asa^^a
somewhat
which

Brahman

young

'

on

the

pupil,Gotama,

our

talk

asa^^a

ambiguous

compare

M.

One

that

in his

I, 250,

had

rasadi
Pokkha-

told the Brahman


taken

place.

And

when

Buddhaghosa is
upantyya.
upantyya
of this idiomatic phrase,on
interpretation

251

; A.

I,

172.

m-

134

thus

had

he

SUTTA.

AMBATTFA

spoken

Pokkharasidi

said

Blessed

the

to

One:
'

is

He

Brahman

him

Let

be

[109] 19.

only

sheath-concealed
was

One

stillin doubt

and

them

to

shown

them

to

and

the

me

One

the

favour

and

also

me,

the

And

Blessed

the

time

the

meal

announced

said

to

Gotama

Order

the

grant

meal

with

with

him.'

to-morrow's

And

It is time, oh

'

Blessed

the

early morning, put

taking his

and

he

of the

him

to

ready.'

in the

all of

accepted,by silence,his request.


Brahman
Pokkharasadi, seeing that
had
accepted, had (on the morrow)

One

is

with

Being, with

venerable

members

he

as

endowed

And

his

Blessed

Pokkharasadi

was

Great

"

One

the

the

dressed

the

Blessed

Then

20.

the
May
of taking

One

the

"

even

And

all

tongue
the

Pokkharasadi,

them

extensive

But

thirty-

them

saw

of

two

Amba///za^

to

he

undecided.

perceived that the Blessed


of a
the thirty-twomarks
them, not
only with some.
Blessed

And

As

two.

took

One, of the

Being.

member

showed

had

young

Pokkharasddi

Blessed

the

Great

plainly,save
he

of

body

of

Brahman

the

And

the

on

marks

two

young

Amba////a.'

Brahman

stock,

that
foolish, Gotama,
Forgive him, Gotama.'
quite happy, Brahman, that

and
young
Amba////a.

bowl

on

One, who
his

him, went, with

with

Gotama,
robe,

outer

the

had

brethren,

Pokkharasadi's

the seat
house, and sat down
on
And
Pokkharasadi, the Brahman,
prepared for him.
Blessed
satisfied the
One, with his own
hand, Avith
sweet
food, both hard and soft, until he refused any
to

and

more,

the

Order.

his

meal,

the
And

took

Pokkharasadi

Blessed

the

cleansed

and

the

Brahmans

young
when

the

low

bowl

seat,

and

of

members

One

had

and

his

sat

down

finished
^

hands,
beside

him.
21.

'

Then

Above,

to

p. 106

him

thus

of the text,

seated

"

Onita-patta-pa"i7w.See the

[110]the

Blessed

One

repeated.
note
at
Vinaya Texts,'I, 83.

12

'

PRIDE

discoursed
him

that

ITS

FALL.

to

say,

is

generosity,of right conduct,

Blessed

One

that

saw

he

35

spake

to

of

heaven, of
defilement
of lusts,
And

Pokkharasidi,

when

the

the

Brahman,

prepared, softened,unprejudiced,upraised,
believingin heart,then he proclaimed the doctrine

had

become

and

the

alone

Buddhas

the

all

stain

the

dye, just even

has

of

for

been

the

that

origin,of

is

its

clean

as

washed

to

the

say,

cessation, and

cloth

from

which

will

readily take
did Pokkharasadi, the Brahman,
so
sittingthere, the pure and spotless
away

he

Truth, and

knew

'

also

is inherent

in that

beginning

won

its

just

while

obtain, even

Eye

have

of sorrow,
Path.
And

doctrine

AND

danger, the vanity, and the


the advantages of renunciation.

of

of

BIRTH

order

in due

of

the

OF

Whatsoever
the

has

necessity of

dissolution.'
And

22.

had

who

it, dived
doubt

and

his

away
had
become

mouth),
set

reveal

astray,

"

those

^justeven

to

me,

And

to

were

or

that

so

the

out

who

so.

my

people, and

the

venerable

and

to

me

as

as

And
of

long

life

as

just

as

the

the

truth

with

my
Gotama

sons,

my

companions,
as

May

endures, has

who,

man

Gotama

or

external

to

this

him

wife, and

myself
the

as

so

to

truth,
accept

day forth,
his guide.

visits the

Ukka/Z/za,
at
others, his disciples,

known

Gotama

from

were

Gotama.

and

my
betake

were

forms,

made

been

to

gone
darkness

the

see

thy

were

or
away,
who
has

guide,

taken

of

down,

the venerable

one

venerable

my

Master,

words

venerable

the

figure,by

disciple,as

could

eyes

Lord, has

Order.

the

if

hidden

been

the

man

right road to him


bring a light into
had

in many
a
I, oh Gotama,

of

thrown

been

has

as

full confidence,

other

no

(are the

Just

has

which

that

point

to

which

said

Gotama

excellent!

on

teaching

One, and

Blessed

most

that

up

to

the

passed beyond

gained

dependent

excellent,oh

Most

had

perplexity and

of

knowledge
the

Pokkharasadi, as one
mastered
it,understood

Truth, had
into it,who

put

addressed
*

down

deep

who
for

the

seen

Brahman

the

then

families

let him

visit

136

AMBATTHA

TTI.

Whosoever

mine.
their

or

offer

him

seat

shall

that

will

well,

Brahman,

be,

water,

for

there,

in

up

long,

his

It

is

Here

ends

what

the

you

Amba/Z/^a

presence,

of

cause

bliss.'
'

Brahmans
to

delight

take

or

of

reverence

pay

stand

or

or

be

may

who

Gotama,

him

to

there

wives,

venerable

SUTTA.

say.'

Sutta.

in

weal

the
or

him,
and

It is this latter

contrary
of

phase which
the Avi^^a,

of

of

Karma,

the

SUTTA.

SONADANDA

IV.

which

Noble

Four

(Vi^^a) ^

call Wisdom

they

is

of

ignorance
of

Truths, and

the

the

the

"

-^

action

doctrine

Asavas
The
who
knows
the
Intoxications.
man
or
these ; who, finallyand
permanently out of the jungle and
in the open, quite beyond the stage of
wasting his wonder

of

the

on

fabulous
of

state

soul,'has

Nirvana

in

terminology, called
the

be

only

is, in

but

Brahman,

in this

only, in Buddhist
fact,declared to

is not

Arahatship,

remains

to, and

attained

Brahman.

true

So/^adaw^a, as learned as he is wealthy,


of the Buddha's
does not see
that this,the logicaloutcome
final
led
in
the
paragraph of
argument, and carefully
up to
the exposition^, is really incompatible with the supremacy
Brahmans
of that word.
of the
He
in the ordinary sense
is baffied by the skill with
he
which
is gradually led on,
of the
method
by the usual Socratic
adopted in so many
It is

Dialogues, to
There

that

amazing

accept

self-evident

one

truth

after

another.^

to that last paragraph,


nothing,till we come
B
rahman
could
not, with
safety,and
intelligent
any
due regard to his own
doctrine,fullyaccept. In other

is indeed

which
with

words, the doctrine


indefensible.
standard

It

of the

of Brahman

was

supremacy
reallyquite inconsistent

intellectually

was

with

the ethical
with

Brahmans, in common
the rest of the people,fullyaccepted.
Our
Sutta is by no
the only one
in which
means
the
leads
to
or
a
or
similar,argument
same,
up
conclusion.
of

It will

Sutta

our

times, which

aid

mention

to

the

in

us
one

or

understanding

and

6^a"usso;/i Suttas

question put by

the

Buddha

The

is :

acknowledge
threefold
of each

answer

'

similar,
real

the

gist

Anguttara ^
of

sort

Tevi^g^

person
Brahman

the
do

(a

lore)?'
of the

Brahmans
well

Brahman
Sutta, " 4 : 'A
descent, through the father

our

of the

What

be

to

of these.

two

In the Tikanna.

Brahmans
you
Brahman
with

the same,

is,in

born

on

the

words

both

of

sides, of

the

mother,
through
through seven
generations,with no slur put upon him,
and no reproach,in respect of birth
a repeater (ofthe sacred
who
has
by heart, one
words) knowing the mystic verses
pure
back

and

"

mastered

the

phonology,

Three

and

Vedas,

the

with

the

exegesis (as

indices, the
and
fourth),

ritual,the
with

the

The Englishequivalents
do not
the corresponding
exactlycover
Pali terms, which are not, in the texts, used always with scrupulous
distinctiveness.

"^

"

Vol. i,pp. 163-168.

23 of the text, and

AWAR'if^E^S,

of the translation below.

INTRODUCTION.

legends

fifth

as

in

and
the) words
^
(Nature-lore) and
of

the

in

versed

grammar,

the

of the

theory

(etymologies of

the

in

39

in

signs

Lokdyata
the

on

body

great man.'

the

Arahats

asked

three

lore

in the

of one's

knowledge
knowledge

The

of

knowledge

teaching of
and
on
being

93, 95, and 97


quoted as the last

are

Sutta, that
previous births.

is to

our

say,

people'sprevious births.

the

Four

on

to

the

end

of

and

Truths,

(Asavas), leading

Intoxications

the

of sections

words

own

of other

in

is different

Samaw^a-phala Sutta,
paragraphs of his exposition in

b. The
c.

'

which

The

a.

threefold

it is,answers

what

the

'

the

rejoinsthat

Buddha

the

Whereupon

of

learned

man

"

the

the

Four

emancipation

of

Arahatship.
The
after

words

'

is

Ignorance
all

And

'

Him

has

the

following

he

required.

he

as

been

has

light

continued

has

has

born.

appeared.
in

in earnestness,

of himself.'

at

the

do

they

whole

of the

end

the

followingverses

also

are

Given

whose

honour

"

thought,

earnest

Threefold

unswerving

for the

in

goodness,

Death,
weal

of

do

control,
in method,

darkness, the

queror
con-

who

gods

and

of

men

and
lore,mindful
they honour, the Buddha, our

of the

own

resolute,able

him

And

in his

rests

"

knowledge, dispellingthe

in
of

Lived

heart,

wise,

to

Pacified,stedfast.

Him

section, and

emancipation,

dissipated, the

been

this)inasmuch

and

Him

of each

zeal, in mastery
added

the

(or second, or third) lore hath


dispelledwithin him, and wisdom

darkness

(And

at

forth

first

This

The

setting

is added

sentence

is that

difference

only
the

threefold

delivered

from

folly.
self-possessed,
Gotama,

wearing

now,

Conqueror, too,
'

'Tis he
Who
And

who

knows

the

And

states

Has

reached

sage,
In these

Birth, the

births

last of his mortal

that

he

Eye)

has
the

lived
states

before ;
of

bliss,

of woe,
that other men
pass through ;
the end of all rebirths,become

perfectin insight,Arahat,
three modes
of knowledge

See

frames

indeed

Brahmawa

(with Heavenly

sees

is

of

below

in the Introduction

threefold

to the next

wise.

Sutta.

'

140

SONAT)AND\

IV.

Him

do

And

not

The

I call
the

How

who

man

mystic

verse

is
with

stanza,

often

made

variations

early-

in

occupied

latter

this

that

fact

by
close, is

the

at

doctrine
the

evident

before.'

through

muttered

this

place

wise,
again

o'er

mutters

so

important

Buddhism

threefold

Brahman,

SUTTA.

constantly repeated.

so

(p.too) and in
99th Sutta of the Iti-vuttaka
the 91st Sutta
of the Ma^^/nma
(the Brahmiya
Sutta). And
it is quoted also, not only in this Sutta
in the Ahguttara, and
We

find it in the

in

Sutta

another

collection

(verse

of

from

verses

423) ; and

also

(probably belonging
in

preserved
so-called

the

some

Kharosh//^i
found

MS.

MS.,

their

of

portions

such

in

which

verses

India,

the

taneously
simul-

have
St.

both

to

the

Buddhists),now

discovered

yet

in

Dhammapada
of

of

school

last year,

way,

the

called

collection

other
other

oldest

the

Pi/akas

in the

to

also

Sa;"yutta (I,167), but

the

in

Petersburg

Paris.

and

The

whole

of

section

which
Dhammapada,
less than
forty verses,

the

this

contains

of
each
quotation, consists of no
which, from
one
point of view or another, emphasise this
point of the identification,
by the Buddhists, of the Arahat
with

the

the

Brahman.

Vase//"^a

raised
in

is

Two

the

reply, though
the reply given
as

same

conclusions

held

the

by

had

vivid

the

from

stronger
claims

of

When

the

they

the

in the
the

the

veneration
been

and
the

of

the

an

source,

in Suttas

the

exalted

of

meaning,
And

unless

it is not
the

own

"

evidence

all

the

the

exclusive

vigorously

contested.

men,

for

for

the

that

conveyed
a

have

we

title of honour

Brahman,
early Buddhists,

selves.
them-

whose

Here

in which

are

best

hitherto

self-complacency quite

it is clear

respect.
case

Brahmans.

of

name

opinion
people

on

the

by
selecting a

highly,for

so

the

in which

about

held
readers

to

seem

birth

Buddhists, in

valued

selected

of

to

is, in

have

We

Brahmans

rests

it is found
Brahmans

details, amounts

people.

independent

an

because

our

It
us.
upon
social
esteem
high

they

that

as

in

question
Sutta.,and

here.

the

the

superiority

inexpugnable

evidence

which
absurd

very

in

the

quite irrespective of character,

of

masses

views

of

sense

raised

from

taken

themselves

place, a strikingproof
such, and
as

And

have

force

Brahmans,

only

of

that

as

of the

were

as

same

different

the

the

first

of

preciselythe

which

much

Sutta

are
Twenty-seven of them
the Sutta
Nipata, in which

to

Arahats,

that
the

connotation

likely that
Brahmans
had,

those

word,
minds
of

real

this would
at

least

as

INTRODUCTION.

general rule, deserved


the mere
prerogative of

it

the

In

second

14I

and

"

if the

place,

contention

been

"

grown

the

present

up.
should

But

The

caste

it

of

certain

India

had

descent,
and

"

have

never

that

but

insight

could

obviously impossible

was

Buddhists

Brahman

word

character

of

system

the

of

if the

to

then

than

grounds

birth.

universallyaccepted
not
come
only a man
mean,
of
certain
a
exclusively a man
had

other

on

the

tion
conten-

succeed.

adopted by all reformers, of pouring new


wine
into
old
into ancient
bottles, putting new
meanings
under
words, can
only succeed
conditions, that, in this case,
And
non-existent.
it
is
the
to
were
always open
danger
hallowed
old
the
that, with the old and
word,
superstition
method,

with

associated

by

adopted
which

to

it will

also

survive.

the

Buddhists;

have

elsewhere

It
in

and
called

was

method

largely

other

numerous

cases,

attention, adopted

with

subsequent language of India is full of phrases


which
and words
bear, not the meaning which they previously
and
bore, but the new
by
higher meaning put into them
the two
in this case
Buddhists.
But
ideas were
too
widely
A
be
too
cannot
contradictory.
physical meaning
apart,
The
actual
facts of life,which
replaced by an ethical one.
they could not alter, could not, indeed, attempt to alter,
The

success.

"

were

of

of

the

they

from

title

of

for

exercised
the

valley
strength to
very
of

the

the

word.

so

of

of

The

Buddhists

the

Ganges)

have
which

veneration

they adopted
became
emancipation

lend

to

means

weapon

choice
the

could
failed.

of

wide

be

not

And

word

the

influence

as

they

and

centuries

many

the

birth

idea

only failed, their very


honour, must
(through

not

to

in various

that

people,

dissociated

strong

them, perhaps
by birth, many
and
trades
pations,
occuworldly
therefore
Brahmans
so
only by birth, were
so
important a factor in the daily and hourly

and

constant

too

of

them, engaged
and

life

view,

Brahmans

overcome.

most

influence, against their

constant

be

"

beyond
throughout
fresh
afforded
a
actually
the word
inspired. The
weight to their doctrine
turned
be
to
against

themselves.
It is

unlikely that

only

was

from

one

the outset

detail

this
in

to failure

really mattered

a
"

broad
that

scheme

The

much.
which

was

is if failure to attain

point

doomed
immediate

lasting acceptance can


rightly be called the failure of
theory of life.
A theory which
placed the ideal in Self-conquest, regarded

and
a

final salvation

as

obtainable

in this

world,

and

in this world

SOJVADAJVDA

IV.

142

only, and
the

only by self-conquest a view of life


and
brought the very gods themselves

of law

domain

against all those forms


mysterious, appealing most
the fears of the people
to

and

itself

poured

scorn

of

end

back,

going

to

all

of belief

followers,

"

and
certain

bottles'

lastingvictory
then

country

interests

was

to

event, which

very

the

be

the

movement,
the

powerful ruler India


over
practicallythe

most

overlord

decline.

the

converts,
less

The

advanced

strength,

in

had

in

of

the

whole

of

inevitable.

was

of the

of

eyes

the

of

success

support
India

new

Asoka,

of

first real
hastened

only

"

world,

the

the

indeed

"

more

of nominal
large
the newly incorporated and

for

movement

ology,
phrase-

and

names,

the

numbers

provinces, produced
the

into

wine

new

ancient

end

new

had

especiallyfrom

more

it raised

not

had

of

it

But

in an
time,
itself surrounding

strenuous

adhesion

early

his

once,

the

The

and

and

and

by persecution,but
theory itself,the gradual

seemed,

conversion

origin

that

at

the

striking proof

most

and

of

at

assimilating to

gradual weakening of
forms
creeping back, under new
popular beliefs.
The

of

grade of culture.
actually brought about,

cause,

success.

pouring

least

at

the

by

in
much

lower

zeal

vested

'

confined

powerful personality

and

temporary

too
"

advancing
peoples at
it

retain

to

the

of

it tried

enemies,

many

old

And

many

to

ultimate

the

enthusiasm

measure

too

too

for

the

its keenest

that

effect

the

supernatural
the hopes
to

in the

step, from

step by

speculations as to
things might gain, by

fought against
up
the

"

ignored

under

aimed

strongly alike
a
philosophy

on

its founder

of

which

religiousmovement

"

shafts
and

that

"

'

soul

'

SUTTA.

The

than

rather

weakness,

reform.

of

day

promise
com-

old

going
thoroughEvery
only half
widely supported by converts
the
converted.
And
the
between
margin of difference
almost
Buddhists
their
faded
and
gradually
opponents
The
soul
entirely away.
theory, step by step, gained again
the upper
hand.
The
caste
gradually built up
system was
The
into a completely organised system.
social supremacy
birth
became
vertible
of the Brahmans
accepted as an incontroby
fact.
the inflood
of popular superstitionwhich
And
relaxation

come.

of

the

position was

overwhelmed
the

whole

the

pantheon

Brahmanism
Hinduism

alike
arose

The

and

of

is

now

whole,

love

movement,

the

ruins

Vedic

of

being
more

of material

also

overwhelmed

gods.
passed practically away,
the

on

struggle
the
perhaps, on
worldliness

Buddhist

Buddhism

and
modern

and

both.
renewed

under

favourable.

comfort,

the

conditions
of

The

tone

eager

restless-

INTRODUCTION.

of

ness

of

degradation
and

making

But

history

in

Europe,

of

life

Europe

in

afford

to

of

party
birth,

the

century

examples

of

endeavouring,
but

in

character

of

now

of

once

and

methods

new

lend

their

again,
wisdom.

Both

views
India

fairly

And

of

science

invaluable
to

place

and

expected

influence.

same

people.

diverse

two

be

any

Reformation

the

men.

may

the

the

will

criticism

of

contact

twentieth

aid

of

case

thoughts

the

widen

to

powerful

historical

the

powerfully

fresh

the

India

notably

the

on

to

of

the

getting

unfavourable
elevation

religious
in

of

means

all

doubt

and

competition,

mere

no

are

shows,

economic

to

social

the

how

tends

and

learning

money,
for

movement

in

social,

modern

aid
the

in
and

to

ideal,

the
not

IV.

SONADAATDA

SUTTA.

[Characteristics
[ill]
when

Thus

I.

going

hundred

he

Now

much

domain

of

if he

the

were

Now

2.

the

heard

the

of

Sakya

the

the

of

Magadha.

same

now
*

from

was

It

it

and

He

under

was

who

adds

known

well

East,

(I-Tsing,

Gaggara,
for

those

trees

p.

that

there

the

was

what

means

it excavated,

of

fragrance

that

it

India,

banks

its

on

24" 10'

we

58).
had

had

the

in

river

boundary
Lat.

about

places
and

the

of

to

great

Eastern

Bagulpur,

Far

Annam

I, 279).
so

the

family

bank

the

famous

Gotama

with

East

formed

of

i^ampi

Sakya

the

on

modern

in

of

arrived,

now

names

Queen

after

trees,

the

over

power

Samara

the

out

the

to

colonists

China

flowers.

put

went

other

(Sum.

champaka

white

by

called

Buddhaghosa
of

Like

Cochin

So

who

close

was

again

over

call

that

say

capital of Anga,

87".

on

corn,

Bimbisara,

Seniya

{Git. IV, 454), which

It

Long.

used

clan,

name

was

and

water

^.

life ^, with

with

householders

and

They

the

Sowadaw^^a

fief, with

royal

religious life, has

A'ampS,

of

as

at

Lake

Gaggara

the

and

by

five

there

And

teeming

him

about

Brahman

Brahmans

news

of

with

country

with

bank

once,

king.
*

the

adopt

^,

Anga

A'ampa

woodland

granted

Magadha

the

place

One

Blessed

at

the

and

grassland

king

by

time

A'ampa,

at

royal

the

on

that

The

brethren,

the

arrived

lodged

at

dwelling

as

of

Brahman.]

true

through

tour

brethren,

A'ampa

on

the

I heard.

have

multitude

great

of

was

says
grove

beautiful

their

mendicants

wandering

up,
'

Fausboll

myself
the

uneven,'

Dhp.

In

the

A.

at

S.

N.

Buddha's

ussada

783

Gat.
time

IV,

(rat.
4

Anga

P.
was

really

quite

'desire,'

Vin.

Also

marks.
95

is

meaning

translates

wrongly
'

thirty-two

60

The

Sattussada.

I,

IV,
G.

See

3.

188

D.

22-44
to

and

Oldenberg

No.

Dhp.

subject

and

though

settled,

15

A.
Asl.

Magadha.

in
339
307.

the
;

list

Gat.

of

IV,

146
Samara

Gotama,

whether

that

'

That

Let

venerable

the

So?^ada72^a

him

who

he

upon
5. And

like

It is

the venerable

were

to

This

increase.

Sir, should

also other

is the

call upon

not

first

him, but

and

was

well

[114]That
knowing the

he

mastered

Three

the

was

repeater

mystic

sides, of

(ofthe

Vedas, with

the

pure
father

"

do, and

rich

"

words),

sacred

by heart,

verses

the

slur put upon

no

of birth
to

in

through

generations,with

prosperous,

wit

to

both

on

reproach, in respect

no

he

born
mother

the

the Brahman

considerations,

well

was

through
through seven

That

If it

so.

that.

do

they laid before Sowada^^fa


he

him, and

on

you.'

descent
back

So;^ada^/^a

would

you,

manner

That

call

to

call upon
able
him, then the venerthe
and
decrease
reputation would

went

Gotama's

why

do

to

Son3.d2ind2LS

reason

I propose

intention,Sirs.

Gotama.'

not

Samawa

asked

So;2ada;^^a,and

to

went

so.

was

for
fitting

not

they

is my

the Samara
*

SUTTA.

SOiVADAJVDA

IV.

who

one

had

indices,the ritual,

and the
phonology, and the exegesis(as a fourth),
in the
and
legends as a fifth,learned in the words
and in the
versed
in Lokayata (Nature-lore),
grammar,
theory of the signson the body of a great man
That
he
handsome,
was
pleasant to look upon,
trust, giftedwith great beauty of complexion,
inspiring
fair in colour, fine in presence
^ stately to behold
That
he was
virtuous,increased in virtue,giftedwith
the

"

"

virtue

that had

That
and

was

he

he

making
was

Brahma-va^/^ast.

great

the

and

pleasingdelivery,

politeaddress, distinct,not
clear the
teacher

'With

Buddhaghosa (p.282).

says

"

pleasant voice

giftedwith

suitable for
That

had

waxed

The

matter

in hand

"

of the teachers

body

like that

Burmese

and

husky ',

of Maha
Siamese

of many,
BrahmS,'
MSS.

read

\a,kkka.st.
'

three
"

for which

Buddhaghosa (pp.282, 284) gives


contradictory
explanations.
'Not slobbering,'
Ane/agalaya.
says Buddhaghosa.
AkkhuddSvakaso,

OF

CHARACTERISTICS

THE

craving for
him

under
That

the

47

repetition
Brahmans,

counties, all

them

heart

by

"

he

he

well stricken

aged, old, and

was

full of

and
long-lived
That

learn

to

came

verses,

in the

that many
young
and
various

directions

various

BRAHMAN.

Brahmans

three hundred
instructing
and
of the mystic verses,
from

TRUE

days

"

honoured, held

was

revered

and
worthy, venerated
the king of Magadha

in years,

of

weight, esteemed

by Seniya Bimbisira,

"

That

he

honoured, held

was

and

worthy, venerated
Brahman

revered

of

weight, esteemed

by Pokkharasadi,

the

"

dwelt

TTampa, a place teeming with life,


and
with
much
a
on
corn,
grassland and woodland
royalfief granted him by Seniya Bimbisara, the king of
it as
with power
if he
over
Magadha, as a royalgift,
the king
were
For each of these reasons
that he,
it was
not
fitting
That

he

at

"

Sowadaw^a

the Brahman,

Gotama,

but

call upon
6. And

him.

them

to

rather

when

should

that

the

they had

call upon
the Sama;?a
Sama;2a
Gotama
should

thus

spoken,Sonadanda.

[115] Then, Sirs,listen,and


*

that

call upon

I should

should

he

call upon

me

Truly, Sirs, the

both

sides,of

father

back

through

on

through the

mother

and

the

Gotama

forth

has

gone
the great clan

of his

"

both

Eighty thousand

Sakya

"

gold,treasure

on

slur

generations,with no
reproach in respect of birth

seven

Gotama
Truly, Sirs, the Sama/^a
(into the religiouslife),
giving up

the

not

born

'

and

is well

(intothe religious
life),
giving up

Gotama,

fitting

Gotama

him, and no
Truly, Sirs, the Sama/^a

relations

it is

why

"

descent

pure

hear

the venerable

venerable

put upon
'

said

father's

buried

families

and
the

on

side,'says

clan of 800,000,

above

has
much
the

mother's,and

Buddhaghosa
making
five
to
a family.
reckoning
"

gone

forth

money

and

ground

"

eightythousand
a

total

for

the

148

SOiVADAiSTDA

Truly,Sirs,the

'

IV.

Samawa

without

man,

young

beauty of

his

household

life into the

and

mother

being

has

homeless

state

head, in the

forth from

gone

the

"

though

Gotama,

unwilling,and

his father

their

wept,

life into the homeless

Truly, Sirs, the


pleasantto look upon,

Sama^za

'

of

cheeks

statelyto
Truly, Sirs, the
of

handsome,

is

Gotama

fair in

great

colour, fine in presence,

Sama;za

the

Gotama

Arahats, good

and

goodness

"

"

'

virtue

state

trust, giftedwith
inspiring

complexion,
behold

with

his

on

still

was

off his hair and


cut
tears, nevertheless
from
the yellow robes, and went
donned
out

household

the

hair

he

with

wet

beauty

while

grey

Samana.

were

beard, and
the

Gotama,

early manhood,

Truly, Sirs,the

'

SUTTA.

virtue

is virtuous

with

virtuous, gifted

and

"

hath
Gotama
a
Truly, Sirs, the Sama;/a
pleasant
he is giftedwith polite
voice, and a pleasingdelivery,
address, distinct,not husky, suitable for making clear
the

in hand

matter

"

Truly, Sirs, the

'

Sama;^a

Gotama

of many
Truly, Sirs,the Sama^^a

Gotama

the teachers
'

'

Truly, Sirs,
in

Brahman

has

put

and

the

Sama;/a

action

', he is

forefront

(of

in

the
race

passionof

no

all fickleness

away

of

believes

who

in

righteousness
exhortations)to the

one

his

puts

"

Truly, Sirs, the Sama;^a

clans

109,

has

Gotama

Gotama

distinguished
familyprimeval

of

"

Karma,

'

teacher

"

lust left in him, and


mind

is the

forth

went

the

among

from

Kshatriya

"

Kamma-vadi

kiriya-vadi.

Compare

'Vinaya Texts,' II,

112.

