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ProgramminginC&Data
StructureFirstModule
ThisnotesisaccordingtoVTUSyllabus.Itmakeseasytolearnandunderstandableforexampointofview.

Thursday,20August2015

AboutMe

ShivaprakashRanga
Viewmycompleteprofile

MODULEI:INTRODUCTIONTOCLANGUAGE
INTRODUCTION
A computer is an electronicdevice capable of manipulating numbers and
symbolsunderthecontrolofaprogram.
Aprogramisasequenceofinstructionswrittenusingacomputerprogramming
languagetoperformaspecifiedtask.

BlogArchive

2015(1)
August(1)
MODULEI:INTRODUCTIONTOC
LANGUAGEINTRODUCTION...

APSEUDOCODESOLUTIONTOPROBLEM
Algorithm
[Whatisanalgorithm?Whataretheadvantagesofalgorithm?]
An algorithm is a step by step procedure to solve a given problem in finite
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numberofstepsby
acceptingasetofinputsand
producingthedesiredoutputforthegivenproblem
Example:Writeanalgorithmtoadd2numbersenteredbyuser.
Step1:Start
Step2:Declarevariablesnum1,num2&sum.
Step3:Readvaluesofnum1andnum2.
Step4:Addnum1&num2andassigntheresulttosum.sumnum1+num2
Step5:Displaysum
Step6:Stop
Pseudocode
[What is pseudocode? Explain with example and how is different from
algorithm?]
Pseudocodeisamethodofdescribingthealgorithmusingacombinationof
naturallanguage(Englishlikewords)and
programminglanguage
Thisisessentiallyanintermediatesteptowardsthedevelopmentoftheactual
code.
Althoughpseudocodeisfrequentlyused,therearenosetofrulesforitsexact
writing.
Psuedocodeisusedintextbooksandscientificpublicationstodescribevarious
algorithms.
ForExample:
Problem1:Inputtwonumbersanddisplaytheirsum.
1)readnum1,num2
2)findsum=num1+num2
3)displaysum
Problem2:Inputthemarksanddisplaymessagepassedorfailedbasedon
themarks.
1)readmarks
2)ifstudent'smarksisgreaterthanorequalto35
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print"passed"
else
print"failed"

BASICCONCEPTSOFACPROGRAM
[ExplainthestructureofaCprogramwithexample?]
ThestructureofaCprogramisshownbelow:
preprocessordirectives
voidmain()
{
declarationsection
statement1//Executablesectionstartsstatement2
statement3
statement4//Executablesectionends
}
PreprocessorDirectives
Thepreprocessoracceptsthesourceprogramandpreparethesource
programforcompilation.
Thepreprocessorstatementsstartwithsymbol#.
Thenormalpreprocessorusedinallprogramsisinclude.
The #include directive instructs the preprocessor to include the specified file
contentsinthebeginningoftheprogram.
Forex:
#include<stdio.h>
main()
EveryCprogramshouldhaveafunctioncalledasmain().
Thisthefirstfunctiontobeexecutedalways.
The statements enclosed within left and right brace is called body of the
function.Themain()functionisdividedinto2parts:
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1)DeclarationSection
The variables that are used within the function main() should be
declaredinthedeclarationsectiononly.
Thevariablesdeclaredinsideafunctionarecalledlocalvariables.
Ex:intp,t,r
2)ExecutableSection
This contains the instructions given to the computer to perform a
specifictask.
Thetaskmaybeto
displayamessage
readdataor
add2numbersetc
Comments are portions of the code ignored by the compiler. The
commentsallowtheusertomakesimplenotesinthesourcecode.
//thisisanexampleforsinglelinecomment
/*thisisanexampleformultiplelinecomment*/
Example:Programtodisplayamessageonthescreen.
#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
printf(WelcometoC)
}
Output:
WelcometoC
HOWTOLEARNCLANGUAGE?
Englishisauniversallanguageusedtocommunicatewithothers.
In the same way, C is a language used to communicate with computer. In
otherwords,Cisusedtoinstructcomputertoperformparticulartask.
Thetaskcanbe
simpletasklikeadding2numbersor
complextasklikebuildingarailwayreservationsystem
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Beforeyouplaythegame,youshouldlearnrulesofthegame.Sothatyoucan
play better and win easily. In the same way, to write C programs, you should
learnrulesofClanguage.
STEPSTOLEARNCLANGUAGE
Step1: Before speaking any language, we should first learn alphabets. In the
sameway,tolearnClanguage,weshouldfirstlearnalphabetsinC.
Step2:Then,weshouldlearnhowtogroupalphabetsinparticularsequenceto
form a meaningful word. In the same way, in C language, we should learn
tokens(i.e.words).
Step3:Then,youshouldlearnhowtogroupthewordsinparticularsequenceto
formameaningfulsentence.Inthesameway,inClanguage,youshouldlearn
instruction(i.e.sentence).
Step 4: Then, you should learn how to group the sentences in particular
sequencetoformameaningfulparagraph.Inthesameway,inClanguage,you
shouldlearnprogram(i.e.paragraph).
CHARACTERSET
Characterset refers to the set of alphabets, letters and some special
charactersthatarevalidinClanguage.
Forexample,thecharactersinCare:
LettersAX,az,bothupperandlower
Digits09
Symbolssuchas+*/%
Whitespaces

