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# Lecture #7

I. GVF Water Surface Profiles

The total energy for an open channel flow can be expressed as follows:

H z y

V2
2g

(1)

Based on Eq.1, the slope of the total energy grade line can be derived below:

dH dz dy
d V2

( )
dx dx dx
dx 2 g

(2)

The slopes for energy grade line, bed, and velocity head can be expressed as follows:
Sf

dH
dx

(3)

So

dz
dx

(4)

d V2
1 d Q 2
Q2 d 1
1 dQ 2
( )
( )
( 2 )
dx 2 g
2 g dx A
2 g dx A
2 gA2 dx

(5)

dQ 2
0 , therefore the Eq.5 becomes:
Since Q is constant,
dx

d V2
Q2 d 1
( )
[ ( )]
dx 2 g
2 g dx A 2

Q 2 d 1 dy
[ ( )( )]
2 g dy A 2 dx

Q 2 dy 2 dA
( )( )( )
2 g dx A3 dy

dy Q 2T
)
dx gA3
dy Q 1 T
( )( ) 2 ( )( )
dx A g A
(

dy V 2 1
( )( )
dx g D
dy
V
(
)2
dx gD /

dy 2
Fr
dx

(5a)

where Fr V / gD / .
Combining Eqs.2, 3, 4, and 5a yields:

S f S o

dy dy 2
Fr
dx dx

(6)

## Eq.6 can be rearranged as follows:

S f S o

dy
2
(1 Fr )
dx

(7)

or

dy S o S f

dx 1 Fr 2

(8)

It can be seen from Eq.8 that water surface slope is a function of So, Sf and F. Eq.8 can be
rewritten as follows:
1

Sf

So
dy
So
2
dx
1 Fr

(9)

For a uniform flow with a bed slope So, Manning equation can be expressed as follows:
So

1/ 2

Q
Kn

(10)

where

Kn

1.486
2/3
An Rn
n

(11)

Subscripts n in Eqs.10 and 11 denote variables under uniform flow condition. Eq.10
can be further expressed as follows:
So (

Q 2
)
Kn

(12)

Assuming that Manning equation can be applied to a gradually varied flow, the equation
can be expressed as follows:
Sf (

Q 2
)
K

(13)

where
K

1.486
AR 2 / 3
n

(14)

dy
So
dx

Kn 2
)
K
2
1 Fr

1 (

(15)

Kn 2
K
)
1 ( n )2
dy
K
K
So
So
2
F
dx
F
1 ( r )2
1 r 2
Frc
F
1 (

(16)

rc

## Fc at critical condition can be expressed as follows:

Vc
Q 2
Q 2
Q 2

gDc / gAc 2 Dc g ( Ac Dc ) 2 gZ c 2
2

Frc 1
2

(17)

where

Zc

Q
g /

(17A)

Similarly, the Froude number for the gradually varied flow can be expressed as follows:

Fr
2

V2
Q 2
Q 2
Q 2

gD gA2 D g ( A D ) 2 gZ 2

(18)

Kn
1 ( )2
dy
K
So
Z
c
dx
1 ( )2
Z

(19)

## For a rectangular wide open channel (width > 20 depth),

A by

(20)

A
by

y
P b 2y

(21)

A
y
b

(22)

1.486
1.486 5 / 3
AR 2 / 3
by
n
n

(23)

Kn

1.486
1.486
5/ 3
AR 2 / 3
byn
n
n

Z A D by y by 3 / 2
Z c Ac Dc byc yc byc

(24)
(25)

3/ 2

(26)

Therefore,

Kn
yn
( )5 / 3
K
y

(27)

Zc
yc
( )3/ 2
Z
y

(28)

## Combining Eqs.19, 27 and 28 yields:

dy
So
dx

y n 10 / 3
)
y
y
1 ( c )3
y

1 (

(29)

Eq.29 shows that the water surface slope (or the water surface profile) is a function of yn,
yc and the bed slope So.

## II. Types of GVF Profiles

A. Mild-Slope Open Channels
Eq.29 can be used to establish the water surface profiles for mild-slope open channel
flows:

dy
So
dx

y n 10 / 3
)
y
y
1 ( c )3
y

1 (

(29)

## A mild-slope channel is characterized by yn yc . The flow is in the sub-critical condition.

dy
0 for y > yn > yc (M1 Curve)
dx

dy
0 for yn > y > yc (M2 Curve)
dx

dy
0 for yn > yc > y (M3 Curve)
dx

dy
0 at y = yn (for M1 Curve)
dx

dy
at y = yc (for M2 and M3 Curves)
dx

## B. Steep-Slope Open Channels

Eq.29 can be used to establish the water surface profiles for steep-slope open channel
flows:

dy
So
dx

y n 10 / 3
)
y
y
1 ( c )3
y

1 (

(29)

## A steep-slope channel is characterized by yn yc . The flow is in the super critical

condition.

dy
0 for y > yc > yn (S1 Curve)
dx

dy
0 for yc > y > yn (S2 Curve)
dx

dy
0 for yc > yn > y (S3 Curve)
dx

dy
at y = yc (for S1 Curve)
dx

dy
at y = yc (for S2 Curve)
dx

## C. Critical-Slope Open Channels

Eq.29 can be used to establish the water surface profiles for critical-slope open channel
flows:

dy
So
dx

y n 10 / 3
)
y
y
1 ( c )3
y

1 (

(29)

## A critical-slope channel is characterized by yn yc . The flow is in the critical condition.

dy
0 for y > yn = yc (C1 Curve)
dx

dy
0 for y > yn = yc (C3 Curve)
dx

## Examples for GVF Water Surface Profiles

Mild Slope Channel
M1 Curve

M2 Curve

M3 Curve

## Examples for GVF Water Surface Profiles

Steep Slope Channel
S1 Curve

S2 Curve

S3 Curve

## Examples for GVF Water Surface Profiles

Critical Slope Channel

C1 Curve

C3 Curve

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