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Hierarchical communication

Within a single machine, each layer calls upon the services of the layer just below it.

The passing of data and network information is made possible by an interface

between each pair of adjacent layers.

• The messages exchanged between the adjacent layers, to obtain the required services,

are called Interface Control Information (ICI).


The Capability of two or more computers of different vendors to transmit & receive

data and to carry out processes as expected by the user is called Interoperability.

Serial and Parallel Data Transmission

There are two methods of transmitting


Parallel Data Transmission

digital data namely paral





data transmission,





binary ~

simultaneously. For example, to transmit an 8-bit binary number in p~


from one unit to

another, eight transmission lines are required. Each bit req~its

All bits of a word are transmitted at the same time. This ~so

own separate data path.

. t tnsmission can move a

significant amount of data in a given period of time. Its disa . nt ge is the large number of

interconnecting cables between the two units. For l~jp

words, cabling becomes

complex and expensive. This is particularly true i the dist§nce between the two units is

great. Long multi wire cables are not only expe


, but also require special interfacing to

minimize noise and distortion problems.

Serial Data Transmission



Serial data transmission is the protes19tJransmitting

binary words a bit at a time.

Since the bits time-share the trans}t1lsSionmediffl i only one interconnecting lead is required.

While serial data transmission ...

is rn.u~. simpl

and less expensive because of the use of a

Serial data

single interconnecting line, it is fa.

,slow method of data transmission.

transmission is useful in systems.,wlte ·hjg'h speed is not a requirement.

Parallel communicatf'9h.:.·.i~"tlsed'1'orshort-distance data communications and within a

computer, and serial tra iPl~qn is used for long-distance data communications.

Transmission Mj)des


In simplex m£de

communication is unidirectional, as on a one-way street. Only

one of the two"devic

n a link can transmit; the other can only receive. Commercial radio


Simplex lines are also called receive-only, transmit-only or one-

way-only lihes."


In;alftdu.Jn~x.mode (HDX), each station can both transmit and receive, but not at the same

tim~~.~h"e.lJo(medevice is sending, the other can only receive, and vice versa. The half-duplex

mode .~sed in cases where there is no need for communication in both directions at the

same time!;the entire capacity of the channel can be utilized for each direction. Citizens band

(CB) ratno is an example where push to talk (PTT) is to be pressed or depressed while

sending and transmitting.

In full-duplex mode (FDX) , both stations can transmit and receive simultaneously. One

common example of full-duplex communication is the telephone network. The full-duplex

mode is used when communication in both directions is required all the time. The capacity of

the channel must be divided between the two directions.


In full/full duplex mode (FIFDX), transmission is possible in both directions at the same

time but not between the same two stations (i.e. station 1 transmitting to station 2, while

receiving from station 3). F/FDX is possible only on multipoint circuits. Postal system can be

given as a person can be sending a letter to one address and receive a letter from another

address at the same time.

Network Models

Computer networks can be represented with two basic network models: peer-to-peer

client/server and dedicated client/server. The client/server method specifies the way in which two

computers can communicate with software over a network.

Peer-to-peer client/server network

Here, all the computers share their resources, such as hard drives, prin


0 on

with all the other computers on the network. Individual resources like diSkS'



drives, and even printers are transformed into shared, collective resources


e accessible

from every PC. Unlike client-server networks, where network info ti . stored on a

centralized file server PC and made available to

tens, hundreds, or th


s client PCs, the

information stored across peer-to-peer networks is UniqUely~entrah . Because peer-to-

peer PCs have their own hard disk drives that are accessisle b c~puters, each PC acts

as both a client (information requestor) and a server (inform~

p ovider). The peer-to-peer

network is an appropriate choice when there are fewer tlaAJ.01rrers on the network, security

is not an issue and all the users are located in the sa~ generatJarea.

The advantages of peer-to-peer over client-server: ~

No need for a network administrator


Network is fast/inexpensive to setupAtom


Each PC can make backup copies cJfRJ

to other PCs for security.

er is perfect for both home and office use.

Easiest type of network to bUii.<r, peer-t -

Dedicated client/server netwo


Here, one computer is



a server and the rest of the computers are clients.

one server for each applic tnt

xists within an organization. The designated servers

store all the networks s~e


and applications programs and function only as servers and

are not used as 3l clie~workstation.

