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Lecture #7

Gradually Varied Flow


I. GVF Water Surface Profiles

The total energy for an open channel flow can be expressed as follows:

H z y

V2
2g

(1)

Based on Eq.1, the slope of the total energy grade line can be derived below:

dH dz dy
d V2

( )
dx dx dx
dx 2 g

(2)

The slopes for energy grade line, bed, and velocity head can be expressed as follows:
Sf

dH
dx

(3)

So

dz
dx

(4)

d V2
1 d Q 2
Q2 d 1
1 dQ 2
( )
( )
( 2 )
dx 2 g
2 g dx A
2 g dx A
2 gA2 dx

(5)

dQ 2
0 , therefore the Eq.5 becomes:
Since Q is constant,
dx

d V2
Q2 d 1
( )
[ ( )]
dx 2 g
2 g dx A 2

Q 2 d 1 dy
[ ( )( )]
2 g dy A 2 dx

Q 2 dy 2 dA
( )( )( )
2 g dx A3 dy

dy Q 2T
)
dx gA3
dy Q 1 T
( )( ) 2 ( )( )
dx A g A
(

dy V 2 1
( )( )
dx g D
dy
V
(
)2
dx gD /

dy 2
Fr
dx

(5a)

where Fr V / gD / .
Combining Eqs.2, 3, 4, and 5a yields:

S f S o

dy dy 2
Fr
dx dx

(6)

Eq.6 can be rearranged as follows:


S f S o

dy
2
(1 Fr )
dx

(7)

or

dy S o S f

dx 1 Fr 2

(8)

It can be seen from Eq.8 that water surface slope is a function of So, Sf and F. Eq.8 can be
rewritten as follows:
1

Sf

So
dy
So
2
dx
1 Fr

(9)

For a uniform flow with a bed slope So, Manning equation can be expressed as follows:
So

1/ 2

Q
Kn

(10)

where

Kn

1.486
2/3
An Rn
n

(11)

Subscripts n in Eqs.10 and 11 denote variables under uniform flow condition. Eq.10
can be further expressed as follows:
So (

Q 2
)
Kn

(12)

Assuming that Manning equation can be applied to a gradually varied flow, the equation
can be expressed as follows:
Sf (

Q 2
)
K

(13)

where
K

1.486
AR 2 / 3
n

(14)

Substituting Kn and K in Eqs.11 and 14 into Eq.9 yields:

dy
So
dx

Kn 2
)
K
2
1 Fr

1 (

(15)

Since Frc = 1 at critical flow condition, Eq.15 can be rewritten as follows:

Kn 2
K
)
1 ( n )2
dy
K
K
So
So
2
F
dx
F
1 ( r )2
1 r 2
Frc
F
1 (

(16)

rc

Fc at critical condition can be expressed as follows:

Vc
Q 2
Q 2
Q 2

gDc / gAc 2 Dc g ( Ac Dc ) 2 gZ c 2
2

Frc 1
2

(17)

where

Zc

Q
g /

(17A)

Similarly, the Froude number for the gradually varied flow can be expressed as follows:

Fr
2

V2
Q 2
Q 2
Q 2

gD gA2 D g ( A D ) 2 gZ 2

(18)

Combining Eqs.16, 17, and 18 yields:

Kn
1 ( )2
dy
K
So
Z
c
dx
1 ( )2
Z

(19)

For a rectangular wide open channel (width > 20 depth),


A by

(20)

A
by

y
P b 2y

(21)

A
y
b

(22)

1.486
1.486 5 / 3
AR 2 / 3
by
n
n

(23)

Kn

1.486
1.486
5/ 3
AR 2 / 3
byn
n
n

Z A D by y by 3 / 2
Z c Ac Dc byc yc byc

(24)
(25)

3/ 2

(26)

Therefore,

Kn
yn
( )5 / 3
K
y

(27)

Zc
yc
( )3/ 2
Z
y

(28)

Combining Eqs.19, 27 and 28 yields:

dy
So
dx

y n 10 / 3
)
y
y
1 ( c )3
y

1 (

(29)

Eq.29 shows that the water surface slope (or the water surface profile) is a function of yn,
yc and the bed slope So.

II. Types of GVF Profiles


A. Mild-Slope Open Channels
Eq.29 can be used to establish the water surface profiles for mild-slope open channel
flows:

dy
So
dx

y n 10 / 3
)
y
y
1 ( c )3
y

1 (

(29)

A mild-slope channel is characterized by yn yc . The flow is in the sub-critical condition.

dy
0 for y > yn > yc (M1 Curve)
dx

dy
0 for yn > y > yc (M2 Curve)
dx

dy
0 for yn > yc > y (M3 Curve)
dx

dy
0 at y = yn (for M1 Curve)
dx

dy
at y = yc (for M2 and M3 Curves)
dx

B. Steep-Slope Open Channels


Eq.29 can be used to establish the water surface profiles for steep-slope open channel
flows:

dy
So
dx

y n 10 / 3
)
y
y
1 ( c )3
y

1 (

(29)

A steep-slope channel is characterized by yn yc . The flow is in the super critical


condition.

dy
0 for y > yc > yn (S1 Curve)
dx

dy
0 for yc > y > yn (S2 Curve)
dx

dy
0 for yc > yn > y (S3 Curve)
dx

dy
at y = yc (for S1 Curve)
dx

dy
at y = yc (for S2 Curve)
dx

C. Critical-Slope Open Channels


Eq.29 can be used to establish the water surface profiles for critical-slope open channel
flows:

dy
So
dx

y n 10 / 3
)
y
y
1 ( c )3
y

1 (

(29)

A critical-slope channel is characterized by yn yc . The flow is in the critical condition.

dy
0 for y > yn = yc (C1 Curve)
dx

dy
0 for y > yn = yc (C3 Curve)
dx

Examples for GVF Water Surface Profiles


Mild Slope Channel
M1 Curve

M2 Curve

M3 Curve

Examples for GVF Water Surface Profiles


Steep Slope Channel
S1 Curve

S2 Curve

S3 Curve

Examples for GVF Water Surface Profiles


Critical Slope Channel

C1 Curve

C3 Curve

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