TOKENS
[DefinetokensinClanguageandexplain?]
AtokenisasmallestelementofaCprogram.
One or more characters are grouped in sequence to form meaningful words.
Thesemeaningfulwordsarecalledtokens.
Thetokensarebroadlyclassifiedasfollows
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Keywordsex:if,for,while...etc.
Identifiersex:sum,length
Constantsex:10,10.5,'a',"shivaprakash"
Operatorsex:+*/
Specialsymbolsex:[],(),{}

KEYWORDS
Keywordsaretokenswhichareusedfortheirintendedpurposeonly.
Each keyword has fixed meaning and that cannot be changed by user.
Hence,theyarealsocalledreservedwords.
Rulesforusingkeywords
Keywordscannotbeusedasavariableorfunction.
Allkeywordsshouldbewritteninlowerletters.
Somekeywordsareaslistedbelow
Break Case
Double Else
Register return
Typedef unsigned

Char
Float
Short
void

const
for
signed
while

continue
if
sizeof

Default
Int
struct

Do
long
switch

IDENTIFIER
As the name indicates, identifier is used to identify various entities of
programsuch as variables,constants,functionsetc.
Inotherwords,anidentifierisawordconsistingofsequenceof
Letters
Digitsor
"_"(underscore)
Forexarea,length,breadth

CONSTANTS
A constantis an identifierwhosevalueremainsfixed (constant) throughout
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theexecutionoftheprogram.
Theconstantscannotbemodifiedintheprogram.
Forexample:1,3.14512,z,notesbyspr"
Differenttypesofconstantsare:
11)IntegerConstant
Anintegerisawholenumberwithoutanyfractionpart.
Thereare3typesofintegerconstants:
i)Decimalconstants(0123456789)Forex:0,9,22
ii)Octalconstants(01234567)Forex:021,077,033
iii)Hexadecimalconstants(0123456789ABCDEF)Forex:0x7f,0x2a,
0x521

2) FloatingPointConstant
Thefloatingpointconstantisarealnumber.
Thefloatingpointconstantscanberepresentedusing2forms:
i)FractionalForm
A floating point number represented using fractional form has
anintegerpartfollowedbyadotandafractionalpart.
Forex:0.5,0.99
ii)ScientificNotation(ExponentForm)
The floating point number represented using scientific notation
hasthreepartsnamely:mantissa,Eandexponent.
Forex:9.86E3imply9.86*103
3) CharacterConstant
Asymbolenclosedwithinapairofsinglequotes(')iscalledacharacter
constant.
Each character is associated with a unique value called an ASCII
(AmericanStandardCodeforInformationInterchange)code.
Forex:'9','a','\n'

