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MUKYA UPANIAD

Word-for-Word Translation with Transliteration and


Grammatical Notes

Stephanie Simoes
Please email me if you have questions or corrections: steph.simoes@gmail.com.

2
Introduction

Sanskrit is an inherently vague language: not only are there various possible renderings for individual words,
but the word order is quite loose. Because of this, many translations are often possible for a given passage.
This translation allows readers with no knowledge of Sanskrit to explore the different possible meanings of
the text with the help of the Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, which can be accessed online.

The format of this translation closely follows that of Winthrop Sargeants translation of the Bhagavad-Gt.
At the top of the left-hand column is the transliterated text, and beneath this is a suggested translation. In
the right-hand column, each Sanskrit word is listed without sandhi1, followed by bracketed grammatical
notes and a few possible renderings.

The grammatical notes are structured as follows: After nouns, I have listed the gender, case, and number,
followed by the stem (or, for pronouns, the base). It is generally the noun stem (with or without prefixes)
that must be entered into the online Monier-Williams Dictionary in order to obtain results. In many cases, I
have listed the verbal root from which the stem is derived, and have written any prefixes or suffixes
separately. After verbs, I have listed the person, number, mood, voice, and, when applicable, secondary
conjugations. This is followed by the root (again separated from prefixes and suffixes).

Often, more than one case, gender, etc. is possible for a word. To list all of these possibilities in every case
would have been cumbersome, but I did make note of different possibilities at times. It is important to note
that Sanskrit texts often omit derivatives of to be, so the reader must usually add these at their discretion.
For example, the line in Kena III.1 which I have translated as Ours, indeed, is this victory is, if translated
exactly, Ours indeed this victory.

I chose to transliterate using the IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration) because I find this to
be the most readable of the Romanized Sanskrit alphabets. One downside is that this alphabet cannot be
typed into the search box of the online Monier-Williams Dictionary: text must be inputted using ITRANS
(Indian Languages Transliteration), HK (Harvard-Kyoto), or SLP1 (Sanskrit Library Phonetic Basic). IAST can be
easily converted into HK according to the chart on the following page.

1
A Sanskrit term meaning holding together, sandhi (or sadhi) is the alteration of soundsboth across word
boundaries (external sandhi) and within words (internal sandhi)that simplifies pronunciation. English uses sandhi,
too: for example,the changing of a to an before vowels. The Sanskrit sandhi rules have not been included here
because they can be be found in many books. For a basic outline of the rules, see McComas Taylors The Little Red
Book of Sanskrit Paradigms. For an understanding of why these changes occur, I recommend Robert P. Goldmans
Devavpraveik.

3
Conversion of the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration to Harvard-Kyoto

IAST HK
A
D
h Dh
H
I
l lR
l lRR
M
N
J
G
R
RR
S
z
T
h Th
u U

4
Abbreviations

. tmanepada voice inj. injunctive mood


AB. avyaybhva compound instr. instrumental case
abl. ablative case KD. karmadhraya
acc. accusative case lit. literally
act. active loc. locative case
adj. adjective m. masculine gender
adv. adverb n. neuter gender
aor. aorist tense nom. nominative case
ben. benedictive mood opt. optative mood
BV. bahuvrh P. parasmaipada voice
comp. compound p. participle
cond. conditional mood pass. passive
dat. dative case peri. periphrastic future tense
DV. dvandva pf. perfect tense
f. feminine pl. plural
fut. future pres. present
gen. genitive case prob. probably
ger. gerund pron. pronoun
impf. imperfect tense sing. singular
impv. imperative mood TP. tatpurua (vyadhikaraa)
ind. indeclinable voc. vocative case
inf. infinitive mood

5
Explanation of Grammatical Terms

NOUN CASES / VIBHAKTI-S (separations, divisions)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Ablative pancam (5th) or apdna From (and occasionally than) the
(taking away, giving away) noun.

Accusative dvitya (2nd) or karman Identifies the object.


(action; object)

Dative caturth (4th) or sampradna For, to (the indirect object).


(giving over completely,
bestowing)

Genitive ahi (6th) or sambandha Of the noun.


(binding together)

Instrumental ttya (3rd) or karaa (doing, By or with the noun (in either the
making, acting) instrumental sense or in the sense of
accompaniment).

Locative saptam (7th) or adhikaraa Expresses location: in, on, at, etc.
(location; lit. over-making) the noun.

Nominative pratham (1st) or kart Identifies the subject.


(doer, maker, agent)

Vocative sabodhana (awaking, Identifies the addressee.


arousing; calling to)

6
PARTICIPLES / KDANTA-S (ending in kt-s)2

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Future active bhaviyatkle kdanta E.g., The about-to-remember man
participle (participle in future time) asked a question.

