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# Dynamics of Machinery

## Scope of the subject in

present scenario
Importance
The subject provides in-depth knowledge of dynamics of machinery which deals
with the study of vibrations and noise. Types of vibration, causes of vibration, vibration
isolation, fundamentals of noise and noise reduction techniques etc. are to be studied. Three
main ideas that provide much of the motivation for study of dynamics of machinery and
help to define the scope are:
1. The source of unbalance, respective vibrations and noise are unknown.
2. Identification, understanding and analysis machine vibrations are important.
3. Developments of different graphical/analytical solutions are possible.
Application
Such a holistic education, it is hoped, would enable them to appreciate their role in
national reconstruction by responding to the challenges of the time.

Dynamics of Machinery

## Aim of the subject

To focus on the basic principles and topics of the fundamental importance
concerning the technology of dynamics of machinery. It explores key topics in the areas of
balancing, vibration and noise. The principles of dynamics are carefully and thoroughly
explored and then applied to the complex systems found vibrating machines and structures.
It introduces, balancing of rotary and reciprocating unbalance as well as free, damped and
forced vibrating systems of single and two degrees of freedom systems along with vibration
measurement and noise control.

Dynamics of Machinery

Objectives
This course will lead to the learning of,
1. To develop the ability to find out unbalance in single and multi plane rotary and
reciprocating systems and to balance the unbalance present in the systems. Make them
to able to find the unbalance in multi cylinder inline, V, and radial engines.
2. To learn free vibrations and develop the ability to distinguish the linear and torsional
vibrating systems. To make them able to develop the physical model from actual model,
develop the differential equation of motion and to find natural frequency of vibrating
systems by applying either DAlemberts Principle or Energy method.
3. To study the damping, damping coefficient, damping factor, logarithmic decrement etc.
and to develop the ability to formulate the differential equation of motion of free
damped linear and torsional vibrating systems for various damping conditions and to
find solutions of problems to find natural and damped natural frequencies of free
damped vibrating systems.
4. To study the forced vibrating systems and to develop the ability to analyse it. By
learning forced vibrations to make the students able to distinguish the forced vibrations
due to rotary unbalance, reciprocating unbalance, excitation of support etc and to do the
transmissibility analysis of a forced vibrating system.
5. By learning two degree freedom, free vibrating systems, make the students able to write
the differential equation of motion of two degree freedom free vibrating systems and to
develop the ability to analyse it for natural frequencies for different mode shapes. To
study the two degree freedom, free torsional vibrations of two rotors, three rotors and
geared systems and to develop the ability to analyse it for natural frequencies, mode
shapes and node points.
6. To introduce the Holzer method and undamped vibration absorber. By learning whirling
of shaft to make them able to find the critical speed of shafts for various modes.
7. To make the students to come to know the sound concepts, human hearing mechanism,
fundamentals of noise and governing equation.
8. To make the students to come to know the various types of vibration measuring and analysing
equipments, acceptable vibration and noise standards, noise control as well as vibration
monitoring techniques.

9. At last, to discuss the practical aspects of the learned syllabus in real life, issues of
design evaluation, ethics, and professionalism.

Dynamics of Machinery

Expected Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this subject student should be able to
1. Find the unbalance in single and multi plane rotary, reciprocating systems and multi
cylinder inline, V, and radial engines and balance the unbalanced systems.
2. Distinguish the linear and torsional vibrating systems, develop the physical model from
actual model, apply DAlemberts Principle or Energy method to analyse the free
undamped and damped vibrating systems to find natural and damped natural
frequencies.
3. Anlyse the forced vibrating systems, distinguish the forced vibrations due to rotary
unbalance, reciprocating unbalance, excitation of support etc. and able to analyse the
forced vibrating system for amplitude and phase lag and transmissibility analysis.
4. Write the differential equation of motion of two degree freedom free vibrating linear
and torsional systems, analyse it for natural frequencies for different mode shapes and
node points, apply Holzer method for solution of vibrating systems and find the critical
speed of shafts for various modes.
5. Understand the sound concepts, human hearing mechanism, fundamentals of noise and
find sound pressure level, sound intensity etc.
6. Identify and use vibration measuring and analysing equipments, decide acceptable
vibration and noise according to standards and suggest the noise control as well as
vibration monitoring techniques.