Adina-khattiya-kula.

The

reading

is

doubtful, and

the

Burmese

MSS., after their constant


habit,have replaced it by an easy
'unbroken
reading, abhinna-khattiya-kula,
Kshatriya family.'
But all the Sinhalese
MSS.
in
either
adina
or
adina;
reading
agree
and if the reading had
how
been abhinna, it is difficult to see
once
the

alteration

to

the

more

difficult reading should

have

occurred.

CHARACTERISTICS

OF

THE

TRUE

BRAHMAN.

Gotama
Truly, Sirs, the Samara
family prosperous, well to do, and
[116] Truly, Sirs, people come
*

rich

country

from

Samara

Gotama

right

Truly, Sirs,

abroad
be

to

an

of

the

across

questions

of

heavenly beings put

Gotama
is

such

concerningthe

wisdom
the

Sama;^a

in the

ask

to

"

the

"

Truly,Sirs, multitudes

trust
*

lands

distant

49

forth from

went

'

their

"

the

high reputation

noised

Sama^za

Gotama, that he is said


Arahat, exalted, fullyawakened, abounding in

and

worlds,

righteousness,happy,
Blessed

One,

with

Buddha

of

knowledge

"

Gotama
has
Truly, Sirs, the Sama^^a
two
bodily marks of a Great Being
Gotama
Truly, Sirs, the Sa.mana.
not
welcome, is congenial,conciliatory,

all the

'

thirty-

"

accessible
'

of

all,not
Truly, Sirs,the Sama/za

backward

to

weight,esteemed

and

all

bids

supercilious,

in conversation
Gotama

venerated

is
and

"

honoured, held

of

classes

sisters

"

"

in

'

Sama;2a
'

Gotama

in

Gotama

humans

Truly, Sirs, the Samana


Order, of a school, as the

acknowledged

chief

Whereas

Sama/^as

reputation by

the

non-humans

all

of

sorts

Gotama
teacher
all

the

and
of

of

I have

as
aboriginal,'
being a

is from

the word
^

adhi.

This

taken

derivative
is

sects.

have

gained

matters
insignificant

word, in the
adi, in the

from

the

the

unless

make

good

sense

of

same

way

'

not

him)

before

in the text
so

an

matter

in

sense

primordial,
as

adhina

being
only difficulty

that

else.
'

Literally anyhow
Buddhaghosa (p.288).
'

of

founders

Brahmans

simple enough;

nowhere

occurs

the

of

school, is the

'

; but

the

do

head

the

as

Buddhaghosa skipsthe clause, which (ifit was


is suggestive. He
would
scarcelyhave done
would
'Autonomous
were
reallyvery simple.
the context

the

town

"

some

village or

whatsoever

stays, there

harm

no

the

"

Truly, Sirs,

Sama^^a

the

by

revered

the brethren
and
(of his followers
the Order, laymen and lay women)
believe
Truly, Sirs, many
gods and men

four

men

'

such

as

by wearing

no

clothes

'

explains

150

SONABANDA

IV.

the Samara

SO

Gotama.

perfectionin

conduct

Truly, Sirs,the

his children

with

SUTTA.

His

from

reputationcomes

and

righteousness
king of Magadha, Seniya Bimbisara,

and

"

his wives, with

his

people and

Gotama
courtiers,has put his trust in the Sama;^a
of Kosala, with
Truly, Sirs, King Pasenadi
his
children
and
his people and
wives, with

his
"

his

'

courtiers, has

put his

Truly, Sirs,

'

children

Pokkharasadi

his

and

his

in the

trust

Sama;za

the

wives, with

put his

has

in the

trust

Brahman,

Samara

Gotama
Truly, Sirs, the Samawa
venerated
of weight,esteemed,
and
by Seniya Bimbisara, the king
Pasenadi
the king of Kosala, and
Brahman

and

people

'

the

Gotama

"

with

his

his

mates,
inti-

Gotama
is

his

"

honoured, held

and

alike

revered

of

by

Magadha,
Pokkharasadi

by

"

has
Gotama
now
[117] Truly, Sirs, the Sama/za
of the
arrived
is stayingon
the shores
at A'ampa, and
who
But all Sama^^as
and
Brahmans
Gaggara Lake.
into our
come
villageborders are our guests. And
and
honour, to venerate
ought to esteem
guests we
and revere.
And
he is now
he ought to
as
so
come,
'

be

so
'

treated, as

For

each

that
fitting
but

rather

far

only

Gotama,
is

guest

all of these

and

Samans.

the
does

know

do

but

these

beyond

enough

had

him,

provisionsfor

the

to

call

on

Pu/a/wsenSpi.
phrase occurs.

thus

call upon
And
him.
the

us,
so

Samawa

lence
for his excel-

them,

make

had

Samawa

Compare

such

wise, that

the
were

leagues from here, it


believingman
go thither

hundred

journey) on

the

on

Brahmans

declares

So^^ada^^^a

Gotama

even

those

spoken,

venerable

to

call upon

all go

not

measure.*

praisesof the Samara


he to be dwellingeven
to

all of

not

are

'

be

should

to call upon
us
excellencies
of

the

it is

considerations

Gotama

it behove

he
when
7. And
The
said to him :

would

"

he

to

carry
his back ^

Gotama

bag (forthe
Let

us

together!

A. II, 183, where

then

'

preciselysimilar

CHARACTERISTICS

So

with

mind

"

the

questionought
be

question to
speak of

Gaggara

of Brahmans.

not

framed

15I

the

to

out

followinghesitation arose
passed through the wood :
Gotama
a
question, if he

Samara

The

BRAHMAN.

in SonadandsLS

the
he

as

TRUE

went

great company

Now

8.

THE

the Brahman

Sowadawflfa

Lake

the

OF

the

Were

I to
to

were

asked

be

to
"

'

say

thus

so,

ought

might

company

ask

upon
there-

Foolish
is
disrespect,
saying :
and inexpert, [lis]He
the Brahman,
this Sowada^^^a
able to ask a question rightly."But if they
is not even
did so
decrease
with
reputation would
; and
my
my
reputation my incomings would grow less,for what we
have
to
enjoy, that depends on our reputation. But
if the Sama/^a
Gotama
to
were
put a question to me,
with

me

"

might not be able to gain his approval by my


then to
explanationof the problem. And if they were
The
:
question ought not to be answered
say to me
^

"

so

thus

the

problem to
might thereupon speak
ought

company
"

saying :
inexpert.
Gotama

Foolish
He

be
of

me

is this So;2ada;?^a

is

not

even

able

to

his

"

explained ; the
with disrespect,
the

Brahman,

and

the Sama/^a
satisfy
problem put." But

explanation of the
if they did so, my reputationwould
decrease
with
; and
reputation my incomings would grow less,for what
my
have
to
we
enjoy, that depends upon our
reputation.
But on
the other hand
if,having come
so
far, I should
by

back

turn

without

the

callingupon

Sama/za

Gotama,

then

of me,
speak disrespectfully
might the company
saying : Foolish is this So/^ada^^^^a the Brahman, and
inexpert,though obstinate with pride, he is so afraid
"

that

he
he

can

dare

back

turn

they did

call

not

so,

after

what

9.

341;

have

So

So/2ada/^^a

II, 10;

na

to

having

the

aradheyyawz,
Mil.

Sama^za
come

25.

Brahman

'win

over

far ?

decrease

went

How

Gotama.
so

incomings would
enjoy,that depends

we

K'liizm

the

reputation would

my

reputation my

my

on

upon

up

his mind.'

But

with

less.

For

our

to

if

and

grow

"

tion.'
reputa-

where

Comp.

the

M. 1,85,

152

SONABANDA

IV.

One

Blessed

And

was.

SUTTA.

when

exchanged with the Blessed


compliments of politenessand
seat

on

One

one

side.

of

Aampa,
took

and

seats

him

the

side;

of them

of

then

[119]10.

seats

Now

out

he

and

would

I should

then

but

able

be

ask

Now

thought :

he

I had
he

better

said

'

in the

him

question

Brahmans

the

'What
say

are
man

his

and

desired

the

Sama/za
my

he

now

heart
13.

round
'The
who

well

set

that

the

approval by
in his

aware

of

my

own

Son3.da.nd3.,and
doctrine.'

own

And
which

things.Brahman,
ought to have in order
"

am

be

to

Brahman,"

he

hood
false-

guiltyof

become

Sowadaw^a
and

on

should

subject,on

does.

And

in

Gotama

own

with

had

my

Oh

thought:[120]'What
and
mind
hoped
my
the

put

to

! that

drawing his body up


the assembly, he said to
declare

Gotama,

born

the
on

five ? In
both

able

has

the

"

that

question
lore

"

that

satisfyhis

to

to

be

Brahman
five

mother's

Brahman

a
"

without

things.

the first place.


Sir,a

sides,on

for

looking
erect, and
One
the Blessed
:

him

"

can

I wished

some

Vedic

I may
be
expositionthereof!'

Brahmans,

are

me

threefold

I am
accuratelysay
being guiltyof falsehood, who
what

before

question on
lore.
Verily,

Vedic
his

he

there

'

Then

on

some

the

Brahman, so that if he says


speaks accuratelyand does not
12.

and

! would
some

mind

on

and

name

Sowada;/rt^a is afflicted in his heart.

This

him:

to

on

'

of the hesitation

mind

Oh

problem put !
One
Blessed
became

the

seats

seated

me

gain

to

expositionof the
11.

side

one

threefold

the

subject,on

own

my

their
their

was

himself

to

of

side in silence.

one

on

Blessed
of them

hesitation,thinking as

added

Gotama

Samawa

on

the

compliments

out

So^iadam^a.

as

still filled with

was

seats

holders
house-

; some

took

then

his

took

and
to

side

called

took their

their

took

bowed

greetingsand

them

and

Brahmans

one

courtesy, and

some

family,and

on

he

greetings and

courtesy,

of them

some

there

come

the

One

the

to

as

their

exchanged with
politenessand
one

And

had

he

Brahman
side

and

And
is
on

154

IV.

he

have

the

wisdom

other

Brahman

and

6.

of

But

the

has

other

be

Brahman

to

out

birth.

the

other

what

him

be

to

without
rightly,
danger
And
when
[122] 17.

Brahmans

said

to

birth

and

We

done.

be

does

virtue

"

still declare

is

it

who

man

who

can

into falsehood, claim


falling

that could

For
two

of

to

'

Yes, Gotama,

'

danger

things, Brahman,

three

without

and
accurately,

rightly,without

be

to

to declare the
out, and
be a Brahman, to be one

one

two

him

and

one.'

be

these

leave

possibleto

still declare

could

to

good birth, virtue,

"

would
he

falsehood, claim

SUTTA.

three

Brahmans

"

'

SONADANDA

he

had

thus

So7ia.da.nda.:

'

have

would

and

falsehood,claim

of

If he

Brahmans

"

Brahman

leave

matter

wisdom

could

not

one.'

be

to

spoken

Say

could

he

the

other

venerable

so,

Sona.danda.,say not so ! He depreciates not only our


birth.
and
colour, but he depreciatesour verses
our

Verily the
doctrine

If

of the

Then

18.
*

venerable

you,

that

he

Blessed

he

is unable

let him

matter,

if you

to

him

discuss

with

me.'

And

when

he

Brahman

said

to

over

the

his

Brahmans

those

to

that

he

with

own

So7ia.da.nda. is

unwise,

is

in

me

this

keep silence,and do you discuss with


think him learned,able in speech,wise,
then do you keep silence,and let
own,

able

19.

think

hold

to

But

his

said

that
speaks unfittingly,

me.

hold

One

Brahmans,

unlearned,that

going

Gotama.'

Sama;^a

the
oh

So^^ada/^rt^a is

had

Say

ones

say so.
depreciateeither

our

spoken, Sonada.nda.

Brahmans

those

to

thus

not

'

so.

colour, nor

Let

not

[123]I

Sirs.
our

the

verses,

the

able
vener-

do
nor

not
our

birth.'
20.

Now

Angaka
seated

the

This
five

above, "

at

that

^, sister's son
in that company.

Brahman
named
young
So7ia.da.7ida.the Brahman,
was

time
to

And

So7ta.dsinda.said

suspiciouslylike a kind
five
of the
characteristics)
Angas (the
name

looks

13, set out.

of
true

to

those

of
personification
Brahman
as
just

CHARACTERISTICS

Brahmans
*

Do

'

nephew

our

OF

the

TRUE

THE

venerable

BRAHMAN.

ones

this

see

55

Angaka,

'

Yes, Sir, we

him.'

see

Angaka, Sirs, is handsome, pleasantto look


plexion,
trust, giftedwith great beauty of comupon, inspiring
fair in colour, fine in presence,
stately to
is
this
in
behold
in
like unto
him
none
assembly
Gotama.
colour, save
only the Sama;2a
And
Angaka, Sirs, is a repeater (of the sacred
who
words),knowing the mystic verses
by heart, one
*

Well

"

'

has

mastered

Three

the

Vedas, with

the

indices,the

phonology, and the exegesis (as a fourth),


legends as a fifth,learned in the phrases and

ritual,the
and

the

the

in

and
Lokayata (Nature-lore),
signs on the body of a great man

versed

grammar,

the

theory of the
myself have taught him the verses.
And
Angaka, Sirs, is well born
mother's

descent

and

on

through

seven

side

back

the

both

on

with
generations,

slur

no

him, and no reproach in respect of birth


his forebears, on
the mother's side and
myself know
put upon
the

If

Angaka, Sirs,should
has

what

speak lies,and
would

then, Sirs,

on

'

increased
in

go the way
drink
strong

colour

avail

so

far

so

as

he

is learned

who

could

fallinginto
'

21.

to
qualities,
rightlysay "I

the

Brahman

the

what

that

am

has

grown
the
first,
wise,

who

hold

him,

as

Brahman,

virtuous,

Brahman"

the

out

endowed
be

to

one

without

falsehood.'
of

these

leave

one

other

and
rightly,

be

two

But

possibleto

is

and

those
it may
be the second, among
declare
would
ladle, that Brahmans
these

terer,
adul-

drink, what

him

virtue

or

with

take

of the

Brahman

far. Sirs, as a
in virtue, giftedwith

It is in

great

his

livingthings,and

his birth ?

? what

verses

kill

given, and

been

not

and

"

father's.

'

has

"

sides, on
father's side, of pure

'

the

in

to

without

'

be

two

things,oh

out, and
a

to

Brahman,

Brahman,

declare
to

be

the
one

man

is it
who

who

into falsehood,claim
falling

can

to

be

T56

SON

IV.

AB

AND

SUTTA.

! For wisdom, oh Gotama,


[124] Not that, Gotama
is purifiedby uprightness,
and
uprightnessis purified
is uprightness,wisdom
there
Where
by wisdom.
there is wisdom,
is there, and
where
uprightnessis
there.
To
the upright there is wisdom, to the wise
there
is uprightness,and
wisdom
and
goodness are
declared to be the best thing in the worlds
Just, oh
Gotama,
as
one
might wash hand with hand, or foot
with foot, justeven
Gotama, is wisdom
purified
so, oh
and uprightness is purifiedby wisdom.
by uprightness,
Where
there
is uprightness,wisdom
is there, and
where
there is wisdom, uprightnessis there.
To
the
upright,there is wisdom, to the wise there is uprightness,
*

and

wisdom

thing in

best

'That

22.

the

goodness

declared

are

be

the

I, too,

say

to

the world.'
is

Brahman.

oh

just so,

But

same.

what

and

And

what, then, is that uprightness and

that wisdom

'

'We

only know, oh Gotama, the general statement


in this matter.
be pleased
May the venerable Gotama
to explainthe meaning of the phrase.'
Well
then, oh Brahman, give ear, and pay earnest
attention, and I will speak.'
to the
23. 'Very well. Sir,'said So;^ada"rtfa in assent
*

Blessed

And

One.

the

Blessed

said

One

\Here follozvthe paragraphs 40-63 in the Sdmanhaphala Sutta above, pp. 62-70 of the text ; that is,the
ing,
paragraph on the appearance of a Buddha, his preachhis
renunciation
the
the conversion
hearer,
of the
of
world, all the Silas, and tJie paragraph on Confidence^
*

This

also, oh Brahman,

[flerefollow
'

Oldenberg

wisdom

of

the

uprightnessand
see

how

admirable

this

can

the

renders
wisdom

this

in

on

uprightness {Stla).
the

('Buddha,'p. 283)
the
the

uprightnessof
world, the

Ghdnas,

have

would
pa""a"a

Sum.

somewhat
as

I, 171,

290;

A.

the

relieved

IV,

not

342.

'The

have, of

wise

highestvalue.'

nominative,

begin-

follows:

as

the

grammaticallyjustified
; though

enough, and
paragraph. On
instance,S. I, 41, 42;
of the

paragraphs

upright and
be

is that

I cannot

sentiment

the

all

is

monotony
genitive,
see, for

CHARACTERISTICS

OF

THE

TRUE

BRAHMAN.

57

kimehi
in " y^ of the Sdmahhaeva
nifigat So vW\kk
phala down to the end 0/ " S2, then the paragraphs on
Insight arisingfrom Knowledge, on the Mental
Image,
Wondrous
the
the
ledge
on
Heavenly Ear, on KnowGifts,on
of the hearts of others,on Memory of one's own
previous births,on the Divine Eye, and on the Destructio7i of the Deadly Floods, all as in the Sdmanna-phala,

""83-98 inclusive.]
*

When

24.

Brahman

he

said

had

thus

spoken, Sonadands.

Blessed

the

to

\'

is that wisdom

This, oh Brahman,

One

[125] Most excellent,oh


thy mouth), most excellent!
'

Gotama

Just

(are the
if

as

that

which

has

been

thrown

down,

reveal

that

which

has

been

hidden

away,

the

right road to
bring a lightinto

point out
or

to

were

who

had

eyes

could

has

the

truth

been

him

made

known

figure,by

the

venerable

Gotama.

myself

the

venerable

Gotama

to

truth, and
Gotama

the

to

accept

Order.

me

as

And

favour

of

taking his

also the members


Then

Blessed

the
And

The

his

seat

here
repetition

summarised
.Sutta,

only

difference

there

included
Sila

under

(Wisdom),
that

Sila

indeed

See

coming

with

on

down

bowed

is

nearly the

at

the translation

same

as

that

paragraphs
Tarawa (Conduct) are

In
(Intelligence).

of the

under

all that

eightdivisions

Buddhaghosa's

notes

at

his

as

the

me

and

me,

sent.
con-

so,

in the Amba//^a

here

under

A'ara^a,

included

this

The
of p. 100
of the text.
of
the
Sama""a-phala
64-74

are

includes

the

the Blessed

before

but

under

him.'

there put,
G/ia.na.s,

there

was

But

as

so

signified,
by silence,his
seeing that he had done

and

the

him

grant

meal
with

to

from

taken

(Uprightness).The

Pa""a

under

above
is that

Order

One

Sonadanda,

from

arose

of the

were

venerable

who,

Gotama

to-morrow's

to

guide,to
the

one

were

or

in many
I, betake

my

may

as
disciple,

to

just even

"

I, even

And

were

or

me,

as

the venerable

may

to

life endures, has

day forth,as long as

guide.

forms

of

astray,
gone
that
those
so

the darkness

external

see

has

who

words

man

up

set

the

here
other

Vi^^a,

and

put,
words
the

not

Four

219,

268,

292.

included

under

Yigg3i

Sila,

under

Pa/7"a

is put in the Amba/Z/^a


of Sila as summarised
pp.

not

includes

G/izms
under

but
all

besides.
Sila

"

all

above, pp. 57-59.

158
and

One,
made

round

walking

ready

his

at

had

soft, and
It is

the

time

the

Then

with

with

him,

house, and

with

went

down

sat

the

his

Blessed

meal

is

ready.'

So;^ada;^rt^a the

had

brethren

Brahman

when

Blessed

the

satisfied

cleansed

the bowl

seat, and
'

26.

If, oh

for

venerable

fault

with

should
who

he

should

upon
in the

seated

that

from

me

when

as

reputation.
assembly, I stretch
venerable
from

risingup
in

seated

the

turban, let the venerable


as

salutation with

chariot, I

my

bend

down

low

On

staff of my
that from
me

salutinga

mounted

ground,

much

If this tradition

describingevents

am

joined palms
that

accept

[l26]And

seat.

take

off

if
my

accept that from


So

mounted

the

accept

the

would

then, when

assembly

and

if,when

am

me

in my
salute

from
the chariot to
get down
would
find fault
Gotama, the surrounders

If, then, when

assembly

enjoy, that

to

forth my
Gotama

my

head.

me.

if,when

If

Gotama

with

And

find

less

to

were

the venerable

Gotama

would

the

have

we

sembly,
as-

before

grow
reputation,his income

our

am

whom

low

the

down

bow

assembly

with

which

salutation, let the

in

the

more.

took

entered

to

sweet

his meal, and

reputation would

lose his

For

depends

he

have

seat

my
then

Now

fault,his

less.

grow

rise from

me

find

after

Gotama,

finished

him.

Blessed

the

hands, Sowadawrt^a
him, and said :

beside

Gotama,

I should
the

his

and

down

sat

had

One

his

So;2ada?^^a's

to

One, and the brethren, with his own


hand, with
food, both hard and soft,until they refused any
And

in the

taking

prepared

seat

and

One

dressed

robe, and

the

on

hard

the

outer

the

at

to

One, who

on

right hand
earlydawn he

food, both

announced
and

his

And

sweet

Blessed

early morning, put

And

him

house

time, oh Gotama,

25.

bowl

SUTTA.

him, departed thence.

towards

SOiVADAiVDA

IV.

my

my

chariot, I

the

venerable

goad, let
as

if I had

chariot,I

Buddhaghosa (p. 292), that


one
enough to be
man,
young
it would

earlyin the

follow

that

got down.

should

says

younger
be correct,
very

on

on

this

wave

he

would

his

grandson.

Sutta

must

publicministryof the Buddha.

be

be

OF

CHARACTERISTICS

let

hand,

my
me

if

as

and

and

Here

will

It

being
of
his

put

with

conclusion

except

from

the
the

Path,

them,

then

Vedic

soul
the

and

rose

of

roused

the

Brahman

from

his

seat

in

or

doubt

theory
Tmths,

of

be

quite
detail

every
be

They

But
to

could
the

be

essential

that

keeps
the

his

on

good
of

part
it

need

plane

accepted

by

doctrines

of

best

its

Vedic

strict

studies,
are,

touched

an

to

the

to

for

not

found

be
with

details

the

on

on

adherent

Arahatship

"

are

barely

even

referred

in

of

Buddhism

the
"

and

of

Buddha's

the

will

as

school

opinion

carried

those

represented

compatible
were

further

no

belong

They
And

if

examined,

standpoint.

studies.

life.

if

would

there

historical

And
Sutta

still

retain

to

exceptions,

two

No

ethical.

extent.

this

is

So?iad3.ndz

He

anxious

Brahmans.

him

Sutta.

that

section

keenly

other

one

Sonadanda

limited

is

before

the

of

to

and

views.

logical

face

only

perhaps

Brahman

this

from

and

students,

the

ends

seen

studies,

doctrine

be,

be

convert

Vedic

Sondidanda
then

from

that

thence.

departed

59

'

instructed

and

discourse,

religious

with

accept

One

gladdened

and

incited

BRAHMAN.

salutation

in

Blessed

the

TRUE

Gotama

low

bowed

Then

27.

venerable

the

had

THE

to.

INTRODUCTION

SUTTA.

KUTADANTA

Whoever
imbued

with

part

have

right

called

of

whole
the

as

regards

is

exposition
ethical

the

the
than

it under

the

one

nevertheless,
do

to

own

who

No

went,

and

each
outside

the

there, they
the

to

the

over
a

in

See, for

the
"^

of the

instance,

Introduction

No.

in

vol.

Cambridge

went

to

ii of

more

smothering

the

notes

all

translation

Pali

the

on

in

text

edited

by

they

forth

into

on

p.

the

Agga/7"a

Prof.

Prof.

33

and

their

So

they

and
each

the

then
made

and
the

city,
finders
fault-

with

world,

remarks,

Sutta.

Fausboll's

Cowell.

into

no

ministers,

sallied

the
and

the

city gate,
So

vain.

above

in

Fmding

quest.
in

any.

people

respective

Aniba//^a,

the

the

of

Benares

examine
of

will

one

told

of

them

to

charioteer,

the

process,

no

are

to

to

on

their

to
as

joke

it is most

which

lands

tell

similar

suburbs,

attendant

sight

much

And

we

famous

the

vain,

each

kingdom

single

on

surrounding

while,

as

the

of

made.

determined

in

palace

in

irony,

example

an

would

courtier
went

be

Cataka^

simultaneously

faults!

because

lost

just

danger

great

must

by

so

In
the
Ra^ovada
dispute.
two
kings, reigning over

Kosala,

this

the

words.

explanatory

perhaps,

about
runs

be

to

apt

spoilt

it

laugh,

all the

And

of

point

write

joke,

is

"

it, pervading

narrator,

"

It

Cataka

the

delightful

earnestness.

the

to

any

attempt,

easy,

that

but

attempt

delicate

The

of

issue

at

of

^.

raise

to

of

the

for

overlooked

it in

less

6^atakas.

humour

entirely

the
of

point

subtle

aroma

none

"

the

teaching

intended

the

earnestness

precisely because
be
explained,
in

And

less

no

importance

recognises
all

at

of

Buddhist
of

deeply

plays

great

aware,

one

not

the

sort

am

; every

serious

very

that

many

early

this

as

smile.

an

of

so

of

so

to

of

far

so

humour

even

in

been

have

must

irony

it does

attention

Suttas

the

The

scarcely

may

than

hitherto,

is, in

tales.

of

Suttas

subtle

of

appreciation

been

that

spirit

together

understanding

constant

has

the

already

the
a

the

in

Sutta

this

put

edition,

and

62

have

this

its

And

should

why

confined

of

King

of it K

end

which

And

details

the

this

have

Gataka.

those

the

details

in order
of the

are

at

the

lesson

sublime

least

at

extravagant

as

And

similar
A

the

that

to

similar

as

pointed

in

the

in

state
out

the
best

Sutta,

translated

In

the

dry humour,

hearers

and

also,in

in the

all

of

them

Introduction

the

was

all

which

others

the

accepted
the

lesson

quite
the

quite

were

Both

Suttas

'

Gataka

with

it all ;

legend
the

the

and

teller.
storytellers

and

are

not

Sutta

(vol.xi of the S. B.

whole

thing

King
in

the

none

because

lesson

taught
with

the

to

translated

it made
of

be

birth.

less

also

into

the
both

with

our

invented

obviously
taken
seriouslyas

in full in my

E., pp. 238-289).

was

it.

case

is

no

Glory

former

they enjoyed

tellingof

legend

it

evident, as

And

Great

stands

meant

are

the

with

point compared

Buddha

of the

whole

as

that

entered

submit,

The

well

main

legend,

as

be

to

subservient.

the

manner

would

Its details

hoc.

Sutta.

present
ad

and

so,

many
of the

art
to

other

exaggeration,

same

unreality of the

meant

identified

And

in

Amba///^a

of

expressly

the

the

that

to

that, for instance, the

spiritof

; and

restrained

difference

They

the

to

see
impossible
early
these
legends, always striking, often

not

us.

the

is

same

They knew
principal matter,

to

now

below

there

a
specialbeauty of their own,
was
ju.stas evident, and was

is

the

Sutta, are enlivened


exaggeration, a designed dry humour,
the Ra^ovada
Cataka, above referred to.
of things is found
in the Agga;7"a Sutta,

Suttas.

It is

of all

above

Keva//a

same

possiblemajesty and glory


possiblekings is, after all,but

greatest

details, here

intentional

an

Cataka.

how

greatest and

vanity.

by

show

to

the

the

of

embodies

it, and

to

up

is

story of the
Sutta

the

on

sort.

humour

Ra^ov^ada
Allowing for all
the
the story-teller
earnestness
undeniably animating both
the hearers, it is clear that they enjoyed, all the time,
and
the
of the
dry humour
exaggeration and grotesqueness of
the details of the story as it went
the details
along. Now
are
given only in the Sutta ; and omitted, as well known,
in the 6^ataka.
They build up a gorgeous
fairy tale in which
the ancient
of
the
is
sunmythology
myth
brought into play
as

in

lead

similar

of

sort

Glory,
it expressly quotes

details

numerous

that

We

tales of

Indian

certainlybased

for

name,

same

think

we

6^atakas

the

to

Great

old

developed

and

adopted

But

unreality and earnestness, and it finds


touching expression in the
legend of
G^ataka
the
Buddhists, in their
stories,

most

Na^iketas.
often

SUTTA.

of

mixture

perhaps

the

K^rADANTA

V.