4) StringConstant
Asequenceofcharactersenclosedwithinapairofdoublequotes()is
calledastringconstant.
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ThestringalwaysendswithNULL(denotedby\0)character.
Forex:"9""a""spr""\n"
5) EscapeSequenceCharacters
Anescapesequencecharacterbeginswithabackslashandisfollowed
byonecharacter.
A backslash (\) along with some characters give rise to special
print effects by changing(escaping)themeaningofsomecharacters.
Thecompletesetofescapesequencesare:
EscapeSequencesCharacter
\b Backspace
\f Formfeed
\n Newline
\rReturn
\tHorizontaltab
\v Verticaltab
\\Backslash
\' Singlequotationmark
\"Doublequotationmark
\? Questionmark
\0 Nullcharacter

BASICDATATYPES
[Definedatatypesandexplainitstypes.
WriteanoteonthebasicdatatypesinCprogramming?]

Thedatatypedefinesthetypeofdatastoredinamemorylocation.
Csupports3classesofdatatypes:
1)Primarydatatype.Forex:int,float,char,double.
2)Deriveddatatypes.Forex:array
3)Userdefineddatatypes.Forex:structure
Csupports5primarydatatypes:
1) int
Anintisakeywordwhichisusedtodefineintegers.
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Usingintkeyword,theprogrammercaninformthecompilerthatthe
dataassociatedwiththiskeywordshouldbetreatedasinteger.
Csupports3differentsizesofinteger:
shortint
int
longint
2) float
Afloatisakeywordwhichisusedtodefinefloatingpointnumbers.
3) double
Adoubleisakeywordusedtodefinelongfloatingpointnumbers.
4) char
Acharisakeywordwhichisusedtodefinesinglecharacter.
5) void
void is an empty data type. Since no value is associated with this data
type, it does notoccupyanyspaceinthememory.
Thisisnormallyusedinfunctionstoindicatethat the functiondoesnot return
anyvalue.

Rangeofdatatypes
Theintegerareclassifiedinto:
unsignedinteger
signedinteger

Rangeofunsignedinteger
3bitunsignednumberrangesfrom0to7(0isminimuminbinary3bitand7is
maximum)
=0to81
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=0to231
4bitunsignednumberrange=0to241
8bitunsignednumberrange=0to281
Ingeneral,nbitunsignedrange=0to2n1
ThereforeRangeofUnsignedNumberwillbe0to2n1inannbitmachine.
Rangeofsignedinteger
RangeofUnsignedNumberwillbe2n1to2n11inannbitmachine.
Datatype Bytes

Rangeofdatatype

Char
Int
float
double

128to127
32,768to32,767
3.4E38to3.4E38
1.7E308to1.7E308

1bytes
2bytes
4bytes
8bytes

Qualifiers(TypeModifiers/TypeSpecifier)
[ExplainbrieflydatatypesqualifiersandmodifiersinC?]
Qualifiersalterthemeaningofprimarydatatypestoyieldanewdatatype.
Builtindatatypesexceptvoiddatatypecaneasilybemodifiedbyusingdata
typemodifiers.Therearemainlyfourdatatypemodifiersnamely:
signed
unsigned
long
short
signed:indicatesthatvaluestoredinavariableiscapableofstoringnegative
values.Thevaluesinrangeof2n1 to+2n11,wherenisthesize(inbits)of
thatparticulardatatype.Example:128to+127forcharacterssincenis8bits.
Declarationexample:signedintaherevariableacanstorebothpositiveand
negativevalues.
unsigned: indicates that value stored in a variable is capable of storing
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positivevalues.Thevaluesinrangeof0to+2n1,wherenisthesize(inbits)
ofthatparticulardatatype.Example:0to+255forcharacterssincenis8bits.
Declaration example: unsigned int a here variable a can store only positive
andvalues.
long: we can increase the storage of a variable from the storage capacity of
basicdatatypeusingkeywordlong.longdoublesthestoragecapacityofadata
typeusedtodeclarevariable.
Example: long int a here variable as size without long is 2 bytes as it is
declaredasitisint(in16bitcomputer),longintdeclarationtakes4bytesforthe
variablea.
short: we can decrease the storage capacity of a variable from the storage
capacityofbasicdatatypeusingkeywordshort.Shortreducesstoragecapacity
ofdatatypetohalf
Example:shortinta
Bydefaultintareserves2bytesforthevariablea,butshortintatakes1byte
only.