Unit I

Dynamics of Machinery

Balancing
Lect.

Topic\s to be covered

References

01

## Centrifugal force, Balancing of rotating

masses in single plane, Problems.

02

## Balancing of rotating masses in several

planes, problems.

03

## Inertia force, Balancing of reciprocating

mass in single cylinder engine.

04

05

Problems.

06

07

## Balancing of radial engine, concept of direct

and reverse crank, problem.

08

## Problems, Static and Dynamic balancing

machines, In-situ balancing.

## R.S. Khurmi and J.K. Gupta, Theory of

Machines, Edition 14th, Page No. 833 to 839,
Eurasia Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
R.S. Khurmi and J.K. Gupta, Theory of
Machines, Edition 14th, Page No. 841 to 843,
Eurasia Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., PU Que.
Paper, [3664]-123, Q.3.c., PU Que. Paper,
[3564]-123, Q.4.b.
R.S. Khurmi and J.K. Gupta, Theory of
Machines, Edition 14th, Page No. 858 to 862,
Eurasia Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
R.S. Khurmi and J.K. Gupta, Theory of
Machines, Edition14th, Page No. 878 to 879,
Eurasia Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., PU Que.
Paper, [3864]-132, Q.3.b., Q.4.a.
PU Que. Paper, [3664]-123, Q.4.c., PU Que.
Paper, [3564]-123, Q.3., PU Que. Paper,
[3064]-413, Q.3.
R.S. Khurmi and J.K. Gupta, Theory of
Machines, Edition 14th, Page No. 899 to 903,
Eurasia Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., PU Que.
Paper, [3364]-423, Q.4.b.
R.S. Khurmi and J.K. Gupta, Theory of
Machines, Edition 14th, Page No. 894 to 896,
Eurasia Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., PU Que.
Paper, [3064]-413, Q.4.b.
PU Que. Paper, [3464]-123, Q.4.b., S.S.
Rattan, Theory of Machines, Edition3 rd ,
Page No. 520 to 521, Tata McGraw Hill
Education Pvt. Ltd.

Objectives:
To develop the ability to find out unbalance in single and multi plane rotary and
reciprocating systems and to balance the unbalance present in the systems. Make them
to able to find the unbalance in multi cylinder inline, V, and radial engines.
Outcomes:
Students develop the ability to find out unbalance in single and multi plane rotary and
reciprocating systems and to balance the unbalance present in the systems. They are
able to find the unbalance in multi cylinder inline engines, V engines and radial engines.
Bridging the Gap:
Centrifugal Force, Inertia force.
On and above:
In-situ balancing.

