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Pipes in Series and Parallel

I. Pipes in Series
A pipeline system may consist of a series of pipes of different sizes and materials as
shown in Figure A. To simplify the analysis, the pipes may be substituted with a single
equivalent pipe which has the same conveying flow rate and head loss.

Pipes in Series

Pipes in Series

Pipes in Series

II. Pipes in Parallel


A pipeline system may consist of pipes of different sizes in parallel between two
points of the pipeline to increase the capacity as shown in Figure B. To simplify the
analysis, the parallel pipes may be substituted with a single equivalent pipe which has
the same conveying flow rate and head loss.

Pipes in Parallel

Pipes in Parallel

Example
For a pipe system shown below, calculate the flow rate.
Disregard the minor losses in the calculation.

Example

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Example

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Example

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