VARIABLE
[WhataretherulesforwritingvariableinCprogramming?]
Avariableisanidentifierwhosevaluecanbechangedduringexecutionofthe
program.
Inotherwords,avariableisanamegiventoamemorylocationwherethedata
canbestored.
Usingthevariablename,thedatacanbe
storedinamemorylocationand
accessedormanipulated
Rulesfordefiningavariable
1)Thefirstcharacterinthevariableshouldbealetteroranunderscore
2)Thefirstcharactercanbefollowedbylettersordigitsorunderscore
3)Noextrasymbolsareallowed(otherthanletters,digitsandunderscore)
4)Lengthofavariablecanbeuptoamaximumof31characters
5)Keywordsshouldnotbeusedasvariablenames
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Validvariables:a,principle_amount,sum_of_digits
Invalidvariables:
3fact//violatesrule1
sum= sumofdigits 62$//violatesrule3
forint if//violatesrule5

DeclarationofVariable

Thedeclarationtellsthecomplier
whatisthenameofthevariableused
whattypeofdateisheldbythevariable
Thesyntaxisshownbelow:
data_typev1,v2,v3wherev1,v2,v3arevariablenames
data_typecanbeint,floatorchar
Forex:inta,b,c
floatx,y,z

InitializationofVariable
The variables are not initialized when they are declared. Hence, variables
normallycontaingarbagevaluesandhencetheyhavetobeinitializedwithvalid
data.
Syntaxisshownbelow:
data_typevar_name=data
wheredata_typecanbeint,floatorchar.var_nameisanameofthevariable.
=isassignmentoperatordataisthevaluetobestoredinvariable
Forex:inta=10
floatpi=3.1416
charc='z'
DATAINPUT/OUTPUTFUNCTIONS
[ExplainstandardinputoutputfunctionsinC.
Writeanoteonprintf()andscanf()functions?]
TherearemanylibraryfunctionsforinputandoutputinClanguage.
Forex:getch(),putchar(),scanf(),printf()
For using these functions in a Cprogram there should be preprocessor
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statement#include<stdio.h>
InputFunction
Theinputfunctionsareusedtoread the data from the keyboardand storein
memorylocation.
Forex:
scanf(),getchar(),getch(),getche(),gets()
OutputFunctions
Theoutputfunctionsareusedtoreceivethe data from memorylocationsand
displayonthemonitor.
Forex:printf(),putchar(),putch(),puts()
TypesofI/OFunctions
Thereare2typesofI/OFunctionsasshownbelow:

UNFORMATTEDI/OFUNCTIONS
getchar()andputchar()
getchar()isusedto
readacharacterfromthekeyboardand
storethischaracterintoamemorylocation
YouhavetopressENTERkeyaftertypingacharacter.
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Thesyntaxisshownbelow:
charvariable_name=getchar()
Forex:
charz
z=getchar()
putchar()isusedtodisplayacharacterstoredinthememorylocationonthe
screen.
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
charx
chary=n
printf(enteroneletterterminatedbyENTERkey\n)
x=getchar()
putchar(y) //sameasprintf(%c,z)
}
Output:
enter one letter
terminated
byENTERkeym
getch()andputch()
getch() is used to read a character from the keyboard without echo(i.e.
typedcharacterwillnotbevisibleonthescreen).Thecharacterthusentered
willbestoredinthememorylocation.
putch() is used to display a character stored in memorylocation on the
screen.
#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
int z
printf(enteroneletter\n)
z=getch()
putch(z) //sameasprintf(%c,z)
}
Output:
Enteroneletter
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m//misnotvisible
m