Client computers can access the servers and have

shared files ~s~e"!ll

the resultsaan

networks, cli~n





the co~ters,

them over the transmission

medium. In some client/server


submit jobs to one of the servers and once they process the jobs,

k to the client computer.


1, the dedicated

client/server model is preferable


the peer-to-peer

° fiel for general purpose data networks.


~ computer networking, topology refers to the layout of connected devices, i.e. how

cables, and other components within a data communications network


interconnected, both physically and logically. The physical topology describes how the

network is actually laid out, and the logical topology describes how the data actually flow

through the network.

Two most basic topologies are point-to-point

and multipoint. A point-to-point

topology usually connects two mainframe computers for high-speed digital information. A

multipoint topology connects three or more stations through a single transmission medium

and some examples are star, bus, ring, mesh, hybrid and wireless topology.


Star topology

A star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals)

connected directly to a central network hub, switch, or concentrator. Data on a star network

passes through the hub, switch, or concentrator before continuing to its destination. The hub,

switch, or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network. It also acts as a

repeater for the data flow.

  • ~-----------------,-------------------- Disadvantages


£,);11",'expanded wirhcur d,.l'tlptiC>1l R~<)UlfO!"; more <'al>l~

to the network



f"llllr", affo?cg only a <'lIIg]e

Easy to rroubleshoor and rsolare


A c entral connecting clo?nc;> aBo'

for a >Il)~l~ 1'011\1of iatll1u

More difficult to implement

Bus topology


Bus networks use a common backbone to conneee all~~ic~.

backbone) functions as a shared

communication medium th~ev.s


A single cable, (the

attach or tap into with

an interface connector. A device wanting to communicat,e1aithlJrother device on the network

sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other dev~es see, but only the intended

recipient actually accepts and processes the messa e. The bus topology is the simplest and

most common method of interconnecting com

never touch to form a complete loop. A bU~i6

The two ends of the transmission line


is also known as multi drop or linear

bus or a horizontal bus.

/'''''~'(' r---------------~-------------

Ad va utages


~tr·YOfk dl:,.nlption 1xhtu Cvllll-"-tr~


or removed

A bIt"" In tll< cable ".111prevent ,I" )':'ljr~m~tr0tll .J.Z>C~;'111~rhenervort

Difficult to troubleshoot.

Ring topology



form ~c





bus ~ta


In a ri~net~orK

ometimes called a loop), every device has exactly two neighbours

for communica~~~ purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either

clockwise"). All the stati~ns are. interconnected in tandem (series) to

. d 107Por Circle. 1ransmissions are unidirectional and must propagate through all

fie loop. Each computer acts like a repeater and the ring topology is similar to




Expan sion to the network can ,<1U...e nerwork drsrupnon

Rurv ne-twork , ar e- rno derat e lv

:!.!l::! :,.vJ






;; to


A -:.ul?le bre-ak 11\ the c nb le can di'>Hl]







Mesh topology

The mesh topology incorporates a unique network design in which each computer on

the network connects to every other, creating a point-to-point connection between every

device on the network. Unlike each of the previous topologies, messages sent on a mesh

network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination. A mesh network in

which every device connects to every

other is called a full mesh. A disadvantage

is that, a

mesh network with n nodes must have n(n-l )/2 links and each node must have n-I I/O ports


Hybrid topology



Disadvanra aes


Provides redundant path, between devices

Requires more cable than the ( LA" topologies

TIl<, network can be expanded Complicated unplemenration Without dlS111pt1OIl to current uses



This topology (sometimes called mixed topOIOgy)lSilmply combining two or more

of the traditionaltopologies to form a larger,more to share the advantagesof differen_t __t~oP!-O;_IO~:;;;~if-

extopology. Main aim is being able



• ~~eless topology is one in which few cables are used to connect systems. The ne is made up of transmitters that broadcast the packets using radio frequencies.The network ntains special transmitters called celis, or wireless access points, which extends a radio s ere in the shape of a bubble around the transmitter. This bubble can extend to multiplerooms and possibly floors in a building.The pes and networkdevices have a special transmitter- receiver, which allows them to receive broadcasts and transmit requested data back to the access point. The access point is connected to the physical network by a cable, which allows it, and any wireless clients, to communicate with systems on the wired network.