'

Buddhist

INTRODUCTION.

fact.

historical
the

vidhd

words
could

words

The

have

and
be

not

is

forced

twist

given

parikkhafo
in the

used
of

is

new

the

to

The

What

assigned.

sense

of

meaning

serious.

not

63

the

a
words, a piece
play upon
delightfulto the hearers then, and
unfortunately quite impossible to be rendered
adequately,in
for
readers
now.
English prose,
And
it is quite open
this does
to
not
question whether
Sutta
to the whole
to the
as
apply as much
legend of King
we

of

sort

dialectic

Wide-realm.

The

that

the
case

lord

of

of the

as

up
of

murder

god,
In

or

his

as

order

details

for

in the
to

would

to

make

us

novelette,

Sir

Khanumata,

that

secure

Sharpenough, no

his
was,

in

now,

end

in

creatures,

'

soul

desirable

most

fellow

his

In

historical

an

cruel

"

he

as

be

Goldstick

that

sure

world

next

of

he

an

being

on

is
(pointed-tooth)

to
likely meant
very
historical character.

Reverend

of

manor

number

than

Very

keen

mind

is

before

have
the

very
comfortable

makes

tale

should

and

Ku/'adanta

else, and

in which

tooth,
doubt,

hero
we

romance,

be

Brahman

nowhere

mentioned
rather

pun,

smartness,

should

this,
"

by

the

honour

of

put it,by celebratinga sacrifice.


that

certain

the

not

of

one

the

of

technical

all these

the
performance
god was
supposed to attach great weight should be done
the
intending sacrificer is ironicallyrepresented as
wrong,
of position, under
doing the very last thing any Brahman
"

to

accurate

"

similar
the

circumstances,

Sama;za

Gotama

would

think

of

modes

sacrifice ; and
performed
in
to be used
utensils,the altar-furniture,

about

be

at

Buddha's

The
of

truly

the

details, each

the

none

of the

are

delicious

to

the

declared

of

because

our

Sutta

ritual is to
in the

with

of

it

legend

he

offered

the

All

the

noted, on

"

its

advice

extravagance

evident

wants

to

the

know

performed. The
legend ("15)to be simply

earnestness

three
*

three

be

condition
of mind
mind, or rather one
times, the harbouring of no
regret, either
the

wonderful

deliberate

of

after

requisite

it.

making

inferred.

be

Brahman

in which

the

sacrifice

the

settled,be

one

described

are

less

moral

The

of

and

to
goes
of the ritual

extraordinary sacrifice imaginable.

Brahman,

tell him

is to

answer

most

marvellous
of

the

Wide-realm,

King

about

He

doing.

the

to

for advice

three

at

modes

'

conditions

different

three

before

modes

or

during

involved.

And
expenditure
material
the
accessories
required, the altar-furniture,the
is that?
It is the hearty co-operation
outfit,what
priest's
with
the king of four
divisions
of his people, the nobles,
or

the

sacrifice,at

the
officials,

the

Brahmans,

and
M

the

householders.

That

64

K^rADANTA

V.

SUTTA.

of furniture.

And

eight personal qualifications


other
of the king himself.
That
eight. And
of his advising Brahman
make
four personal qualifications
articles
the
total
of the
sixteen
required. No
living
up
All
the labour
thing,either animal or vegetable,is injured.
all the world
in
is voluntary. And
adding its
co-operates
share
strict vegetarian principles,
to the largesse of food, on
four

makes

articles

makes

alone, the sacrifice

in which,

of the

only
king desires

not

the

of

muttering

mystic

god,

any

verses

each

over

behalf,

on

And

of all the

but

king himself,
not
propitiate,

to

It is offered

consists.

the

good.
livingmen.

but

article used

And

and

over

of unhappy
victims, verses
bleeding bodies
had
of
been
the
sacrifice
on
a
magic efficacy
supposed to depend, is quietlyignored.
It is all ironical,of course
just the very
contrary, in
of
sacrifice.
And
the evident
Vedic
a
typical
respect,
every
be
one
explanation of the
unreality of the legend may
of the
curious
fact that the authors
Cataka
book
standing
(notwithWide-realm's
that King
Chaplain is actuallyidentified
in the Sutta with the Buddha
himself
in a previous birth)have
included
this professedly Cataka
not
story in their collection.
This
far discovered, in which
similar
is the only case,
so
a
and

mangled

which

all

"

omission

has

thus

Having
of

with

court

author

been

made.

laughed the Brahman


the
gentle irony of

authors

or

of the

sacrifice

ought to
procedure, they put
a

and

sweetest

go
from

Far

be.

his sacrifice

list of sacrifices each


the

Sutta

of

highest

of

to

say

the

very

think

they

Wide-realm's

bottom

other, and

all, which

out

travesty, the

what

exaltingKing

the

sacrifice

sarcastic

on

at

than

better

ideal

of

long

leading up

is the

attainment

to

of

Arahatship.
Here

again, except

in the

exclusivelyBuddhistic.

That

than

sacrifice

last
a

paragraph, there

sacrifice

of the

is

heart

nothing
is better

bullocks, the ethical more


worthy than any
view
physical sacrifice,is simply the sensible, rational,human
of the matter.
of
The
whole
the
long history
development
a

of Indian

of

chieflyby Brahmans
(however
much
have owed
it may
in the earliest period to the nobles and
shows
that they, the more
others),
enlightened and cultured
of the Brahmans,
not
were
only as fully alive to this truth
as
Buddhist, but that they took it all along for granted.
any
Even
of

this

Varuwa.

mystic

thought, as

Vedas

in the
view

carried

in

And

the
in

identification
^

on

themselves
mental
the
of

there

attitude

is

already

regards
pre-Buddhistic KMndogya,
the

sacrifice

as

with

Ajiandogya Upanishad III, i6

man

and

17.

the
Aditi

germ
and

in

^,

we

the
find

INTRODUCTION.

of

placed on an
procedure. And
of causing no
habit

moral

certain
the

equality with

states

sacrificial

certain

these

among

65

parts

moral

states,

injury
livingthing,
any
This
to the Hebrew
comes
near
especiallymentioned.
very
prophet's: I will have mercy, and not sacrifice ^.' The more
Indian
is, no
doubt, in the
point of view
characteristically
taken
of the old saying long afterwards
into the
words
up
that
it is truth
Mahabharata,
(not mercy) that outweighs
the

ahimsa,

to

is

'

sacrifices ^.

thousand

that

the

and

Cains

6"ain

is

Buddha's

time,

therefore

in

taken

extravagantly

so

of the

great probability

very

doctrine, foreshadowed

ahi;;/sa

afterwards

the

there

But

up
also

was

the

Upanishad,

the

by

Niga;z///as,

earlier
a part of the
in germ,
but
as
a

only
developed teaching, pre-Buddhistic. Though the Buddhists
did
this
would
not
extreme
seem
position,there
accept
therefore
valid
for
the
be
to
no
reason
doubting
accuracy
of

doctrine, and

Buddhist

the

based

on

ground
the

to

tradition

in

belief which
ancient
very
the wise, whether
inside

view

sacrifice

of
in

was,

fact, common
the

outside

or

was

of

ranks

is, then, merely

Sutta

the
took
view

oldest

expression,

extant

and

thorough
widely held

their

party

trend

The

won.

practicallybeen
Brahmanism
of

Muhammadan

Buddhists

ridicule
share

and

in

they
have

is

so

deeply

done
often

addicted

heaven,

under

win

did

asserted
all

XV,

suggestive
Indians

them

manner

of

I,

3095

have

had

its

by

seems

time

European

to

nearly

other
to
no

me

different,in these

See

XIII, 1544.

had

been,

writers,

any

averse

could

How

fact.

of ritual than

There
very

combined

the

that

vi. 6 ; quoted Matt. ix. 1 3, and xii. 7.


8, and xxi. 13, are, of course, later.

Mahabharata

6073.

of

won

victory.

more

religious ceremonial
that they were

Rosea

is

the

to

really

was

will

Sutta

our

down

And

superstitious,

more

believe

Prov.

of
the

allies.

between
Isolated

close.

even

battle

the

their

if the

so

to

are

But

earnestness

bringing about

That

they

and

its

known

had

animals,

long struggle

the
reached

sacrifices

invasion.

the

by

when

up
Buddhism

such

sacrifices,of

Vedic

given

and

instances

the

of an
ancient
uncompromising a way,
of opinion. On
this question, as
on
of
social
t
he
Buddhists
caste
or
question
privileges,
early
rational
and
its
to
a
conclusions,
pushed
logical
up,
held
sacrifice
also by others.
And
this question of
on

so

and

their

that

Brahmans.

Our

as

not

more

nation

change

in

reason

to

respects, from

also Micah

Compare

vi. 6-8.

XIII,

66

Greeks
was

well

the

to

real

of

sense

Above

sense.

common

same

marked

priests,a

SUTTA.

period. On the contrarylay feeling,a wide-spread antagonism

the

of

Romans

or

there

of

K^rADANTA

V.

all

humour,

there

was

fund

strong

then

of

the

most

thought
unquestioned
complete
sion
expresworld
had
that the
in religiousmatters
yet witnessed.
To
spectacles,
regard the Indian peoples through Brahman
the
.Srauta
and
in
from
the
them
tone
prevalent
to
judge
seem
impossible that this victory
Grihya. Siitras,it would
freedom

and

have

could

of Indian

is

have
the

to

so

untranslated

it

collect

than
to
one,
ways
the word
in which
occurs.

Lokdyata
atheistical

mouth

of Brahmans
his
And
of

the

the

Sutta, being
used

was

will

be

just those
rightly proud

when

the

other

Now

more

passages

system
and

the

by

The

whole

the

terms

is

things

which

exact

is

paragraph
are

Brahman

all

would
of.

the

the
one

mentary.
compli-

of

connotation

doubtful, they

of

description

as

learning.
though

other

of

as

as

time

instructive,in

Materialism.'

'

which

uncertain

the

at

consider

and

Pi/akas,

Suttas, into
put, in the Buddhist
themselves^, mentions
as
Lokayata

Brahman

good

two

in

phrase describing

'the
as
explained by Wilson
philosophy taught by /Tarvaka^,'

of the

of

stock

is

Petersburg Dictionary

branch

the

found

It

composed.

was

views

our

accordingly.

this

in

which

in

meaning

Sutta

our

often

And

won.

was

expression in

Brahman,

left

it

modified

be

curious

learned

the

But

won.

history must

There

been

and

one

or

descriptive
have

been

It

is evident,
judged a master
of
the
word
therefore,
Dictionary interpretations
are
quite out of place in this connection.
Yet
they are each of them, at least for a later period,well
Kumarila
authenticated.
Bha//a, in his Varttika
(verse lo),
Mimawsa
for
the
with
the most
been,
charges
having
system
for his
into a Lokayata
system, and claims
part, converted
the
of
book
merit
it
theistic
back
lines ^.
to
own
bringing
the Mimawsists
would
Now
of course
indignantly deny this.
have
been
to
seems
Kumarila, who
a
good deal of a bigot,
is here
claimed
be
to
merely hurling at adversaries, who
orthodox

as

he

uses

He

mentions

the

himself, a

as

in the

that term

givesas

be

to

that

his

Ahguttara I, 163, and

'

The

is

of

other

quoted in

But

atheistic'

'

Amara

without
list,

passage

sense

authoriiythe

the word, in

of abuse.

term

The

Kosa. ; but

any

it is clear that

the

exact

phrase

Koja

explanation.

passages.

Muir's

'

Sanskrit

Texts,'III, 95.

merely

INTRODUCTION.

would

be

that

is,the

t ik a, as

opposed

however,

system

the

or

the

^aiikara^^rya uses
always in the same

who

his

to

dstika-patha:

own

there
is not,'
says
than
wider
atheist ; it comes
This
is somewhat
the same
in Kumarila's
mouth, to much
thing.

infidel.

and

"

67

look

the

upon

existing only

so

after

death,

in

new

very
controverted

several

Lokdyata
as
specificsense
identical

as

the

as

and

indeed

the

the

with

the

the

body.
is also

view

same

those

body, as
continuing,

separate from
very

an

times
of

view

exists, not

body

condition

similar, if not

'

word

soul

long

who

man

Brahma-^ala
(above,p. 46) ; and
the
is constantly referred
to
throughout the Pi/akas under
sariram^.
stock
But
it is never
tarn
phrase tarn ^ivam
called

the

Lokdyata

in

that

there

is

and

dies

with

but

body
death.

of

not

school

But

so.

the

by certain
expounded
full.

in
or

enforce

to

based
such

this

on

book

as

in

be

to

seems

the

that

any actual
have
been

It may

point rather
with

union

to

other

^"ahkara

setting forth

single proposition, or
a

the
after

body

either

book

manual.

body,

within

unity,
the

view

the

through

from

suppose
minds
any

necessary
in their
had

expressions used

They

It

flies away
to

thinkers,

Buddhists

Pi^akas.

it,which

Buddhists

philosophy
using

the

soul ; but that it is diffused


it ; and
is not
a
separate

It is not

the

or

Sutta

in

opinion

an

and

opinions,

held
not

the
special
pretend to set out that opinion in
dealing with it only so far as is necessary
own
though
positions. And
contrary

any
^ankara

are

their

Nor

treatise.

either

do

of vSankara's
rough and ready translation
reader, of
Lokayatika,
gives a good idea, to a European
of feeling conveyed
Indian
.Sahkara's
the
readers,
sort
to
materialists
(and
European
yet it is not
quite exact.
hold
careful
do
discovered
not
two
be
one
search)
or
by
may
'

materialist,'as

'

'

the

view

which

.Sankara

Buddhaghosa

in

describes

our

of

the

but

'

Viianda,

For

II, 2,
^

instance

III,3,

2;

For

instance

"

as

in

By

does

whom

vu"^/^ati

the
this

was

not

text-book

help

us

Lokakkhayika
Lokayata, that

explains

91,
p.
talk according to

Foolish

such

Lokdyataw
is
Lokayata

This

he

previously,

follows

(Sophists)V

VitaWas

Lokayatikas.

his

has:

passage
'the

vita"^a-vada-sattha?",

to

the

world

Brahma-

created

much

is the
?

Siitra,I, i,

his

commentary

on

the

Mahali

Galiya Suttas, both

;"
as

By

53.
in

and

translated

below.
'

Sum.

Salini,pp.

I, 247.

The

3, 90, 92,

241

Vitawa'as

(where

are

quoted

the word

is

and

refuted

in the Attha

wrongly spelt).

68

K^rADANTA

V.

such
bones

one.

; cranes

Other

Pali

from

is white

crow

from

red

are

SUTTA.

the

comments

word

Padipika (verse 112),


says
Vitaz/rt'a-sattha;//
:
Buddhaghosa
which

The

lokayataw.
twelfth

century

Loko

yatati
nissaya

na

gandham
uppadenti.
imind

na

Lokayata/;/

is

yam
middle

Aggavawsa

tarn

of

the

in

the

He

says
ussahanti

vaya-

kako

tena

hi
na

\xkkh\tthain

sabbaw

nama:

seto

karanenati

va

Abhidhana

va
lokayataw.
Ayatati
Ta/w
ihati
lokayataw.
va,
kittain
satta
pu""a-kiriyaya

arwxkk/nttham

sabbam

is the

work

clearer

generation
ayatanti
; ettha

vddassadeniti

loko,

vinneyyam

older.

ti bala-loko

manti

va

is

its

'

blood."

the

are

of

simply, probably following

this

Much

A.D.

Sadda-niti, which

of

date

whiteness

of their

redness
the

on

the

ka/o

bako

imina

evam-adi-niratthaka-kara"a-

loke
Vita;/^apa/isa;;/yutta;" titthiya-satthawz, yam
sattha7"
Bodhisatto
asamavukkat'i, yam
sandhaya
dhuro
:
Vidhura-paw^ito
Na
n'eta;"
seve
Lokayatikaw,
pu;}"aya vaddhanam
ti aha.
'Loko

the

world.

means:
Lokayata
themselves
exert
is, they
they ayatanti;"
about
strive
about
it,
it,
through the pleasure they take
in discussion.
Or
world
the
does
not
:
perhaps it means
that
is,does not depend on it,move
on
yatati by it ;"
by it.
For
stir
their
hearts
do
not
to
livingbeings
right-doing
up
of that book^.
Now
the Lokayata
is the book
by reason
means

common

that

that

"on

"

of

the

disputations
impure
this

the

as

the

reason

the

the

74),he

Sasana

Forchammer,
With

'

in

voce

lived

Vaz'/sa

said

of

such

impure;
is

crane

book
the

is

known

Bodisat,

black
in

the

the

useless

all is
;

not

and

for

world

as

incomparable

yata, that works

not

for progress

in

'

the

to

"All

the

the

"

pandit,
Loka

the

sub

Quoted

According

"

of which
Vitawrt^a-sattha,

merit."

p.

Titthiyas)full

white,

that

for

or

the

following:
is

crow

leader, Vidhura
"
Follow
not

(of

unbelievers

Sasana
at

Subhfiti's
Vaw/sa

Arimaddana

'

AbhidhanappadJpika SMi/ p. 310.


Bode's
Dipika (Dr. Mabel
edition,
Burma

in

at

derivation

the passage
quoted below from the
Loka
te
lokdyatika.
evayatante
that

1127

a.d.

See

also

Gandha

Vawsa, pp. 63, 67;


P.
T. S., 1882, p. 103.
34 ; J.
be compared NilakawMa
on
may
in
B.
IMahabharata
(as given
R.),

Dipo, verse
1238;
Prize
Essay,'p.
Jardine

this attempt

in

Also

Prof. Cowell's

suggestion

(Sarvad.S., p. 2)
Lokayata may
analysed etymologicallyas
prevalentin the world,' The exact meaning of iyata is reallyvery
'

doubtful.

be

170

K^rADANTA

V.

this may
be a
book, entitled

Bhagavati, which
Lok^yatikas occur

And

Christ.

after

two

or

the

the

time,

same

century

SUTTA.

Weber
in

puts

Cain

in the
at

the

about

list of blameworthy

similar

persons
the Milinda, which

In

is mentioned

word
of

the

(in a
Sutta) to

Lokayata

clause

in

our

the

Here

Milinda

is in a
passage
is described
as
of

wrangling

Vita;/^as.'

time

of the

sentence

expanded

the

of

quite

hero

at

the

old

knowledge
the

from

very

story, Nagasena^.

the

standpoint.

other

The

the sub-hero, the


parenthesis in which
fond
of wordy disputations,
and in the
against the quibbles of Lokayatas

king,
habit

'

and

This

word

In

had

the

long

the

Harsha

who

would

prevalent.

list of

various

A'arita
be

of

including

in

heard

Lokayatikas

Lastly,

the

fourteenth

.^arvaka, a

conclusion

certain

as

to

were

Lokayata

system

of

works

various

is, in

sage
fables,made

and

century

like

case,

to

the

the

ingenuity of
fathering of the

Kapila ;
by Planudes

the

or

from

the

friend

later

fathering

in the

Aesop the story-tellerof


eminently successful,has
accepted.
Pending the discovery
above

We

of.

appears
whether
this is due

given

others

on
later, appropriately fathered
in the Mahabharata, an
mythical character
ogre,
certain
in the garb of a Brahman
^.
It is not

who

ancient

any

as

in

given

among
heretics^.

come

Vedantists

by

hermits

In

read

or

of

sorts

actually any Lokayatikas living


expanding previous descriptionsof the
be
hermits
in
the
merely
forest, he
may
his list all the
of such
sorts
people he had
there

time.

concourse

either

the

classed

not

or

Bawa's

ever

become

unfortunately, draw

cannot,
whether

the

is

ascribes

passage

has crept
possibly be a gloss which
may
the text.
But
in any
it is evidence
case
that, at the
when
the
it was
later
of
the
view
written,
meaning

into

in

One

twice.

earlier,the

probably somewhat

is

of

or

Sankhya

foe.
on

In
the

collection

the

of

fourteenth

century A.D., upon


been
fifth century B.C., it has
still
is
and
deceived
widely
many,

Abhidhana

the

of

other

texts,

Padipika,in

vita""/a-sattha?".

This

and
which
last

especiallyof

Lokayataw
expressioncannot

simply explained as
possiblymean
anything of that sort.
Weber, Ueber ein fragment der Bhagavati,II, 248.
My Milinda, I, 7.
'

'

Ibid. I, 17.

Cowell's

"

MadhusQdana

saw/graha.

Translation, p. 236.
Sarasvaii, Prabodha"^androdaya, Sarva-darjana-

is

171

INTRODUCTION.

such

hypothesis

working
that

about

the

only

not

are

as

word

the

B.C.

500

the

as
complimentary way
and
probably meant
learning,
riddles, rhymes, and theories
a

to

and

beasts

At

there

time

handbook

of

was

find

for
and
on

instance,

VI,

2-7,
the colour

III, 7, 3-7,

The

portions

may

useful

worlds

of the
the

on

and

of the

rays

on

sun

proficiency
As

the

acquaintance

disfavour.

marked

science

with

before

in
hear

we

Various

the

of

of

the

such

such

of

science

Lokayata

word
of

his

as

equally
controverts

Lokayatikas,

"

of

was

on

the
of

term

mere

the

lore

were

In

era.

our

of

book

had

riddles

the

on

by

been

still the

was

the

fifth
and

quibbles.'
that

time
for

name

in
folk-lore, and
the one
hand, but

as
on

other.

eighth century
abuse, and

in

Kumarila
the

sense

uses

of

the

infidel,

And
the Mimawsists.
opponents,
6"ankara, in settingforth his theory of the

orthodox

shortly afterwards
soul,

there

as

first half

of

feelingis increasingly

This

centuries

of mundane

science

the

to

masters

era

mundane

old

In

small

too

was

Christian

level
Natttre-lore,on the same
not
contradistinction,
only to theosophy
to

kind

similar

examples.

as

lore

out.

2,
of

cited

'

worked

II, i, 5-7, and


others,
1,4, and

others

book, presumably
craft,as it is called
a

branches

fairlywell

the

casuists.

early

III.

it

mysteries, of

sophists and

for

mysteries

with

Even

sayings,the

century

the

natural

A'^and.

other
incompatible with
of it grew
larger,and several
were
regularly studied, a too
looked
Lokayata became
upon

in

amount

of

vouched

as

Ar. Ill,

body ; and many


subjects might be
then
existing of such

exclusive

dark

special

no

it trenched

cosmogony;
Brz.
Ar. Up.
;

; Ait.

elements

branches

the

studies.

the

knowledge.

with

learned

of

was

in
metaphor
especiallypriestlywisdom,
have
well
belonged to it

more

that

to

called,and

so

But

lore

such

his other

below

often

and

of

master

on

fair

as

as

amount

make

sayings,

tradition

by

down

parts of the
these
and other

on

wise

"

in

Brahman

Such
pre-Buddhistic literature.
passages,
Brz. Ar. Up. Ill, 8, 3, isf//and. Up. IV, 17, i,

the

on

of

unbecoming

so

sayings
the

in

preserved

be

knowledge.

such

were
closely upon,
the
higher
discussing
we

handed

of course,
school

no

so

that

used

was

branch

Nature-lore

means

ranked,

it

though

that

name

To

plants.
by no

considered

Brahman,

Lokayata

be

to

seems

elements, the stars, the weather, scraps


of anatomy,
and
elementary physics, even
of birds
of precious stones,
the
and
nature

of

knowledge
then

facts

best

of

astronomy,

and

above

of

the

opponents,

the

cosmogony,

of

the

explain

to

of

testimony

curious

opinion

possibly wrongly,

as

which
the

very

he
same

ascribes

to

opinion

K^rADANTA

V.

172

controverted

was

Finally

the

has

philosophy,
had

Lokayata
His
drawn

from

formed

It

is

intellect,

the

the

tika,

to

exist.

of

being

based

on

have
of

Brahmans

the

will

of

man

some

the

accept

not

can

adversaries,

the

last

period
hobby
the

give

published

in

words

in

the
of

the

I,

translated

that
middle

the

Nature-lorists

on

which

impute
an

are

Lokaya-

Lokayata,

so,

unreality
existence

philosophy
In

they

doing

such

some

of
real

trace.

pegs

that

Chapter
1882.

of

horses,

views

them,

no

in

tone

of

any

knowledge

own

word

is

system

is

the

his

the

And

quibbles

Sarva-dar.yana-sa;;/graha,
version

of
there

name

mere

and

have.
or

and

hang

of
there

of

evidence

no

or

use

folk-lore,

thought,

the

become

the

the

he

have

we

early

we

riddles
In

writers

in

by

the

despised.

'

of

itself

period

the

statements

school

called

The

possibly

to

Lokayatika,

Nature-lore,

as

story

himself
After

Lokayata.

over

whole

the

called

all

that

depraved

so

chiefly

by

happen

rhonism
Pyr-

position.

who

sense

will

of

ceased

cannot

studied

what

let-us-

the

theology.

is

and

verses

of

ideal

Throughout
one

life

ascribes

appearance

which

Lokayata

the

morally

but

theosophist

of

own

of

of

long

the

imagination

doggrel

part

^.

old

his

all

has

he
of

in

time,

theologian

which

atheism

that

at

description

infidel

certain

of

doubt,

no

able

very

and

times.

Pi/aka

forms
view

there

not

great

in

extreme

eat-and-drink-for-to-morrow-we-die
in

in

use

chapter

most

and

the

century

the

Lokayatikas

in

was

longish

Pi/akas,

the

word

fourteenth

the

in

in

the

though

Saya;/a-Madhava
to

before

ages

Lokayata,

called

SUTTA.

certain
to

odious

by

their

name.

Prof.

Cowell

kOtadanta

V.

[The

Sacrifice

wrong

[127] I. Thus
when
going on
multitude

brethren,

to

came

Khanumata.

And

Now

at

dwelling

at

much

if he

Magadha,
the

were

And
behalf

of

bulls, and

the

to

for

heard

in

life,with

with
and

water

on

corn,

Bimbisara

by Seniya

sacrifice
the

the
it

power

over

and

being

got

as

And

hundred

had

rams

ready

hundred

heifers, and
been

brought

sacrifice.

of

And

and

in

arrival

the

they began
bands

of

householders

and

news

[128]

companies

and

hundred

Brahmans

the

was

Brahman.

steers,

the

the

Gotama^.

him

great

goats,

Now

2.

and

was

king.

hundred

post

hundred

Kta/adanta

royal gift,with

Ku/adanta

hundred

as

then

just

Brahman

woodland

presented

great

called
Magadha
he
lodged in

in

place teeming

and

domain

of

king

Khanumata,

once,

the

time

grassland

royal

on

pleasaunce

with
five

about

Khanumata

at

One

Magadha,

village

there

that

Blessed

with

Brahman

Ambala/Mika

the

brethren,

right.]

the

The

through

tour

and

I heard.

have

the

of

sutta.

to

the

to

Samana.

the

leave

to

go

of

mata
Khanu-

Khanumata
Ambala//^ik^

pleasaunce.
And

3.

apart
and

to

the

seeing

Not

Ra^agaha

(p. 294)
^

The
All

the

and
says

it

the

as

was

of
in

thus

"

the

one

the

it.

of

the

wiih

text

in

full,as

he

of

the

is here
the

his

asked

text).

him

way

keeper
door^.

between

Buddhaghosa

repeated.

So"ada"^a

gone
siesta

his

told

half

name

same

Sofla.d^nd^
in

for

doorkeeper

the
p.

house

by,

go

(above,

like

his

had

Brahman

the
of

And

Nalanda

whole

given

people

reason.

same

Kii/adanta
terrace

upper
the

the

then

just

Sutta.

K^^rADANTA

V.

174
Then

4.

Ku/adanta

Sama;/a

the

and

thought :

Gotama
of

performance

would

Gotama,

and

he

So

him

his

sent

to

well for

be
ask

want

to

me

out

sacrifice.

Sama?/a

the

to

go

I don't

it.'

about

doorkeeper

of Khanumata,

householders

method

Now

carry

that

successful

its threefold

instruments.

accessory
all this,and yet I

[129]It

heard

the

about

sacrifice with

I have

'

understands

its sixteen

know

SUTTA.

the

to

ask

to

Brahmans
them

and

till

wait

to

the Blessed
One.
to call upon
go with them
of Brahmans
at that time a number
5. But there were
to take part in the great sacrifice.
stayingat Khanumata

could

he

And

they heard
persuaded him,

and

he answered
used
and

with

went

And

9.

when
told

Brahman
and

not
Son3.d3.7id3.,

he

Blessed

him

One

tell him

in

its three

articles of furniture
inclusive of the So"ada"(/a

As

"

'

Vidha.
But

the

he

has

has

quoted

words

here

and

kinds

\
the
heard

^,

in forming
perwith
its
*.

full in the text.

repeatedin

the

be

entered

vikampanti

na

Childers). He

makes

Used

'

modes

of

this

vidho.