getche()
getche()is used to read a character from the keyboard with echo(i.e. typed
characterwillbevisiblescreen).Thecharacterthusenteredwillbestoredinthe
memorylocation.
#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
int z
printf(enteroneletter\n)
z=getche()
putch(z) //sameasprintf(%c,z)
}
Output:
enteroneletter
m//misvisible
m
gets()andputs()
gets()isusedto
readastringfromthekeyboardand
storethestringinmemorylocations
puts()isusedtodisplayastringstoredinmemorylocationsonthescreen.
#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
charstring[20]
printf("enterastring\n")
gets(string)
puts(string) //sameasprintf("%s",string)
}
Output:
enterastring
notesbyspr
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notesbyspr
DisadvantageofUnformattedI/O
It is not possible to read/print any other data except characters i.e. it is not
possibletoread/printintegernumbers,floatingpointnumbersetc.
FORMATTEDI/OFUNCTION
scanf()
Thescanffunctiondoesfollowingtasks:
scanaseriesofinputfieldsonecharacteratatime
Format each field according to a corresponding formatspecifier
passedinformatstring(formatmeansconvert).
Storetheformattedinputatanaddresspassedas an argumenti.e.
addresslist
Syntaxisshownbelow:
n=scanf("formatstring",addresslist)
whereformatstringcontainsoneormoreformatspecifiers
addresslistisalistofvariables.Eachvariablenamemust be
precededby&
Forex:
n=scanf("%d%f%c",&x,&y,&z)
Formatspecifiers Meaning
%d anintargumentindecimal
%ldalongintargumentindecimal
%cacharacter
%sastring
%f afloatordoubleargument
%e sameas%f,butuseexponentialnotation
%o anintargumentinoctal(base8)
%xanintargumentinhexadecimal(base16)
printf
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Theprintffunctiondoesfollowingtasks:
Acceptaseriesofarguments
Applyto each argumenta formatspecifier contained in the format
string
Outputtheformatteddatatothescreen
Thesyntaxisshownbelow:
n=printf("formatstring",variablelist)
where formatstring contains one or more
format specifiers and variablelist contains
namesofvariables
Forex:n=printf("%d%f%c",x,y,z)
Example:Programtoreadyourageanddisplaythesameonthescreen.
#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
intage
printf(enteryourage:\n)
scanf(%d,age)
printf(yourageis=%dyears,age)
}
Output:
enteryourage:
21
yourageis=21years