Future passive ktya (to-be-done) This implies ought.


participle (a.k.a. E.g., The words are to-be-
gerdundive) remembered (i.e., The words ought to
be remembered).

Gerund (a.k.a. ktvanta (ending in tva) / This signals an action that was
indeclinable lyabanta (ending in ya) completed before some other event.
participle or Gerunds are always used with a verb.
absolutive) E.g., Having remembered, Rama went
to the forest or, After remembering,
Rama went to the forest.

Past active Past active participle (a.k.a. These are adjectives:


participle and perfect active participle): E.g., The arisen demon walked,
and perfect ktavatu (ending in tavat) Having-remembered Rama arrived.
active participle Some authors suggest these be used as
Perfect active-P participle: simple past tense verbs when there is
kvasu (ending in vas) no verb present in the sentence:
E.g., The demon arose; Rama
Perfect active- participle: remembered.
knac (ending in na) However, this is not necessary if a
verbal form of to be is taken as
implied:
E.g., The demon (is) arisen; Rama (is)
having-remembered.3

Past passive bhute kdanta (participle in The usage is the same as above, except
participle the past) in a passive sense:
E.g., The arisen demon walked;
Remembered Rama arrived.

Present active vartamne kdanta kartari Like the gerund, this is always used with
participle prayoga (participle in the a verb. It differs in that it is more
present, active construction) imperfectivei.e., it refers to an action
that is in progress at the time of the
verb.
E.g., Remembering Rama went to the
forest.

2
Participles can be used adjectivially without nouns, as nouns can be implied. E.g., The remembered [one] arrived.
3
The more eloquent Rama (is) remembered would not be acceptable here, as this would imply a passive sense
(i.e. that Rama is being remembered). Perhaps the English present perfect tense (Rama has remembered) is a
suitable translation in these cases.

7
Present passive vartmne kdanta karmai Like the present active participle, this
participle prayoga (participle in the expresses simultaneous activity, but in a
present, passive construction) passive sense:
E.g., Being-remembered Rama went to
the forest; or simply, Remembered
Rama went to the forest.

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VERB TENSES / KLA-S (times)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Aorist adyatana-bhuta (of today Indicates an action that has recently
past) been completed.4
Pinis term: lu E.g., The horse spoke this morning.

Imperfect anadyatana-bhuta (not of Indicates an action that was not


today past) performed today and was witnessed by
Pinis term: la the speaker.4
E.g., The horse spoke a year ago.

Perfect (a.k.a. paroka-bhuta (beyond the Indicates an action that was not
distant past eye past) performed today and was not witnessed
tense) Pinis term: li by the speaker.4
E.g., He says that the horse spoke a
year ago; or He said that the horse
had spoken a year ago.

Periphrastic anadyatana-bhaviyat (not of Refers to an event in the distant future.


future (a.k.a. today future) It has a sense of certainty.
distant future) Pinis term: lu E.g., When I journey beneath the earth,
the horse will (certainly) speak.

Present vartamna (present) Used like the English present tense.


indicative Pinis term: la E.g., The horse speaks.

Simple future smnya-bhaviyat (general Refers to a future event that is


future) contiguous with present time. It has a
Pinis term: l sense of likelihood.
E.g., The horse will (likely) speak any
minute now.

4
In actual usage, the disctinction between the aorist, imperfect, and perfect is not generally maintained.

9
VERB VOICES / PADA-S (words; lit. steps)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Active voice parasmaipada (word for Describes verbs of activity and verbs used
another with an object.

Middle voice tmanepada (word for the Generally describes reflexive verbs, but
self) this distinction is not stricttmanepada
verbs can take external objects, too.

Note: Some verbs always take the parasmaipada endings, some always take the tmanepada endings, and
somecalled ubhayapada verbscan occur in both forms. In the case of ubhayapada verbs, I simply
indicated which ending was taken in each particular occurrence.

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VERB MOODS (a.k.a. MODES) / ARTHA-S (purposes, aims)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Benedictive r (blessing, benediction; Used for uttering blessings or prayers.
prayer) E.g., May she slay the demon.
Pinis term: li

Conditional atipatti (going Used for hypotheses or situations


beyond)/saketa contrary to fact. It expresses a desire to
(condition) have done things differently in the past.
Pinis term: l E.g., If she had slain the demon, it
would not have arisen.

Imperative jna (order, command) Indicates that the verb is a command.


Pinis term: lo E.g., Slay the demon!