Network Classifications

One way to categorize the different types of computer network designs is by their scope

or scale. Common examples of area network types are:

LAN - Local Area Network


WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network

WAN - Wide Area Network

MAN - Metropolitan Area Network

SAN - Storage Area Network, System Area Network, Server Area Network, Small

Area Network


CAN - Campus

Area Network,

Controller Area Network, or sometimes






PAN - Personal

Area Network

DAN - Desk ,\rea Network


Local area network


r" ~

A local area network (LAN) is a network that conne~ts com~

and devices in a

limited geographical area such as home, school, compu~r


closely positioned group of buildings. LANs use a network ~al.

rat'iY, office building, or

system to provide two-

way communications

at bit rates in the range of 10 ~.s


00 Mbps. In addition to

operating in a limited space, LANs are also typically owneowcontrolled, and managed by a

single person or ("·"anization. They also tend t

primarily Ethernet :1" IToken Ring.

Advantages of LA:":

• Share resources efficiently


Individual workstation might s.urvi~e n~rk

se certain connectivity technologies,

failure if it doesn't rely upon others

Component l" (.~ILltioni~.(p"en.•.d•.•. e.ntofs~jtim evolution

Support hct.:r.' ~~cl1eousar,\~o)lware

Access to 01' '. LANs W;,~s I

High transl.

Metropolitan area

1'~ltCS~. I

Ill'!" or·


A MAN is ()I":.nize,

r a larger geographical area than a LAN, ranging from several

blocks of building" ' 'l'llti,

cities. Its geographic scope falls between a WAN

and LAN. A

MAN might b\a ,,:'1'" , network like the cable television network or it usually interconnects

a number of local: ' .ctworks (LANs) using a high-capacity backbone technology, such as


1 I orovides up-link services to wide area networks and the Internet.


(';' '''''e at speeds of 1.5 Mbps to 10 Mbps and range from five miles to a


dmilcs i" ""gth. Examples of MANs are FOOl (fiber distributed data interface)


[Casyncl""~' 'c: transfer mode).

Wide a

netwo: '.

Wide aren : '

relatively slow-sr .

.rks are the oldest type of data communications network that provide

()"g-distance transmission of data, voice and video information over

relatively large ar ,,; ,IYdispersed geographical areas, such as country or entire continent.

WANs interconncr

important ways. i""

rather exist under

technology like j\,

I' ", \ -rs in different locations. A WAN differs from a LAN in several

',\ ANs (like the Internet) are not owned by anyone organization but

'ei ive or distributed ownership and management. WANs tend to use

'r.une Relay and X.25 for connectivity over the longer distances.



Global area network:-A GAN provides connections between countries around the entire

globe. Internet is a good example and is essentially a network comprised of other networks

that interconnect virtually every country in the world. GANs operate from 1.5 Mbps to 100

Gbps and cover thousands of miles.

Campus Area Network: - a network spanning multiple LANs but smaller than a MAN, such

as on a university or local business campus.

Storage Area Network: - connects servers to data storage devices through a technology like

Fibre Channel.

System Area Network: - Links high-performance computers with high-speed conn

a cluster configuration. Also known as Cluster Area Network.

Building backbone: - It is a network connection that normally carries tr IC


departmental LANs within a single company. It consists of a switch o~



connectivity to other

networks such as campus backbones, enterprise


es, MANs,



Camus backbone:

- It is a network connection used to carry tra

c t

and from LANs

located in various buildings on campus. It normally us


er cables for the

transmission media between buildings and operates at relatfvely . h tfhnsmission rates.

Enterprise networks:

- It includes some or all of th,e a~e'

connected in a cohesive and manageable fashion.

The Internet Protocol (IP)




tworks and components

"IP", the "Internet Protocol",

is the ne

popular "TCPIIP" network software. IP is the

ork layer protocol associated with the

of-the world-wide network commonly

known as the Internet. More correctly the I

inter network) and IP is the protocol used

IP addresses



_j a connection of smaller networks (an

etween those networks.


Version 4 IP addresses a~ 3~its


address consists of two parts. A network

number and a host number wit~in ha .' etwork. To allow maximum flexibility the network

and host numbers are of differeo\)e'R! s~ described in the subsections which follow.

