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Design Specifications and Tolerance

Develop from quest for production quality and


efficiency

DIMENSIONAL MANAGEMENT

Early tolerances support designs basic function


Mass production brought interchangeability
Integrate design and mfg tolerances

Definition
The total amount by which a given
dimension may vary, or the
difference between the limits

Affected Areas
Engineering
Tolerance
Product Design

Quality Control

- ANSI Y14.5M-1982(R1988) Standard [R1.4]

Manufacturing

Questions
Can customer tolerances be accommodated
by product?

Tolerance vs. Manufacturing


Process
Nominal tolerances for
steel
Tighter tolerances =>

Can product tolerances be accommodated


by the process?

increase cost $

Geometric Dimensions
Accurately communicates the function of part
Provides uniform clarity in drawing delineation
and interpretation

Tolerance Types

Size
Form
Location
Orientation

Provides maximum production tolerance

Size Tolerances

Location Tolerances

Form Tolerances

Orientation Tolerances

Tolerances of Form

Extreme Variations of Form


Allowed By Size Tolerance
25
(MMC)
25.1
25

Straightness

25.1
(LMC)

Flatness

25
(MMC)

Circularity

Internal Feature of Size

Cylindricity

Extreme Variations of Form


Allowed By Size Tolerance
24.9
(LMC)

MMC Perfect
Form Boundary

External Feature of Size


24.9
(LMC)

MMC Perfect
Form Boundary

25.1
(LMC)

Straightness
(Flat Surfaces)
0.5

25
(MMC)

24.9
(LMC)

25
24.9

25.1
(LMC)

0.1

25 +/-0.25

0.1 Tolerance
25
(MMC)

0.5 Tolerance

Straightness is the condition where


an element of a surface or an axis is
a straight line

Straightness

Straightness

(Flat Surfaces)

(Flat Surfaces)

0.5 Tolerance Zone


In this example each line element of the surface must lie
within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines
separated by the specified tolerance value applied to each
view. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of
size and the applicable straightness limit.

25.25 max
24.75 min

The straightness tolerance is applied in the view where the


elements to be controlled are represented by a straight line

0.1 Tolerance Zone

Straightness

Straightness (RFS)

(Flat Surfaces)

15
14.85
0.1 M

0.1

0.1 Tolerance Zone


MMC

MMC

In this example each longitudinal


element of the surface must lie
within a tolerance zone defined by
two parallel lines separated by the
specified tolerance value. The
feature must be within the limits of
size and the boundary of perfect
form at MMC. Any barreling or
waisting of the feature must not
exceed the size limits of the
feature.

15
(MMC)

0.1 Diameter
Tolerance Zone

15.1 Virtual Condition


14.85
(LMC)

0.25 Diameter
Tolerance Zone

In this example the derived median line of


the features actual local size must lie
within a tolerance zone defined by a
cylinder whose diameter is equal to the
specified tolerance value at MMC. As each
circular element of the feature departs from
MMC, the diameter of the tolerance
cylinder is allowed to increase by an
amount equal to the departure from the
local MMC size. Each circular element of
the feature must be within the specified
limits of size. However, the boundary of
perfect form at MMC can be violated up to
the virtual condition diameter.

0.1 Tolerance Zone


MMC

15.1 Virtual Condition

Outer Boundary = Actual Feature Size + Straightness Tolerance

Flatness
0.1

25 +/-0.25

Circularity
In this example the entire
surface must lie within a
tolerance zone defined by two
parallel planes separated by the
specified tolerance value. All
points on the surface must lie
within the limits of size and the
flatness limit.

(Roundness)
0.1

90

0.1 Tolerance Zone

0.1
90

0.1 Tolerance Zone

24.75 min

25.25 max
0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone

Flatness is the condition of a surface having all elements in


one plane. Flatness must fall within the limits of size. The
flatness tolerance must be less than the size tolerance.

Circularity

Cylindricity

(Roundness)
0.1

In this example each circular element of the surface must lie within a tolerance
zone defined by two concentric circles separated by the specified tolerance
value. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the
circularity limit.

Circularity is the condition of a surface where all points of the surface


intersected by any plane perpendicular to a common axis are equidistant
from that axis. The circularity tolerance must be less than the size
tolerance

0.1 Tolerance Zone

In this example the entire


surface must lie within a
tolerance zone defined by two
concentric cylinders separated
by the specified tolerance
value. All points on the surface
must lie within the limits of size
and the cylindricity limit.