Injunctive This is a usage made of the In Vedic, the injunctive expresses


aorist (lu). intentions (I will slay the demon),
imperatives (Slay the demon!), and
wishes (Let her slay the demon). In
Classical Sanskrit, it functions as a
negative imperative, being used with
the prohibitive particle m.
E.g., Do not slay the demon!

Optative (a.k.a. vidhi (rule, injunction) The optative can be used for
potential) prescription (should, ought) or
(includes Pinis term: li5 possibilities (might, may).
benedictive) E.g., She ought to slay the demon;
She might slay the demon.

The benedictive (r li) is used for


uttering blessings or prayers.
E.g., May she slay the demon.

Subjunctive (prayer, wish, blessing) Used in older Sanskrit, the subjunctive


has a variety of functions including the
Pinis term: le requisition and the expression of
wishes.
E.g., I wish that she would slay the
demon; I request that she slay the
demon.

5
The benedictive and optative are both called li by Pini because they generally function in the same way.

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SECONDARY CONJUGATIONS / DHTU VTTI-S (root modes)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Causative ijanta (ending in ic) Indicates that someone is being caused to
do the action.

Denominative nmadhtu (noun-root) Derives verbs from nouns. Generally


means becomes X, acts like X, turns
(something else) into X, or treats as X.

Desiderative sannanta (ending in san) Indicates that someone desires to do the


action.

Intensive yaanta (ending in ya) Indicates that the action is repeated or


performed with intensity.

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COMPOUNDS / SAMSA-S (throwing togethers)

Term Usage
avyaybhva (indeclinable This functions as an adverb, with an indeclinable as the prior
state) member and a nominal stem as the latter.
E.g., every-day, with-anger, as-long-as-a-year.

bahuvrhi (much-rice)6 This is an application of other compounds: The last member


loses its independence and the compound as a whole
qualifies some noun outside the compound, which is often
implicit.
E.g., I approached Much-Rice (i.e., I approached the man
who has much rice).

dvandva (pair) A list of nouns that would ordinarily be connected by and


or or.
E.g., mother-father (i.e., mother and father).

tatpurua (his person)6: A compound in which the last member is qualified by the
vyadhikaraa (different prior members while remaining independent of them.
case) and karmadhraya In a vyadhikaraa tatpurua compound, the prior member is
(action bearing) in a different case than the last when the compound is
dissolved: e.g., god-son (i.e., son of the god).
In the karmadhraya tatpurua compound, the members
are in the same case. Often, the former member(s)
describes the last (e.g., small-man), but it can also be
equated to it (e.g., king-man i.e., the man is the king).

6
The name of the compound is an example of it.

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1

omityetadakaramidasarva om (ind.): Om; the sacred syllable, an auspicious


tasyopavykhyna bhuta salutation.
bhavadbhaviyaditi sarvamokra eva, iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
yaccnyat trikltta tadapyokra eva words were said or thought.
etat (n. nom. sing. pron. etad): this.
Omthis sound is this all. The explanation akaram (n. nom. sing. a kara): sound, vowel,
of this: The been, the being, and the about-to- word; lit. imperishable.
be, all are Om-making, indeed; and another, idam (n. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
which is beyond the three times, that is also sarvam (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. sarva):
Om-making, indeed! whole, entire, all, every, everything.
tasya (mn. gen. sing. pron. tad): of him, of that,
of it, its, of one.
upavykhynam (n. nom. sing. upavykhyna;
from upa vi khy): a supplementary
explanation.
bhutam (n. nom. sing. bhuta; past pass. p.
bhu): beings; lit. been/become
(ones); the past tense.
bhavat (n. nom. sing. bhavat; pres. act. p.
bhu): being, present; the present tense.
bhaviyat (n. nom. sing. bhaviyat; fut. act. p.
bhu): about-to-be; the future tense.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.
sarvam (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. sarva):
whole, entire, all, every, everything.
o-kra (mn. nom. sing. om-kra): Om-
making.
om (ind.): Om; the sacred syllable, an
auspicious salutation.
kra (m. nom. sing. kra; from k):
making, doing.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
yat (mn. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who,
which, what, that.
ca (ind.): and.
anyat (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. anya):
other than, different from; another.
triklttam (n. nom. sing. trikla-atta, TP.
comp.): gone beyond the three times.
trikla (grammar not specified): the three
times.
attam (n. nom. sing. atta): gone by, past,
passed away, dead; (one that has)
gone over or beyond.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
api (ind.): and, also, moreover; even.
okra (mn. nom. sing. om-kra): Om-making.

14
om (ind.): Om; the sacred syllable, an
auspicious salutation.
kra (m. nom. sing. kra; from k):
making, doing.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.