VariationsInOutputFunctionForIntegerAndFloats
IntegerandfloatingpointscanbedisplayedindifferentformatsinCasshown
below:
#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
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printf("Case1:%6d\n",9876)
// Printsthenumberrightjustifiedwithin6columns
printf("Case2:%3d\n",9876)
//Printsthenumbertoberightjustifiedto3columnsbut,thereare4
// digitssonumberisnotrightjustified
printf("Case3:%.2f\n",987.6543)
//Printsthenumberroundedtotwodecimalplaces
printf("Case4:%.f\n",987.6543)
//Printsthenumberroundedto0decimalplace,i.e.,roundedtointeger
printf("Case5:%e",987.6543)
//Printsthenumberinexponentialnotation(scientificnotation)
}
Output:
Case1: 9876
Case2:9876
Case3:987.65
Case4:988
Case5:9.876543e+002
OPERATOR
Anoperatorcanbeanysymbollike+*/thatspecifieswhatoperationneedto
beperformedonthedata.
Forex:+indicatesaddoperation,*indicatesmultiplicationoperation
OPERAND
Anoperandcanbeaconstantoravariable.
EXPRESSION[DefineanexpressioninC.Explainitscategorieswithexample]
Anexpressioniscombinationofoperandsandoperatorthatreducestoasingle
value.
Forex:Considerthefollowingexpressiona+bhereaandbareoperandswhile
+isanoperator.
CLASSIFICATIONOFOPERATORS
OperatorName ForExample
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Arithmeticoperators +*/%
Increment/decrementoperators++
Assignmentoperators =
Relationaloperators <>==
Logicaloperators&&||~
Conditionaloperator?:
Bitwiseoperators & |^
Specialoperators[]
ARITHMETICOPERATORS
Theseoperatorsare used to performarithmeticoperationssuch as addition,
subtraction,
Thereare5arithmeticoperators:
OperatorMeaningofOperator
+addition
subtraction
* multiplication
/division
% modulos
Divisionsymbol(/)
dividesthefirstoperandbysecondoperandand
returnsthequotient.
Quotientistheresultobtainedafterdivisionoperation.
Modulussymbol(%)
dividesthefirstoperandbysecondoperandand
returnstheremainder.
Remainderistheresultobtainedaftermodulusoperation.
Toperformmodulusoperation,bothoperandsmustbeintegers.
Programtodemonstratetheworkingofarithmeticoperators.
#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
inta=9,b=4,c
c=a+b
printf("a+b=%d\n",c)
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c=ab
printf("ab=%d\n",c)
c=a*b
printf("a*b=%d\n",c)
c=a/b
printf("a/b=%d\n",c)
c=a%b
printf("Remainderwhenadividedbyb=%d",c)
}
Output:a+b=13,ab=5,a*b=36,a/b=2
Remainderwhenadividedbyb=1

INCREMENTOPERATOR
++isanincrementoperator.
Asthenameindicates,incrementmeansincrease,i.e.thisoperatorisusedto
increasethevalueofavariableby1.
Forexample:
Ifb=5
then b++ or++b //bbecomes6
Theincrementoperatorisclassifiedinto2categories:
1)PostincrementEx:b++
2)Preincrement Ex:++b
As the name indicates,postincrementmeans first use the value of variable
andthenincreasethevalueofvariableby1.
Asthenameindicates,preincrementmeansfirstincreasethevalueofvariable
by1and
thenusetheupdatedvalueofvariable.
Forex:
Ifxis10,
then z=x++setszto10
but z=++xsetszto11
Example:Programtoillustratetheuseofincrementoperators.
voidmain()
{
intx=10,y=10,z
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z=x++
printf(z=%dx=%d\n,z,x)
z=++y
printf(z=%dy=%d,z,y)
}
Output:z=10x=11z=11y=11
DECREMENTOPERATOR
isadecrementoperator.
Asthenameindicates,decrementmeansdecrease,i.e. this operatoris used
todecreasethevalueofavariableby1.
Forexample:
Ifb=5
then b orb//bbecomes4
Similar to increment operator, the decrement operator is classified into 2
categories:
1)PostdecrementEx:b
2)Predecrement Ex:b
Forex:
Ifxis10,
then z=xsetszto10,
but z=xsetszto9.
Example:Programtoillustratetheuseofdecrementoperators.
voidmain()
{
intx=10,y=10,z
z=x
printf(z=%dx=%d\n,z,x)
z=y
printf(z=%dy=%d,z,y)
}
Output:
z=10x=9
z=9y=9

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ASSIGNMENTOPERATOR
Themostcommonassignmentoperatoris=
Thisoperatorassignsthevalueinrightsidetotheleftside.
Thesyntaxisshownbelow:
variable=expression
Forex:
c=5 //5isassignedtoc
b=c //valueofcisassignedtob
5=c //Error!5isaconstant.
Theoperatorssuchas+=,*=arecalledshorthandassignmentoperators.
Forex,
a=a+10: canbewrittenasa+=10
Inthesameway,wehave:
Operator
=
*=
/=
%=