MMC

Cylindricity is the condition of a surface of revolution in which all points are


equidistant from a common axis. Cylindricity is a composite control of form which
includes circularity (roundness), straightness, and taper of a cylindrical feature.

Tolerances of Orientation

Angularity
(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

20 +/-0.5
0.3 A

Angularity

30 o

A
Parallelism

Perpendicularity

Angularity

Angularity

(Feature Axis to Datum Surface)

(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

NOTE: Tolerance applies


to feature at RFS
0.3 A

19.5 min

20.5 max

30

30

The tolerance zone in


this example is
defined by two
parallel planes
oriented at the
specified angle to the
datum reference
plane.

0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone

0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone

60 o

Angularity is the condition of the planar feature surface at a


specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum
reference plane, within the specified tolerance zone.

Angularity

Angularity

(Feature Axis to Datum Axis)

(Feature Axis to Datum Surface)

NOTE: Feature axis must lie


within tolerance zone cylinder
0.3 A

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a


cylinder equal to the length of the feature, oriented
at the specified angle to the datum reference plane.

A
0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone

Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified


angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference plane,
within the specified tolerance zone.

45 o

Datum Axis A

Angularity
(Feature Axis to Datum Axis)

Perpendicularity
(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)
0.3 A

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder


equal to the length of the feature, oriented at the specified
angle to the datum reference axis.
Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified
angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference axis,
within the specified tolerance zone.

0.3 Wide
Tolerance Zone

0.3 Wide
Tolerance Zone

Perpendicularity

Perpendicularity

(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

0.3 Diameter
Tolerance Zone

NOTE: Tolerance applies


to feature at RFS

The tolerance zone in this example is


defined by two parallel planes oriented
perpendicular to the datum reference
plane.

C
0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone

Perpendicularity is the condition of the planar feature


surface at a right angle to the datum reference plane, within
the specified tolerance zone.

0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone
0.3 C

Perpendicularity

Perpendicularity

(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)


NOTE: Tolerance applies
to feature at RFS
0.3 A

The tolerance zone in this


example is defined by two
parallel planes oriented
perpendicular to the
datum reference axis.
The tolerance zone in this example is
defined by a cylinder equal to the length of
the feature, oriented perpendicular to the
datum reference plane.

0.3 Wide
Tolerance Zone

Perpendicularity is the condition of the feature axis at a right


angle to the datum reference plane, within the specified
tolerance zone.

Perpendicularity is the
condition of the feature
axis at a right angle to
the datum reference
axis, within the specified
tolerance zone.

Datum Axis A

Parallelism

Parallelism

(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

0.3 A

25 +/-0.5

A
0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

The tolerance zone in this example


is defined by two parallel planes
oriented parallel to the datum
reference plane.

0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

Parallelism is the condition of the planar feature surface


equidistant at all points from the datum reference plane,
within the specified tolerance zone.

24.5 min

Parallelism
(Feature Axis to Datum Surface)

Parallelism
(Feature Axis to Datum Surface)

NOTE: The specified tolerance


does not apply to the orientation
of the feature axis in this direction

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel


planes oriented parallel to the datum reference plane.
NOTE: Tolerance applies
to feature at RFS

Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant


along its length from the datum reference plane, within the
specified tolerance zone.

0.3 Wide
Tolerance Zone

0.3 A

10

Parallelism

Parallelism

(Feature Axis to Datum Axis)

(Feature Axis to Datum Axis)


0.1 Circular
Tolerance Zone

The tolerance zone in this example is


defined by a cylinder equal to the
length of the feature, oriented
parallel to the datum reference axis.

0.1 A

NOTE: Tolerance applies


to feature at RFS

0.1 Circular
Tolerance Zone

Datum Axis A

Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along its length from
the datum reference axis, within the specified tolerance zone.

Internal surfaces
constructed around a
datum axis

Tolerances of Runout

Circular Runout

Total Runout

External surfaces
constructed around
a datum axis

Datum feature

Angled surfaces
constructed around
a datum axis

Surfaces constructed
perpendicular to a
datum axis

11

Total
Tolerance

Circular runout can only be applied on an


RFS basis and cannot be modified to
MMC or LMC.

Circular Runout
(Angled Surface to Datum Axis)

Maximum

Minimum

Full Indicator
Movement
Maximum
Reading

Minimum
Reading
0

Measuring position #1
(circular element #1)

Full Part
Rotation

When measuring circular


runout, the indicator must be
reset to zero at each
measuring position along
the feature surface. Each
individual circular element of
the surface is independently
allowed the full specified
tolerance. In this example,
circular runout can be used
to detect 2-dimensional
wobble (orientation) and
waviness (form), but not 3dimensional characteristics
such as surface profile
(overall form) or surface
wobble (overall orientation).