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2

sarva hyetad brahmyamtm brahma sarvam (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. sarva):
soyamtm catuyt whole, entire, all, every, everything.
hi (ind.): for, because; indeed.
For all this is Brahman. This self is Brahman. It etat (n. acc. sing. pron. etad): this, it.
is this self, four-going. brahma (n. nom. sing. brahman; from bh):
Brahman.
ayam (m. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
tm (m. nom. sing. tman; from an, at, or
v): self.
brahma (n. nom. sing. brahman; from bh):
Brahman.
sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it.
ayam (m. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
tm (m. nom. sing. tman; from an, at, or
v): the self.
catusyt (m. nom. sing. catur-yt, TP. comp.):
four-going.
catur (grammar nor specified): four.
yt (m. nom. sing. yt): going, moving.

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3

jgaritasthno bahiprajna saptga jgaritasthna (m. nom. sing. jgarita-sthna,


ekonavimatimukha sthulabhugvaivnara KD. comp.): waking state.
prathama pda jgarita (grammar not specified): waking.
sthna (m. nom. sing. sthna; from
The waking state, outward knowing, seven- sth): (the act of) standing, standing
limbed, nineteen-faced, enjoying the large, firmly, being fixed or stationary;
the universal manthe first foot. staying, abiding, being in or on; state.
bahiprajna (m. nom. sing. bahis-prajna, AB.
comp.): outward-knowing.
bahis (ind.): out, forth, outwards, outside.
prajna (m. nom. sing. prajna; from pra
jn): knowing.
saptga (m. nom. sing. saptga; from sapta
aga): seven-limbed.
ekonavimatimukha (m. nom. sing.
ekonavimati-mukha, KD. comp.):
nineteen-faced.
ekonavimati (grammar not specified;
from eka una viati): nineteen; lit.
one less than twenty.
mukha (m. nom. sing. mukha): mouth,
face; direction, quarter.
sthulabhuk (mn. nom. sing. sthula-bhuk, TP.
comp.): enjoying the large, enjoyer of the
large.
sthula (grammar not specified; from
sthu): large, thick, massive; gross,
tangible, material.
bhuk (mf. nom. sing bhuj): enjoying,
eating; enjoyer, eater; enjoyment,
profit.
vaivnara (m. nom. sing. vaivnara; from
viva nara): belonging to all men,
everywhere, general, common; the
Supreme Spirit; lit. the universal man.
prathama (m. nom. sing. prvaizvathama;
superlative pra): foremost, first (in time or
rank); earliest, original; preceding.
pda (m. nom. sing. pda): a foot; a quarter.

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4

svapnasthno ntaprajna saptga svapnasthna (m. nom. sing. svapna-sthna,


ekonaviatimukha praviviktabhuk taijaso KD. comp.): the sleeping state.
dvitya pda svapna (grammar not specified): sleep,
sleeping, sleepiness; dreaming, a
The sleeping state, inside-knowing, seven- dream.
limbed, nineteen-faced, enjoying the fine, sthna (m. nom. sing. sthna; from
brightthe second foot. sth): (the act of) standing, standing
firmly, being fixed or stationary;
staying, abiding, being in or on; state.
antaprajnam (n. nom. sing. antar-prajna, AB.
comp.): inward-knowing.
antar (ind.): within, between, amongst;
internal.
prajna (m. nom. sing. prajna; from pra
jn): knowing.
saptga (m. nom. sing. saptga; from sapta
aga): seven-limbed.
ekonavimatimukha (m. nom. sing.
ekonavimati-mukha, KD. comp.):
nineteen-faced.
ekonavimati (grammar not specified;
from eka una viati): nineteen; lit.
one less than twenty.
mukha (m. nom. sing. mukha): mouth,
face; direction, quarter.
pravivikta-bhuk (mf. nom. sing. pravivikta-bhuj,
TP. comp.): enjoying the fine, enjoyer of
the fine.
pravivikta (grammar not specified):
separate, solitary, lonely; fine, delicate.
bhuk (mf. nom. sing. bhuj): enjoying,
eating; enjoyer, eater; enjoyment,
profit.
taijasa (m. nom. sing. taijasa): bright, brilliant.
dvitya (m. nom. sing. dvitya): second.
pda (m. nom. sing. pada): a foot; a quarter.