All that he
has

always

of the Arahats
ethically
delusion

pride or

(as

for

S. I, 84, and

at

vidha

out.

vidha, which

under

way.'
'

it and

between
struck

be

of

only meaning

muddle

should

'

in vidhasu
in

strange

both

mode, manner,
doubt, to divers

refers,no

instance

made

should

meaning

one

success
^

had

satisfied,

had

he

modes

gives 'pride' as

under

vidho

under

has

go.
So;2ada"^a

of sixteen

are

But

to

they were

about

the

as

4.

Childers

All that he

as

what

to

"" 3~7

word.

terms

[i34]Then

in

grounds

One
call upon
the Blessed
there
Ku/adanta
seated
was

sacrifice

accessory

Ku/adanta,

to

to

the

requested
a

it

him

went

same

same

Brahmans.

those

to

in the

them

they

the

on

laid before

had

Brahmans

'

this

when

very

in the passage
word, and vidho

rare

Vidha
is frequent,
just
contrary.
is most
rare.
compounds. Vidho
especiallyat the end of adjectival
It is given doubtfullyby Buddhaghosa, in discussing a
doubtful
of 'yoke'; and
is a possible
reading at Sum. I, 269, in the sense
Vin.
the
of 'brooch'
in
at
IV,
sense
II, 136,319;
168, 363
reading
a

or

common

'

one.

is

the

buckle.'

Here

vidha

ritual.
round
*

It

in Kfi/adanta's

Goiama
to

lays hold

his ethical

ParikkhSra,

mouth

of the

teachingin

means,

of course,

mode

ambiguity of the word, and

the

sense

of mode

of

of rite

or

twists it

generosity.

'accessories,fillings,
equipments, appurtenances,'

WRONG

THE

'

Well

I will

One
*

10.

spake

Long
and

wealth

gold, of

he

whole

The
to

was

king by

at

"

there

full.

garners

sittingalone
the

should

if I

ensure

to

weal

me

"

and
with

when

have

by

in

enjoy.

can

is mine

were

corn

Now

mortal

great

silver

in meditation

thought :

good things
well

the

conquest

offer

great

welfare

and

for

days."

many

And

he

I would

the

had

fain, O

the

venerable

my

welfare

instruct

one

the

king :

the

villagesand

unsafe.

Were

me

and
"

So
let

"

and

"

who

king's country,

There

harried.

great sacrifice
how
for my weal

offer

Brahman

the

The

and

his

days."

for many
"

had

Brahman,

'Thereupon

11.

called ;
chaplain,
thought,[l35]he said :

Brahman,

all that he

tellinghim

to

and

of
stores
; with
^, of goods and

his

once

'Twere

sacrifice that

reply;

circle of the earth

wide

possess.

'

was

all the

abundance

are

dacoits

chaplainsaid

was

Sire, is harassed
who

abroad

townships,and who
the king, so long as

make
that

pillage

the

is so,

roads
to

levy

be actingwrongly.
tax, verilyhis majesty would
perchance his majesty might think : 'I'll soon

fresh

But

put

and

scoundrels'

these

to

stop

banishment,

their licence

fines and

and

game
bonds

by degradation
and

death

!' But

be

satisfactorily
put a stop to so.
still go on
ing
harassleft unpunished would
remnant
the realm.
method
Now
there is one
to adopt to

The

"

and

anxious

became

in

Brahman,

enjoyment

to

Wide-realm

King

75

tively
atten-

(Maha Vi^ita)\ mighty, with

treasure-houses

his

large property

aids

listen

and

ear

Kti/adanta

follows

as

ago,

Wide-realm

name

give

RIGHT.

speak.'

Very well.Sir,'said

Blessed

THE

AND

Brahman,

then, O

and
'

SACRIFICE

the

furniture

cannot

of

room,

the

smallest

things one

wears,

the

few

with
carries about
him, and so on.
objectsa wandering mendicant
Here
the
the
word
is
turned
solution
of which is
into
a
again
riddle,
the basis of the dialogue.
has a great realm'
Literally'he who
^justas we
might say
'

"

Lord
^

Broadacres.
'

Such

as

jewelsand plate/says Buddhaghosa (p.295).

176

kOtadanta

V.

sutta.

there
thorough end to this disorder. Whosoever
in the
devote
themselves
be
to
king's realm who
keeping cattle and the farm, to them let his majesty
there
Whosoever
the king give food and
seed-corn.
themselves
be in the king'srealm who
devote
to trade,
let his majesty the king give capital. Whosoever
to them

put

there
selves

to

be

kinof'srealm

in the

service

government

let his

them

to

them-

devote

who

majesty

the

and
Then
those
food.
king give wages
men,
each
his
harass
will
own
business,
no
following
longer
the realm ; the king'srevenue
will go up ; the country
will be quietand at peace ; and the populace,pleased
with another
and
one
happy, dancing their children in
their

will dwell

arms,

with

Then

'

King Wide-realm, O Brahman, accepted the


of his chaplain,[l36]and
did as he
had
said.
those men,
followingeach his business, harassed
realm no more.
And
the king's revenue
went
up.

word
And
the
And

the country

quiet and

became

their children
*

12.

said

and
at

the

in their arms,
King Wide-realm

So

The

"

venerable
welfare

my
'

Then

disorder

I want

peace.

to

there

may

Kshatriyas,vassals
towns

; or

had

his

at

who

an

offer that
how

me

be

in

the
Let
be

towns,

the
to

'

'

me

Then

venerable

The

great

sacrifice

for my

let

"

weal

and

invitations

send

realm

his

country

who

to
are

who
or

Brahmans

are

the

towns

of
who

; or

substance, either in the country


I intend

"

and

welfare

King Wide-realm,

M.

offer

sanction

to

will

what

days."

Brahman,

locative

or

great sacrifice.

for many

word, the
I, 85.

this

On

to

give their

ones

for weal

Ra^a-porise.
form, compare

abstract

of

saying:

end.

his, either in the country or the


ministers
and officials of his,either

are

householders

doors.

open

of

in the country or the towns


; or
either
in the country
position,
are

the

chaplain called,

"

king

And

happy, dancing

and
with

for many
days."
let his majesty the

whomsoever

peace.

dwelt

is

instruct

one

at

with another

populace,pleased one

is

doors."

open

accepted

singularof

the

neuter

78
'

He
out

"

furnish

Brahman

generations,with

no

giftedin

chaplainwas

his

"

both

on

father's,of

the

on

ways

well born

was

withal
where-

forth that sacrifice.

[l38]14. The
the followingfour
He

to

And

and

able

intelligent,
expert and wise, and
thingspresent or past or future
these eight giftsof his, too, became

to

SUTTA.

was

think
'

K^jrADANTA

V.

slur

in respect of birth
'He
student
was
a

cast

mother's

back

through seven
him, and no reproach

descent

pure

the

sides, on

upon

"

by heart, master

verses

knew

repeater who
of the Three

the

mystic

Vedas, with

the

indices,the ritual,the phonology,and the exegesis(asa


learned in the idioms
fourth),and the legends as a fifth,
and

the grammar,
and
versed in Lokayata (Nature-lore)
in the thirtymarks
the body of a great man
on
He
virtuous, established in virtue,giftedwith
was
"

virtue
'

at

that had

He

'

the

those

second, among

these

Thus

"

intelligent,
expert,

was

most

great

grown

four

and

wise

hold

who

gifts of his, too,

foremost,

or

the ladle.'

out

withal
where-

became

furnish forth that sacrifice.

to

the chaplain,
before
furthef,O Brahman,
15. 'And
the sacrifice had begun, explainedto King Wide-realm
three

the
'

modes

Should

his

majesty

the

startingon

king,before

feel any such regret as


great sacrifice,
will be the portion of my wealth used
not

the

the

king, whilst

king

harbour
he

such
is

any such regret as :


of my wealth
used up
such
regret. Should

Great, alas,

"

herein,"let

up
Should

regret.

offeringthe

his

herein," let
his

not

majesty

the

the

king
king, when

"

up

not

Buddhaghosa explainsthis
he

Karma,
good deeds
a

herein," let

knew
done

the

as

king

meaning

harbour
that he

such
knew

the

regret
wealth

regret.'

the result of

was
a
present prosperity
giftto him by the
be
that there
would
others in the past, and

that his
to

portion
harbour

the

offered, feel any such


great sacrifice has been
the portion of my
Great, alas, has been
as
:
used

majesty

sacrifice,feel

great

Great, alas,will be

"

the

similar result in future for his

good

deeds

done

now.

THE

'

WRONG

SACRIFICE

THE

AND

RIGHT.

O
Brahman, before
chaplain,
to
begun,explain King Wide-realm

Thus

the

did
sacrifice had

79

the
the

three modes.
before
16. 'And
further,O Brahman, the chaplain,
the sacrifice had begun,in order to prevent any compunction
in ten ways, arise as
that might afterwards,
said : '* Now
regardsthose who had taken part therein,
there will come
who destroy
to your sacrifice.
Sire,men
the lifeof living
and men
who refrain therefrom
things,
who

take what has not been given,


and men
who refrain therefrom
who
in
act
men
evilly respect
of lusts,
who
refrain therefrom
and men
w^ho
men
men

"

"

"

speak lies,and

who

men

who slander,
do not
men
who speakrudely,
and men
"

who do not
and men
men
who do not
and men
who
chatter
vain things,
men
refrain therefrom
[l39,
l4o]men who covet, and
who covet
and men
who harbour illwill,
not
men
"

"

"

"

harbour

it not

who
men

who

whose views are wrong, and men


whose views are right.Of each of these let them, who
do evil,
alone with their evil. For them who do well
let your
majesty offer,for them. Sire,arrange the
"

men

rites,them

let the king gratify,


in them
heart within find peace."
1

the

7.

And

kingwas

aroused
"

ways

shall your

whilst
Brahman, the chaplain,
the sacrifice,
instructed and
out
carrying

further,O

and incited and gladdenedhis heart in sixteen


Should there be peoplewho should say of the

the sacrifice: King Wide-realm


king,as he is offering
is celebrating
sacrificewithout havinginvited the four
classes of his subjects,
without himself having the eight
who
without the assistance of a Brahman
personal
gifts,
has the four personalgifts
;'then would theyspeaknot
the
fact.
of the four
For
the consent
accordingto
classes has been obtained,the kinghas the eight,
and
his Brahman
With regard
has the four,personal
gifts.
*

each and every one


of these sixteen conditions the
king may rest assured that ithas been fulfilled.He can
and be glad,
and possess his heart in peace'."
sacrifice,
to

This whole
of the sixteen.

closingsentence

is

in
repeated,

the text, of each

]80

[l4l]i8.
neither

were

nor

fatted

put

to

further, O

And

pigs,nor

were

No

posts, no
sacrificial spot.
there

workmen

their

upon

employed

faces.

chose

slaves

the

carried

fear, nor

nor

And

Whoso

with

tears

worked

help, he

to

as

the

around

weeping

chose

used

and
messengers
neither by rods

and

their work

on

be

to

driven

were

fowls,

nor

livingcreatures

strew

to

mown

grasses

goats,

down

cut

were

that sacrifice

at

of

kinds

any

trees

Dabbha

Brahman,

slain,neither

oxen

any

death.

SUTTA.

KUTADANTA

V.

What
each
not.
help, worked
chose
to do, he did ; what
they chose not to do, that
With
left undone.
was
ghee, and oil,and butter, and
that sacrifice
milk, and honey, and
only was
sugar
accomplished.
whoso

not

[142]19.

'And

vassals, and

the

of

mans

of the

Wide-realm,
This

hands

It would

wealth

not

said

it

majesty accept

hither
at

our

is

largesseto
to

the

east

the south

And

their

was
gift,
of King

[143]

'

just.

you

Do

refused

been

to

keep

you

thus

us

now,

our

own

the

one

were

co-operation,and

the

to

take

homes.

King

Let

too

us

continual

king'ssacrificial pit,and

thereof, and

the

Brahmans

householders

things given, and

Brahman,

King

king,

with
we

sacrifice.

in all respects like


himself
Wide-realm

Thus,

the

by

"

of the

the

yours,

"

Kshatriyas established

thereof, and

thereof.

is

offeringa great

the

'So

friends,laid up, the

I, my

beseem

after-sacrifice !

an

west

King

to

brought

we

considered

again

away

Wide-realm

officials

thus

aside, and

went
"

20.

with

had

they

make

that

more

away

When

this

have

of taxation

take

other

went

wealth, and

much

his

of substance,

towns,

wealth, Sire, have


Let

Brah-

the

"

produce

they

of the
them

taking with

Sufficient wealth

and

householders

or

Kshatriya

the

and
officials,

and

the

country

king's use.

*"

'

ministers

abundant

for the

Brahman,

further, O

position,and

whether

"

to

unto

there

Wide-realm

to

to

the

the

manner

the

was
was

the
the

north
of

fice
great sacri-

fourfold

gifted with

THE

WRONG

SACRIFICE

and
eight personal gifts,

four.

And

there

that sacrifice.

This, O

celebration

due
with

of

its furniture
And

21.

lifted

had

kinds

thus

Ku/adanta

Then

those

not

you

I do

fail

not

to

well-said that

as

Sama;/a
But

which

Thus

"

not

say

only

says
then."

like that
Samara

So

King Wide-realm,
him
admit
it

that

at

I
"

the

was

do

Why

Sama^^a

nor

For

"

at

must

who

the

celebrates

such

"

It

or

it
was

certaintythe
have

been

officiated

venerable

the

at

does

behoves

that time

Brahman

Does

Gotama

then,"

was

not

for

Gotama

sacrifice,
or

causes

dissolution

of

of

state

the

happiness

in

'

Yes, O

'

spoken by the
splitin twain.

Thus

"

it

celebrated, is reborn
body, after death, into some
heaven

the

Sama^za

the

be

to

How

approves

would

head

thought :

the

or

who

'

who

well

been

Thus

sacrifice.

that he

'

in silence.

of

for he

heard,"

himself

Gotama

said

accomplishment !

words

has

have

be," but

to

approve

verilyhis
consideringthat

was

Brahmans

Ku/adanta

to

good

Gotama,

those

there

sat

and

'

well-said ?

as

its

pure

said

the

approve

Gotama
'

Brahmans

mode

'

spoken,

Brahman

the

Si

is called the

tumult, and

in

voices

gloriousthe sacrifice,how
But

is what

sacrifice in its threefold

he

their

RIGHT.

Brahman
with
officiating
of the giving of
modes

Brahman,

of sixteen

when

up

his
three

were

THE

AND

Brahman

who,

And

I admit.

that

Brahman,

as

at

that time

that sacrifice

chaplain,had

performed.'
'Is

2 2.

difficult and
more

other
sacrifice less
Gotama,
any
fruit and
with
less troublesome,
more

there, O

advantage still than


[144] Yes, O Brahman,
'

'

are

And

what, O

may

perpetual giftskept up
to virtuous
given specifically

23.

But

why

cause,

virtuous

what

is the
such

recluses, and

difficult and

is.'

there

The

'

the

Gotama,

'

this ?

reason,

that be
in

'

familywhere

they

recluses.
O

Gotama,

and

what

to
perpetualgivings specifically
less
kept up in a family,are

troublesome, of greater

fruit and

greater

82

than

advantage
modes

its accessories

the

latter

will the
Arahat
with
But

Arahats

way.
sticks takes
will go

they

not.

other

sort

24.

'

And

putting

of greater
'

Yes, O

'

And

throat

the

such

what, O
who

than

better

than

the

[146]26.

'

than

from

all of these

three ?

'

is.'
that be ?

may

takes

the Order

"

'

Buddha

as

his

that is a sacrifice

there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice


less troublesome, of greater fruit and

And

is

all these

than

with

man

trustingheart

abstinence

"

and

better than perpetualalms,


largesse,
giftof a dwellingplace.'

'

precepts

each

there

advantage
a

dw^ellingplace (Vihara)on

trusting heart

less difficult and


of greater
When

'

that be ?

may

Truth, and

open

'

is.'

there

Gotama,

with
the

of these

other sacrifice
there, O Gotama,
any
less troublesome, of greater fruit and

Brahman,

better

takingwhat

takes

himself

upon

nence
destro)ing life ; abstibeen given ; abstinence

from
has

'

four .'*

not

evil conduct

lying words
maddening

in respect of lusts ; abstinence


from
abstinence
from
strong, intoxicating,

drinks,

sacrifice better

better
The

than

the

violence

in

of

carelessness

"

that

is

better than
largesse,
petual
peropen
than
the giftof dwelling places,

acceptingguidance.'

attendants,at such

(p.303),push

root

than

alms, better

use

beating

in all the four directions.'

advantage

guide,and

'

of

up

Order

And
is
25.
less difficult and

from

it

at

seizing by

either

Gotama,

the

than

what, O

behalf of the

He

Because

the

on

there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice less


less troublesome, of greater fruit and
of
Brahman,

The

'

are

entered

things are
perpetualgiftsabove the

such

Yes, O

'

the former, where

to

advantage

[145]

not

neither

is

difficult and

greater

why

Brahman,

have

as

its three
'

of sacrifice.'

And

'

such

nor

with

kinds

O
sacrifice,

place, and

therefore

And

sacrifice

of sixteen

of

sort

go,
And

SUTTA.

other

that

and

To

'

xOrADANTA

V.

the

doing so.

Buddhaghosa

general largesse,says

about, make
recipients

them

stand

in

queue,

and

THE

'And

27.

SACRIFICE

WRONG

THE

there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice less


less troublesome, of greater fruit and
of

advantage

all these

than

five ?

Brahman, there is.'


[147] And what, O Gotama, may
*

Yes,

183

RIGHT.

is

difficult and
greater

AND

'

that be ?

'

'

is the
from
long passage
[The answer
down
Sama^wa-phala,
" 40, p. 62 (of the text),
" 75 (p- 74)"on the First 6^-^ana, as follows :
The
the
1.
Introductory paragraphs on
of a Buddha,
his preaching, the

the
to

"

of
the

hearer,

and

his

pearance
apversion
con-

of

renunciation

world.

2.

The

3.

The

4.

The

of

Silas

(minor morality).
paragraph on Confidence.
'Guarded
on
paragraph

is

the

door

senses.*

his

5. The

paragraph

'Mindful

on

self-

and

possessed.'
The

7. The
8. The

paragraph
paragraph
paragraphs

The

description

6.

9.
'

This, O

than

of the
is

knowledge
(omitting direct
inclusive)of

And

Brahman,

mouth,

is

mention

no

higher and

And

when
said

to

either
of

Third,

Second,

(as

in

the

he
the

thus

Blessed

excellent !

man

Just

as

floods

or

celebrate, O

this.'
the

spoken, Kii/adanta

One

Gotama,

of

destruction

can

than

sweeter

had

the

"" 85-96

of

way

intoxications

sacrifice

excellent, O
most

the

of the

knowledge

the

there

Most

greater advantage

Insight arising
further
(ibid."" 83, 84), and

Asavas, the deadly


(ibid.
"" 97-98).]

'

less difficult and

succession

in

the

Brahman

GAans.!]

First

of

said

6^^anas,

from

28.

Hindrances.

sacrifice

S^ma^^a-phala, ""77-82),and

'

Five

of greater fruit and

is then

same

Fourth

and

the

on

previous sacrifices.'

the

[The

Solitude.

on

Brahman,

less troublesome,

Content.

on

:
are

if a

the
man

words
were

to

of

thy

set

up

184
what

has

which

been

has

thrown

been

coidd
eyes
truth been

venerable

Gotama

taken

the

and

the

One

and

To

the

I grant

them

the

Blessed

the

Brahman

in due

seven

goats, and

and
drink
grass
green
them.'
waft around
breezes
Then

fresh

One

order

One

of

became

become

that

aware

alone

doctrine

Let

and

may

is

to

it washed

obtain

the

cool

Kt^/adanta
he

spake

to

heaven, of the
of lusts,of the

of

Blessed

when

the

Ku/adanta

the

Brahman

'

had

necessityof
then

dived

deep

doubt,

and

who

knowledge
the Blessed

won

that

clean

the

the

Brahman

it, who

had

perplexityand
away
had become
dependent on

One

seated

in
so

there,

who
Kii/adanta, as one
mastered
it,
it, understood

put

the

all stains

dye, just even

while

even

to

dissolution.'

into

down

of

is

cloth, with

readilytake

Truth, had

the

seen

doctrine

proclaim the

he

spotlessEye for the Truth, and he


has a beginning,in that is inherent

pure and
Whatsoever

And

30.

did

Brahman,

the

also the

had

say,

them

say, the
of its origin,
of its cessation,and of

will

away,

K6/adanta

knew

to

And

have

of sorrow,
Path.
And
just as

did

hundred

prepared, softened, unprejudiced,upraised,and

Buddhas

the

the

disciple,

seven

discoursed

renunciation.

believing in heart, then


the

the

to

and

their life.

generosity,of right conduct,


danger, the vanity,and the defilement
advantages

as

water,

that

the

of

him

myself

bulls, and the


hundred
heifers,

hundred

eat

29.

the

figureby

me

had

has

so

the Doctrine

accept

seven

hundred

free.

set

rams

who

to

life endures,

steers,

seven

those

in many
I,betake

me

the

day forth,as long as


I [148]myself, O
his guide. And

have

hundred

seven

were

this
as

will

or

just even

"

guide,to

my

the venerable

him

Gotama,

to

that

so

I,even

as

from

who,

has

known

astray,

gone

forms

Gotama.

May

one

has
darkness

the

made

the venerable

Order.

who

that

point out

to

were

or

reveal

to

were

or

away,

external

see

sutta.

down,

hidden

right road to him


bring a lightinto

as

kCtadanta

V.

teaching of

and

said

the

passed beyond

gained
no

full

other

fidence,
con-

for his

Master, addressed

INTRODUCTION
TO

THE

mahAli

form

The
distinct
to

of

that

powers
asked

people

what

Path.
ended.

different

question

same.

leads

series
This

of

is

division

included

here?

noble

the

context

that

"

lo

However

it

of

whole

division

is

contains

as

of

the

they
The

in

that

the

now

Sutta

called
Silas

belonged

can

the

in

to

the

second
it when

that

to

form.
the

and

translated
notion

this

already

been

before

form,

Buddhist

incorporates

the

Silas.

The

no

Sutta

And

Sutta

Our

it.

That

part,

dialogues

it

scriptures

division

Vagga.

part.

young

point.

called

to

also

it

it has

of

have

the

the

known

short,

present

belong
the

the

mind

second

tract

Sila

that

passage

his

of
in

is

very

must

its

division

ancient

very

the

only

therefore,

arranged

were

stand.
raised

question

questions

had

Each

Silas

Sutta

the

along

itself, to

that

the

clear

no

separate

was

and

are

the

raised

have

therefore

have

must

be,

may

to

was

gives

then

point,

from

supplied
It

must

containing

not

be

is

soul,

the

are

he

by

Why

first
is

body

form

might

uses

specially

stands.

now

there

46.)

p.

place

where

that

think,

one,

received

the

the

totally

Arahatship

Sutta

as

commentator

this

double

added,

have

Sama""a-phala.

Dialogues.
Buddhaghosa's
answer

Buddha

the

Dialogue

fold
Eight-

below,
to

in the

out

raises

the

up

the

who

on

and

again

our

raises

stated

reason

set

fact

of

the

must,

above,

of

heresy

words

(The

states

in

Mahali,

harbour

the

then

soul

the

discourse

part

it

and

present

the

mental

second

Sutta,

for

though,

he

answer,

whether

"

the

the

appropriately

might

himself

being

leads

along

aim,

abih"ty

And

gradually

the

Sutta

the

him.

he

is,

two

being raised,
acquiring such

of

under

as

Buddha

sounds

sake

the

Order

then

the

the

And

the

Arahatship,

There

But

for

have

of

question

the

heavenly

it is not

object

to

on

hear

join

their

questioner

the

that

says

First

and

sights

We

remarkable.

is

discussed.

heavenly

Buddha

the

Sutta

this

subjects

see

sutta.

on

which

in

that

second

primitive

part
Buddhism

is

one

of

expresses

group
no

INTRODUCTION.

opinion. They

the

called

are

87

Ten

minates,

the

vyakatani,

Indeter-

Besides

being often mentioned


points not determined.
the
translated
in
and elsewhere,
Dialogues
present work
they form the subject of the Avyakata Sa;"yutta (No. 44
in vol. iv
of
the
as
Sawyutta
they are
Nikdya), and

in the

follows^

"

the world

Whether

2.

3, 4. Whether
5, 6. Whether

the

world

the

soul

from

it'^.

Whether

7-10.

is eternal

or

not.

is infinite

or

not.

is the

same

who

man

has

(a Tathagata) exists,or

the

as

body,

attained

not, and

distinct

or

the

to

in any

truth
after

way,

death.
There

others

are

but

these

1-4

and

form

mentioned

the

7-10

usual

Of

group.

condemned

in

(above, pp. 27 foil.,pp. ^^ foil.,and


respectively).The remaining two, those numbered
5
Brahma-^ala
the

form

subject

of the

incorporated
6'aliya,

in

numbered

them, those

speculations already

are

themselves

occasionally by

the

p. 40
and 6,

present

our

Sutta.
The

positiontaken

Indeterminates

rendered
in

teachers

and

as

similar
in

men

in.

brought

old

excited

Each

of

the

other

about

them

or

way

the

blind

part of the

king

what

He

it

like

like
it

elephant. The
elephant is like.

an

was

was

said

it

said

VI,
'^

like

was

like

said

body

it

was

it

basket.

Ta/w
'

Is

this

See

Sum.

these

like

like
a

Sutta

asks

had
who

granary.
pillar. He who

who

He

had

trunk

(translated
below). Sawyutta IV,

393

the

felt

felt its

had

was

said

tusk
the

felt its back

had

it

said

ear

who

He

said

head

felt

had

explain

to

felt the

had
who

He

them

felt the

different

felt the

had

plough-handle.

that

touches

then
who

He

on

men

who

plough-share.

was

Po/Mapada
4 ; M.

He

water-pot.

winnowing

is

questions ;
to
came
they
getting
Gotama
thereupon tells a story how, in ancient days,
riot having taken
place, the king had all the blind
the
had
an
elephant
city brought together, and
one

so

blows.

It

belief.

actual

legend put into the Buddha's


the various
nonjust quoted. There
the time
are
represented as expressing

of

opinions

strong

Buddha's

the
the

by

Udana

the

Buddhist

in

clear

very

mouth

often

so

item

important

an

is

these
to
as
primitive Buddhists
referred to that it undoubtedly was

the

by

legs

said

it

; Udana

I, 484, "c.

gi\2im
this the

I, 319.

tarn

sariraz".

life? is this the

Childers

body

'

voce
{sul"

.? but

that

pa"-^o) renders
must

be

wrong.

88
like

was

like

the

was

of the

it

the

like
that

blows,

moral

recluses stick
and
points Brahmans
Wrangling on them^ they violentlydiscuss
Poor
folk ! they see
but one
side of the shield

was

was

to

came

comes

it

right

was

other, and

Then

king.

said

he

sure

so

the

against

one

amusement
'

one

felt its tail said

had

felt its bristles

had

each

sutta.

who

who

And

clamoured

they
to

He

pestle.

He

mortar.

broom.

mahAli

VI.

"

In such

"

inference

The

is

obvious.

To

such

discuss

'

is

questions

insufficient
it is based
on
speculation,useless,because
This is the philosophic position; and
it resembles
centuries
closelythe positiontaken up, in the West, many

mere

evidence.
very

Hume

afterwards, by

primitive Buddhism,
insisted

followers.