0.75 A
A

50 +/-0.25

50

+/- 2

As Shown
on Drawing

Measuring position #2
(circular element #2)

Circular Runout

Circular Runout

(Angled Surface to Datum Axis)

(Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis)

Means This:
Allowable indicator
reading = 0.75 max.
Full Indicator
Movement

)
-

The tolerance zone for any individual circular


element is equal to the total allowable movement
of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the
true geometric shape of the feature surface when
the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum
axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently
to each individual measuring position along the
feature surface.
Collet or Chuck

0.75 A
A

50 +/-0.25
Datum axis A

360 o Part
Rotation

Single circular
element

As Shown
on Drawing

NOTE: Circular runout in this example only


controls the 2-dimensional circular elements
(circularity and coaxiality) of the angled feature
surface not the entire angled feature surface

12

Circular Runout

Circular Runout

(Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis)

(Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis)

The tolerance zone for any individual circular


element is equal to the total allowable movement
of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the
true geometric shape of the feature surface when
the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum
axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently
to each individual measuring position along the
feature surface.
-

360 o Part
Rotation

0.75 A

When measuring circular runout, the indicator must


be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.

50 +/-0.25

Allowable indicator
reading = 0.75 max.

As Shown
on Drawing
Datum axis A

NOTE: Circular runout in this example will


only control variation in the 2-dimensional
circular elements of the planar surface (wobble
and waviness) not the entire feature surface

Circular Runout
(Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis)
Means This:

The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal


to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a
position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature
surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum
axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each
individual measuring position along the feature surface.
+

Allowable indicator
reading = 0.75 max.

0.75 A-B

When measuring circular runout,


the indicator must be reset when
repositioned along the feature
surface.

Single circular element


360 o Part
Rotation

Circular Runout
(Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis)

Datum axis A

As Shown
on Drawing

NOTE: Circular runout in this example will


only control variation in the 2-dimensional
circular elements of the surface (circularity and
coaxiality) not the entire feature surface

13

Circular Runout

Circular Runout

(Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis)

(Surface Related to Datum Surface and Axis)

The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal


to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a
position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature
surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum
axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each
individual measuring position along the feature surface.

Means This:

Allowable indicator
reading = 0.75 max.

Machine
center

0.75 A B
50 +/-0.25

When measuring circular runout,


the indicator must be reset when
repositioned along the feature
surface.

As Shown
on Drawing

Single circular element


Datum axis A-B

Machine
center
NOTE: Circular runout in this example will
only control variation in the 2-dimensional
circular elements of the surface (circularity and
coaxiality) not the entire feature surface

360 o Part
Rotation

Circular Runout

Total Runout

Total
Tolerance

(Surface Related to Datum Surface and Axis)


Maximum
The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is
equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed
in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the
feature surface when the part is located against the datum
surface and rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. The
tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual
measuring position along the feature surface.

Means This:

Single circular element

Minimum

Full Indicator
Movement
Maximum
Reading

Minimum
Reading

Allowable indicator
reading = 0.75 max.

Total runout can only be applied on an


RFS basis and cannot be modified to
MMC or LMC.

Stop collar
360 o Part
Rotation

Collet or Chuck

Datum axis B

When measuring circular runout,


the indicator must be reset when
repositioned along the feature
surface.

Datum plane A

14

Total Runout

Total Runout

(Angled Surface to Datum Axis)

0.75 A
When measuring total runout, the indicator is moved in a straight line along the feature surface
while the part is rotated about the datum axis. It is also acceptable to measure total runout by
evaluating an appropriate number of individual circular elements along the surface while the part
is rotated about the datum axis. Because the tolerance value is applied to the entire surface, the
indicator must not be reset to zero when moved to each measuring position. In this example,
total runout can be used to measure surface profile (overall form) and surface wobble (overall
orientation).

50 +/-0.25

50

+/- 2

As Shown
on Drawing

Total Runout

Total Runout

(Angled Surface to Datum Axis)

(Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis)

Means This:
When measuring total runout, the
indicator must not be reset when
repositioned along the feature
surface.