An IP address is tra

each number representin

Class A addressiS

~n.MI¥.•wrlften as four decimal numbers separated by dots with

e of the IP address.


A clas -

as the most significant bit O. The next seven bits contain the


last 24 bits the host number. There are thus 126 possible class A



up to about 16,000,000 hosts.

Class Bas

)( c'_

address has the two most

significant bits 10. The next fourteen bits contain



and the last 16 bits the

host number. There are thus 16384 possible class

B ne

s each containing 65354 hosts.

Class C



jJf class-C address has the three most significant bits 110. The next 21 bits contain the

network number and the last eight bits the host number. There are thus more than 2000000

possible class C networks each containing 254 hosts.

Class 0 addresses are reserved for multicasting. Class E addresses are reserved for

future use. They should not be used for host addresses.


Multicast addresses

It is often desirable to send some types of message to many different hosts

simultaneously. The remaining IP addresses (i.e. those which start with 111) are used for

such messages. As a special case, the address is a broadcast address so that

packets with that destination address are received by all hosts within the network.


Within an TP network (i.e. that groups of hosts which have the same net number in

their IP address). it is still necessary to be able to route between the hosts. For convenience,

particularly in cl;ISS ;\ and class B networks, it is often needed to split the networ



smaller parts and .hen .oute between those parts

much as the routing is done at a



between networks.

Accordingly many IP networks are "subnetted". That is, there ia


made in the IP nilmbcr in that the host number is split in two parts, a su


mber and a

host number. TIl\.'par';' inn is made at a convenient point given the t~

f the desired


Effect i\'('! y. ,:1C boundary between the host and net number is

ved to the right,

but only with in the I' \\ ork. As far as hosts outside the ne~. rk are

cerned there is no

subnetting within oth. networks.






Routing refers to the process of choosing a pat~v~~hich


to send packets, and

router refers to tile ('i"""lIter making the


C.~e. e distintuish hosts from routers; host


ut we will assume, unless otherwise

computers can ~'c c .,-gured to act as routers

specified, that host l

'~"Ilters do not perform.t

'. ter's function of transferring packets

from one network to;


Address Resolution lrorocol (ARP)

~ ..


ARP is a pro1!'c<l1used qy the Intern~f'rotocol

(IP) specifically IPv4, to map IP

network addresses to' "llardwa(e addresses u§e'd by a data link layer. The protocol operates

:::~:~~a~:~~" I, I ':: as :ti;'lliPirrface betweentheOSI network layer and OSI

The term add,

.~resolut\<)I1,refelsto the process of findmg an address of a computer

in a network. T:c ad ,-'si is,~~j~~solvcd"using a protocol in which a piece of information is


by a client nrocc -: execUting on the local computer to

a server

process executing on a

remote compi:

-r. T'

iqf6rmation. received by the server allows the server to uniquely

identify the nc:


'em for which the address was required and therefore to provide the

required address. 11

(dress resolution procedure is completed when the client receives a

response fr611',', , SC

r containing the required address. ARP does routing by using routing




AnApl) '\'qu

' is broadcast.


' 'L'rl'


A RP r (' . '"

mapping between 32 bit Internet address and 48 bit Ethernet address.

Reverse Ad(h"~ H

The R\ 'P r

such as disklr :-;\\'01"

determine the

("\ I'

Protocol '. btl' n


address the q'


"Ition Protocol (RARP)

»col is a network-specific standard protocol. Some network hosts,

.itions, do not know their own IP address when they are booted. To

address, they use a mechanism similar to ARP (Address Resolution

'wn!warc :1(l,lrcssof the host is the known parameter, and the IP




In RARP, a packet similar to the ARP packet is constructed, the only differences being that the sender protocol address field is left blank (as well as the target addresses) and the opcode field is changed to represent a RARP request. The packet is broadcast onto the networkand the database server fills in the blank fields and sendsthe response. •

RARP finds the logical address for a machinethat only knows its physical address. The RARP request packets are broadcast.

• The RARP reply packets are unicast. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) The TransmissionControl Protocol(TCP) is one of the main transport layer used with IP. It is a connection oriented protocol based on the connectionless Because it is the lowest layer which has end-to-endcommunication,it needs to

such as lost packets. In this respect it is similar to the data-link layer w~

errors on an individuallink.