And,

ethical

corollaryis
pointed out
they

It is several

upon.

of these

his

and
the

as

usual

in

very emphatically
in the Dialogues^

times

speculationsthat
The
jungle,the desert,the puppet show, the writhing,the
entanglement, of speculation are
accompanied by sorrow,
fever of excitement
the
by wrangling, by resentment,
by
;
neither
of heart, nor
freedom
to
to detachment
they conduce
from
to
to
to wisdom,
lusts,nor
nor
tranquillity,
peace, nor
the
of
of
the
the
to
Path, nor
nor
insight
higher stages
ten

"

'

"

to

Arahatship,'
In other

evidence,

words
are

is, from

that

the

only

not

the

speculations,being
useless

they

"

also,therefore,wrong
;
in
a
disadvantage
the
worth
striving for

point
the
struggle towards
only aim
perfectionand emancipation of Arahatship.
As
for the
Sutta
special point of our
wise

the

soul

will

man

is, or

remembered
be

that

condescend

is not,
the

widely, indeed
people throughout the
so

also

discuss

same

the

the

"

body

view

negative
universallyprevalent
world

that it

was

lesson

that

question whether

the

the

as

is

"

"

it must

be

known

to

now

among
almost

unthinking

certainlyheld

general opinion about the soul in the


different.
There
(to
pre-Buddhistic Upanishads is somewhat
in my
article in the J. R. A. S.
set
out
judge by the passages
for January
as
1H99) it is looked
being, at least
upon
the
smaller
than
after
death, when
body, though
during life,
it flies away
from
the body through an
aperture in the top of
the head, it was
apparently regarded as a subtle and very
of the
impalpable, but still material, double
body of the
in

India.

the

to

insufficient

view,

the

no

on

are

of

Buddhist

based

The

deceased.
It

was

the

refusal
^

to

For

allow

any

place

instance,M. I, 455.

for

this

universal

189

INTRODUCTION.

belief
the

in

semi-material

most

in Gotama's

'

much

same

word
soul

fact

is used

Even

in the
word

And

old

authorised

will

others
to

comes

our

modern

of

use

high-souled man
calling attention

'

or

to

the

sense

our

which

Bible, in

of emotional

sense

intellectual

or

Gotama's

clear.

more

of

altogether 449 times, it is used ^^^ times


of person
\ only 85 times in the animistic

make

in the

as

translation

in the
306 times
qualitiesor disposition^.

word

the

point

than
half the
the
times
Shakspere more
sense.
secondary, ethical, emotional

occurs

simple,

the

it is in this

in the

This

'

it is worth

and

sense,

to

near

very

expressions

in

even

word

merely

came

such

music'

for

Where

have

we

Action,' which

'

usually

which

opinion on

'soul.'

the

of

character.

as

in

that

the

said

respect he

this

In

'

soul,'Gotama
the

the

without

constructed

been

said

is

original,feature

most

an

that

system

own

religion
form

to

us

his

the

other

enable

to

in

perhaps
No

teaching.

sufficient records
has

soul

striking,and

is really very
position,which
of the
rejected entirely the use
He
retained
it
in
sense.
a
personal

He

old animistic

of course,
intellectual

though,
meaning of onesdf, himself,' "c. ^ And
he acknowledged
the realityof the emotional
and
h
e
refused
look
dispositions,
absolutely to
upon

them

unity.

in the

sense,

as

The

positionis
the

to

that
the
to

absolute,

so

there

position is also
what
is usually
find

belief

should

understood

in

the

and

soul,

as

insisted

of

so

about

it.

future

Yet

fundamentally opposed
religiousbelief, both in

is great temptation to
which
at least a covert
or

in

mental
funda-

primitive Buddhism,

mistake

no

on,

there

loophole through

be

original,so

so

elsewhere, that

and

often

so

right understanding

it is essential

India
to

'

life

(that is

of

attempt
esoteric

course

of

be
of way,
sort
as
soul), can
recognised, in some
part
There
is
no
so
widely accepted a religious system.
efforts
have
the
find
to
one
always met
loophole, and
with
unswerving opposition, both in the Pi/akas themselves
a

of

and

works*.

in extra-canonical

Actsxxvii.
'Wewereintheshiptwohundredand seventy-sixsouls,'

There

decision

about

are

them

to

as

of

score

would

not

; but

ambiguous passages
change the proportion to

37.

different
any

stantial
sub-

extent.
'^

Attano,

nominative
sa,yam
*

atta, the

is almost

See

pp. 39-42,

the

"c., in

attana,

always,if not
the

notes

the

oblique cases.

But

for

the

might have been misunderstood,


indeed
always, substituted.

of which

use

quotationsin

and

all

my

'American

Lectures'

above, pp. 81, 87.

(London, 1896),

IQO

VI.

available

Our

Buddhists

from

the
from

the

that

there

were

of

belonged
had

of

the

of

of

the

same

as

that

at

in their
pp.

held

which

Bonds,

the
form

of discussion.

unworthy

in this

used

Sutta,

misunderstood.
is

certain
rid

view

raise in the

subjective

state

be

to

reached, in

world, by going along an eightfoldpath,so called


which
of the eight good qualitiesor characteristics
this
divided
its eight parts.
path is
Progress along
in

14-19

which

this

stages

hope

commentator

Mahali,
to

the

are

yet

may

they

of

expression sambodhi-parayano

hitherto
13, has been
The
Buddhist
ideal

thought

arguments

of his way
as

of Asoka.
of

schools

the

it,

on

time

schools

We

their

opinion

Sutta, goes out


our
Buddha,
of a question,and to put aside

"

the

as

of these

seem

that

Vatthu,

commentary

opinion
really theirs, as

it would

it is clear

Katha

condemned

be

enable

to

importance, of
But

the

eighteen

contain

in

The

early

as

names

will

Vatthu

the
practically

the

Va^^i-puttak^^.

if the

it is, then

declares

chapter

The

which

But

of

or

attempts.

of the

out

two

work

Kathi

the

first

arisen.

and

words.

own

such

the

to

then

numbers,

express
such
Buddhists

They

recover

the
made

statements

which

Sammitiya

of

present sufficient

at

not

are

who

tone

and

to

records

either

judge

to

us

those

SUTTA.

MAHALI

of.

evil

dispositions,the

The

Sambodhi

ten

is

because
make
into

up
four

so-called

the

insight,
is essential
the
to
intelligence,
awakening, which
of
three
this
of
And
what
state
higher stages
Arahatship.
is connoted
the
term
can
best, perhaps, be understood
by
got

are

wisdom,

by

in

bearing

mind

its

seven

parts, the

constituent

Sam-

investigation into the truth,


self-possession,
calm, joy, concentration, and magnanimity.
energy,
of the four stages of the
In describingthe first and lowest
(Digha I, 156 ; M. P. S. II, 27 :
Path, it is always stated
A.
of
that
the
he
has
then
disciple not
II, 238, "c.)
the sambodhi,
attained
he has only attained
abhisamaya

bo^^//ang"

"

"

"

that

but

he

parayano)
support.'
sambodhi

the

as
stages
that.'
to
"

is

his
as
explains this as 'having the Four Truths
'He
has
Buddhaghosa (Sum. I, 313) says:
that of the three higher
is meant
by which
"

his furthermost

aim

explanation

; in other

is

the

Katha-vatthu-ppakara"a-a/Makatha,
p.
Societyfor 1889).

Pali Text

{stib voce

But

Buddhaghosa's
^

Childers

sambodhi-parayano.

words, he will attain

only
8

one

possible

(in the Journal of

in

the

INTRODUCTION.

the
P^li

where

Pi^akas

never

is confirmed

and

context,

the

means

the

word

wisdom

of
of

of the

higher stages
to
point
necessary
first

the

importance
the

because
followed

by

been

corrected

have

discussed

which

word

the

in his

^.

occurs

of

doctrine

entirely opposed
word

does

the

The

should
why we
started, in his

word

this

And

the

to

from

thing
only

to

Order
have

so

in the
this

upon

laid

precepts

of

view, on
apart from, that
carrying out those
very

without
doubtful

English

in

See

the

of

is

Senart,

'

the

to

Path.'

But
the

the

context

the

by

quite possible
of the

rest

Asoka

sufficient

reason

that

mean

Path
is

"

for

down

different
the

of

the

he

had

the
of

held

described

rules

of

'

new

the

life.
'

to

Pi/aka

than,
rules,

'

sion
conver-

It is therefore
should

be

express

Piyadasi,'I, 186,

ifnd II, 223.

to
as

Order,

those

result in

conversion

texts,

to

up

even

the

supposed

not

mind

Acting

not

of

members

were

never

Buddhist

Inscriptionsde

authorities referred to at I, 182

numerous

are

laymen, are, from the


plane altogether,lower

of the

word

different

quite

to

the

Eightfold

discourse

of

state

Path.
can

the

"

There

Both

awakening

translations

and

Pi/akas,

is

no

the

on

nature

precepts,

whether

earliest

Eightfold Path, towards


birth,of Arahatship.
the only meaning of the

Buddhist.

very

the

the

future

Arahat

the

yet

as

set

Pi^akas.

of

the

'

the

some

entering

becoming

'

to

(upasakas), but even


that they
(bhikkhus), shows

the

'

Asoka

not, this

or

wisdom

attained

point

in

be

laymen

'entering
and

be

where

passages

seem

started,

contempt,

all the
to

had

does

Vehicle

with

he

Buddhism.

of with

Lesser

that

us

Pali

the

of

opinion,along

doubtless

further,

Path

understand

own

far found

so

in

spoken

would

not

attainment,

been

sambodhi

Paramitas, towards
then
Buddhahood,

of

view

the

as

There

expressions.

the

their

in accordance

more

Whether

of the

found

doctrine

require
Mahayanist doctors,
here, and

line

birth,
important as giving

not

to

means

necessarilyimply this,nor

not

it.

of

also

has

says
that he

future

interestingand

mention

is

and

Burnouf

there

king

If this

own

it is most

Buddhism

of

it is

distinction

j?^"5 voce

The

opinion, along
attainment, in some

the

of

the

sambodhi.'

for the

out

the

because

insight

But

Dictionary,
Buddhahood
has
not
Buddhaship,
'),and
of the
who
distinguished scholars
by any
Asoka's
the
of
eighth edict in
meaning

of

('attainment

path

the

always
Arahatship.

to

history
rendering

in

but

Buddha,

in the
passage
been
traced.
It

has

the

erroneous

other

every

sambodhi

out

for

Childers

by

the

this

I91

and

the

used,
man's

other

192

VI.

becoming
'

upAsaka

an
'

conversion

is used

joiningthe
having one's
of

the
be

implied
The

bhikkhu.

English

two

senses

either

"

word
that

of

the

is the
of the

controversialists

of

are

of

how

standing phrase

asking

used

to

of

Arahat

(M. P. S., p. 60, at


elsewhere),it is said he has

the

passage
the
to

recluse

the

(that

'

Opponents
question, and

this

It

is

and
it is
the

never

always (though the phraseology


Arahatship. Thus, in the

that

state

the

answer

answered.

but

attainment

the

Order) ?

it is

Buddhahood,

the
differs)

in

life of

the

Buddhist

fond

notice

of

aim

in

occurs

(Digha I, 156)

quoted

attainment

to

first.

'What

to

is

ought always

and

word,

sambodhi-pardyano

interesting

of

"

use

is,of the member

life

in

the

though

faith,or that
organisation of a new
life
the
the second
higher
opened to

eyes

in the

first above

an

For

outward

word

question,

or

in

accurate

more

SUTTA.

MAHALI

and

so

of

end

realised

has

so

Chapter V,

the

of

aim

(brahmay^ariya-pariyosanaw).The

become
often

and

the

higher

Ratha-vinita

and

KxiWa.

Sakuludayi Dialogues (Nos. 24 and 79 of the


conclusion.
In
MsLgg-Zilma.
Collection)lead up to the same
the Sawyutta
the
said
be
the
is
aim
to
IV, 51,
complete
of
sorrow
pari""a), and the
(dukkhassa
understanding
the

is

reply

same

the

by

explanation

that

follow

is to

the
the

out

And

Arahatship.

to

further

expanded

this

Mil. 49, 101). In


compare
is said to be the destruction
of which

the

of

way
whole

of

describe

(IV,233)

book

same

standing
gaining this underthe
Eightfold Path

repeated further on (S. V, 6 :


Anguttara (IV, 7) the object

of the

bonds,

seven

the

tion
destruc-

is

preciselyArahatship.
is used in the
sambodhi-patto

So
to

is

in the

on

the

Arahat,

of whom

Nipata, 478, 503,

Sutta

it is said

No
(Itivuttaka,

47,
A.
also
A.
ibid.
and
=
II,
II, 14,
200,
p. 42 : compare
p. 117
will
reach
he
N.
that
this
in
S.
world,
202
even
here,
765)
;
the
which
is said to be
the sambodhi,
the
to
to
up
way
Eightfold Path (M. I, 431 and the Dhamma-^akka-ppavattana

('having the

amata-parayano
his

aim

')in

putta Tissa
Of

'

at

course

Buddha

and,

as

had

such,

yet traced, but

Sutta,

not

Kath^

Vatthu

the
not

had

above

ambrosia

7 ^
intended

the

all the

graces

we

is

expressed by
Arahatship as
quoted by Moggalliof

XXII,

is not

attained

which

with

Sutta, "c.). And


sambodhi-parayano,
of statingwhat
started,is only another
way

sambodhi.
an

Arahat

to

He

imply
was

should

an

have

that

the

Arahat,
^.

Mil.
at
brahma^ariyabrahma-parayano
234,
ISI.
and
A.
at
at
I, 88.
Ill,
da""/a-parayano
75,
parayano
'
form of sambodhi.
Childers thinks sambodho
is merely anoiher

Compare

194

VI.

MAHALI

(=Pu""a), Godhi-putta

Mantd"i-putta

(
Moggali-putta
Less
frequentlythe reverse
child

mother,

name

but

so

that

and

way,

and

Vatthu).

mother

or

referred

simply

of the

name

mother's

the

Devadatta),

Kathd

father,

to

the

as

so.

the

taken

always

is

the

case,

famous,
and

that

noteworthy

in this

is the

become

father,of

or

It is

has

of

author

Tissa,

whose

SUTTA.

father
is

name

either

from

the

is

used

never

never

personal

from

clan, or

the

family,to

which

she

the

of the

to it
-putto added
(Vanganta-putto,Todeyya-putto \ rathakara-

in

name

similar

putto).

But

classified
The

6.
the

clan,

way
these

under

the

name

of

of the

or

mahara^a,

thapati,

"c.

general

term

bhante,
8.
a

in

there

ayye,
is the

prefixed

but

person,
narrative

rather

be

the

addressed

person

ing
contain-

not

respect,

or

such

"

as

"c.

avuso,

Lastly

should

rare,

of courtesy

specialapplicationto

any

are

positiotiin society,or the occupation, of


Such
are
brahma"a,
gahapati,

addressed.

mere

of

division.

next

the

root-form

trade, has

which

cases,

person
7. A

Occasionally the

belonged.

local name,
added

or

mula

the

to

in

used

never

addressing

gotta

or

name,

two
more
or
distinguish between
of
Thus
of
the
different
the
same
name.
people
eighteen
mentioned
in
three
the
are
books,
Kassapas
distinguished,in
and
narrative, as Uruvela-NadiGaya-Kassapa
respectively;
of the eight different Pittas
is distinguished as Ma-('^/none
kasandika
the
different
is
of
seventeen
Bharadva^as one
;
instances
are
distinguished as Kapa/Zrika. Other
probably
Hatthako
SubhaA/avako,Bahiyo DaruX'iriyo,Pokkharasadi
gavaniko, "c.
of
the rules
On
one
regulating the choice as to which

these

various

be

used

be

made.

of

should, under

names

the

particularcase,

considered

close

personal

of

sorts

in any

It is not
case

to

sentences,

courteous

familiarity,to
that

names,

is, either

circumstances,

followingobservations

the

may
in the

equals,except

among
either

use

the

of

the

nickname

two
or

of

sorts

the

niula-

nama.

The

Buddha

So"adaw^a

or

'

at

Saw^ya

M.
at

the

sons

lastlyof the
'

of

Brdhmawa

as

in

above

the

(forinstance

Suttas

so

; A.

called

I, 16, 178
I, 56, 159, 166 ; II, 173
M,
II, 127, 132, though his gotta name

Todeyya-putto may
of

Brahmans

Ku/adanta

and

6^a"usso;n

54;

addresses

be

rendered

the dwellers

Todeyya

clan,' the
'

in

either
Tudi

'

'

son

(a

Todeyyan.'

of the

well-known

man

IV,

of Tudi

is

'

or
village),

INTRODUCTION.

at

A.

given,Moggallana).

But

given, Akasa-gotta
name

is

above

where

he

addresses

apparently a clan
solitaryexception
the

On
not

be

may
hand

other

he

I, 228-250

M.
This

is

in

only

M.

175,

and
Va^^.^ayana,
calls Sa^^ako

also

not

name,

his

at

gotta

calls

he

his gotta
of Ka/iMna.
name
the usage
followed
by others

(7a"usso;n, a
Pilotika
by
member

his

by

Buddhist,

Gotama.

as

ascetics,
Thus

by

ascetic

Assa^i,

This

Dighakept his nails long) by


at
again Aggi-vessayana. And

Thus

the

addresses

he

I, 497-500

because

with

accord

Buddha.

the

besides

youth.
usually addresses

name.
by their gotta
the
Sa/^^ako,
Niga"///a,by

which
is
gotta name,
II, 40 he calls Vekhawaso

his

Amba//"^a,

as

but

calls

gotta

instance

one

Ka"h^ya"a).

was

9 5

of his

because

Aggi-vessayana.
(so called,no doubt,

name

had

Brahman

young

his

though

232,
have

we

Buddha

the

At

nakho

IT,

(hisgotta

name

paribba^aka,

as

M.

Sikha

gotta

of

When

the

the

of

gotta name
Buddhist
order,

Buddha

therefore

find

we

I,

M.

at

and
{loc.ct^.),

name

addresses

Brahman,
his

body,
every-

his

by

other

gotta
ascetics

has been
used
name
as
by the Buddha
by the same
narrative
for
the
in
of
instance,
case
introductory
(as,
D. 1, 178
Sarabha, A. I, 186; Potaliya.A. II, 100 ; Po///^apada,

addressed
in the

one
foil.),
names.

that

conclude

may
This

custom

doubt

these

also

probably gotta

are

addressing people by

of

in certain

their

gotta

expressly
cases,
Nigaw//^as (Jacobi, Caina-Siitras,' II, 305).
Order
a
They called their own
(ibid.321, 327), and
gotra
of
apparently thought it worldly to recognise the existence
no

name,

forbidden

common

one

was

to

other.

any

Buddha

The

of his Order

members
A.

Vappa,
III,
the

284).
Order,

them

but

same

he

is addressed

by

as

the

free

of such
the

name

clans

are

Brahmans.
names,

Brahmans,

I,

220

members

junior
distinguishedamong

either

by

their gotta,

of

or

(compare

name

gotta

in any

the

member
every
We
have
no

and

name.

other

same

It has
and

(so of

A.

I, 91, 354;

more

him

by

Brahman,

Probably

every
clans, had a

of the

good

clan, whether

MoggallAna, Ka"^^ana,
Sariputta). Nagita, for instance, though
Kassapa by his nephew, the novice Siha, is
Buddha
simply as Nagita.

mother's,

addressed

M.

least of the

own

personal names

Mahanama,

addressed

Kassapa, Gotami,

their

by

holds
at

some

always

are

their

by

The

not,

or

; of

II, 197

of his

members

addresses

as

been

that

the

each

familyor

clans

The

case.

those

given

concluded

"^ens
O

certain
names

in Brahman

that

they are
adopted them
taking the gotta

have

must

gotta

of each

of the

instance
used
books

in
to

Brahman
from
name

the

of

196

VI.

SUTTA.

MAHALI

private chaplain, their purohita priest. But in that


that such
evidence
should
case
we
surely expect to find some
There
in such
is no
clans.
usually maintained
priests were
All that we
is that
evidence
of the kind.
can
fairlyconclude
their

the

clans

from

descended
also

bore

well

founded.

gotta

the

speaking

to the

of

these

as

the

claim

the

above,

It would

the

others

person
referred

usage
it would
seem

honourable

to,

that

by

gotta

these

the

name,
nick-

speaking of

it is

used

never

it.

by the Buddha

name

of the

in

But

be

to

use

that

tended,
use.

to

admitted

seem

followed

as

the

either

than

of

out

referred

who

Brahmans,

was

be

to

names,

Brahmans

even

generally known,

the

more

that

shown

once

drive

others,

ancestors

and

of non-Brahmans.

to

From

use

very

same
:

As

names

person,

in

the

names

when
a.

the

claimed, by

and

considered

was

personal

also

and

names,

as

title of paribba^aka
or
descriptivegeneral name
the title Brahma//
a
(wandering mendicant, recluse). Even
for
the
the
of
recluse.
in
name
case
a
was
dropped
gotta
of
There
both
number
to
are
a
as
general principles
problems,
the

than

and

unsolved.

names,
a

mula-nama
what

To

details,that
Is A/ara,

to

as

; is Kalamo

classes

Were

the

the

comes

small?

What

Are

the
there

the

was

nickname
clan

of

use

name^

gotta
of

explanation

or

names

this limitation

dozen

clan

in

names

was

when

later law

or

of

matter

Magadha
exactly implied by the
The
word
probably
gotta
the Pi/'akas were
composed, as

as

many

that

name

historical

Kula-nama?

in the

it then

for

people

meaning,

same

has

gotra

as

combined

clan-name,
had

the

this

remain, in
instance, a

gotta

is the

there

Kosala

and

of

what

limited, and

still

books

written
of

number

the

by

priests.

referred

gottas

to

How
is

so

than

score
more
a
altogether?
light does the meaning of the mil la and gotta names
of the
throw
the religiousconceptions and
social customs
on
people?
these
I can
I hope to return
similar questions when
to
and
find time
in
Pali Oiiomasticon, of the names
to
publish my
in the
older
here
the Pi/akas
and
has
inscriptions. What
said is probably sufficient to make
the use
been
of the names

very

much

What

in this

A.

Sutta

See

clear''.

note

my

at

'Buddhist

Suttas,'p. 75,

and

contra

compare

I, 188, 278.
^

Evaw-namo

is followed
social

at

evaw-gotto
D.

distinctions

I, 13 by
on

names

at

M.

II, 33

evaw-vawwo

is at present

but
very

S.

Ill,25

evidence

slight.

; D.

of any

I,

242

effect of

VI.

MAHALI

[The
Thus

[i50] I.
Great

Wood
who

mans,

kind

lodging at
And

been

The

the

at

that

at
sent

heard

Blessed

Gabled

time

Hall

in the

of

number

One

Brah-

pressing business of one


Kosala
and
Magadhd, were

the

on

that

say

Sdkya clan, who went


adopt the religiouslife,is

the

at

high reputation

Gabled

that

regarding
One

They

'

news

of the

family to

Blessed

heard.

Vesdli.

Vesali

at

from

Gotama

Sdkya

Now

had

they

Samawa
a

Now

Brethren.]

the

Vesali

another

or

of

have

staying at

once

was

Aim

SUTTA.

that

is

Hall

in the

venerable
has

noised

been

from

out

ing
stay-

now

Great

Wood.

such

Gotama,

the

is the
That

"

abroad

fully awakened
one,
knows
and goodness, happy, who
abounding in wisdom
all worlds, unsurpassed as a guide to mortals
willing
be
Blessed
to
One,
led, a teacher for gods and men,
a
Buddha.
and
He, by himself, thoroughly knows
a
face to face this universe,
it were,
as
including
sees,
Arahat,

an

"

worlds

the

Maras, and
its

mans,

makes

he

lovely in
^

The

Himalaya
and

made

the

world

the

the

gods,

below

its recluses

with

and

Brahmas,

and

the
Brah-

it,,
peoples, and having known
his knowledge known
The
truth,
to others.
its origin,lovely in its progress,
lovely in its

princes

Great

there

and

Wood
In

range.

pillarsonly,and
in which

of

above

stretched
it

they

storied

facing the

die Buddha

"

so

had

house,
west,

often

with

and

stayed.

northwards

Vesali

from
laid out

above

pleasaunce
hall

below

it the

for the

to

the

Order,
by

surrounded

gabled apartments

198

MAIIALI

VI.

SUTTA.

and
consummation, doth he proclaim,both in the spirit
he make
in the letter,the higher life doth
known, in

all its fullness and


visits

pay

those

went

out

to

Now

at

that

Brahmans

the

the

time

went

said

Gotama

is

him,

to

venerable

and

'

and

Magadha

the Gabled

to

Nagita

the

Blessed

Where

is

on

and

Kosala

venerable

personalattendant

the

is it to

good

'

from

Wood,

Great

And

purity.

like that."

Arahats

to

So

2.

in all its

Hall.

actingas

was

One.

And

they

it,Ndgita, that that


for

lodging now,

wish

we

to

see

him.'

[l5l]

It is not

'

One.

Blessed
Then
not

He

without

go away
3. And
clan

round

seeing

and

'

the venerable

Gabled

the

to

will

about, saying, We
Gotama.'

Li/^/^^avi,too,

Hare-lip the

Wood,

Great

the

retired into solitude.'

has

down

they sat

call upon

time, Sirs, to
fitting

to

came

Hall, with

the

retinue of

going up to the venerable


Nagita, he
saluted him, and reverentlystanding apart, he said to
him :
Where, venerable
Nagita, is the Blessed One
wish to
now
lodging,the Arahat, the Buddha
; for we
him ?
And
on
see
receivinga similar reply he, too, sat
I will not go till I have
down
the
seen
apart, saying :
August One, the Arahat, the Buddha.'
his

and

'

'

'

4.

Siha,

But

Nagita,

novice

saluted

and

came

and

him,

standing reverently

apart, he said to him : These


envoys
from
Kosala
and Magadhi, many
of
O Kassapa^, to call upon the Blessed

hi^Mavl,
do

to

come

the

this folk should


'

He

as

when

learner

himself.
a

the

was

novice

who
Li^^i^iavi,

be
of

only

seven

must

he

was

with

allowed

years

therefore

to

the

see

He

old, and
different

joined the
much

so

with

all,even
from

One.'

the

as

Professor

Edward

MUller

(J. P.

T.

S., 1888,

p.

This

is the gotta, the gens, to which

as

Buddha

the

other

Siha, also
A. IV,

97)

the two.
^

Order

intelligence

is the hero of the story told at Vin. I, 233-238


the
latter is not
member
of the Order
a

179-188,

lip
Hare-

clan, has

Blessed

had

shown

favourite with
be

his

of

come,

and

One;

retinue

Nagita'ssister.
a

them, have

best, O Kassapa, that all

'Twere

same.

son

that

He

too,

Brahmans

of the

'

the

the venerable

to

up

Nagitabelonged.

at

all.

confounds

THE

AIM

THE

OF

BRETHREN.

Tell

the

Very well, then, Siha.


yourself.*
Very good, Sir,'said Siha
the venerable
Nigita. And he
One

and

was,

saluted

apart, he said

him

to

even

in front of the house.'

5. And
from
the

Siha

from

Kosala

And

so.

and

took

their

Li/^y^^avi

Magadha

down

And

Blessed

when

few

hiMAsLYis

one's

the

to

Blessed

of

One, and
thus

Brahmans

with

And
of

retinue

was

the

politenessand
side.

seated

him

the

courtesy,

Hare-lip the
clan, bowed

his

himself

seated

out

came

he

on

one

addressed

the

Sir, Sunakkhatta
ago.
and
said : "It is
me,

^, since

first

under

came

of

only

the
three

Blessed

the

heavenly forms, pleasantto behold,


to
satisfyall one's desires, excitinglonging in
heart.
But
I cannot
hear heavenly sounds
like

One, and
fitted

to

came

One

assent

One

exchanged

one

the

said

days

Mahali

years,

he

One, and

Some

on

Blessed

the

to

side.

also, with

where

And

down.

sat

seats

in

Blessed

the

greetingsand compliments
and

novice

went

the shade

and

Blessed

standing reverently
he had said to Nagita.
as
Spread out a mat for me in

[152] Very well, Siha,

house,

the

99

him, and

'

did

that."

see

can

Sir,are there such heavenly sounds, which


he could not hear, or have
they no existence ?
real, those
They are
heavenly sounds, pleasant,
fitted to satisfy
one's desires,excitinglonging in one's
Now,

'

'

heart, which

could

he

hear.

not

They

not

are

things

nought.'

of
^

This

went

over

Order.

mortification.
forth

the

And

of the uselessness

But
*

Buddha

we

Now

to

was

scorched,

Naked,

without

He,

do

This

(p.316)

as

not

is

now
a

show

name

ra^a.

woods,

frozen, lone in fearsome


fire,afire within,
the

that Sunakkhatta
the

again

how

that the Buddha

hermit, sought

hear

calls him

in extreme

was

this doctrine, as put


wrong
told the story {Git.I,398)
of the efforts he himself had made
when
it

by Sunakkhatta, was,
'

the Buddha's

personal attendant; but


old age
(M. I, 82),he
left the Buddhist
of Kora
the Kshatriya,and
to the creed
Kora's doctrine
the efficacyof asceticism, of rigidselfwas
became

man

young

afterwards,when

of the

of faith,'

crown
ever

came

gotta,

back

the gens.

to

the fold,

Buddhaghosa

2CX"

VI.

