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MediaaccesscontrolWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Mediaaccesscontrol
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

IntheIEEE802referencemodelofcomputernetworking,themediumaccesscontrolormediaaccesscontrol
(MAC)layeristhelowersublayerofthedatalinklayer(layer2)ofthesevenlayerOSImodel.TheMAC
sublayerprovidesaddressingandchannelaccesscontrolmechanismsthatmakeitpossibleforseveralterminalsor
networknodestocommunicatewithinamultipleaccessnetworkthatincorporatesasharedmedium,e.g.an
Ethernetnetwork.ThehardwarethatimplementstheMACisreferredtoasamediaaccesscontroller.
TheMACsublayeractsasaninterfacebetweenthelogicallinkcontrol(LLC)sublayerandthenetwork'sphysical
layer.TheMAClayeremulatesafullduplexlogicalcommunicationchannelinamultipointnetwork.This
channelmayprovideunicast,multicastorbroadcastcommunicationservice.

Contents
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FunctionsperformedintheMACsublayer
Addressingmechanism
Channelaccesscontrolmechanism
Commonmultipleaccessprotocols
MACincellularnetworks
Seealso
References

FunctionsperformedintheMACsublayer
AccordingtoIEEEStd8022001section6.2.3"MACsublayer",theprimaryfunctionsperformedbytheMAC
layerare:[1]
Framedelimitingandrecognition
Addressingofdestinationstations(bothasindividualstationsandasgroupsofstations)
Conveyanceofsourcestationaddressinginformation
TransparentdatatransferofLLCPDUs,orofequivalentinformationintheEthernetsublayer
Protectionagainsterrors,generallybymeansofgeneratingandcheckingframechecksequences
Controlofaccesstothephysicaltransmissionmedium
InthecaseofEthernet,accordingto802.32002section4.1.4,thefunctionsrequiredofaMACare:[2]
receive/transmitnormalframes
halfduplexretransmissionandbackofffunctions
append/checkFCS(framechecksequence)
interframegapenforcement
discardmalformedframes
prepend(tx)/remove(rx)preamble,SFD(startframedelimiter),andpadding
halfduplexcompatibility:append(tx)/remove(rx)MACaddress

Addressingmechanism
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ThelocalnetworkaddressesusedinIEEE802networksandFDDInetworksarecalledMACaddressestheyare
basedontheaddressingschemeusedinearlyEthernetimplementations.AMACaddressisauniqueserialnumber.
OnceaMACaddresshasbeenassignedtoaparticularnetworkinterface(typicallyattimeofmanufacture),that
deviceshouldbeuniquelyidentifiableamongstallothernetworkdevicesintheworld.Thisguaranteesthateach
deviceinanetworkwillhaveadifferentMACaddress(analogoustoastreetaddress).Thismakesitpossiblefor
datapacketstobedeliveredtoadestinationwithinasubnetwork,i.e.hostsinterconnectedbysomecombinationof
repeaters,hubs,bridgesandswitches,butnotbynetworklayerrouters.Thus,forexample,whenanIPpacket
reachesitsdestination(sub)network,thedestinationIPaddress(alayer3ornetworklayerconcept)isresolved
withtheAddressResolutionProtocolforIPv4,orbyNeighborDiscoveryProtocol(IPv6)intotheMACaddress(a
layer2concept)ofthedestinationhost.
ExamplesofphysicalnetworksareEthernetnetworksandWiFinetworks,bothofwhichareIEEE802networks
anduseIEEE80248bitMACaddresses.
AMAClayerisnotrequiredinfullduplexpointtopointcommunication,butaddressfieldsareincludedinsome
pointtopointprotocolsforcompatibilityreasons.

Channelaccesscontrolmechanism
ThechannelaccesscontrolmechanismsprovidedbytheMAClayerarealsoknownasamultipleaccessprotocol.
Thismakesitpossibleforseveralstationsconnectedtothesamephysicalmediumtoshareit.Examplesofshared
physicalmediaarebusnetworks,ringnetworks,hubnetworks,wirelessnetworksandhalfduplexpointtopoint
links.Themultipleaccessprotocolmaydetectoravoiddatapacketcollisionsifapacketmodecontentionbased
channelaccessmethodisused,orreserveresourcestoestablishalogicalchannelifacircuitswitchedor
channelizationbasedchannelaccessmethodisused.Thechannelaccesscontrolmechanismreliesonaphysical
layermultiplexscheme.
ThemostwidespreadmultipleaccessprotocolisthecontentionbasedCSMA/CDprotocolusedinEthernet
networks.Thismechanismisonlyutilizedwithinanetworkcollisiondomain,forexampleanEthernetbus
networkorahubbasedstartopologynetwork.AnEthernetnetworkmaybedividedintoseveralcollision
domains,interconnectedbybridgesandswitches.
Amultipleaccessprotocolisnotrequiredinaswitchedfullduplexnetwork,suchastoday'sswitchedEthernet
networks,butisoftenavailableintheequipmentforcompatibilityreasons.

Commonmultipleaccessprotocols
Examplesofcommonstatisticaltimedivisionmultiplexingmultipleaccessprotocolsforwiredmultidrop
networksare:
CSMA/CD(usedinEthernetandIEEE802.3)
Tokenbus(IEEE802.4)
Tokenring(IEEE802.5)
Tokenpassing(usedinFDDI)
Examplesofcommonmultipleaccessprotocolsthatmaybeusedinpacketradiowirelessnetworksare:
CSMA/CA(usedinIEEE802.11/WiFiWLANs)
SlottedALOHA
DynamicTDMA
ReservationALOHA(RALOHA)
MobileSlottedAloha(MSALOHA)
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CDMA
OFDMA
OFDM

MACincellularnetworks
Cellularnetworks,suchasGSM,UMTSorLTEnetworks,alsouseaMAClayer.TheMACprotocolincellular
networksisdesignedtomaximizetheutilizationoftheexpensivelicensedspectrum.[3]Theairinterfaceofa
cellularnetworkisatlayers1and2oftheOSImodelatlayer2,itisdividedintomultipleprotocollayers.In
UMTSandLTE,thoseprotocolsarethePacketDataConvergenceProtocol(PDCP),theRadioLinkControl
(RLC)protocol,andtheMACprotocol.Thebasestationhastheabsolutecontrolovertheairinterfaceand
schedulesthedownlinkaccessaswellastheuplinkaccessofalldevices.TheMACprotocolisspecifiedby3GPP
inTS25.321[4]forUMTSandTS36.321[5]forLTE.

Seealso
Listofchannelaccessmethods
Isochronousmediaaccesscontroller
MACForcedForwarding
MACsec(IEEE802.1AE)

References
1."IEEE8022001(R2007)IEEEStandardforLocalandMetropolitanAreaNetworks:OverviewandArchitecture"(PDF).
IEEE.
2."IEEE802.3".IEEE.
3.G.MiaoJ.ZanderKWSungB.Slimane(2016).FundamentalsofMobileDataNetworks.CambridgeUniversity
Press.ISBN1107143217.
4.3GPPTS25.321MediumAccessControl(MAC)protocolspecification(http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/htmlinfo/2532
1.htm)
5.3GPPTS36.321EvolvedUniversalTerrestrialRadioAccess(EUTRA)MediumAccessControl(MAC)protocol
specification(http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/htmlinfo/36321.htm)

ThisarticleisbasedonmaterialtakenfromtheFreeOnlineDictionaryofComputingpriorto1November2008
andincorporatedunderthe"relicensing"termsoftheGFDL,version1.3orlater.
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