Unit II

Dynamics of Machinery

## Single Degree of Freedom System Free and

Damped Vibrations
Lect.
09

10

11
12

13

14

15

16
17

Topic\s to be covered

References

## Introduction to vibration, SHM, DOF, V.P. Singh, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition

stiffness, damping, modeling, equivalent 3rd , Page No. 1 to 9, 46 to 48 Dhanpat Rai &
Co. Pvt. Ltd.
spring, linear and torsional systems.
Singh, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
DAlemberts Principal, equilibrium method V.P.
3rd, Page No. 42 to 45, 55, 56, Dhanpat Rai &
and energy method to find natural frequency
Co. Pvt. Ltd. PU Que. Paper, [3864]-132,
of linear and torsional systems, Problems.
Q.5.a., Q.6.a.
Problems on natural frequency of linear and PU Que. Paper, [3964]-122, Q.5.a., PU Que.
Paper, [3664]-123, Q.5.c., Q.6.a., PU Que.
torsional vibrating systems.
Paper, [3564]-123, Q.5.b.
Problems on natural frequency of linear and PU Que. Paper, [3064]-413, Q.5.a., Q.6.a., PU
Que. Paper, [3264]-423, Q.5.a. & b., PU Que.
torsional vibrating systems.
Paper, [3364]-423, Q.5.c.
Damped single degree vibrations, types of V.P. Singh, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
damping, linear and torsional, damping 3rd , Page No. 96 to 111, Dhanpat Rai & Co.
Pvt. Ltd.
systems, <1, =1, >1 systems.
V.P. Singh, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
Solution of problems by analytical and 3rd , Page No. 115 to 118,139, Dhanpat Rai &
Co. Pvt. Ltd. PU Que. Paper, May. 2005,
Laplace transform method, Problems.
Q.6.b., PU Que. Paper, Dec. 2005, Q.6.a.
V.P. Singh, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
Logarithmic decrement, problems, decays 3rd , Page No. 110 to 114, Dhanpat Rai & Co.
Pvt. Ltd., PU Que. Paper, [3264]-423, Q.6.b.,
of damped vibrations, Problems.
PU Que. Paper, [3464]-123, Q.6.b.
PU Que. Paper, [3864]-132, Q.6.b., PU Que.
Problems.
Paper, [3564]-123, Q.6.b.,PU Que. Paper,
[3064]-413, Q.5.c.
Grover, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
Dry friction or coulombs damping, G.K.
7th, Page No. 81 to 87, Nem Chand & Bros.,
Problems.
Roorkee., PU Que. Paper, [3964]-122, Q.6.c.

.
Objectives:
1. To learn free vibrations and develop the ability to distinguish the linear and torsional
vibrating systems. To make them able to develop the physical model from actual model,
develop the differential equation of motion and to find natural frequency of vibrating
systems by applying either DAlemberts Principle or Energy method.
2. To study the damping, damping coefficient, damping factor, logarithmic decrement etc.
and to develop the ability to formulate the differential equation of motion of free
damped linear and torsional vibrating systems for various damping conditions and to
find solutions of problems to find natural and damped natural frequencies of free
damped vibrating systems.

Outcomes:

Dynamics of Machinery
Students are able to distinguish the linear and torsional vibrating systems, develop the
physical model from actual model, apply DAlemberts Principle or Energy method to
analyse the free undamped and damped vibrating systems to find natural and damped
natural frequencies.
Bridging the Gap:
DAlemberts Principal.
On and above:
Laplace transforms method.

Unit III

Dynamics of Machinery

## Single Degree of Freedom Systems Forced

Vibrations
Lect.

Topic\s to be covered

References

18

## Damped forced vibrations, longitudinal and

torsional systems, Types of excitations.

19

## Frequency response functions simple

harmonic excitations, derivation, Problems.

20

## Excitation due to rotating and reciprocating

unbalance, Problems.

21

Problems.

22

## Magnification factor, resonance, phase,

quality factor, Problems.

23

## Vibration due to excitation

(support), Problems.

24

Force
and
Problems.

25

26

Problems.

## V.P. Singh, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition

3rd , Page No. 145 to 149, Dhanpat Rai & Co.
Pvt. Ltd.
V.P. Singh, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
3rd , Page No. 149 to 152, Dhanpat Rai & Co.
Pvt. Ltd., PU Que. Paper, [3664]-123 Q.7.b.
V.P. Singh, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
3rd , Page No. 152 to 156, Dhanpat Rai & Co.
Pvt. Ltd., PU Que. Paper, [3964]-122, Q.8.a.,
PU Que. Paper, [3564]-123, Q.7.c.
PU Que. Paper, [3264]-423, Q.7.b., PU Que.
Paper, [3164]-423, Q.7.b., PU Que. Paper,
[3364]-423, Q.8.b.
V.P. Singh, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
3rd , Page No. 148 to 150, Dhanpat Rai & Co.
Pvt. Ltd.
V.P. Singh, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
3rd , Page No. 156 to 160, Dhanpat Rai & Co.
Pvt. Ltd., PU Que. Paper, [3964]-122, Q.7.a.,
PU Que. Paper, [3664]-123, Q.8.b.
V.P. Singh, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
3rd , Page No. 160 to 162, Dhanpat Rai & Co.
Pvt. Ltd., PU Que. Paper, [3564]-123, Q.8.b.,
PU Que. Paper, [3364]-423, Q.4.b., PU Que.
Paper, [3164]-423, Q.8.b.
PU Que. Paper, [3064]-413, Q.7., PU Que.
Paper, [3064]-413, Q.8.b., PU Que. Paper,
[3264]-423, Q.8.b.