But

6.

ultimate

what

he

why

real and

being thus

one-sided

and

"

the

And

why

not

concentration

[sa

[154]8,

'And

one-sided

9.

the

he

practised
in

object only

one

hears

the

has

the

not

of

nature

sounds.
self-

his

hi].

mad

also,Mahali, if he have

so

with

concentration

direction, the

one
any
for the

objectof hearing

since

of

practised
the object of
"

the

sights,he

Because

have

direction, in the
the North, or above,

with

with

to

one
or

Then

concentration,

view, he only sees

West,
not

heavenly sounds.

one-sided

the

object

heavenly

of

sounds.

practised

hearing,in
Then,

and
,

same

the

not

the

or

in any

the

them, they

with

of mind

what

'

recluse, Mahali,

concentration

East, or the South,


below, or across,
or

hear

not

thingsof nought

seeingsuch heavenly forms

such

proximate, and

could

not

Suppose

'

SUTTA.

is the

then

cause,

[153]7.

MAHALI

he

reason,

the sounds, but

hears

he

sees

sights.
'

[155]10,

II.

But

self-concentration

Mahclli,he has practised


suppose,
the double
with
object in view of

direction, those
one
hearing, in any
seeing and
Then
heavenly sights and those heavenly sounds.
he
has
since
practised self-concentration with the
double
the sights and
object in view, he both sees
the

hears

sounds.

so

12.

practiceof

such

self-concentration

life under
relig^ious

the

No,

Sir, is it for the sake

Then,

'

'

why

of

the

attainingto

the

Because

of his self-concentration.'

nature

lead

And

Mahali.

There

the

of

that

Blessed

the
One

things,higher and
which
they do so.'

are

brethren
?

sweeter

that, for the sake of


[l56]13. 'And what, Sir, may those other thingsbe ?
In the first place,Mahali, a brother
by the complete
destruction
of the Three
Bonds
(the Delusions of self.
in the efficacy
of good works
and
Doubt, and Trust
than

'

'

ceremonies)

be

'

See

the full

reborn

my

becomes
in any

'American

meaning

of these

converted

state

Lectures'

three,and

of woe,

man,

and

one

who

not
can-

is assured

(London, 1896, pp. 142-149)


of the followingBonds.

of

for

202

VI.

MAHALI

SUTTA.

(than seeing heavenly sights and hearing heavenly


lead the
sounds),for the sake of which the brethren
life under
me.'
religious
But is there, Sir, a path,is there a method, for
14.
'

realisation of these

the

conditions

'Yes, Mahali, there is.'


what, Sir, may
[157]'And
?

method

'

be

that

that

path,what

'

Verily it is this Noble Eightfold Path, that is to


rightspeech,right
say : Right views, rightaspirations,
of livelihood,right effort,right
action, a right means
'.
mindfulness, and right ecstasy in self-concentration
This, Mahali, is the path, and this the method, for
*

realisation of these

the

'

15.

One

conditions.

day, Mahali,

stayingat Kosambi,

was

in

pleasaunce. There two recluses,Mandissa.


the wandering mendicant, and
(7aliyathe pupil of
with the wooden
to
bowl),came
Ddrupattika (theman
the greetingsand compliand exchanged with me
ments
me,
of politeness
and courtesy, and stood reverently
so
standing they said to me :
apart. And
the Ghosita

How

is it

then, O

venerable

Gotama,

is the

soul

thing as the body ? Or is the soul one thing


and the body another
?
Listen then, Sirs,and
and I
give heed attentively,
will speak.'
in
mendicants
Very good, Sir,' said those two
the

same

'

'

'

assent,

and

spake

as

follows

"

given in the
\H ere follows the whole of the exposition
Sdmaniia-phala Sutta, ^$40-75, that is to say:
and his preaching,
The appearance of a Buddha
1
.

The

awakening of a hearer,and

3.

His

4.

The

selftraining in act, word,


details of morality
minor

5.

The

2.

his

entry i^tto the

Order.

absence

and

speech.

which

of fear, confidenceof

he observes.
heart

tJunce

resulting.
*

See

3M-316.

my

'American

Lectures,'

pp.

36-1

41;

and

Sum.

I,

THE

The

6.

his

OF

AIM

in which

way

THE

203

BRETHREN.

he learns

the door

guard

to

of

senses.

7. The
8. The

constant

power

he thus gains,
self-possession
with
of being content with little,

plicity
sim-

of life.

emancipationof heart from


covetousness, illwill,sloth of body
The

9.

"

and

16. 'Then

he

of

state

and
a

and

into

enters

and

joy

him

ready to
thing as

same

the

body

and

up

the

the

another

body,
?

"

mind,

ment
excite-

he

from

evil states,

Rapture
a
detachment, reasoning
"

Now,

thus, would

sees

subject:

Sirs,when
that make

Is the

"

is the soul

or

gains^

First

the while.

thus

take

of

born

ease,

knows

in the

remains

going on
investigation

Bhikshu

and

resultingjoy and peace that


estranged from lusts,aloof

The

10.

fivehindrances

perplexity.

and

worry,

the

one

soul

the

thing and

'

Yes, it would, Sir^'


thus
*But
I, Sirs,know
'

I do

not

say

and

either the

see
one

thus.

And

theless
never-

the other.'

or

[158] 17, 18. \^Thecases are then put of a Bhikshu who


has acquired the second, third, and
fourth Raptures
(D. II, 77-81) and the knowledge arisingfrom insight
the same
question,
(iVa^^a-dassana
; D. II,83, 84) ; and
reply,and rejoinderare given in each case.]
his heart thus serene
("c.above, p. 85),he
19. 'With
his mind
the knowledge of
directs and bends
down
to
knows
of the Deadly Floods.
He
the destruction
This is pain." He
it reallyis :
knows
it really
as
as
is :
This
is the originof pain."
He
knows
it
as
This is the cessation of pain." He knows
reallyis :
it reallyis :
This
that leads to the
is the Path
as
of pain." He
cessation
knows
as
they reallyare :
the Deadly Floods."
"These
it really
He knows
are
as
is the originof the Deadly Floods."
This
He
is :
it reallyis: "This
knows
is the cessation of the
as
is the
He knows
it reallyis: "This
as
Deadly Floods."
"

"

"

"

"

The

idiom

Siamese

kalla/w

et3.m

edition reads

va^anaya

'

No,

compare

it would
A.

I,

144;

not,
M.

Sir.'

II, 211.

On

the

204

VI.

Path

that

To

leads

him,

from

thus

the

Taint
of

the

of

fulfilled.

'

that

the

and

'And

do

Thus

not

Blessed

three

edition.

Two

Arahat

reached

either

the

ends

knows

he

life has

beyond

thus
take

arises
:

been

accomplished.

no

and
the

up

thus,

question

is the

or

"

sees

thus.

one

soul

And

one

exalted

the

Hare-lip

and

theless
never-

other.'

the

or

One

the

of

word

the

up

hold
the

Kfi/adanta

IMSS.

false
to

of

have
the

Brahma-^ala

ts

and

much

too

soul

theory,

might,
the

that

same

(above, p. 46).

(above, p. 167).

being

and

" i6,

explanation
wisdom
the

to

Bhikshu

still

Siamese

the

it

Sir,

above,

characteristic

leanings

soul

MSS.

'Yes,

read:
here

have
the

(7Mnas

the

man,

that

would

trail

Sutta.

Burmese

two

both

gives

Mahali

the

and

he

(in " 19)

unconverted

in

been

see

heart,

clearly,

And

the

following

to

and

Sinhalese
had

followed.

To

Deadly

'

Blessed

Sinhalese

Buddhaghosa
the

the

One.

So

have

from

K'

thus

at

Here

free

free, there

body,
"

set

the

and

be

to

the

not

pleased

h\M/ia.vi,

will

another

the

from

higher

has

is

free

set

set

The

done

as

say

spake

thus

ready

I, Sirs, know
I

be

same

body

heart

free

Sirs, knows

Sir, it would

No,

'

him,

there

him

the

the
is

set

Floods."

Deadly

emancipation,

to

life

make

soul

the

thing

had

Bhikshu,

is

destroyed.

present

When

"Is

his

been

What

this

would

In

the

Lusts,

Becomings,
of

has

of

seeing,

of

Taint

knowledge

After

thus

Ignorance.

Rebirth

"

cessation

knowing,

Deadly

Deadly
Taint

the

to

SUTTA.

MAHALI

But

would.'

reading

the

we

whereas

that
"

be

led

who

astray,

had

only

puthu^^ana,

an

way.
as

the

See

body
also

is the

the

heresy

Introduction

referred
to

the

6^ALIYA

VII.

[Is
[ This
""

as

Soul

THE

15-19,
to

The

Mahali

the

Digha

in

Sutta

being

being

contained

Why
a

be

only
should

of

of

similar

kind,

where

only

referred

to

Sutta,

is

Sihanada

whole

set

Sutta,

is

for

striking
now

the

the
cases

history
is

S.III,

13;

Silas

the

merely

of

the

compare

the

in

the

Digha,
Sum.

tion,
ques-

Udumbarika
But

full.

there
Such
and

Pi/akas,

literature.

the

the

Kassapa-Sihanada

Digha).
the

in

instance

Nigrodha's

full, in

in

of

another

of

the

again,

because

have

twice

of

also

appear

We

the

where

in

it

in

given

not

contained

pa"//a Sutta,

23

in

25

For
Mahali

the

Vagga,

episode

fairly frequent

are

importance

question

(No.

when

included,

for

reason

Is

is

6"aliya episode.

episode

at

reader

episode.

afterwards,

out

Sutta

references

most

the

episode

that

in
the

importance
a

no

Sutta?

separate

already

Silakkhanda

the

for word,

the

Sutta,

this

together,

into

word

there.

have

otherwise

put

last

given

must

put

then

as

the

?]

Body

the

incorporated,

translation

was

would

full,

inclusive,

Sutta

there

from

been

the

referred

distinct

having

Sutta

sutta.

One

Sa/^^yutta
by

crossare

of

quotes

of
the
a

(Sakka-

name.

1,51;

the

Mil.

350.)]

INTRODUCTION
THE

TO

kassapa-sIhanAda

In

this

ascetic,
that

Sutta

the

Buddha,

his

position

explains
as

is

compatible

represented

in

the

is,

which
When
with

speaking
God

claims

to

insight

to

believes
the

in

the

mental
cherished
his

his

by

Tevi^^a),
rank

(as

(as

in the

in

Mahali),

partly

view)

appeal

by

conclusion.

This
fruit

sweetest

that

the

of

life of

social
and
is

it

his

that

best

in

social

of

sights,

"c.

And

questioner.
Buddhist

point

partly

by

that

best

is the

sacrifice,
of

means

seeing

and

which

is

his

to

up
"

an

ground

common

object

the

Po////apada).

the

is the

Arahatship

to

(as
or

Arahatship

the

condition

or

opponent

worthy

more

path

are

as

recluse,
that

of

the

words

always

rank,
a

the

the

leads

course,

starting-point
God

in

his

(from

conceptions

gradually

the

sights,
Sutta

our

he

is, of

highest

heavenly
In

of

and
into

his

act

(as

the

in

none

heavenly

seeing

always
of

with

theory

new

meaning

ethical

them

between

soul

the

who

one

is

Ku/adanta),

phraseology

putting

such

to

of

mystic

possible

as

the

as

the
of

to

attacks

union

in

or

the

very

higher

of

or

the

adopts

even

of

Amba////a),

the

He

union

on

on

followed
far

as

the

(as

sacrifice

on

Brahman

on

soul

method

accepts

of

"

the

on

desirability

opponent
of

or

it,

the

priest,

Brahman,

proud

questioner.

the

(as

point

theology,

current

in

He

exposition

prized

then,

the

sacrificial

himself

puts
of

method

discussing

to

theory,

convictions.

own

He

soul

position

the

trusts

Gotama

same.

to

rank

who

man

far,

so

"

invariable

when

naked

interlocutor.

of

social

superior

to

his

with
asceticism

regards

as

sacrifice

on

conversation

with

his

adherent

an

in

Dialogues)

from

differs

he

sutta.

so

on.

the

best

asceticism.
There

is

But

employed.
of

the

the

myth,

both

ethical
On

result.
and

his

and

dignity

dialectic

skill, and

courtesy
no

little

points

involved,

the

hypothesis

are

that

required
the

in

the

method

an

easy

mastery

to

bring
is

Buddha

principal disciples personifications

of

the

about
a

sun

stars,

INTRODUCTION.

facts

the

difficult to

seem

something quite
who

is it that

How

expect, then,

the

other

disciples
concocted
these
Dialogues,
and
astrological
mythological

have

case,

from

entirely

so

would

One

explain.

different.

that

in

must,

refrain

20*J

they attribute to their hero qualities


of courtesy and
sympathy, and a grasp of ethical problems,
all quite foreign,even
those
to
antagonistic,
usually ascribed
truculent
and very un-ethical
to sun-heroes
mostly somewhat
How

details?

is it

"

personages
the
On

he

hypothesis that
character

and

training
had,

the

have

he

probable

method

would

Whoever

he

was

is

is

To

mental

the

loomed

details

the
of

dialogues

of the

Socrates.

But

We

with

He

story.
as

Plato

he

was

taught
he

else, that

anything
that,than

with

position

same

doctrine

compiler, the

than

concerned

in the

accuracy
in much

the

larger

necessarilymore

to
most

have
had
a
may
of the
he
conversed, may
way
occasions
and
particular
persons.

of

vision

much

so

it is

actuallyfollowed.
Dialogues together

memory
remembered

even

which

have
the

put

have

represented

of that

Pi/akas

the

in

precisely that

sufficientlyclear
well

historical person,

an

was

historical

any

in this respect,
recording the

was,

when

not, like

Plato, giving

think

of compilers,
ought,
than
of co-disciples
rather
of a compiler. The
had
memory
actual
far
the
And
to be respected, and
as
so
kept in mind.
is concerned
doctrine
our
probably a more
Dialogues are
teacher
the
than
of
the
of
the
exact
thoughts
reproduction
his

opinions.

own

this

However

us,

to

ad

menium

of

is

hominem

BenareSjOn
represented

way.

be

He
avoided

the
to

there
'

very

his

the

it

one

describes
the
in

'Buddhist

as

our

of asceticism
of

'two

Sutta.

Pa"^avaggiyi, the
in the Deer-park

it

as

Puggala

in

extremes
'

very

which

Buddha
different
are

painful,unworthy,
Pa""atti

Sutta, by Kassapa

Suttas'

argu-

statement

of his first discourse, the

spoken

out

"

authors
Gotama's

particularperson.

any
the

"

position

the

The

as

present

our

the

lines.

same

first Arahats

calls

in

the
to

five hearers

occasion

So

practicesset

with

have

and

unprofitable\'

be

reference

case

and

accepting
his language,
they give us
the

all these

in

In

between

never

without

converts,

what

deal
can

addressing

first five
at

follow

to

strikinglythe

When

is

adopting

good

opinion given

That

and

followed

method

disadvantage.

in order

read

the

be,

may

Dialogues has one


of the
adversary,
view,

to

of Plato.

dialogues

compel

doubt,

no

(S.B.E.),p.

147.

(IV, 24)
the

to

and
the

ascetic,

208

KASSAPA-siHANADA

VIIT.

desirable

SUTTA.

praiseworthy, are set out as the actions by


which
There
is nothing of this sort
man
a
injureshimself.
in our
Sutta.
To
it alone
one
judge from
might fairly
of
that the Buddha
conclude
asceticism,only insisting
approved
self-control
that the self-mastery and
of the
Path
the
were
highest and best forms of it. There is reallyno inconsistency
as

in these

and

Suttas.

three

Puggala

practiceof

to

of

some

the

the

are

notably

in the

enough

also

our

had

And

self-imposed

twelfth

called

other

Sutta

penances

carried

out

details,in

are

even

the

same

This

Ma^/nma.
Sutta, and the

in
carrying out of such practices,
Those
ascetic a very high reputation.
and

comforts,
looked

all

more

date,
is

oddly
is not

reason

ascetics
with

laid

the

the

self-control

of

And

no

doubt,

specialvirtue.

of

the

as

In

wonder,
in

in

occasion

our

cases,

the

Suttas

dealing
laying stress

in

-also to

Sutta, that

more

as

most

the

ascetics, Gotama,

view, takes

maintains,

despise earthly
voluntary torture,

to

fearsome

to

moderate

He

kind

men.

claim

practices

more

claim.

with

for

countries,wins

who

themselves

submit

even

upon,
other

than

holy

on

of

of the

The

are

put together

was

seek.

far to

the

Sutta

same.

further

Dialogues

Sihanada

Sutta

the

is modified

already been

India.

and

disciples,our

to

language used
exactly the

when

in

in

given

extreme,

time

extent

which

first discourse

in all is

self-mortification

considerable

the

conclusion
at

the

addressed

ascetic,and

an

The

It is clear that
the

while

both

were

passage
is addressed
to

accordingly.

But

the

dispute

this

insight and

self-mastery of the Path, or of the system


intellectual
of
and
moral
for the
self-traininglaid down
harder
than the merely physicalpractices
Bhikkhu, are really
much
evident
of the vulgar.
It was
the eye
to
more
so
the Suttas
And
it
in which
a
point that had to be made.
is made
are
designated as Sihanadas, literally the lion's
roars'
the
to
a
proud claim
by the Arahat
dignity and
that
allowed
veneration
by the people to the
greater than
who
to the man
even
or
self-torturer,
woods.
Bescorched, befrozen, lone in fearsome
and

"

Naked,

without

Struggled,
And

the

ascetics

no

was

not

fire,afire within.

in awful

really
goes
the
than
better

boast

practical. The
It turned

men's

only

silence, towards
further.

even

self-mortification
from

minds
not

superior
^

M.

I, 79

Not

Arahats, they
more

to

goal '

the

only
even

were

an

actual

essential

matters.

was

other

men,

Gat. I, 390.

no

nearer

'

the

were

not

so

hindrance.

Diogenes
to

the

VIIT.

2IO

tap

be

to

came

as

KASSAPA-SIHANADA

with

association

known

the

There

making

amends

by

was

for

charm

desirable

ends
a

of

sort

of

sort

that

results.

The

what

There

tapas.
call

he

we

was

no

worked

'

his

to attain
sacrifice,
there
himself, so
was
supposed to be
producing mystic and marvellous
tapas

for

charm

of

month

ception
penance,' a conof an
entirelydifferent order of religious
idea
of atonement
for, punishment of,
no
sin. But justas the sacrificer was
supposed,

arising out
ideas.

the

as

word

SUTTA.

in

distinction

by

have

to

seems

that

been

it

was

rather

wealth, children, and heaven


worldly success,
power,
sacrifice
attained
were
by
mystic, extraordinary,
; and
faculties
that
attained
were
superhuman
by tapas.

that

By

natural

for like

ends,

offer sacrifice

to

it is sometimes

and

but
sacrifice,

by

different

the

the

anthropomorphism

to

more

cosmological legends

supposed,
gods too were
Thus
perform tapas.
often by tapas, that in
god

one

supposed to bring forth creation ^.


expression often used on such occasions
literally he glowed a glow,' and the
is

meant

to

glowed
desire,

that

or

Sutta.

be

he

these

were

as

some,

placed austerity above


place of sacrifice ^.
learned

Brahman

they

one

would

with

of

the

were

known

among
who

therefore

it could

that

view

heart

repeating by

gods

to

men.

expect,
held

in
to

meant

ascribed

he

strong

all

or

conservative

more

it is

some

been

that

resolve,or

possibly be

may

well

or
sacrifice,

that

"

ideas

been

The

have

glowed

or

of this

lists of self-mortifications

three

before

have

must

he

each

out

various

together,and

actions

There

carried

an

atapasyata,

It may

fierce

is

case

meaning

exact

certain.

means

Kassapa's

in

All

inferred

similar

no

that he glowed with


convey
with
deep thought, or that

practicesgiven
our

by

other

latter

is tapas

'

enigmatic phrase

the

In

the

or

to

take

the

of

the

oneself,

that is the chief thing


teaching others, the Vedic
verses,
other
which
twelve
(with
qualitiesor practicesshould always
be associated) is only given with the interesting
that one
note
the true' only, another
thinks
thinks
teacher
austerity only

and

"

'

be

to

and

necessary,
teaching the Veda
is tapas

^.'

is

There

Thus
sacrifice

one

yet

enough by
several

are

text

'

thinks

learning and
that

'

passages
'
There

says :
of the Veda

and

to

dwell

duty
study
austerity (tapas) is the second,
"

that

itself,for that

third

is tapas,
making similar
three

are

branches

charity are
as

parisons.
com-

learner

the

of

first,

one's life

^atapatha-Br.VI,1,1,13, ^"^ several times in the earlyUpanishads.


So A7/and.
Up. Ill, 17, 2 and 4.
Tait. I, 9.
Compare, on the ethics,Manu VI, 92 and the Ten
ParamitSs.
The idea that Veda-leaming is tapas is a common
one.
^

'

INTRODUCTION.

in the

long

So

the

five

those

who

fires,and

know

those

austerity (tapas),go
Brahma

worlds.
alms

go

reborn

in

give
are

But

the

who

stands

to

bad

the

moon,

high

have

firm

in

follow

forest
of

thence

and

consistently)

the

the

to

doctrine

faith

and

gods to the
and
sacrifice,
to
earth, and

who

return

positionsaccording

have

we

mystical

path
hand, they

other

low

or

become

in the
the

along
the

certain

who

On

these

body,
According

^.

division

corresponding

KMndogya.,
about

he

But

All

which
explain (by no means
passages
soul goes
after it leaves
the
to

in the

somewhat

third.

\'

deathlessness

obtains

where

worlds.

heavenly

Brahman

is the

of one's teacher

house

reward

as

211

their

to

deeds.

insects.

know
the
According to the Br/hadarawyaka, those who
doctrine
of
the
five
those
who
and
in
the
woods
fires,
mystic
faith
and
truth
worlds.
practise
(nottapas) go to the Brahma
On
the other
hand, those who
practise sacrifice,charity,and
the
and
thence
reborn
are
austerity (tapas) go to
on
moon,
earth.
But
those
who
follow
of these
neither
two
paths
insects.

become
Here

austerityis put

in the

III,

last extract.

is

general

which
austerity,

higher,a
This
of

view,

than

with

the

of

that

doubt
before

Gotama,

he

attained

into contact

come

similar

to

those,

during
Nirvana

with
now

from

the

the

argument
In the

"

'

to

II, 7;
differ

details
sacrifice

both

is

and

thing
some-

wisdom.

or

Upanishad point
Arahatship is
Upanishad belief is
that

far
carried so
consistency, nor
that
be
is
to
Buddhist,
simply
it is not
only earlier,belonging to
the
less matured, but
is also not
several.

There

be

can

little

but

of study and
his years
austerity
of Wisdom,
had
the Tree
under

the very

or
beliefs,

in the

preserved

based
general conclusion
was
condemns
practically
physical tapas

no

occupies

Mundaka.
the

faith

Buddhists

his

of wisdom

it

the

of

mind, but

one

or

though

same

logicalconclusion, as
explained by the facts that
when
time
a
thought was
work

the

And

its

are

above

of truth

of

than

meritorious, there

analogue,

doctrine

out

that

kind

exact

grade

Though

4.

themselves

austerity.

worked

not
to

V,

concensus

are

the

to

lower

later passages

I, 9

certain

is the

better

Other

Prajna

6 ;

2, 4,

there

into

at

least with

Upanishads
upon

beliefs

; and

That

them.

that
he

altogether is
(austerity)

against his indebtedness, so far as the superiority


austerityis concerned, to the older theory.

passages

in which

II, 23.
^Mnd.Up.
ATMnd.
Up. V, lo;

that

older

theory

is set

forth

I.

Bnhad.

VI,
P

; Pra^na

I, 9

V,

4, 5.

we

the

have

of

KASSAPA-siHANADA

VIII.

2 12

indistinct
germs
but
still the first

the

the

stages into which


twice-born
(the
these

statements,

"

Ajramas

the

the

of

"

Efforts

should

stress

ranks

of the

later

In

times

(i)the student, (2)the householder, (3)the hermit,

are

laid

was

taken

of the

divided.

be

wandering ascetic ; that


the Vanaprastha,
Gr/hastha,

the

well-known

member

each

is, the

(4) the

and

sistent,
incon-

doubt, and

no

theory
(or perhaps Trainings),four

source

life of

Dvi^as)

SUTTA.

the

on

in which

order

Brahma^arin,
Yati\

the

and

And

stages of effort

the

were

the latter
to enter
being held improper for a man
the
former.
having passed through
The
know
nothing of the curious
Upanishad passages
technical
of Effort
term
(Ajrama) applied to these stages.
And
have
divisions
they
(and these not
really only two
regarded as consecutive
stages),that of the sacrificer and of
the
hermit
(not the Bhikshu). Of course
studentship is
understood
here
But
at
are
as
we
preliminary to both.
the
and
Aj-rama
from
a standpoint reallyquite apart
theory,
it

up,

without

6"ankara

and

curious

other

irreconcilable

and

old

into these
Even

the

but

the

texts

older

shifts when

the

pupil,Yati in two or
Grz'hastha,
Vanaprastha,
^.

old law

The

earliest

books.

Grzhastha,

Bhikshu,

wandering beggar,
i) has

21,

different

order,

"

Hofrath
in

the

Biihler

fifth and

B.C.^

centuries

'

So

See

Manu

dated

frequently
ascetic
not

even

is in the

Brahma^arin,

as

holder,
(student,house-

and

hermit). Apastamba (II, 9,

and

different

these

names

four

for the

possibly
theory of the

Compare
137 ; VI, 87.
Miiller's interesting
note

and

(very hypothetically)

works

V,

Ma.x

as

occur,

Efforts

Vaikhanasa^

third, or
The

not

A"taryakula;", Maunaw,

Garhasthya;;/,
*.
Vanaprasthyaw
stages

^.

doctrine

do

Four

back

read

to

means

passages
Bhikshu
and

to

resort

is

(III,2) gives them


and

do

three

of the

mention

Gautama

Ajramas

Brahma^arin

Upanishads.

to

developed

more

several

for

occur

obliged
they try

are

later and

of

names

such, in the
used

commentators

in the

sixth

Four

VIII,
in

and

Efforts

was

fourth
then

VI, 97.
390, and
of the
translation

his

Upanishads (Part I, pp. 82-84).


under
See Jacob'sConcordance
the wojds.
Comp. Baudhayana II, 10, 17, 6, and Apastamba II, 4, 9, 13.
^
He
a
ventures
on
conjectureas to possibledate in the case of
Him
he placeson linguistic
Apastamba only.
grounds not later than
'

the third century


iS"vetaketu hold

and,

if the argument

then

restingon

the mention

of

older.
a
Burnell, whom
good,
century or two
(Baudh. p. xxx) calls the first authority on the literature of
Schools of the Taittirfya
Veda,' to which Apastamba belonged.

Biihler
the

b.c.

INTRODUCTION.

213

settled as to detail.
It must
already current, but by no means
the date of the Upanishads
evidentlyhave taken shape between
that
of
the
law
books
is to say, either
just quoted and
; that
before

just

or

after the

time

some

I think, go safelyfurther, and


after Buddha,
all probability,
the

Pi/akas

in the

any

has

theory

detail

books

which

after

even

the

together.

For

of the

stages of it,are

four

onwards.

^irin, Gr/hastha,
It will be

respects

neither

both

first

is in

that

the

when

technical
mentioned

The

commentators

In

at

are

And

order.

they

is put

in

the

is not

He

great pains
do

mendicant

wandering
importance,

and

put back

last,
subordinated, as he
the second
place the expression
the
to
wandering mendicant, is

beggar

suggesting

by

so

harmonise

to

is,
(which,
course,
arrangement
infer
is
meant
to
exactly the
strange one)
familiar
so
contrary later arrangement

of time

Brahma-

"

Parivra^aka

of

earlier

the

or

later books.

in the

them

Efforts

"

highest,place.

dropped

divergent

Four

the

Mendicant
and

wandering

to the hermit.
first,
Bhikshu, applied in Gautama

the

time

the

in

differs in two
this final arrangement
of importance
from
the earliest.

at

the

can,

been,

holder,
(i)Student;(2)House-

as

person,

(4) Wandering

of them

place

the

gives

Vanaprastha,

noticed

and

"

the

He

orthodox

an

(3) Hermit,

was

and

have

finallyformulated, in the order as


permanently survived, in the later^law

Vasish/Z/a

from

that

say

it must

become

has

stages in the life of

In

that

We

Pi/akas.

