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Lecture 11

Pipe Flow - 1

I. Energy Equation for Pipe Flows

Energy Equation for Pipe Flows

Energy Equation for Pipe Flows

II. Head Loss Due to Friction


Head loss due to friction can be analyzed using the
following three formulas:
Darcy-Weisbach Friction Formula

Hazen-Williams Formula
Manning Equation

1. Darcy-Weisbach Friction Formula

Darcy-Weisbach Friction Formula

Darcy-Weisbach Friction Formula


Moody Diagram

Darcy-Weisbach Friction Formula

Darcy-Weisbach Friction Formula


Darcy-Weisbach friction formula has the following
applications:
Compute head loss hf for known d and V (or Q).
Compute V (or Q) for known d and hf (trial-and-error is

used to determine f in the computation).


Compute d for known V (or Q) and hf (trial-and-error is

used to determine f in the computation).

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2. Hazen-Williams Formula
The Hazen-Williams formula may be expressed as follows:
V 1.318CR 0.63S f

0.54

V 0.849CR 0.63S f

0.54

(English units)

(11)

(SI metric units)

(12)

where:
C = Hazen-Williams coefficient
R = Hydraulic radius = d/4

Sf = Energy slope = (hf /L)

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Hazen-Williams Formula
For a circular pipe, the formulas can be written as follows:
Q 0.432Cd 2.63S f
Q 0.278Cd 2.63S f

0.54

0.54

(English units)

(13)

(SI metric units)

(14)

Eqs.13 and 14 can be further written as follows:


4.73L
h f 1.85 4.87 Q1.85
C d

(English units)

(15)

10.70 L
h f 1.85 4.87 Q1.85
C d

(SI metric units)

(16)

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3.Manning Equation
The Manning formula is expressed as follows:
1.486 2 / 3 1 / 2
R Sf
n
1
1/ 2
V R2/ 3S f
n

(English units)

(17)

(SI metric units)

(18)

where:
n =Mannings roughness coefficient
R = Hydraulic radius.

Sf = Energy slope = (hf /L)

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Manning Equation
For a circular pipe, the equation can be written as follows:
0.463 8 / 3 1 / 2
d Sf
n
0.312 8 / 3 1 / 2
Q
d Sf
n
Q

(English units)

(19)

(SI metric units)

(20)

Eqs.19 and 20 can be further written as follows:


n2 L 2
hf
Q
5.33
0
.
216
d

(English units)

(21)

n2 L 2
hf
Q
5.33
0.097d

(SI metric units)

(22)

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Example:
Find the head loss in 1000 ft of a 6-ft diameter smooth concrete
pipe carrying 80 cfs of water at 50oF.

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