Example
a=b
a*=b
a/=b
a%=b

Sameas
a=ab
a=a*b
a=a/b
a=a%b

RELATIONALOPERATORS
Relationaloperatorsareusedtofindtherelationshipbetweentwooperands.
Theoutputofrelationalexpressioniseithertrue(1)orfalse(0).
Forexample
a>b //Ifaisgreaterthanb,thena>breturns1elsea>breturns0.
The2operandsmaybeconstants,variablesorexpressions.
Thereare6relationaloperators:

OperatorMeaningofOperatorExample
>Greaterthan 5>3returnstrue(1)
<Lessthan5<3returnsfalse(0)
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>= Greaterthanorequalto5>=3returnstrue(1)
<= Lessthanorequalto 5<=3returnfalse(0)
== Equalto5==3returnsfalse(0)
!=Notequalto 5!=3returnstrue(1)
Forex:
ConditionReturnvalues
2>1 1(ortrue)
2>3 0(orfalse)
3+2<61(ortrue)
Example:Programtoillustratetheuseofallrelationaloperators.
#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
printf(4>5:%d\n,4>5)
printf(4>=5:%d\n,4>=5)
printf(4<5:%d\n,4<5)
printf(4<=5:%d\n,4<=5)
printf(4==5:%d\n,4==5)
printf(4!=5:%d,4!=5)
}
Output:
4>5:0
4>=5:0
4<5:1
4<=5:1
4==5:0
4!=5:1
LOGICALOPERATORS
These operators are used to perform logical operations like negation,
conjunctionanddisjunction.
Theoutputoflogicalexpressioniseithertrue(1)orfalse(0).
Thereare3logicaloperators:
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OperatorMeaningExample
&& LogicalANDIfc=5andd=2then((c==5)&&(d>5))returnsfalse.
|| LogicalOR Ifc=5andd=2then ((c==5)||(d>5))returnstrue.
! LogicalNOT Ifc=5then!(c==5)returnsfalse.
Allnonzerovalues(i.e.1,1,2,2)willbetreatedastrue.
Whilezerovalue(i.e.0)willbetreatedasfalse.
Truthtable
A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

A&&B
0
0
0
1

A||B
0
1
1
1

!A
1
0

Example:Programtoillustratetheuseofalllogicaloperators.
#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
clrscr()
printf(7&&0:%d\n,7&&0)
printf(7||0:%d\n,7||0)
printf(!0:%d,!0)
}
Output:
7&&0:1
7||0:1
!0:1
Example:Programtoillustratetheuseofbothrelational&Logicaloperators.
#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
printf(5>3&&5<10:%d\n,5>3&&5<10)
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printf(8<5||5==5:%d\n,8<5||5==5)
printf(!(8==8):%d,!(8==8)
}
Output:
5>3&&5<10:1
8<5||5==5:1
!(8==8):0
CONDITIONALOPERATOR
Theconditionaloperatorisalsocalledternaryoperatorittakesthreeoperands.
ConditionaloperatorsareusedfordecisionmakinginC.
Thesyntaxisshownbelow:(exp1)?exp2:exp3
whereexp1isanexpressionevaluatedtotrueorfalse
Ifexp1isevaluatedtotrue,exp2isexecuted
Ifexp1isevaluatedtofalse,exp3isexecuted.
Example:Programtofindlargestof2numbersusingconditionaloperator.
#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
inta,b,max
printf(enter2distinctnumbers\n)
scanf(%d%d,&a,&b)
max=(a>b)?a:b
printf(largestnumber=%d,max)
}
Output:
enter2distinctnumbers
34
largestnumber=4
BITWISEOPERATORS
These operators are used to perform logical operation (and, or, not) on
individualbitsof a binarynumber.
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Thereare6bitwiseoperators:
Operators Meaningofoperators
& BitwiseAND
|BitwiseOR
^BitwiseexclusiveOR
~Bitwisecomplement
<< Shiftleft
>> Shiftright