The
to

put

were

Ai-rama, nor

term

rise of Buddhism.

their

view

own

of

in

the

into

Efforts

Four
the

of

words

same

to

the
eyes,

does

as

them.

To

last,in order

; and

the

that

their

the

become

had

the

they try

ancient

to

writer

familiar
But
if the order
they were
dealing with.
which
is
the
older
order,
exactly the
thing,
implies one
Or if it does, then the
can
scarcelyimply the same.
reverse,
the explanation
question arises,why should it ? In either case
the
ideas.
be sought for in the history of
two
may
Now
the distinction
is quite clear, though
between
the two
the ambiguity of the English word
ascetic,'often applied to

they

are

with

'

both,

may

He
least

B.

older
"

by

Apastamba

Gautama

view^.

starts

his

sion.
leading up to the^aboveconcluat
reading them, to put Apastamba
was
some
generations
xxvii), Baudhayana
And
Gautama
(seeBiihler,Ap. pp. xxi-xxii).
the

arguments

'

still.

Vas. VII, 2.
Biihler
Thus

Sanskrit

it from

ventured, after

c.'^(Manu,p.

older than
was

only

hide

to

convinced

not

was

tend

words

"

uses

for

the

one

sawnyasin

term
at

'ascetic'
Baudh.

to

render

number

II, 10, 17 ; for bhikshu

of

KASSAPA-stHANADA

VIII.

214

descriptionof
and

fruits,and

stress

tapas,
the

other

or

one

in

tapasa,

of the

mendicant

though
a

mental

rather

for him
four

than

five

observe

the

is

to

severe

and

without

self-restraint
rules

is

laid down

(inX,
the

rules

1-25),

Buddhist

significantrule

one

quite contrary

to

the

According
is, in begging
priestlybooks
of ceremonial
purity,what we

rules

other

tapasa,

Bhikshu

is

the

wanders

fifteen

the

rule.

of the

it

to

the

in

sponding
corre-

twice-born
for

call

food,

to

the

now

^.

of caste

rules

which

however,

Buddhist
mendicant

the

There

observe.

to

Baudhayana,

Of

calls him

lay

of the

by Kassapa
On

world,
begging his food, his

who

books

instances

called

never

precisely equivalent

are

has

Bhikshu

is

roots

on

practisethese

not

and

physical.

by Gautama,

or

does

the

home, simply clad, and

feed

later

Sutta^

our

He

abandoned

has

all the

giving, as

lists,in

physical self-mortifications.

is to

practices detailed

very

his three

hand, the wandering


he

And

often

point ;

same

he

that

by saying

practise tapas.

the

on

hermit

the

SUTTA.

special efficacyand holiness


of austerity,
self-torture,tapas, is a world-wide
phenomenon,
of
the practice
it was, no
and
doubt, very early in India too,
of the wandering mendicant
the idea
is peculiar to India.
And
though the origin and early history of this institution
while

Now

at

are

present

of ancient

was

It
6^ain

obscure,

records

Gaut.

Ill, 2,

tapasa),

II

; for

in

the others to the


who

Sanskrit, Manu

rendering can,

Sanskrit

words

be

called

may

means

And

point.

they

were
*

also

Vas.

IManu

at

refer to

X,

home

at

he has

; for

as

and

whole, is

desires

yati

at

to

see

Manu

at Manu
VI, 27 ; for muni
in the woods
the hermit
(the

wandering mendicant
remains

'become

under
an

(thebhikshu). Even
of his
the protection
ascetic' (saz^'inyased

VI, 94).
in each
one

asceticism.

or

case,

other

But

the

easilyjustified.Each of the
form, one or other degree,of what
differences
clear
might be made
be

rendering.
of which
rules for the hermit, none
has altogether
ten
Buddhist
Bhikshu
the
to
(Gaut.Ill, 26-35).
applicable
VI, 27 (ofthe hermit). So
Baudhayana II, 10, 18, 4, 5. Manu
But Biihler thinks
Vas. X, 31, according to the commentator.
Gautama

otherwise;
^

it

confirmed

are

who

he

varietyof

by

that

Buddhist

Upanishad which,

parivra^akaat

son(theVeda-saz^/nyasin),
This

believe

Both

time.

it is said that

86

for the old Brahman

in the

an

; for tapasa
these the last two

Of

II.

to

reason

no

Buddha's
this

on

agree

VI, 54, 56, 69,


VI,

the

have

we

the

than

by an isolated passage
pre-Buddhistic-K There
at

in

date.

older

was

belief

the

and

Manu

VI,

94

confirms

Bnhadarawyaka Upanishad III,5,

Buhler's view.
i.

INTRODUCTION.

the

Brahman

god

put

must

silence
a

and

become

Gotama

attaches

The

apply

^, but

the

on

than

earliest

that

in

to

one

any
his

word

of old.'

men

mendicant

be

is
to

so,

the

to

But

more

higher

this is the

three

these

superiority to

of the

in the
thinks

might be taken
also
begged.

If that
of

and

"^aranti).

'

belonging

as

ascetic.

sense)

(the

ideas

ascetic, and

*)have, as yet,

Brahma;^a

priestlyliterature to unorthodox
(not necessarilyBuddhists) is probably the Maitri

The

reference

oldest

Bhikshus

in the

Upanishad VIII, 8, which


often

referred

food.

This

in the

to

in the

The

the

Jacob's

little tract

of

called

originated in Kshatriya
All

Pi/akas,

important,

Aiigas

not

to

say

activity as lay apart

hermit

from

than

Br/had.

'

4,

Brahmawa.

the

same

But

one

the

Brahman

of
have

Brah-

learned

Upanishads,

"

Buddhist

in

the

priestlyliterature

of the

of the Arahat.

22.

Sechzig Upanishads,'p. 465.


Perhaps, on this third notion, A'Hnd.

of about

ception
con-

wandering

likely, to

more

among

an

IV,

peculiar institution

not

epithetoften used, in
(thetapasa), in the Buddhist books

the

it is

ascribing to Kshatriyas a most


predominant, part in such religious
take
for granted that
sacrifice.
To

agree

"

Afterwards

circles
"

But

in
only occurs
Upanishad.

word

Parama-ha;"sa

likely,if

their

of these
in any
occur
indexed
in
Upanishads

the
the

custom,

not

arisen, the

authorities

our

Gain

'

the

that

does
all

of

is

begging

long standing.
from

Concordance

it may
have
is quite as

Bhikshu

mans.

of

indeed
'

There

later.

books, of students

Bhikshu

word

And

Whenever

law

different

altogether
passages.
Colonel

is much

doubtless

was

mendicant.

who

to

This

found.

been

It

as

world

Deussen

habit

wandering

referred

which

wandering mendicant,
the specialethical sense

the

the

muni,

passage

this

not

preserved

which

ambiguous.

to, and

the

ethical
the

and

also

passage,
connection

(the tdpasa)

whole

referred

probably
sphere

same

in

doubt

no

hermit

the

to

I think

(inthe

regular habit (bhiksha^arya;"

of the

is

statement

'

away

Sutta).

Sonadanda.

wealth

and

interpolation^,ascribes

later

Brahmawas

'

by speculation; he
childlike, put away

(a silent one)^, put


(that is, of course,
sense
nearly the same

in the

word

for children

recension

Upanishad

is

in

one

it is that

give up cravings
adopt begging as
same

the

to

explain why

Another

Brahma"a
but

end

become

muni

by birth,

Brahma"a

is to

become

his

and

learning

away
and

childishness

attain

cannot

2 I

date.

the

wise

.Sudra

applicationis by

no

IV,

i, 7 is another

is

apparently there

means

certain.

passage
called

2i6

kassapa-sJhanAda

VIII.

Brahmans

the

ignore all
Kshatriya books

law

oldest

The

of

Books

literature

practice,
in

only
Cains

and

weight, or

the
that

"

dealt

are

three

brevity,and
books

in the

and

four

or

to

to

one

latter

were

had

they

be

to

seem

not

the

There

\'

another

Pra^apati
Bhikshus

do

Bhikshu

keen

is

And
from

the

at

time

idea

for
In

alone
the

words,

rather

due

was

them

other

the

to

in the

gain

the

not

there

Apastamba
way.
remark
that upsets the

closes

place

to

before
it

On

it.

reason

just

did

theory, they

other

with

no

Even

matter.

contrary,

about
the

which

not

when

intended

naturally half-hearted
Aj-rama
invented
the

passages
exposition of them

theory

as

sacrificing
priests.

several

'

priestly
entirely
has only

in the

regulations

of the

very

the

The

practicalimportance.
to

Sacred

'

inconsistency,
regulations
priestly

the

that,

the

Manu

Even

subject.

of

in

on
goes
Bhikshu
a

manner.

age,
volumes

they were
enough Bhikshus, belonging to those

the

also

than

Kshatriyas

time
life of

the

on

suppose

of much

development

after

the

curtest

pages

written, there were


circles,to make

The

as

treat

incompleteness

lead

matter

And

for

same

three

Texts,'

Vinaya

'

the

fill the

rules

the

on

page
about

texts,

title

the

East.'

the

barely

Buddhist

continues

subordinate,

that

follows

salvation

Ai^rama

one

he

quotes

that

those

before

become

become

'

of

saying

who

all, they

at

whole

dust

perish.'

and

This

was

no

phrase
name

"

did

not

the

idea

had

esteem

god

And

the

his

inmost

like

the

to

Bhikshu

as

become

too

for

and

it survives
Manu

(II,230),where

Ajramas,' omitting the Bhikshu.


to find that, though the whole
in

respects,
curious
avoids

and
the

the

Institutes

of

We
passage
Vish"u

interestingphrase
difficulty.
"

is made

mention

Ap. II, 9,

is

for

own

special
he

So

using
his

earlier
of

the

'the

his

view.

portion
Three

ought not to be surprised


is reproduced, in other

(XXXI,

replaced by

24,

his
of

that.

tries,by

more

of

in

worthy

man

strong

stalking-horse ;

the

first maker
forward

this

put

of

opinion
the

But

priests.

quite
of

real

gain respectabilityand acceptance


accordingly as late as the

to

name,

the

already

the

makes

doubt
of

narrow-minded

of

much

regulations,of

the

Bhikshus,
preserved in the
translated, under

his

Buddhists

has

book

whereas

are

the

receive

of

practice

it is

in full detail.

with

And

authorities.

those

"

of the

details

the

originated the idea, or

these

is to

the

have

must

sutta.

15.

7),this
another

very

which

2l8

VIII.

self-torture

of

which

There

account.

the

set

in

our

Sutta,

whose

old

in the

law

livingand
there

also

on

both

classes

there

religiousprofessionsfor
the Silas incorporated

in not

few

instances,recur

little earnestness, no
little 'plain
'
these
irregularfriars.' And
among

no

great deal

'

of

both

sympathy,

with

practice (provided always

their

with

tract

words,

very

was

their

used

high thinking

was

In

books.

there

But

who

in the

out

gives the earliest detailed


rejectedboth, and preferred

mendicant.

who

men

aims'

'low

others

wandering

unworthy

were

SUTTA.

Sutta

our

were

life of the

the

KASSAPA-SIHANADA

their

they

aims

keep

and
the

to

the official class,the regular


priestlyview of things),among
of condemning
them, the priests
sacrificing
priests. Instead
rather
One
Vikhanas
them.
to
tried, therefore,
regulate
on
compiled a special book
Tapas, called either after the
the
Vaikhanasa
author
Sutra, or after the subject the
"S"rama"aka

authority

an

which

Sutra,
in the

law

is several

books

whose

from
it ^. Tapas
in part, taken
the general view in the circles

regarded

composed,
therefore
But

there

which

its

this view
the

was

the

had

is the

basis

changed.

the

final

other

view

with

of

Sutta,

our

taken

view

made

already

Buddhists.

favour

by

in

sequence
con-

the

by

up

According

the

then

became

to

spirituallyunquestionably

more

A.yramas

of the

preliminary stage

of,the religiouslife.

crown

continued

influential

put

Bhikshu, of the wandering mendicant,


narrowview, disliked by the more

Tapas

of the

were

and

widely spread

the

Brahmans, gradually attained so


hand, that the order of the last two

to, instead
But

regarded

books

two,

which

more

call

as

Aj'ramas.

view
which

law

the

of the

upper
to be

had

list of

been

now

This

higher.
but

minded,
minded

we

life of the

the

higher^ of

became

having

progressive party
the

the

Upanishads,
doubt

no

of

in which

another

also

was

itself felt in the


and

as

in

end

the

at

to

doubtless,
precepts are
with
then, in accordance

was

the

referred

times

be

to

held

The

by

of the

large

human

and

heart

minority.
strong leaning
a
singular efficacyto physical self-mortifications
impute

to

See

Biihler's ' Manu,' XXVII,

Biihler's notes, pp.


Baudh.

15-18.

they are
this
used

II, 6,

202

1, 14,

Haradatta

the

work,

or

and
15

on

Dr.

what,

in his

Burnell

the commentators

Also

J^which
proves
Apastamba

same).

by followers of
note) says the SQira

203.

and

the

II, 9,
had

Vas.

IX,

10;

of
identity
21,

in his

21

referred to in
Gaut.

the

two)

(where he

Ill, 27 ;
; III,3,

also

says

possessionfragments of

to be so.
He^says it was
opinion,seemed
the Black Ya^ur-veda. Biihler also (Ap. p. 154,
is in existence,and procurablein Gujarat.

INTRODUCTION.

could

of all kinds
looked
favour.
in

The
of

spite

to

as

effect.

a
even

that,

forms

of

tapas
In

degree.
somewhat
forms

contained

point

in which

of the

learned

in

earlier

of their

But

discussion

far from

the

theory

like

A^ramas^.
became

like

that
It

the

years

of the
is

time

This

the

of

the

go

and

is another
advanced

more

found

are

of

extreme

hermits

be

to

details

order

others

went

acting

would

take

the

other

distinction

in time

doubtful

to

admitted

never

between

far

how

that

practicalrealityamong
have
we
seen, always
'going forth,' either as

bhikshu),

or

then

and

fulfilled.
And

in which

as

life

the

They
we

they

laid

have

seen

mention

learned

stress

ascetic

the

or

on
as

first the

unless

as

Four

distinction
the

spoke

any

the

and

studentship,

in the

special
Milinda^

most

for

books.

they

even

reallyvalid

been
householder, had
of Three
Efforts only.
differed

rules

Buddhists,

priests. They alone, as


the importance
of not
(tApasa
wandering mendicant
of

the

subject.

our

and

extreme,

brethren

receive
of

the

and

Niga"///as,A^ivakas, and

The

of

the

Buddhists

Brahmans

sympathy.

of the

end

dhutangas,

the

early

the

passages
the ' extra

extra

omitted, especially in

are

too

the

Buddhism,

for

these
the

in
other

even

many

peculiar

vows,' all the extreme


But
this is only a matter
books, also, though they
'

omitted.

than

of

at

priestly law

further

mendicants

us

book

laitystill

practices with
felt

And

these

of the

special name
out
by such

way.

in

aire

the

and

carried

that

It

is true

is

whole

glorificationin

in

There

inclined

itself

Sutta,

present

our

Many

such

out

made

dhutangas,

the

were

carried

tendency

similar

vows/

who

those

on

eradicated.

be

not

2 1

sacrificing

occasionally
the lawyers
two

classes

religieux^.

My 'Milinda,'II, 244-274.

"^

The

Buddhists

adniiued

distinction

in class

as

between

tapasas

the
simple
distinguishbetween
former.
of
of
the
latter
and
the
the
pabba^^a
tapasa-pabba^^a
Gat. Ill, 119 (ofnon-Buddhists).
See for instance
When
murders
the warrior
hero of the Ramayawa brutally
a peaceful
the
rules to justify
hermit, it is not necessary
to call in the A^rama
the
of
the
The
of
foul deed.
offence
the
the
view
on
part
(in
poet
Westerns
the part of the hero) is simply
hermit, in the view of most
on
Would
social insolence.
public opinion, in Kosala, have sanctioned
The
such an
act, or enjoyed such a story, in the time of the Pi/akas ?
in
has
Professor
shown,
originalRamayawa probably arose, as
Jacobi
Kosala; but this episode (VII, 76) is not in the oldest part. The
doctrine for which the poet claims the approvalof the gods (and which,
and

'

bhikkhus.

They

often

2 20

VIII.

the

By

time

Bhikshu

had

that
the

be

the

to

that

learned

The
found

yet,

as

fact that

as

have

we

the

for the

In another
for

mendicants,

Karmandinas,

been

been

used

are

books

sections

special class

the
very

names

Buddhists

Orders

of recluses

When

Brahma;/a

isolated

Anguttara

have

we

of the

These

can

not

is in

tapasas.
curious
if

as

and

to

find

they belonged
the

6'ains.

(pabba^ita)
by

Thus
the
:

to

mentioned

are

referred

are

an

Order

to,

in the
it is

Ca/ilaki.

5.

Paribba^aka.

Pi/akas.
either

as

not
implying any
generic name
of
the
an
important passage
following list of rcligicux,
contemporaries
a

in

"

7. Teda;/rt'ika.

4.

like those

Brahmanical

such

No

with

Bhikshus

Br^hmawa

Nigaw///^.

Magaw^ika.

8. Aviruddhaka.
Gotamaka.

9.

Devadhammikd.

10.

Makkhali
whom
of the livelihood,among
recognised leader, were
especiallyaddicted

men
a

not
therefore,was
unquestionedamong
so) is that a ^fidra may not become

11,3,54.

in

in the

Vaikhanasa

the

as

2.

was

of

this

are

sections

in the

to

6.

Gosdia

the

acquired so
they would

Siitra, or

3. Muw^a-savaka.

'

have

never

mendicants, just

Buddha

The

to

Sutras

A^ivika.

I.

hermits
and

1.

No.

manuals

Kielhorn
305, and Professor
has
that nothing more
me

referred

IShikshus

Order.

in ti^.

"

refers

Weber

Vaikhanasa

been

it in

of

Para^ariz/as

matter.

they

the

recluses, or

separate

Professor

the

is

corporations, doubtless,

or

And

on

on

It is also

the

the

Literature,p.
enough to inform
on

form

for the

was

But

time,

nouns

Sutras

Sutra

by

their
The

of

Bhikshu

is not

it.

special notice

take

two

It

before

desideratives

Vaikhanasa

elsewhere.

later law

of

the

importance as
certainly have

almost

the

mentions

discovered

mentioned

fittingto

first used

mendicants.

to

from

groups
mendicants.

kind

since

much

as

all

of Indian

History

it

pre-Buddhistic

any

common

Pa;/ini

two

Brahmanical

has

he

These

(tapasas).

his

for

in

Buddhists

the

formation

rule

cant
mendi-

doubtful.

above,

seen

Grains

sufficientlycurious
rule

word

at least may
in Gautama's

it is used

is somewhat

word

or
Perhaps
it was
more
term
a
probably
though not
long before, to

the

This

mendicants.

own

the

speciallya Buddhist
no
longer thought

so

of the

of the

text.

settled

was

afterwards.

not

history

order

Brahmans

explanation

book, and

law

mean

their

to

term

SUTTA.

later

the
to

come

the

apply

KASSAPA-SIHANADA

'

or

men,
a

ta

IV,

pas
3,

a.

1 10.

he need

not

have

to

done

INTRODUCTION.

of all

tapas

probably
also
of

rules

laid

to

as

always quite naked.

went

who

Those

'

means

their

in

kinds, and

claimed

on

No.
under

the

leadership
but

addicted,

to

The

3.

the

the

that

adds

of
disciples

name

especiallystrict
The

fifth of the

Buddhists

eight divisions

sect

they

the

we

wore

Grains,then
also
and

loin cloth.

Shaveling

No.

call

now

Nataputta. They were


less degree, to
tapas

somewhat

here

Buddhaghosa
No.

of

The

a^ivo^

Eightfold Path is samma


The
2.
Unfettered are

the

The

this.

be

to

livelihood/

of

means

specialstress

2 21

stated

are

ghosa
Buddha-

by

The

reading is doubtful, and


explanation requires explanation. Perhaps some
special
be

to

his

the

Those

4.

the

was

rule

as

G'ains

of the

subdivision
No.

same

zvho

for the

2.

is intended.
their

wear

hair

in

hermits

orthodox

braids.

do

so

(theVanaprasthas

or

Brahma;?a
III, 34). The
have
to be bald, or
to

Tapasas, Gautama
hand, was

other

To

Bhikshu,

either

only

the

on

forelock

(ibid.22).
This
is a generic term
for wandering
5. The wanderers.
mendicants.
They went, according to Buddhaghosa, fully
clad.
No.

6-10

Nos.

that

Titthija,

said

are

Buddhist.

is the

It

is

interesting,the
it is much

of

leaders

precisely here

first five

regretted
explanation of

that

that the
the

be

to

all schools

being

names

be

to

better

any

by Buddhaghosa

that

the

otherwise

elsewhere,
It

to

carried

as

possibly the

is very

the

three

bound

staves

of their

name

Brahma//a

self-restraint

than

case

Gaut.

conduct

and
"^

See

in

recurs

is not

on

Leumann

the

this Order
in the

law

mentioned

'

not

And

the

vague

not

preserved

phrase

been

found

They

as
a
sign, it is supone,
posed,
up as
This
in thought, word, and
deed.

for

early a date.
edifying gloss on an
been
forgotten. In
on

this

books.

But

But

so

such
threefold
the

old
that

passages
division

technical

as

of

term

in them.

the passages
quoted above in the note
Vienna
Oriental Journal,'
III, 128.

Comp. Baudhayana XI, 6,

most

known.

(not Tapasas).

Bhikshus

possibly hold good


also be nothing more
than an
whose
originalmeaning had
the
be
founded
gloss would
the idea of
Ill, 17^, where

tridaw^in

non-

the latest part of Manu


(XII, 10).
in
the
Buddhist
munity
comgiven

explanation may
it may
word

were

had

repeated by Buddhaghosa.
No. 6 is quite unintelligible
at present.
No.
of the triplestaff have
7. The Bearers
yet, earlier than

of the

list becomes

tradition

terms

followers

11,

23;

Manu

V, 165;

IX,

at

29.

p. 7

22

KASSAPA-siHANADA

VIII.

No.

The

8.

opposing

not

SUTTA.

the

ones,

Friends,

mentioned

not

are

elsewhere.
No.
the

of

followers

distinct

from
of

is

gotra,

here

Bhikshus

an

him.

But

clan,

Order.

We

the

Gotama
of

community

know

we

native
alter-

only

to

had

having

as

Sakya

The

belonging

to

after

Those

lo.

(Indra)

in

much

as

of

nothing

friends
mendicants.

come

to

school,
the

any

the

only.

is
to

course

p.

similar

191.

date

list,
later

Worshippers

also

by

of

should
has

full

of

the

"Slva

are

were

have

gradually
of

member
be

puzzles,
than

there

to

one

surprised

history^.

similar

interesting

be

to

they

place,

therefore,

centuries

some

of

not,
had

to

claimed

unfettered,

be

only

meaning

also,

Bhikshu,

There

We

all

to

can

applicable

meaning

place

from

technically

used

in

but

livelihood,

special

same.

They

names

Devadatta,

names,

others.

wandered

the

order,

name

Milinda,

all

several

Sakka

it

names

the

not

are

Is

the

sects,

the
of

And
have

or

of

means

they

all

list

God

'

God

probably

is

the

of

the

of

particular

most

regards

as

pure

to

'

Deva

"c.,

of

religion

is

suggestive

designation

quite

be

The

this

the

Who

Devadaha,

find

the

follow

5iva?

or

Devase////i,
We

who

elsewhere.

mentioned

of

referred

founded

Devadatta.

so,

certainly,

the

person.
No.

if

also

Rrahma;/a.

named

such

did

some

of

member

who

who

almost

means,

other

some

one

that

is

Gotama

of

Gotama.

our

know

only

as

folloivers

The

g.

the

expressly

but

applicable

above,
mentioned.

in

the

kassapa-sIhanAda

VIII.

[The

sutta.

Ascetic]

Naked

The
Blessed
One
was
[l6l]I. Thus have I heard.
deeronce
dwelHng at U^'umia.,in the Ka^z/^akatthala
Now
to where
park \
Kassapa, a naked ascetic,came
and
the
Exalted
One
exchanged with him the
was,
and
greetings and compliments of civility
courtesy, and
aside.
stood
And, so standing,he said to
respectfully
the

Exalted
*I

2.

lives

who
said

words,

fault

finds

and

hard

this, were

and

announcing,

not
as

said, O

it

disparages

Gotama

reviles

who

heard

have

Sama;/a

one

One

with

Gotama,
all

minor

tenet

his system, or as
with
objection ^ ?

false accusation
'

3.

No,

verily he

repeating Gotama's
falsely? Are
they
of his, a matter
really
(his system) ? Is there

they therein
reporting him

with

meet

"The

ascetic,with every
those, O Gotama,

Now

following from his Dhamma


nothing in this opinion of his, so
up

penance

every

life."

thus:

forward

corollaryfrom

For

against the

Kassapa.

put

would

we

venerable

Those

who

wrapt
it,that could
as

fain

bring

no

Gotama.'
said

so

not

were

in
That
is, a place set apart for deer to roam
Miga-daye.
in safety,
allowed.
a
public park in which no hunting was
It would, perhaps, be more
if one
could
agreeable to the context
render
this idiomatic
in
this
there
Is
opinion of
phrase :
anything
theirs as to his system, or as to this corollary
they have drawn from it,
which
But I do not
he
would
amounts
to being a matter
objectto ?
^

'

'

see

how

And
words

this could

be

reconciled

Buddhaghosa takes it as
Is your opinion herein
:
*

with
rendered

the syntax

of the

Pali

sentence.

it in the

above, summarising

altogetherfree from

blame?

'

24

SUTTA.

KASSAPA-SIHANADA

VIII.

words.
On
following my
and at
reportingme falsely,

[162]
with

vision

men
a

how

life,are

the

with
wont

am

fact.

be

to

were

aware,

seeing beyond what


purified,
men
given to asceticism, living

some

reborn,

after death, into

contrary, they

variance

Kassapa,

bright and

see,

can

hard

Herein,

'

the

the

on

dissolution

of the

fallen

body,

of

state
unhappy,
misery
and woe
reborn
into
others, livingjust so, are
; while
how
some
some
happy state, or into a heavenly world
life
less
hard, are
men
given to asceticism, but livinga
equally reborn, on the dissolution of the body, after
some

"

death

into

woe

while

could

of the

are,

they

will

go,
existence, and
I

disparage

as

all penance

Now

'

hair

think, breaking into

speculationsof
them

and

and

to

as

in

another,

form

one
"

find

and

lives

who

of

could

how

revile

one

to

life

as

the

between

points,agreement,

some

As

points, not.

some

And

adversaries.

is,as

wisdom

their

pieces by

their

there

me

whither

are,

who

controversy,

from

every

they really

Kassapa, certain recluses and


clever, subtle, experienced in
are
would
who
splitters,
go about, one

there

Brahmans

come,

bluntly

then

and

away

or

ascetic,with

every
is hard ?

4.

men

some

How
as

aware,

have

they pass
take
shape

fault with
that

thus

am

in

reborn

are

and

misery

heavenly world.

whence

states

of

state

others, livingjust so,

into a
state, or
I, O Kassapa, who

happy

fallen

unhappy,

some

to

of

some

thereof.
also approve
we
approve,
of those
things they disapprove, we also

those

things they

As

some

prove
disap-

thereof.
we

approve

of, so
of, so

they do

approve,

of, they approve


5.