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5

yatra supto na kancana kma kmayate na yatra (ind.): where, wherever; if, when, as, in
kancana svapna payati tatsuuptam which case.
supta (m. nom. sing. supta): sleeping.
If a sleeping one desires no desires na (ind.): not.
whatsoever, sees no dream whatsoever, that kam cana: whatsoever.
one is fast asleep. kam (m. acc. sing. kim): what?
cana (ind.): makes preceding interrogative
indefinite.
kmam (mn. acc. kma): wish, desire, longing;
pleasure, enjoyment.
kmayate (3rd sing. pre. A . kam): desires, longs
for, wishes for.
na (ind.): not.
kam cana: whatsoever.
kam (m. acc. sing. kim): what?
cana (ind.): makes preceding interrogative
indefinite.
svapnam (m. acc. sing. svapna): sleep, sleeping;
sleepiness, drowsiness; dreaming, a
dream; sloth, indolence.
payati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. d): sees.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
suuptam (n. nom. sing. suupta): fast asleep.

suuptasthna ekbhuta prajnnaghana suuptasthna (m. nom. sing. suupta-sthna,


evnandamayo hynandabhuk cetomukha KD. comp.): deep sleep state.
prjnasttya pda suupta (grammar not specified): fast
asleep, deep sleep.
The deep sleep state, one-being, is the sthna (m. nom. sing. sthna; from
knowledge-striker, indeed. It is the delight of sth): (the act of) standing, standing
bliss, for it is the bliss-enjoyer, splendour- firmly, being fixed or stationary;
faced and intelligentthe third foot. staying, abiding, being in or on; state.
ekbhuta (m. nom. sing. ek-bhuta, KD. comp.):
one-being.
ek (in compounds for eka): one, alone,
solitary.
bhuta (m. nom. sing. bhuta; past pass. p.
bhu): being.
prajnnaghana (m. nom. sing. prajnna-
ghana; TP. or KD. comp.): knowledge-
mass; knowledge-striker.
prajnna (grammar not specified; from pra
jn): prudent, wise; knowledge,
wisdom, intelligence.
ghana (m. nom. sing. ghana; from han):
striker, killer, destroyer; coarse,
gross; solid, material; mass.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.

19
nadamaya (m. nom. sing. nanda-maya):
blissful, consisting of happiness; the
supreme spirit, Brahman; the delight of
bliss.
nanda (grammar not specified):
happiness, joy, enjoyment, pleasure,
bliss.
maya (n. nom. sing. mayas; prob. from
m): refreshment, enjoyment,
pleasure, delight.
hi (ind.): for, because; indeed.
nandabhuk (mf. nom. sing. nanda-bhuj, TP.
comp.): bliss-enjoyer; bliss-enjoyment;
bliss-enjoying.
nanda (grammar not specified):
happiness, joy, enjoyment, pleasure,
bliss.
bhuk (mf. nom. sing. bhuj): enjoying,
eating; enjoyer, eater; enjoyment,
profit.
cetomukha (m. nom. sing. ceto-mukha, KD.
comp.): splendour-faced.
ceto (grammar not specified; see cetas):
splendour; consciousness,
intelligence, mind.
mukha (m. nom. sing. mukha): mouth,
face; direction, quarter.
prjna (m. nom. sing. prjna; from pr jna):
intelligent, wise, clever (one).
ttya (m. nom. sing. ttya): third.
pda (m. nom. sing. pada): a foot; a quarter.

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6

ea sarvavara ea sarvajna eo ntarymyea ea (m. nom. sing. pron. etad): this.


yoni sarvasya prabhavpyayau hi bhutnm sarvevara (m. nom. sing. sarva-vara, TP.
comp.): all-lord, lord of all, lord in all, etc.
This is the all-lord, this is the all-knowing, this sarva (grammar not specified; pronominal
is the night within, this is the womb of all; for adj.): whole, entire, all, very,
it is the origin-and-vanishing of beings. everything.
vara (m. nom. sing. vara): master,
lord.
ea (m. nom. sing. pron. etad): this.
sarvajna (m. nom. sing. sarva-jn, TP. comp.):
all-knowing.
sarva (grammar not specified; pronominal
adj.): whole, entire, all, very,
everything.
jna (m. nom. sing. or acc. pl. jn):
knowing, intelligent
ea (m. nom. sing. pron. etad): this.
antarym (m. nom. sing. antar-ymin): the
night within; the regulator of the internal
feelings; the soul.
ea (m. nom. sing. pron. etad): this.
yoni (mf. nom. sing. yoni; from yu): the
womb, vagina; place of birth, origin.
sarvasya (mn. gen. sing. pronominal adj.
sarva): of all.
prabhavpyayau (m. nom. du. prabhava-
apyantu, DV. comp.): origin-and-vanishing.
prabhava (grammar not specified): source,
origin, cause of existence, in front of
being/becoming/birth/arising.
apyayau (m. nom. du. apyaya; from api
aya): joint; entering into; vanishing.
hi (ind.): for, because; indeed.
bhutnm (mfn. gen. pl. bhuta; past pass. p.
bhu): of beings; lit. of the been/become
ones.