User Datagram Protocol (UDP) The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a datagram tra which uses the underlyingIP protocol for its network layer. It is used when e is a need to transmit short

packets through a network where there is no stream o~~ be·sent as in TCP. It is consequently a much simpler protocol and therefore muc ie to handle. It is also less reliable in that there are no sequencenumbers and other~ {/ overy techniques available. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMT is the protocol used by TCPIIPnetworks for transferring email between systems. It is a nsfer agent (MTA) as distinct from a

mail user agent

(MUA)which is used by re to read and send mail. A MUA will use

a MTA to actually transfer the mail to host on which the intended recipient will

use a (possiblydifferent)MUAtoydoand res n~ to the mail.




Socket interfaces allo~ y

pte your own applications to supplement those

supplied by


UDP. Some applications a

of ~~e a di!J6nala~plicati~nscom~unicate wit~ either !C~ or ttterrmcommumcate directly WIthIP. To write applications

that usesthe socket intel'{1.ic Socket




a\).,ft ~

ace b~tween an application process ~d ~ransport layer. The

applicationproce§~c~rrsend/recelve messagesto/from another application process (local or remote) via/~~t. Sockets are duplex, which means that data can be transmitted and received si ultapeously. Sockets allow you to send to, and receive from, the socket as if you an.wr nd reading from any other networkdevice.

Do:Sin arne System

. main Name System (DNS) is a distributed database system for managing host names 1\9. their associated Internet Protocol (lP) addresses. With DNS, you can use simple names, such as, to locate a host, rather than using the IP addresses, for example, IPv4. A single server might be responsible only for knowing the host names and IP addresses for a small part of a zone, but DNS servers can work together to map all domain names to their IP addresses. DNS servers that work together allow computers to communicateacrossthe Internet.


DNS data is lroken

up into a hierarchy

of domains. Servers are responsible

to know

only a sma II portion

(' I' data, such

as a single sub domain. The portion of a domain for which

the server is direct!- responsible is called a zone. A DNS server that has complete host

information and dat:

lor a zone is authoritative for the zone. An authoritative server can

answer queries abou hosts in its zone, using its own resource records. The query process

depends on a number of factors. Understanding DNS queries explains the paths that a client

can use to resolve a (""'ry.

Resolver :!" d nam ('


All :':'i)licati

cal'.'.' the rc

Resolver COl

Dl'S server I'

R,', ,','se 1001

program on a host accesses the domain system through aD


irns IP address to resolver which passes the IP addrg. ication.

s are also possible, i.e. find the hostn:iveo

'ts DNS server, called name server.

ad ess.










Data Communication and Computer Network

Exchange of digital information between two digital devices is data communication.

Data communications can be summarized as the transmission, reception, and processing of

digital information.

Requirements of Data Communications

At least Two Devices ready to communicate

A Transmission Medium

A set of Rules & Procedure for proper communication (Protocol)

Standard Data Representation

Transmission of bits either Serial or Parallel

Bit synchronisation using Start/stop bits in case of Asynchronous Transmission

In Synchronous Transmission the agreed pattern of Flag

Basic com ponents

A data communications

system has five components they are Message, Sender,

Receiver, Transmission medium and Protocol.


A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communications. It represents an

agreement between the communicating devices.

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)

International standard organization (ISO) established a committee in 1977 to develop

architecture for computer communication and the OSI model is the result of this effort. In

1984, the Open Systems Interconnection

(OSI) reference model was approved as an

international standard for communications architecture.

The term "open" denotes the ability to connect any two systems which conform to the

reference model and associated standards. The OSI model describes how information or data

makes its way from application programs through a network medium to another application

program located on another network.

The OSI reference model divides the problem of moving information between

computers over a network medium into SEVEN smaller and more manageable problems. The

seven layers are:

To translate, encrypt, and compress data

To provide reliable process-to- process message delivery and error recovery

To organize bits into frames; to provide hop-to-hop delivery





Data link



To allow access to network resources

To establish, manage, and terminate sessions

To move packets from sour to destination; to provide internetworking

To transmit bits over a medil to provide mechanical and