The tolerance zone for the entire angled surface is


equal to the total allowable movement of a dial
indicator positioned normal to the true geometric
shape of the feature surface when the part is
rotated about the datum axis and the indicator is
moved along the entire length of the feature
surface.
Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max.
(applies to the entire feature surface)

0.75 A
10
35
50 +/-0.25

Collet or Chuck

A
Full Part
Rotation

Datum axis A

As Shown
on Drawing

NOTE: Unlike circular runout, the use of total runout


will provide 3-dimensional composite control of the
cumulative variations of circularity, coaxiality,
angularity, taper and profile of the angled surface

15

Total Runout

Tolerances of Profile

(Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis)


Means This:

The tolerance zone for the portion of the feature surface


indicated is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial
indicator positioned normal to the true geometric shape of the
feature surface when the part is rotated about the datum axis
and the indicator is moved along the portion of the feature
surface within the area described by the basic dimensions.

10

+
+

When measuring total runout, the indicator


must not be reset when repositioned along the
feature surface.

Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max.


(applies to portion of feature surface indicated)

35

Profile of a Line
Full Part
Rotation

Profile of a Surface

Datum axis A
NOTE: The use of total runout in this example
will provide composite control of the cumulative
variations of perpendicularity (wobble) and
flatness (concavity or convexity) of the feature
surface.

Profile of a Line

Profile of a Line

20 X 20
A1

B
20 X 20
A3

20 X 20

The profile tolerance zone in this example is defined by two


parallel lines oriented with respect to the datum reference
frame. The profile tolerance zone is free to float within the
larger size tolerance and applies only to the form and
orientation of any individual line element along the entire
surface.

A2

1 A B C

17 +/- 1
A

1 Wide Profile
Tolerance Zone

2 Wide Size
Tolerance Zone

Profile of a Line is a two-dimensional tolerance that can be applied to a


part feature in situations where the control of the entire feature surface as
a single entity is not required or desired. The tolerance applies to the line
element of the surface at each individual cross section indicated on the
drawing.

18 Max
16 Min.

16

Profile of a Surface

Profile of a Surface

20 X 20

20 X 20
A1

A1

20 X 20

20 X 20

A3

A3

20 X 20

20 X 20
A2

A2

2 A B C

2 A B C

23.5

23.5

2 Wide Tolerance Zone


Size, Form and Orientation

23.5

2 Wide Tolerance Zone


Size, Form and Orientation

Nominal
Location

Profile of a Surface

23.5

Nominal
Location

Profile of a Surface
(Bilateral Tolerance)
20 X 20
A1

B
20 X 20
A3

20 X 20
A2

The profile tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel


planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile
tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part
surface to vary equally about the true profile of the feature.

1 A B C

C
50

1 Wide Total
Tolerance Zone

Profile of a Surface is a three-dimensional tolerance that can be applied


to a part feature in situations where the control of the entire feature
surface as a single entity is desired. The tolerance applies to the entire
surface and can be used to control size, location, form and/or orientation
of a feature surface.
0.5 Inboard
0.5 Outboard

50

Nominal Location

17

Profile of a Surface
(Bilateral Tolerance)

Profile of a Surface
(Unilateral Tolerance)
20 X 20
A1

B
20 X 20
A3

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes


oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile tolerance
zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to
vary equally about the true profile of the trim.
Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control
the location, form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. When a
bilateral value is specified, the tolerance zone allows the trim edge variation
and/or locational error to be on both sides of the true profile. The tolerance
applies to the entire edge surface.

20 X 20
A2

0.5 A B C

C
50

0.5 Wide Total


Tolerance Zone

50

Profile of a Surface
(Unilateral Tolerance)

Nominal Location

Profile of a Surface
(Unequal Bilateral Tolerance)
20 X 20
A1

B
20 X 20
A3

20 X 20
A2

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes


oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile tolerance
zone is located and aligned in a way that allows the trim surface to vary
from the true profile only in the inboard direction.

0.5
1.2 A B C
C
50

Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control
the location, form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. When a
unilateral value is specified, the tolerance zone limits the trim edge variation
and/or locational error to one side of the true profile. The tolerance applies to
the entire edge surface.

1.2 Wide Total


Tolerance Zone

0.5 Inboard
0.7 Outboard

50

Nominal Location

18

Profile of a Surface
0.5 A
0.1

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes


oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile tolerance
zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to
vary from the true profile more in one direction (outboard) than in the
other (inboard).

Location &
Orientation
Form Only

25

Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control
the location, form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. Typically when
unequal values are specified, the tolerance zone will represent the actual
measured trim edge variation and/or locational error. The tolerance applies to
the entire edge surface.