21
7

nntaprajna na bahiprajna na (ind.): not.


nobhayataprajna na prajnnaghana na antaprajnam (n. nom. sing. antar-prajna, AB. comp.):
prajna nprajnam inward-knowing.
antar (ind.): within, between, amongst; internal.
Not inward-knowing, not outward-knowing, prajnam (n. nom. sing. prajna; from pra jn):
not, in both cases, knowing, not a knowledge- knowing.
striker, not knowing, not unknowing, na (ind.): not.
bahiprajnam (n. nom. sing. bahis-prajna, AB. comp.):
outward-knowing.
bahis (ind.): out, forth, outwards, outside.
prajnam (n. nom. sing. prajna; from pra jn):
knowing.
na (ind.): not.
ubhayataprajnam (n. nom. sing. ubhayatas-prajna, AB.
comp.): in-both-cases-knowing.
ubhayatas (ind.): in both cases.
prajnam (n. nom. sing. prajna; from pra jn):
knowing.
na (ind.): not.
prajnnaghanam (n. nom. sing. prajnna-ghana; KD. or
TP. comp.): knowledge-striker, knowledge-mass.
prajnna (grammar not specified; from pra jn):
prudent, wise; knowledge, wisdom,
intelligence.
ghanam (n. nom. sing. ghana; from han): striker,
killer, destroyer; coarse, gross; solid, material;
mass.
na (ind.): not.
prajnam (n. nom. sing. prajna; from pra jn): knowing.
na (ind.): not.
aprajnam (n. nom. sing. aprajna; from a pra jn):
unknowing.

adamavyavahrvamagrhyamalakaamaci adam (n. nom. sing. ada; past pass. p. a d): not
ntyamavyapadeyamektmapratyayasra seen, unseen.
prapancopama nta ivamadvaita avyavahryam (n. nom. sing. avyavahrya; fut. pass. p. a
caturtha manyante sa tm sa vijneya vyavah): not to-be-practiced.
agrhyam (n. nom. sing. agrhya; fut. pass. p. a grha):
unseen, not to-be-practiced, not to-be- not to-be-conceived/perceived/grasped.
grasped, without characteristics, not to-be- alakaam (mn. nom. sing. alakaa; from lak): having
thought-of, not to-be-pointed-out, the core of no signs, without marks, without characteristics.
the one-self belief, relief from manifestation, acintyam (n. nom. sing. acintya; fut. pass. p. a cint):
tranquil, Shiva, non-dual is the fourth, they inconceivable; lit. not to-be-thought.
believe. It is believed to be that self. It is to- avyapadeyam (n. nom. sing. avyapadeya; fut. pass. p. a
be-discerned. vi apa di): not to-be-defined, not-to-be-indicated,
not-to-be-pointed-out.
ektmapratyayasra (n. nom. sing. ektma-pratyaya-
sra, KD. comp.): one-self-belief-core.

22
eka (grammar not specified; pronominal adj.):
one, solitary, single.
tma (grammar not specified; from an, at, or
v): of the self, in the self, for the self, etc.
pratyaya (grammar not specified): belief, firm
conviction, faith, certainty; proof,
ascertainment; conception, assumption,
notion, idea; consciousness, understanding,
intellect; ground, basis, cause.
sram (n. nom. sing. sra): driving away,
destroying; core; firmness, strength, power,
energy; epitome; chief-ingredient or
constituent part of the body.
prapancopama (m. acc. sing. prapanca-upaama, TP.
comp.): relief from
expansion/manifestation/appearance; tranquility
of expansion/manifestation/appearance.
prapanca (grammar not specified; from pac or
panc): expansion, development,
manifestation; manifoldness, diversity;
appearance, phenomenon.
upamam (m. acc. sing. upa ma): relief,
alleviation; calmness, tranquility.
ntam (n. nom. sing. nta; from m): appeased,
pacified, tranquil, calm.
ivam (n. nom. sing. iva): Shiva.
advaitam (n. nom. sing. a dvaita): non-dual; sole,
unique; having no duplicate.
caturtha (n. nom. sing. adj. caturtha): fourth.
manyante (3rd pl. pres. indic. . man): they think,
believe, imagine; they regard as.
manute (3rd sing. pres. pass. . man): is thought of, is
believed, is imagined, is conceived.
sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it.
tm (m. nom. sing. tman; from an, at, or v):
the self.
sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it.
vijneya (m. nom. sing. vijneya; fut. pass. p. vi jna):
to-be-distinguished, to-be-discerned.