A
0
0
1
1

TruthTable
B
A&B
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1

A|B
0
1
1
1

A^B
0
1
1
0

~A
1
0

Exfor~(bitwisecomplement)Exfor&(bitwiseAND)
a=13 00001101a=13 00001101
~a=11110010b=6 00000110
a&b 00000100
Exfor||(bitwiseOR) Exfor^(bitwisexor)
a=13 00001101a=13 00001101
b=6 00000110b=6 00000110
a|b 00001111a^b 00001011
The operator that is used to shift the data by a specified number of bit
positionstowardsleftorrightiscalledshiftoperator.
Thesyntaxisshownbelowfor<< Thesyntaxisshownbelow
for>>
b=a<<num b=a>>num
whereaisvaluetobeshifted
numisnumberofbitstobeshifted.
Exfor<<(leftshift):Exfor>>(rightshift):
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a=13

00001101

a=13

00001101

b=a<<1

00011010

b=a>>1

00000110

TYPECONVERSION
Typeconversionisusedtoconvertdataofonetypetodataofanothertype.
Typeconversionisof2typesasshowninbelowfigure:

IMPLICITCONVERSION
Ifacompilerconvertsonetypeofdataintoanothertypeofdataautomatically,
itisknownasimplicitconversions.
Thereisnodatalossinimplicitconversion.
Theconversionalwaystakesplacefromlowerranktohigherrank.
Forex,inttofloatasshownintheabovedatatypehierarchy.
Forex:
inta=22,b=11
floatc=a //cbecomes22.000000
floatd=b/c=11/22.000000=11.000000/22.000000=0.500000
If one operand type is same as other operand type, no conversion takes
place and type of result remains same as the operands i.e. int+int=int ,
float+float=float

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Conversionrulesareasfollows:
Ifeitheroperandislongdouble,converttheothertolongdouble.
Otherwise,ifeitheroperandisdouble,converttheothertodouble.
Otherwise,ifeitheroperandisfloat,converttheothertofloat.
Otherwise,convertcharandshorttoint.
Then,ifeitheroperandislong,converttheothertolong.
Example:Programtoillustrateimplicitconversion.
#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
inta=22,b=11
floatd
d=b/c
printf("dValueis:%f",d)
}
Output:
dValueis:0.500000
EXPLICITCONVERSION
Whenthedataofonetypeisconvertedexplicitlytoanothertypewiththe help
ofsomepredefinedfunctions,itiscalledasexplicitconversion.
Theremaybedatalossinthisprocessbecausetheconversionisforceful.
Thesyntaxisshownbelow:
data_type1v1
data_type2v2=(data_type2)v1
where v1canbeexpressionorvariable
Forex:
floatb=11.000000
intc=22
floatd=b/(float)c=11.000000/22.000000=0.500000
Example:Programtoillustrateexplicitconversion.
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#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
floatb=11.000000
intc=22
floatd
d=b/(float)c
printf("dValueis:%f",d)
}
Output:
dValueis:0.500000
THEPRECEDENCEOFOPERATORS
The order in which different operators are used to evaluate an expression
is called precedenceofoperators.
PrecedenceTable

Example to understand the operator precedence available in C programming


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language.
#include<stdio.h>
voidmain()
{
inta=20intb=10intc=15intd=5inte
e=(a+b)*c/d//(30*15)/5
printf("Valueof(a+b)*c/dis:%d\n", e)
e=((a+b)*c)/d//(30*15)/5
printf("Valueof((a+b)*c)/dis :%d\n", e)
e=(a+b)*(c/d)//(30)*(15/5)
printf("Valueof(a+b)*(c/d)is :%d\n", e)
e=a+(b*c)/d// 20+(150/5)
printf("Valueofa+(b*c)/dis :%d", e)
}
Output:
Valueof(a+b)*c/dis:90
Valueof((a+b)*c)/dis :90
Valueof(a+b)*(c/d)is :90
Valueofa+(b*c)/dis :50
..................................................EndofModuleOne....................................

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