0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone


25.25

24.75

Profile of a Surface
0.5 A
0.1 A

Location
Form & Orientation

25

A
0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone
25.25

A
24.75

0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone

Composite
Profile of
Two
Coplanar
Surfaces
With
Orientation
Refinement

Composite
Profile of Two
Coplanar
Surfaces w/o
Orientation
Refinement

Tolerances
of Location
True Position
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 5.2)

Concentricity
(ASME Y14 5M-1994 5 12)

19

Coordinate vs Geometric
Tolerancing Methods

Coordinate vs Geometric
Tolerancing Methods

8.5 +/- 0.1


1.4 A B C

8.5 +/- 0.1

+/- 0.5
1.4

Circular Tolerance
Zone

Rectangular
Tolerance Zone
10.25 +/- 0.5

+/- 0.5

10.25
B

10.25 +/- 0.5

10.25

Rectangular Tolerance Zone

Geometric Dimensioning

Circular Tolerance Zone

Circular Tolerance Zone

57% Larger
Tolerance Zone

Rectangular Tolerance Zone

Increased Effective Tolerance

Positional Tolerance Verification


(Applies when a circular tolerance is indicated)

X
Z
Feature axis actual
location (measured)

Formula to determine the actual radial


position of a feature using measured
coordinate values (RFS)
Z=

Positional
tolerance zone
cylinder
Actual feature
boundary

Y
Feature axis true
position (designed)

X2 + Y2
positional tolerance /2

Z = total radial deviation


X2 = X measured deviation
Y2 = Y measured deviation

20

Positional Tolerance Verification


(Applies when a circular tolerance is indicated)

X
Z
Feature axis actual
location (measured)

Formula to determine the actual radial


position of a feature using measured
coordinate values (MMC)
X2 + Y2
+( actual - MMC)
Z
2
= positional tolerance
Z = total radial deviation
X2 = X measured deviation
Y2 = Y measured deviation

Z =

Positional
tolerance zone
cylinder
Actual feature
boundary

Feature axis true


position (designed)

Bi-directional True Position

Bi-directional True Position

Rectangular Coordinate Method

Rectangular Coordinate Method

1.5 A B C

2X

Means This:
2X

0.5 A B C

True Position Related


to Datum Reference Frame

1.5 Wide
Tolerance
Zone

10

10

B
10

35

2X

6 +/-0.25

As Shown
on Drawing

B
10

35

0.5 Wide
Tolerance Zone

Each axis must lie within the 1.5 X 0.5 rectangular tolerance zone
basically located to the datum reference frame

21

Bi-directional True Position

Bi-directional True Position

Multiple Single-Segment Method

Multiple Single-Segment Method

2X

6 +/-0.25

Means This:

1.5 A B C
0.5 A B

True Position Related


to Datum Reference Frame

1.5 Wide
Tolerance
Zone

10
10

B
10

35

As Shown
on Drawing

10

0.5 Wide
Tolerance Zone

35

Each axis must lie within the 1.5 X 0.5 rectangular tolerance zone
basically located to the datum reference frame

Bi-directional True Position

Bi-directional True Position

Noncylndrical Features (Boundary Concept)

Noncylndrical Features (Boundary Concept)

2X 13 +/-0.25
1.5 M A B C
BOUNDARY

2X 6 +/-0.25
0.5 M A B C
BOUNDARY

5.75 MMC length of slot


-0.50 Position tolerance
5.25 maximum boundary

Means This:
Both holes must be within the size limits and no
portion of their surfaces may lie within the area
described by the 11.25 x 5.25 maximum
boundaries when the part is positioned with
respect to the datum reference frame. The
boundary concept can only be applied on an
MMC basis.

12.75 MMC width of slot


-1.50 Position tolerance
11.25 Maximum boundary

True position boundary related


to datum reference frame

10

B
10

35

As Shown
on Drawing

90 o
10
10

35

22

Composite True Position

Composite True Position

Without Pattern Orientation Control

Without Pattern Orientation Control

2X

6 +/-0.25
1.5 A B C
0.5 A

Means This:
1.5 Pattern-Locating
Tolerance Zone Cylinder

0.5 Feature-Relating
Tolerance Zone Cylinder

pattern location relative


to Datums A, B, and C

pattern orientation relative to


Datum A only (perpendicularity)

10

B
10

As Shown
on Drawing

35

10

B
10

35

True Position Related


to Datum Reference
Frame

Each axis must lie within each tolerance zone simultaneously

Composite True Position

Composite True Position

With Pattern Orientation Control

With Pattern Orientation Control

2X

6 +/-0.25

Means This:

1.5 A B C
0.5 A B

1.5 Pattern-Locating
Tolerance Zone Cylinder

True Position Related


to Datum Reference
Frame

pattern location relative


to Datums A, B, and C

10

B
10

35

As Shown
on Drawing

10

B
10

35

0.5 Feature-Relating
Tolerance Zone Cylinder
pattern orientation relative to
Datums A and B

Each axis must lie within each tolerance zone simultaneously

23

Location (Concentricity)

Location (Concentricity)

Datum Features at RFS

Datum Features at RFS

6.35 +/- 0.05


0.5 A

15.95
15.90

Means This:

Axis of Datum
Feature A

0.5 Coaxial
Tolerance Zone

Derived Median Points of


Diametrically Opposed Elements

As Shown on Drawing

Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median points of
diametrically opposed elements must lie within a
0.5 cylindrical
tolerance zone. The axis of the tolerance zone coincides with the axis of
datum feature A. Concentricity can only be applied on an RFS basis.

Location (Symmetry)

Location (Symmetry)

Datum Features at RFS

Datum Features at RFS

6.35 +/- 0.05


0.5 A

15.95
15.90

Means This:

Center Plane of
Datum Feature A

0.5 Wide
Tolerance Zone

Derived Median
Points

As Shown on Drawing

Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median points
of opposed elements must lie between two parallel planes equally
disposed about datum plane A, 0.5 apart. Symmetry can only be
applied on an RFS basis.

24

Virtual Condition Boundary

Virtual Condition Boundary

Internal Feature (MMC Concept)

Internal Feature (MMC Concept)

14 +/- 0.5
1M A B C

Virtual Condition
Inner Boundary
Maximum Inscribed
Diameter

1 Positional
Tolerance Zone at
MMC

XX.X
True (Basic)
Position of Hole

Other Possible
Extreme Locations

XX.X
True (Basic)
Position of Hole

Boundary of MMC Hole


Shown at Extreme Limit

As Shown on Drawing

Axis Location of
MMC Hole Shown
at Extreme Limit

Calculating Virtual Condition


13.5
1

MMC Size of Feature


Applicable Geometric Tolerance

12.5

Virtual Condition Boundary

Resultant Condition Boundary

Resultant Condition Boundary

Internal Feature (MMC Concept)

Internal Feature (MMC Concept)

14 +/- 0.5
1M A B C

Resultant Condition
Outer Boundary
Minimum Circumscribed
Diameter

2 Positional
Tolerance Zone at
LMC

True (Basic)
Position of Hole

XX.X

Other Possible
Extreme Locations

Boundary of LMC Hole


Shown at Extreme Limit

XX.X

True (Basic)
Position of Hole

As Shown on Drawing

Axis Location of
LMC Hole Shown
at Extreme Limit

Calculating Resultant Condition (Internal Feature)


14.5
2

LMC Size of Feature


Geometric Tolerance (at LMC)

16.5

Resultant Condition Boundary

25

Virtual Condition Boundary


External Feature (MMC Concept)

14 +/- 0.5
1M A B C

Virtual Condition
Outer Boundary
Minimum Circumscribed
Diameter

1 Positional
Tolerance Zone at
MMC

True (Basic)
Position of Feature

XX.XX

Other Possible
Extreme Locations
Boundary of MMC Feature
Shown at Extreme Limit

True (Basic)
Position of Feature

Axis Location of
MMC Feature Shown
at Extreme Limit

XX.X

As Shown on Drawing
Calculating Virtual Condition
14.5
1

MMC Size of Feature


Applicable Geometric Tolerance

15.5

Virtual Condition Boundary

Resultant Condition Boundary

Resultant Condition Boundary

External Feature (MMC Concept)

External Feature (MMC Concept)

14 +/- 0.5
1M A B C

Resultant Condition
Inner Boundary
Maximum Inscribed
Diameter

2 Positional
Tolerance Zone at
LMC

True (Basic)
Position of Feature

XX.X
Other Possible
Extreme Locations
Boundary of LMC feature
Shown at Extreme Limit

True (Basic)
Position of Feature

XX.X

As Shown on Drawing

Axis Location of
LMC Feature Shown
at Extreme Limit

Calculating Resultant Condition (External Feature)


13.5
2

LMC Size of Feature


Geometric Tolerance (at LMC)

11.5

Resultant Condition Boundary

26

27