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8

so yamtmdhyakaramokro dhimtra sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it.


pd mtr mtrca pd akra ukro ayam (m. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
makra iti tm (m. nom. sing. tman; from an, at, or
v): the self.
It is this self, the over-syllable, Om, the over- adhyakaram (ind.): above all syllables; the
measure. The feet are the measures, and the over-syllable.
measures are the feet a, u, m. o-kra (mn. nom. sing. om-kra): the sound
Om; lit. Om-making.
om (ind.): Om; the sacred syllable, an
auspicious salutation.
kra (m. nom. sing. kra; from k):
making, doing.
adhimtra (n. nom. sing. adhi mtra): above
measure, over-measure.
pd (m. nom. pl. pda): feet; quarters.
mtr (n. nomacc. pl. mtra): measures.
mtr (n. nomacc. pl. mtra): measures.
ca (ind.): and.
pd (m. nom. pl. pda): feet; quarters.
akra (m. nom. sing. a-kra): the letter or
sound a; lit. a-making.
ukra (m. nom. sing. u-kra): the letter or
sound u; lit. u-making.
makra (m. nom. sing. ma-kra): the letter or
sound ma; lit. ma-making.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

24
9

jgaritasthno vaivnaro kra pratham jgaritasthna (m. nom. sing. jgarita-sthna,


mtrpterdimattvdvpnoti ha vai KD. comp.): waking state.
sarvnkmndica bhavati ya evam veda jgarita (grammar not specified): waking.
sthna (m. nom. sing. sthna; from
The waking state, the Universal Man, is the sth): (the act of) standing, standing
letter a, the foremost measure, from firmly, being fixed or stationary;
obtaining, or from the state of having a staying, abiding, being in or on; state.
beginning. One obtains, indeed, all desires vaivnara (m. nom. sing. vaivnara; from
and becomes a firstling, who thus perceives. viva nara): belonging to all men,
everywhere, general, common; the
Supreme Spirit; lit. the Universal Man.
akra (m. nom. sing. a-kra): the letter or
sound a; lit. a-making.
pratham (mf. nom. pl. prathama): foremost,
first; earliest, primary, original.
mtr (f. nom. sing. mtr): measure.
pte (f. gen./abl. sing. pti): of/from reaching;
obtaining.
dimattvt (n. gen./abl. sing. dimattva):
of/from the state of having a beginning.
v (ind.): or; sometimes used as an expletive.
pnoti (3rd sing. pres. indic. PA. p): reaches,
overtakes, meets with; obtains, gains.
ha (ind.): emphasizes previous word.
vai (ind.): indeed, truly, certainly, verily.
sarvn (m. acc. pl. sarva): all.
kmn (m. acc. pl. kma): wishes, desires,
longings.
di (m. nom. sing. di): beginning,
commencement; a firstling.
ca (ind.): and.
bhavati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. bhu):
(he/she/it) is, becomes, arises.
ya (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.
evam (ind.): thus, in this way, in such a manner,
such.
veda (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. vid): knows,
perceives.

25
10

svapnasthnastaijasa ukro dvity svapnasthna (m. nom. sing. svapna-sthna,


mtrotkardubhayatvdvotkarati ha vai KD. comp.): the sleeping state.
jnnasatati samnaca bhavati, svapna (grammar not specified): sleep,
nsybrahmavitkule bhavati ya eva veda sleeping, sleepiness; dreaming, a
dream.
The sleeping state is the letter u, the second sthna (m. nom. sing. sthna; from
measure, from excellence, or from bothness. sth): (the act of) standing, standing
It pulls up, indeed, a knowledge-expanse. One firmly, being fixed or stationary;
becomes the same, and no non-Brahma- staying, abiding, being in or on;
knowers arise in the family of one who thus state.taijasa
knows. ukra (m. nom. sing. u-kra): the letter or
sound u; lit. u-making.
dvity (f. nom. pl. dvitya): second.
mtr (f. nom. sing. mtr): measure.
utkart (mn. abl. sing. ut kara): from the
superior, from the eminent; from pulling
upwards; from elevation, increase; from
excellence, eminence.
ubhayatvd (mfn. abl. sing. ubhaya -tva): from
bothness.
va (ind.): or.
utkarati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. ut k):
(he/she/it) draws up, pulls up.
ha (ind.): emphasizes previous word.
vai (ind.): indeed, truly, certainly, verily.
jnnasatatim (m. acc. sing. jnna-satati, KD.
comp.): knowledge-expanse.
jnna (grammar not specified):
knowledge.
satatim (mf. acc. sing. satati):
stretching, expanse, continuity; a
continuous line or series or flow,
heap, mass, multitude; lineage,
race, progeny.
samna (m. nom. sing. samna): the digestive
breath; same, identical, one; alike, similar,
equal; common, general, universal;
moderate.
ca (ind.): and.
bhavati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. bhu): is,
becomes, arises.
na (ind.): not.
asya (mn. gen. sing. pron. idam): of this, of one.
abrahmavit (mfn. loc. sing. a brahma vid): non-
Brahma-knowing; non-Brahma-knower.
kule (mn. loc. sing. kula): in the herd, troop,
flock, assemblage, multitude; race, family,
community, tribe.

