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# Lecture 11

Pipe Flow - 1

## II. Head Loss Due to Friction

Head loss due to friction can be analyzed using the
following three formulas:
Darcy-Weisbach Friction Formula

Hazen-Williams Formula
Manning Equation

Moody Diagram

## Darcy-Weisbach Friction Formula

Darcy-Weisbach friction formula has the following
applications:
Compute head loss hf for known d and V (or Q).
Compute V (or Q) for known d and hf (trial-and-error is

## used to determine f in the computation).

Compute d for known V (or Q) and hf (trial-and-error is

## used to determine f in the computation).

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2. Hazen-Williams Formula
The Hazen-Williams formula may be expressed as follows:
V 1.318CR 0.63S f

0.54

V 0.849CR 0.63S f

0.54

(English units)

(11)

## (SI metric units)

(12)

where:
C = Hazen-Williams coefficient
R = Hydraulic radius = d/4

## Sf = Energy slope = (hf /L)

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Hazen-Williams Formula
For a circular pipe, the formulas can be written as follows:
Q 0.432Cd 2.63S f
Q 0.278Cd 2.63S f

0.54

0.54

(English units)

(13)

(14)

## Eqs.13 and 14 can be further written as follows:

4.73L
h f 1.85 4.87 Q1.85
C d

(English units)

(15)

10.70 L
h f 1.85 4.87 Q1.85
C d

## (SI metric units)

(16)

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3.Manning Equation
The Manning formula is expressed as follows:
1.486 2 / 3 1 / 2
R Sf
n
1
1/ 2
V R2/ 3S f
n

(English units)

(17)

## (SI metric units)

(18)

where:
n =Mannings roughness coefficient
R = Hydraulic radius.

## Sf = Energy slope = (hf /L)

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Manning Equation
For a circular pipe, the equation can be written as follows:
0.463 8 / 3 1 / 2
d Sf
n
0.312 8 / 3 1 / 2
Q
d Sf
n
Q

(English units)

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(20)

n2 L 2
hf
Q
5.33
0
.
216
d

(English units)

(21)

n2 L 2
hf
Q
5.33
0.097d

## (SI metric units)

(22)

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Example:
Find the head loss in 1000 ft of a 6-ft diameter smooth concrete
pipe carrying 80 cfs of water at 50oF.

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