motion

of

base

transmissibility,

Objectives:
To study the forced vibrating systems and to develop the ability to analyse it. By
learning forced vibrations to make the students able to distinguish the forced vibrations
due to rotary unbalance, reciprocating unbalance, excitation of support etc and to do the
transmissibility analysis of a forced vibrating system.
Outcomes:
Students can analyse the forced vibrating systems, distinguish the forced vibrations due
to rotary unbalance, reciprocating unbalance, excitation of support etc. and able to
analyse the forced vibrating system for amplitude and phase lag and transmissibility
analysis.
Bridging the Gap:
Types of excitations.
On and above:
Shock absorber.

Unit IV

Dynamics of Machinery

## Two Degree of Freedom Systems Undamped

Vibrations
Lect.

Topic\s to be covered

27

## Free 2 DOF vibrations of longitudinal

system, natural frequency and mode shapes,
Problems.

28

29

30
31
32
33
34

35
36

References

## G.K. Grover, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition

7th, Page No. 152 to 157, Nem Chand &
Bros., Roorkee. PU Que. Paper, [3964]-122,
Q.10.a., PU Que. Paper, [3564]-123, Q.9.b.
PU Que. Paper, [3564]-123, Q.4.b., PU Que.
Problems.
Paper, [3564]-123, Q.4.b
Free 2 DOF vibrations vibration of torsional G.K. Grover, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
systems Two rotor and Three rotor 7th, Page No. 165 to 167, Nem Chand &
systems, equivalent shaft, natural frequency Bros., Roorkee. PU Que. Paper, [3964]-123,
Q.9.a., PU Que. Paper, [3664]-123, Q.9.b.
and mode shapes, Problems.
PU Que. Paper, [3864]-132, Q.10.a.., PU Que.
Problems.
Paper, [3564]-123, Q.4.b., PU Que. Paper,
[3564]-123, Q.10.
Problems, Inertia of geared systems, PU Que. Paper, [3064]-413, Q.10.b., PU Que.
Paper, [3164]-423, Q.9.b.
Torsional vibrations of geared system.
PU Que. Paper, [3664]-123, Q.10.b., PU Que.
Problems on geared systems.
Paper, [3164]-423, Q.10.b.
G.K. Grover, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
Holzer method, Problems.
7th, Page No. 315 to 323, Nem Chand &
Bros., Roorkee.
G.K. Grover, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
Undamped vibration absorber, Problems.
7th, Page No. 181 to 194, Nem Chand &
Damped vibration Absorber.
Bros., Roorkee.
G.K. Grover, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
Critical speed of light shaft having single 7th, Page No. 331 to 339, Nem Chand &
Bros., Roorkee., PU Que. Paper, [3964]-122,
rotor.
Q.12.a.
PU Que. Paper, [3664]-123, Q.11.b., PU Que.
Problems
Paper, [3864]-132, Q.11.b.

.
Objectives:
1. By learning two degree freedom, free vibrating systems, make the students able to write
the differential equation of motion of two degree freedom free vibrating systems and to
develop the ability to analyse it for natural frequencies for different mode shapes. To
study the two degree freedom, free torsional vibrations of two rotors, three rotors and
geared systems and to develop the ability to analyse it for natural frequencies, mode
shapes and node points.
2. To introduce the Holzer method and undamped vibration absorber. By learning whirling
of shaft to make them able to find the critical speed of shafts for various modes.
Outcomes:
Students develop the ability to write the differential equation of motion of two degree
freedom free vibrating linear and torsional systems, analyse it for natural frequencies for
different mode shapes and node points, apply Holzer method for solution of vibrating
systems and find the critical speed of shafts for various modes.