26
bhavati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. bhu): is,
becomes, arises.
ya (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.
evam (ind.): thus, in this way, in such a manner,
such.
veda (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. vid): knows,
perceives.

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11

suupta-sthna prjno makrastty mtr suuptasthna (m. nom. sing. suupta-sthna,


miterapterv minoti ha v ida KD. comp.): deep sleep state.
sarvamaptica bhavati ya evam veda suupta (grammar not specified): fast
asleep, deep sleep.
The deep sleep state, the wise one, is the sthna (m. nom. sing. sthna; from
sound ma, the third measure, from erecting sth): (the act of) standing, standing
or from dissolving. It builds, indeed, this all. firmly, being fixed or stationary;
One becomes dissolution who thus perceives. staying, abiding, being in or on; state.
prjna (m. nom. sing. prjna; from pr jna):
intelligent, wise, clever (one).
makra (m. nom. sing. ma-kra): the letter or
sound ma.
tty (f. nom. pl. ttya): third.
mtr (f. nom. sing. mtra): measure.
mite (f. abl./gen. sing. miti): from/of fixing,
erecting, establishing; measuring,
measure, weight.
apte (f. abl./gen. sing. apti): from/of entering
into, dissolving, dissolution.
v (ind.): or; sometimes used as an expletive.
minoti (3rd sing. pres. mi): (he/she/it) fixes to
the earth, sets up, founds, builds,
constructs; measures; judges, perceives,
observes, knows; casts, throws, scatters.
ha (ind.): emphasizes previous word.
v (ind.): or; sometimes used as an expletive.
idam (n. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
sarvam (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. sarva):
whole, entire, all, every, everything.
apti (f. nom. sing. apti): entering into,
dissolving, dissolution.
ca (ind.): and.
bhavati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. bhu): is,
becomes, arises.
ya (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.
evam (ind.): thus, in this way, in such a manner,
such.
veda (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. vid): knows,
perceives.

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12

amtracaturthovyavahrya amtra (m. nom. sing. a mtra): without


prapancopama ivodvaita evamokra measure, boundless.
tmaiva, saviatytmantmnam ya eva caturtha (m. nom. sing. caturtha): fourth.
veda ya eva veda avyavahrya (m. nom. sing. a vyavahrya; the
fut. pass. p. a vi ava k): not-to-be-
Without measure is the fourth, not-to-be- practiced; not-to-be-transposed, not-to-
practiced, relief from manifestation, Shiva, be-exchanged.
non-dual. Thus, Om-making, the self indeed prapancopama (m. nom. sing. prapanca-
enters into the self by the self. One who thus upama, TP. comp.): relief from
perceives, thus perceives. expansion/manifestation/appearance;
tranquility of
expansion/manifestation/appearance.
prapanca (grammar not specified; from
pac or panc): expansion,
development, manifestation;
manifoldness, diversity; appearance,
phenomenon.
upama (m. nom. sing. upa ma):
relief, alleviation; calmness,
tranquility.
iva (m. nom. sing. iva): Shiva; auspicious,
favourable, benevolent; happiness,
welfare.
advaita (m. nom. sing. a dvaita): non-dual;
sole, unique, having no duplicate.
evam (ind.): thus, in this way, in such a manner,
such.
okra (mn. nom. sing. om-kra): Om-making.
om (ind.): Om; the sacred syllable, an
auspicious salutation.
kra (m. nom. sing. kra; from k):
making, doing.
tm (m. nom. sing. tman; from an, at, or
v): the self.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
saviati (3rd sing. pres. indic. sam vi):
(he/she/it) enters into.
tman (m. inst. sing. tman; from an, at, or
v): by/with the Self.
tmnam (m. acc. sing tman; from an, at,
or v): the self.
ya (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.
evam (ind.): thus, in this way, in such a manner,
such.
veda (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. vid): knows,
perceives.
ya (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.

29
evam (ind.): thus, in this way, in such a manner,
such.
veda (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. vid): knows,
perceives.

30