'

And

things,my
leave

them

of the

thingsthey approve,
of the thingsthey
to some
And
thereof.
some
thingswe
approve
do they. And
some
prove
things we disapAnd
do
some
they. [i63]
things we
As

to

some

disapprovethereof.

disapprove, we

to

As

And

not.

some

disapprove

things we

thereof

I went

to

friends,on
alone.

them, and
which

As

to

we

those

said

"

As

for those

agree, let
things on which

do

not

us
we

226

KASSAPA-siHANADA

VIII.

the

ones,

other

schools,have done so only


Kassapa, that the wise, so

of

teachers

SUTTA.

it is,O
partially."Thus
puttingquestionsone to the other, asking
would, for the most
talkingthe matter
over,

praise of

in

for reasons,

part,

speak

therein.

us

'[And further, also, O Kassapa, the


wise would, for the most
part, acknowledge that the
addicted
to that which
more
were
body of my disciples
selves
is generallyacknowledged to be good, refrain themis generally
more
completely from that which
acknowledged to be evil,than the venerable ones, the
of other teachers \]
disciples
[165]13. Now there is,O Kassapa, a way, there is

[i64] 9-12.

which

method

know

and

see

that

in due

speaks
redounds

to

Dhamma),
Vinaya)."

if a

The

"

he will of

follow

man

Gotama

Sama/za

speaks that
advantage, that which
season,

that

which

which

is

one

who

is,that which

is the

Norm

of self-restraint

law

is the

himself, both

(the
(the

what, Kassapa, is that way, what that method,


which
if a man
follow, he will,of himself, know
that,
that.
and see
Verily it is this Noble Eightfold Path,
that is to say : Right Views, Right Aspirations,
Right
of Livelihood,
Speech, Right Action, Right Mode
Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Rapture.
This, Kassapa, is that way, this that method, which
if a man
and see
follow, he will of himself, both know
And

'

'

that

"

due

The

Sama^^a

speaks

season,

that
profit,

to

Gotama

is

that which

which

is the

who

one

speaks

in

redounds
is,that which
that which
is the
Norm,

'

of self-restraint."

law

14.

And

when

he

had

spoken thus, Kassapa,

the

One
ascetic,said to the Exalted
:
And
the following ascetic
also, Gotama, are
so

naked
'

practicesaccounted,

text

The
wiih

four
the

in the

opinion

paragraphs 5, 6, 7 and 8
change only of reading

'

'

Samawa

Gotama

the other

teachers.

instead

of

'

are

the

the Samana

here

of

some

Samaras

repeatedin full in the


body of the disciples
of the
for
Gotama,' and similarly

THE

Br^hmawas,

and

NAKED

ASCETIC.

22/

Sama"a-ship and Brahma"a-ship\

as

"

[166]
goes naked
is of loose

He

'

"

habits

tions,
(performinghis bodily funcand
eating food, in a standing posture, not
crouching down, or sittingdown, as well-bred people
do):"
licks his hands
He
clean (aftereating,instead of
washing them, as others do) :
(When on his rounds for alms, if politely
requested
He

'

'

"

'

to

step

nearer,

be

may

he should

in order that food


moment,
his bowl),he passes
on
stolidly
(lest

into

put

wait

to

or

incur the

guiltof followinganother

person's

word) :
"

'

refuses

He

he has

accept food

to

before

brought (to him,

dailyround for alms):


He
refuses to accept (food,if told that it has been
for him :
prepared)especially
He
refuses to accept any invitation (tocall on his
rounds
at
house, or to pass along any
any particular
particular
street, or to go to any particular
place):
He
will not
direct)from the
accept (food taken
of the pot or pan^ (inwhich
mouth
it is cooked
; lest
started

his

on

"

'

"

"

'

The

followingdescriptionof the
Ma^^"^ima I, 77, 238, 342, II, 161, and
in

my

when

Puggala

Pa""atti

for word

on

the

the
The

same.

These

Puggala.
differences

two

are

justsuch

are

authors

two

uniform

77 that it
before

are

these

was

his

eyes

forms
were

(M. I, 167.)
Hatthapalekhano.
"^

Both

word.
scratched
Pa""atti

himself

had

IV,

The

tradition

give

an

clean with his hand


adds

before

was

after

by

arise

in

that it was

especially
from

doubt

to

M.

I,

self
him-

Gotama

attained

alternative

curious

very

he

nearly

tradition.

followed

been

opened,

commentators

commentator

for this

that

very
would

as

drawing upon one


would
from M. I, 238, if compared with I, 524,
seem
It^
the A^ivakas (see note
above
on
more
were
p. 71) who
known
for the practice
of these forms
of asceticism : and

reason

the

in

recurs

commentator

word

ascetic

the

in

stringof enigmatic phraseswhich are interpreted


known
translation,according to Buddhaghosa here, and the unof

It consists

24.

naked

Nirvawa.
this

about

rendering :

He

stooling.'And the Puggala


pieceof old folklore as his

explanation.

Ka/opi; not in Childers.


vessel of a particular
shape,but

It

no

the exact

doubt

means

some

and
signification,

cooking
the deriva-

228

KASSAPA-SIHANADA

VIII.

those

should

vessels

SUTTA.

struck

be

his

scraped, on

or

spoon) :
hold
(He will)not (acceptfood placed)within the thres(lestit should have been placed there specially
for him) :
the sticks^
(He will)not (acceptfood placed)among
(lestit should have been placed there speciallyfor
him):
the
'(He will) not (accept food placed) among
it should
have been
pestles(lest
placed there specially
with

account,

the

"

'

"

'

"

him) :

for

"

When

him
*

will

He

'

will

He

(lestthe
*

Dravidian

suffer

"

from

in the
course

from

giving suck

woman

"

unknown.

Many
Vyutpatti,and

hindered):

be

"

Kolarian

It

centuries

of the

in intercourse

woman

possibly be a
may
afterwards
karo/a
and

the

Amara

question that

Koja,
word

karo/i
'

meaning

as

or
were

vessel.'

of the fifth century

b. c.

evidentlythe
descendants
of allied forms.
Childers gives another
form khalopi on
of the Abhidhana
the authority
Padtpika(twelfthcentury),verse 456,
where
it occurs
in a list of names
of pots.
Another
is
kha/opi
be

can

derived

child

with

woman

"

should

out

want) :

food

accept

both

are

word.

included
It is of

two)

food

accept

not

milk

of it

tion

of the

:
less)
grow
will not accept food from a
^
their intercourse
man
(lest

He

with

not

from

child should

(lestthe

eatingtogetherhe will not


what
they are eating,if offered

are

persons

(food,taken
by only one

accept
to

two

from

either

of

them

but

they

are

"

put in his text


the other
two
ukkhali
*

Na

at

Both

Da"6^a-m-antaraOT.

expression
Dr.

reason.

beyond

differ.

Milinda,

p. 107, from

MS.,

one

paraphrase

commentators

it here

but

by

pa^^"^i va.

the

but

by Trenckner

"

is not

Neumann
'

the lattice

That

the firewood

is,perhaps,among
The

clear.

Commentaries

(on Ma^^^ima

I, 77) has,

'

the bars

only give
'

he

does

of the grate
great deal of

not

the
spy

'

perhaps beyond
(spahte
nicht iiber das Gitter),
but this seems
a
meaning
putting
into the sticks,
and not sufficiently
reproducingthe force of antaraw.
And
how
We
?
can
mean
have, no doubt, to fill
pa/iga/ihati
spy
But
it
is
such
those
in this
out
an
cases
as
elliptical
phrase.
just
follow the ancient
to go rightif we
paragraph where we are more
likely
or

'

'

tradition.
'

Na

reason.

purisantara-gataya.
On the meaning of the

The
word

commentators

compare

Gat.

only give
I, 290.

the

NAKED

THE

will

He

'

in time

of

(lestthe

drought)
not

"

should

dog

lose

as

will

is

He
soon

not

gruel

"One-houser"

he

as

he

Or

'

is

dog

meal)

fish,nor

accept

has

standingby

"

swarming

are

is

meat,

strong drink,

nor

"

(turningback

received

alms

an

from

at

his round

house),

one

any

"

One-mouthful-man

"

where

not

intoxicants,nor
'

food

accept

"

He

nor

faithful

flies
accept food where
:
(lestthe flies should suffer)

round
'

(by the

will

He

'

229

collected

accept food

not

will

He

'

ASCETIC.

"

Two-houser,"

"

"

Two-mouthful-

"

man

"

Or

'

he

man"

two,

keeps

or

'

so

Seven-houser,"

Seven-mouthful-

"

on

days, or

going on only one


:
up to only seven
food only once
a
day, or
to

once

dwell addicted

to

so

he

himself

alms

on

up

once

seven
every
the practice of

according to rule,at regularintervals,up


a

only

or

"

takes

He

does

"

"

He

'

is

two

every

Thus

days.

food

taking
to

half

even

month.

the
also, Gotama, are
followingascetic
Sama;^as
practicesaccounted, in the opinion of some
and Brihma^as,
as
Sama/^aship and Brahma^^aship :
*

And

so

"

Dr.
'

Both

Nasa/wkhittisu.
Neumann

has

Thusodaka.

'

not

called

and

derivation

fermented.

Suviraka/??

traditional

The

(afterthe

country

the husk, of all cereals.'


of the constituents, especially
Soviraka

Vagga

as

VI,

water, to
mentioned

cure

i6,

the
in

for wind
and

3;
Buddhist
a

it

the

in

was

uncertain.

given

In
to

interpretation
Suvira) made

The

of salt

use

is mentioned

stomach

allowed, as

Bhikkhus.

list of drinks

are

dirty.'

the

from

It is not

here is: 'a drink

meaning

Maha

at

beverage, if mixed

Vimana

Vatthu

them.

Childers

XIX,

with
it is

calls it

'

sour

in the first edition (1865) of the Abhidhana


gruel followingSubhuti
Pad. Sfi^i (publishedin 1893)
in the Abh.
but
Padipika (verse460),
as
Subhfiti renders
it 'kongey'; something of the same
sort
barley
drink
that
is
it
to
adds
:
water.
Buddhaghosa
Every one agrees
wrong
The
in this.'
intoxicants.
These
ascetics see sin even
corresponding
Sanskrit word, tusodaka, is found only in Sujruta.
in which
bits
Datti.
'A small pot,'says Buddhaghosa,
specialtitand
are
keptj
put aside,
'

'

'

'

KASSAPA-stHANADA

VIII.

230

feeds

He

seeds,

leather

on

Ha

/a,

of

rice

the

on

fine

husk,

Nivara

on

water-plantcalled
adheres
to the grains

the

on

discarded

of

scum

flour of oil-seeds ^, on
grasses, on
fruits and roots
from the woods, on fruits
the

cow-dung,

on

that

fallen of themselves.

have

rice \

the

which

powder

the

beneath

boilingrice,on

wild

potherbs,on
parings^, on

on

SUTTA.

the following ascetic


also, Gotama,
are
Samaras
practicesaccounted, in the opinion of some
and Brahma;^as, as Samawaship and Brahma/^aship :

And

'

so

"

He

'

wears

He

wears

He

'

away

from

interwoven

hemp

and

"

cloths

thrown

and

corpses

"

'

clothing made

of rags

clothingmade

of the

wears

dust

taken

"

He

'

of

wears
*

cloth

coarse

materials

other

cloth

hempen

coarse

heap

He

taka

from

of the

Tiri-

black

lope
ante-

"

wears

tree^

up

picked
bark

"

[l67] He

natural

the

'

wears

hide

of

:
"

'

He

black

'

'

III,
*

here
*

dress

wears

antelope'shide

He

wears

dress

He

wears

garment

Samaka,

in

not

of

made
^

of

network

stripsof

"

of Kusa

made

of bark

Childers.

fibre

grass

"

"

See

M.

Gat.

I, 156.

II, 365,

144.

Daddula,
Pi""aka,

merely

not
not
'

say

in Childers.

See

in Childers.

SeeVin.

This

A'^ava-dussani

is

pi
'

M.

I, 78, 156,

IV,

341.

188.

The

commentators

plain.'

dhareti.

Clothingmade

The

commentators

of Eraka

native
give an alterWas
together.'

explanation:
grass
clothingthen used to wrap dead bodies in ?
This custom
Tiritani
is referred to at MahS
pi dhareti.
VIII, 29, as having been there followed by ascetics. The use
tied

such

"^

garments
*

is there

forbidden

to

Vagga
of such

the Bhikkhus.

planation
Buddhaghosa gives here an exhim
Vin.
on
given by
Ill, 34 (quoted
The
Vinaya Texts,'II, 247),where the word also occurs.
Puggala
Pa""atti gives both
A.
at
as
I, 33
explanations
possible. Khipa
of net.
sort
some
means
A^inakkhipa is referred to at S. I, 117 as

A^inakkhipam
different

pi

from

dhareti.

that

'

the characteristic dress of

an

old Brahman.

NAKED

THE

He

'

wears

He

wears,

He

wears,

tails ^

garment,
a garment,

as
as

as

wears,

blanket

of human

hair^:

made

of horses'

blanket

"

garment,

a
:

blanket

of the

made

"

is

to

"

He

is

"

"

He

"

He

"

He

'

"

with

oil he

dust

adhere
He

'

"

"

He

when

"

natural

'

where

stands
to

dust

his

lives and

the open
is offered to

Phalaka-^iram

pi

Aulla

Vagga V, 29.
So of A^ita of

3.
the

garment

say
Vala-kambalam

of

wild

and

va/a,

See

dhareti.

the hair is human

alternative

lets the

blow, and

"

seat

skin

clouds

body) :
sleepsin

Whatsoever

The

to

crouchingdown on his heels"*:


is a
bed-of-thorns-man," puttingiron spikes or
thorns under
the skin on which he sleeps*:
uses
a
plank bed :
sleeps on the bare ground :
sleepsalways on one side :
is a
dust-and-dirt- wearer," (smearinghis body

He

'

"

croucher-down-on-the-heels," addicted

exertinghimself

be

"

addicted
"plucker-out-of-hair-and-beard,"
practiceof plucking out both hair and beard :
the use
of a seat:
He
is a "stander-up,"rejecting
He

the

'

"

feathers of owls

slabs of

slipsor

He

'

of small

piecedtogether
(shingle)

'

'

23!

wood

made

garment

"

ASCETIC.

pi

air"^ :

"

him, that he accepts


Vagga VIII,

Maha

of hair, above, p. 73.


hair.
So

dhareti.

the

28.

Both

mentators
com-

here.

commentators

rendering given by us at 'Vinaya Texts,' II, 247,


beast,'should be corrected accordingly. That would
all

the

where

passages

I, 240.
Comp.
Ukku/ikappadhana.

our

word

read

occurs

vala.

A.

The

commentator

The

hops.
down
the

on

their

ground.
"

says
posture is

But

141,

in this posture

progressed
impossible to Europeans, who,

heels,cannot
natives

Both

Dhp.

Compare
he

keep
of India

their balance
will sit

so

when

for hours
walks

Divy.

339.
series of

by
they
a

if

crouch

the heels
without
and

touch

fatigue.

down.'

commentators
:
or
stands,or
up
MSS.
Burmese
The
Tha""/ila-seyyam
pi kappeti.
does
So
izndAz.
read
but
the
Siamese
not
edition,
Buddhaghosa,
S. IV, 118,
MS.
The
at
Dhp. 141.
Puggala omits the word.

add

'

Mil. 351
''

have

Abbhokasiko

compare

and
my
and

the th.
ka, hoti.

G^at. IV, 8 ; Mil. 342.

There

is

no

comment

on

this.

But

KASSAPA-stHANADA

VIII.

232

offended

(without being
enough) :

SUTTA.

its

at

being

dignified

not

"

feeding

addicted
filth-eater,"

"

is

He

'

the

on

four

kinds

practiceof
(cow-dung, cow's

filth

of

the

to

urine, ashes, and clay)^ :


He
is a
non-drinker," addicted
"

"

'

the

to

practice of

(lesthe should injurethe


drinking cold water
souls in it) :
'He
is an
"evening-third-man,"addicted to the
into water
thrice a day (to
practiceof going down
his sins).
wash
away
If a man,
O Kassapa, should go naked, and
be
15.
never

"

'

of

loose

and

tongue,

do

and

detail,down

in

lick

habits, and
be

clean

his

hands

all those

other

his

addicted

with

thingsyou

gave
practiceof

the

being
taking food, according to rule,at regularintervals
half

to

month

if he

his

to

up

all

this,and the state


of blissful attainment
in conduct, in heart, in intellect,
have
been
not
practisedby him, realised by him, then

to

even

is he

far

from

from

But

the heart

knows

illwill

of love

from

"

from

Kassapa, when

time, O

cultivated

of the

does

Sama;zaship,far

the

no

"

the

deadly intoxications

Bhikkhu

has

when, by

anger, that
the destruction

(thelusts

of the flesh,

that knows
time

Brahma;zaship.
no

the

lust after future

and

he dwells in that emancipation of heart,


ignorance),
emancipation of mind, that is free from those

that

of delusion

and the defilements


life,

intoxications, and that he, while yet in this visible


from
that time,
know
world, has come
to realise and
O Kassapa, is it that the Bhikkhu
is called a Samara,
"

is called

Brahma;/a

Veka/iko.

So

A^ivaka at Git. I, 390,


Vinaya Texts,' II, 59.
My rendering of the word
I
corrected
be
to
think,
ought,
accordingly. But why
of

an

'

entered
?
^

the foods
among
It looks like an

Apanako.

above, where

afterthought,

Compare

my

of them

one
or

Milinda

was

gloss.
II, 85 foil, on

and
at
was

compare
INIil, 259
this
not

tioned
alreadymen-

this curious

belief.
^

That

is,of

these sections

course,

Gotama

Kassapa

uses

is

actual Arahat.
an
recluse,
purposely at cross
purposes

true

the word

Brahmawa

in his

own

Throughout
with
sense

his tioner.
ques; that is,

34

VIII.

KASSAPA-SIHANADA.

And

when

[i69]1 6.
the

ascetic,said

naked

then, Gotama,

that

life of

the

lead.

to

life

of that

merely

be

the

of

son

slave
now

naked, let

go

all the

through
But

the

items

hard

very

from

hard

hard

from

the

intoxications

(thelusts

life,and

defilements

dwells

the

in that

of mind,
that

that

from

these

mawa

the naked
when

And

he

when

to
a

man

penances.

into

three

to

when

know

is

paragraph, like
up

on

yours.

matters,

gain,how

to

the

time,

cultivated

the

heart

illwill

no

"

deadly

the

and

he
ignorance),

of heart, in that

tion
emancipa-

intoxications,and

those

world, has

to

come

that

is called

time, O Kassapa, is it
Samawa, is called a Brah-

had

thus

the
a

man

the

common

last and

sections, one

spoken, Kassapa,

Blessed

Brahma?^a

That, Kassapa, is

broken

so

from

of delusion

ascetic, said

it,Gotama,

This

me

flesh,the lust after future

of the

from

"

be

For

yet in this visible

know

the

'

[i7o]17.

know

"

has

that is free from

Bhikkhu

the

be !

emancipation

he, while

realise and

lists of

anger, that knows


of
the destruction

no

when, by

time

Let

three

Sama;2aship

Bhikkhu

knows

that

say

for

of penance,
the life is hard,
therefore is It that it is fittingto

must

Kassapa, when

of love

to

"

habits,"and

of low

Brihma;zaship

must

or

down

one,

lead.

to

householder,

any

those

hard

the

all kinds

lead

to

"How

say:

'

of

have

that

say

was

water-jar,to

become

me

the

practicesyou

for

is hard

ascetism, on

Brahma;/a,
or

world

in the

to
fitting

since, Kassapa, quite apart

quite apart

of the

carries

hard

great hardness,

very

this

be

not

householder,

girlwho

hard

Brahmawa

on

quite possible for

'How

gain,how

to

all of those

of any or
detailed,then it would

carryingout

It would

of

and

hardness, the

depended

Samara,

One:

saying

common

Sama?/a

life of the

spoken, Kassapa,

'

be !

if the

But

thus

Blessed

the

to

That, Kassapa, is

'

had

Sama;/aship be

must

Brahmawaship

must

he

SUTTA.

is
!

One

'

Hard

Samawa,

hard

is
to

'

saying

in the

world

like the next, is,in the Pali,


for each
of the three lists of

NAKED

THE

that

it is hard

Brahma?^a.

ASCETIC.

know

to

if

But

depended merely

ma"a,

Sama;;a, hard to know


a
Sama/za, if being a Brihthis asceticism, on
the

being

235

on

of any or each of those practicesyou have


that a
be fitting
then
it would
not
to
say

carrying out
detailed,
Samawa

is hard

It would

recognise.

for the

or

down
know:

licks his

girlwho

of those

items

all kinds

of

Sama;/a, hard

fittingto
a

say

the

of

illwill

to

habits,or

is

man

love

deadly

that

the

to

and
life,
dwells

recognise

therefore
a

is it
is

man

For

vated
culti-

has

when, by

that
anger,
the destruction

(thelusts

of the

no

the defilements

in that

quite apart

Bhikkhu

knows

intoxications

since,

But

Brahma;^a!"

time

through

when

know

one

water-jar,to

matters,

it is hard

is it

from

"

he
ignorance),

in that

these

Kassapa, when

the lust after future


and

from

when

heart

of the

lists of yours.

Hard

time, O

no

three

penance,

know

to

the
knows

the

carries

recognisea Brahmawa,

to
"

Samawa,

from

for any

or

man

Kassapa, quite apart


from

householder,

to

holder,
house-

goes naked, or is of loose


fingerswith his tongue,"and so on

This

"

all the

of

slave

the

to

quite possiblefor

be

son

is hard

Brahma;^a

recognise,a

to

flesh,

of delusion

emancipation of heart,

mind, that is free from those


that he, while
intoxications, and
yet in this visible
realise and know
from that time,
to
world, has come
O Kassapa, is it that the Bhikkhu
is called a Sama;^a,

emancipation

of

"

is called

Brahmawa

And

[171]18.
the

'

when

he

had

thus

spoken, Kassapa,

naked

What
One
ascetic,said to the Blessed
:
in conduct,
then, Gotama, is that blissful attainment
in heart, and in mind
?
'

'

[The answer
[171-173]is all
the
Sama?^?Ia-phala translated
divided

follows

as

The

Buddha,
into

the

Conduct
on

conversion

Order

and

above,

in

here

"

paragraphs
the

paragraphs

Under
I.

the

(""40-42

(Sila).
the

of

appearance
his

of

layman,
entry
above, pp. 78-79).
a

236

KASSAPA-SIHANADA

VIII.

SUTTA.

The

Silas, as in the
above,
57, 58.
pp.

2.

See

The

3.

paragraph

on

Brahma-^ala,

Confidence

"" 8-27.

{" 63

above,

79).

P-

Under

the

heart

(/fitta).

The

is the door
of
paragraph on 'Guarded
his senses'
(J64 above, pp. 79, 80),
The
'Mindful
and
Selfon
paragraph
5.
possessed' {" 65 above, pp. 80, 81).
6. The
paragraph on Simplicity of Life, being
with
little {" 66 above,
content
p. 81).
from
on
paragraphs
Emancipation
7. The
the Five
Hindrances
ill-temper,
covetousness,
and
laziness, worry,
perplexity (""67-74 above,
4.

"

pp.

82-84).
8. The
paragraph

as

of this

result

the

Joy and Peace, that,


emancipation, fills his whole
on

being {" 75 above, p. 84),


the
Four
on
paragraphs
9. The
(G/mmiS, "" 75-82 above, pp. 84-86).

Ecstasies

"

Under

Intelligence (Pawwa).

the
on
paragraphs
Insight arising
from
(iV'd;^a-dassana,
Knowledge
J^83, 84 above,
87.)
pp. 86,^
The
the
of pro11.
on
paragraphs
jecting
power
mental
images {""85, 86 above, p. 87).
The

10.

"

The

12.

paragraphs

The

a.

five

modes

of

:
(abhi";7a)

intuition

special

the

on
"

practice

of

Iddhi.

Hearing heavenly sounds.


of other
Knowledge
people's thoughts.
of one's own
Knowledge
previous births.
of
other
Knowledge
people's previous

d.
c.

d.
e.

births.

Truths,

the

and

attainment

the
'

And

of

realisation

The

13.

there

destruction

is

no

of

other

of

the
the

Four

Noble

Intoxications,

Arahatship.]
state

of blissful attainment

THE

and

conduct

in

higher and

there

Kassapa, who
speak, in various

Brahmans,

They
But

so

I
less

as

am

aware

that

There

'

are

is, Kassapa,
recluses

some

are

lay emphasis
in

ways,

of

no

one

who

is equal

it is I who

And

have

to

conduct.

on

praise

and

of

morality.
duct,
highest conmyself,much
the furthest

gone

is,in the highestconduct


(ofthe Path).
recluses
and
Brahmans, Kassapa,
some

and scrupulous
lay emphasis on self-mortification,
in praise
of others.
They speak in various ways
self-torture and of austere
scrupulousness. But so

who
care

of

far

regards

as

am

of

aware

less

much

no

else

one

superior.
;

scrupulous regard

the

highest sort

scrupulous regard

and

therein

furthest

reallynoblest,

the

self-mortification
I

which

regards the reallynoble, the

far

superior.

therein

mind

2^/

this ^

than

'Now

[174] 21.

and

heart

sweeter

ASCETIC.

NAKED

And

that

who

equal

is

it is I who

for others

recluses

have

the

is, in

for
to

others,

myself,

gone

highest

of

sort

the
of

^.

Brahmans, Kassapa,
who
lay emphasis on intelligence.They speak, in
various ways,
in praise of intelligence. But so far as
I am
regardsthe reallynoblest,the highestintelligence,
less
of no one
else who
is equal to myself,much
aware
the furthest
it is I who
have
superior. And
gone
'

There

therein

And

doctrine

are

some

that is, in the

and

by this,'
says Buddhaghosa,
of the Exalted

One

(ofthe Path).

highestWisdom^

has

'

he

Arahatship.For

means

its end.'

the

Arahatship as
(compare M. I, 240-242) it is said that those
addicted
must
are
to tapo-^iguX'-^M
incapableof Arahatship. Gotama
before
he
his years of penance
to
either,therefore,be here referring
be
he
must
attained Nirva"a
the Tree
under
of Wisdom
putting
; or
the
and
into
the
a
new
ness'
scrupuloushigher
taking
expression,
meaning
in the sense
of the self-control of the Path.
Probably both are
implied.
ing
followloathing,'
Gigukk/ia. is translated by Childers as 'disgust,
the Sanskrit dictionaries.
The
example of it given at M. I, 78 is
in
being so mindful,
going out or coming in, that pityis stirred up
I not
in one
towards
even
a
may
drop of water, to the effect that :
therefore
It comes
therein."
creatures
bring injuryon the minute
to very nearly the same
thing as a.hims^.
From
Adhipa""a.
Anguttara II, 93 it is clear that this is the
*

At

Ahguttara II, 200

'

'

"

'

'

238

KASSAPA-stHANADA

VIII.

There

recluses

some

are

SUTTA.

and

Brahmans,

Kassapa,

who

lay emphasis on emancipation. They speak, in


various
in praise of emancipation. But
far
so
ways,
as
regards the reallynoblest,the highestemancipation,
of no
is equal to
else who
I am
aware
one
myself,
less

much

furthest

And

superior.

therein

that

it is I who

is,in the

most

have

the
gone
pation
complete emanci-

(ofthe Path).
'Now

[175]22.
recluses

of adverse

Gotama

utters

that he

should
Gotama

where

assemblies

of the

"

by

not

The

so.

and

roar,

Then

that

Sa.ma.n3i
the

in

too

congregate."

men

followingobjections:

"

in full confidence

But

it is

But

men

put

But

even

when

"

it is in solitude

well be, Kassapa, that the recluses of


schools should thus, in succession, raise each

adverse

"

Say

Samawa

assembled."

are

the

it may

'And

"

The

say
; but

roar

"

lion's

his

utters

may

men

answered

be, Kassapa, that


"

lion's

where

not

be

they

schools

forth

roars,

well

it may

not

that he

roars

questions to him ;
questioned,he cannot

no

answer

:
"

satisfaction

when

even

"

"

he gives no
he answers,
his expositionof the problem put :
But

"

But

"

listened

when

even

But

when

even

their faith

But

when

arrive

carry
'

even

it

Then

answered
so.

For

this.

word,

they

"

give

men

outward

no

such

they give

outward

sign,they

"

they arrive

the truth

at

they cannot

"

out

"

in each
as

the

such

of the

Kassapa, they should

case,

before, until the


Samawa

Say

utters

forth

"

answer

Gotama

higher stages only of


has
who
has adhipan"a
the man
Arahatship. Puggala Pa""atti IV,

wisdom

be

to

"

when

even

his

to

therefrom

convinced,

the truth

at

not

But

"

opinion worthy

listen

men

conviction

sign of
"

his

"

experienceno
"

hold

not

to :

But

"

do

men

runs

both

the Path, not

of

then

on

26

to

strive

is not

"

be
not

his

Arahatship. For
tillhe

attains to

reallyinconsistent

with

NAKED

THE

lion's

and

roar,

that

claim, and

in

too

put their

men

239

assemblies

in full confidence

and

congregate,

ASCETIC.

where

in the

questions