Dynamics of Machinery
Bridging the Gap:
Equivalent shaft, Inertia of geared systems.
On and above:
Damped vibration Absorber.

Unit V
Introduction to Noise

Dynamics of Machinery
Lect.

Topic\s to be covered

37

Sound frequency.

38

39

40

## Sound intensity, Sound fields, Problems

41

Sound
reflection,
transmission, Problems

42

Problems.

43

44

PPT on NVH

absorption

References

and

## A.G. Ambekar, Mechanical Vibrations and

Noise Engineering, Edition 1st, Page No. 310
to 314, 329 to 331, Prentice Hall of India Pvt.
Ltd.
A.G. Ambekar, Mechanical Vibrations and
Noise Engineering, Edition 1st, Page No. 314
to 320, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
A.G. Ambekar, Mechanical Vibrations and
Noise Engineering, Edition 1st, Page No. 320
to 325, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
A.G. Ambekar, Mechanical Vibrations and
Noise Engineering, Edition 1st, Page No. 325
to 329, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
A.G. Ambekar, Mechanical Vibrations and
Noise Engineering, Edition 1st, Page No. 377
to 378, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
A.G. Ambekar, Mechanical Vibrations and
Noise Engineering, Edition 1st, Page No. 332
to 335, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
A.G. Ambekar, Mechanical Vibrations and
Noise Engineering, Edition 1st, Page No. 335
to 341, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
Vibration seminar, Modern COE, Pune.

Objectives:
To make the students to come to know the sound concepts, human hearing mechanism,
fundamentals of noise and governing equation.
Outcomes:
Students understand the sound concepts, human hearing mechanism, fundamentals of
noise and find sound pressure level, sound intensity etc.
Bridging the Gap:
Sound frequency.
On and above:
PPT on NVH

Unit VI
Experimental Noise and Vibration

Dynamics of Machinery
Lect.

Topic\s to be covered

01

02

03

04

## Human exposure to noise and vibration

acceptable vibration and noise standards.

05

## Basics of noise and vibration Control of

natural frequency.

06

07

08

## Enclosures, Absorbers, Noise control at

References
G.K. Grover, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
7th, Page No. 135 to 144, Nem Chand &
Bros., Roorkee.
S.S. Rao, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
4th , Page No. 794 to 804, Pearson Education.
S.S. Rao, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
4th , Page No. 813 to 8821, Pearson
Education.
A.G. Ambekar, Mechanical Vibrations and
Noise Engineering, Edition 1st, Page No. 343
to 362, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
A.G. Ambekar, Mechanical Vibrations and
Noise Engineering, Edition 1st, Page No. 335
to 341, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
V.P. Singh, Mechanical Vibrations, Edition
3rd , Page No. 160 to 161, 246 to 265,
Dhanpat Rai & Co. Pvt. Ltd.
A.G. Ambekar, Mechanical Vibrations and
Noise Engineering, Edition 1st, Page No. 373
to 380, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
A.G. Ambekar, Mechanical Vibrations and
Noise Engineering, Edition 1st, Page No.
376, 377, 380 to 384, Prentice Hall of India
Pvt. Ltd.

.
Objectives:
To make the students to come to know the various types of vibration measuring and
analysing equipments, acceptable vibration and noise standards, noise control as
well as vibration monitoring techniques.
Outcomes:
Students are able to identify and use vibration measuring and analysing equipments,
decide acceptable vibration and noise according to standards and suggest the noise
control as well as vibration monitoring techniques.
Bridging the Gap:
FFT analyzer.
On and above:
Machine signature analysis.