You are on page 1of 22

Lecture 12

Pipe Flow

III. Minor Head Losses


Minor head losses are head losses occur due to changes in pipe

section, bends, valves, and fittings. They can be expressed as a


function of velocity head and loss coefficient:
V2
hm k
2g

(23)

where: hm = minor head loss , k = loss coefficient, and V = mean


velocity.

IV. Single Pipeline System


Involving Minor Head Losses

Single Pipeline System


Involving Minor Head Losses

10

11

12

V. Single Pipeline Involving Pumps and Turbines

p1

V
p
V
z1
1 H p H t z 2 2 2 h f hm
2g

2g

13

Single Pipeline Involving Pumps

14

Single Pipeline Involving Turbines

15

Single Pipeline Involving Pumps and Turbines


Example
Pump BC delivers water from reservoir A to reservoir F, and the hydraulic grade
line is shown in the following figure. Neglecting all minor losses, determine (a)
the power supplied to the water by pump BC, (b) the power removed by turbine
DE, and (c) the elevation maintained in reservoir F.

16

17

18

19

20

VI. Momentum Equation

21

Momentum Equation
The momentum equation

can be expressed as follows


for the x and y directions:
Q(V2 x V1x ) P1 x P2 x Fx

Q(V2 y V1 y ) P1 y P2 y Fy

22