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1.

Surface Runoff
Surface runoff is generated by a storm over a watershed.

Surface runoff consists of the following two processes:


Overland flow
Channel flow

Peak discharge of surface runoff for a storm is dependent

on:
Rrainfall intensity and watershed characteristics (time of

concentration
Runoff coefficient
Peak discharge may be estimated using Rational method.

Surface Runoff

2. Rainfall Intensity
Rainfall intensity for a

location is a function of
duration and frequency
of storm event.
The graphical

relationship is called the


intensity-durationfrequency curves (IDF)
as shown in the figure
(Note: Frequencies are
often represented by
return periods).

3. Time of Concentration
Time of concentration (tc) is defined as the time required for a water

particle to flow from the most distance point of the watershed to the
outlet. It is the sum of travel times for the overland flow and channel
flow segments.
Travel time for each flow segment can be calculated using the

following equation:
Tt

L
60V

where V is velocity in ft/sec, L is length of the flow segment in ft,

and Tt is travel time in minutes.


Travel velocity for overland flow can be determined using the SCS

Upland Method (See the next slide) or empirical formulas.


Travel velocity for open channel flow can be calculated using

Mannings equation.
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Time of Concentration

The SCS Upland Method for Estimating Overland Flow Velocity


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Time of Concentration
Empirical Formulas for Overland Flows
Kirpich Method (1940)
tc 0.0078 L0.77 / S 0.385
L = length of channel/ditch from headwater to outlet (ft).
S = average watershed slope (ft/ft).
tc = time of concentration (minutes)

Remarks:
Developed from data with well-defined channel and steep slopes

(3% - 10%).
For overland flow on concrete or asphalt surfaces, multiply tc by 0.4.
For concrete channels, multiply tc by 0.2
No adjustments for overland flow on bare soil or flow in roadside
ditches.

Time of Concentration
Empirical Formulas for Overland Flows
California Culverts Practice (1942)
tc 60(11.9 L3 / H ) 0.385
L = length of the longest water course (mi).
H = elevation difference between divide and outlet (ft).
tc = time of concentration (minutes)

Remarks:
Essentially the same as the Kirpich formula .
Developed from small mountainous basins in California.

Time of Concentration
Empirical Formulas for Overland Flows
Izzard (1946)
41.025(0.0007i c) L0.33
tc
S 0.333i 0.667
L = length of the flow path (ft).

S = slope of flow path (ft/ft).

i = rainfall intensity (in/hr)

c = retrardance coefficient

tc = time of concentration (minutes)

Remarks:
Developed for overland flow on roadway and turf surfaces.
c ranges from 0.0070 for very smooth pavement to 0.012 for

concrete pavement to 0.06 for dense turf.


Requires iteration since i and tc are both unknown.
Product t times i should be < 500.

Time of Concentration
Empirical Formulas for Overland Flows
Federal Aviation Administration (1970)
tc 1.8(1.1 C ) L0.50 / S 0.333
L = length of overland flow (ft).
S = surface slope (%).
C = rational method coefficient (See Section 4)
tc = time of concentration (minutes)

Remarks:
Developed from airfield drainage data.
Intended for use on airfield drainage problems.
Used frequently for overland flow in urban basins.

Time of Concentration
Empirical Formulas for Overland Flows
Kinematic Wave Formula
0.94 L0.6 n 0.6
tc
i 0.4 S 0.3
L = length of overland flow (ft).
S = average overland slope (ft/ft).

i = rainfall intensity (in/hr)


n = Mannings roughness coefficient
tc = time of concentration (minutes)

Remarks:
Developed from kinematic wave analysis from developed surfaces.
Requires iteration since i and tc are both unknown.

4. Rational Method
Rational method expresses the peak discharge as follows:

Qp = CiA
Qp = peak discharge (cfs)

C = runoff coefficient as a function of surface characteristics and

slope (See next slide).


i = rainfall intensity (in/hr) estimated from the IDF curves based

on the time of concentration (which is taken as storm duration).


A = drainage area (acres)

Runoff coefficients for non-homogeneous areas can be represented by

a weighted coefficient, Cw, which is calculated as follows:


n

Cw

C A
j 1
n

A
j 1

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Rational Method
Runoff Coefficients
Range of Runoff
Coefficient

Recommended
Value

0.70-0.95
0.50-0.70

0.85
0.60

0.30-0.50

0.40

Multiunits, detached

0.40-0.60

0.50

Multiunits, attached

0.60-0.75

0.70

Residential (suburban)
Apartment
Industrial
Light
Heavy
Parks, cemeteries
Playgrounds
Railroad yards
Unimproved

0.25-0.40
0.50-0.70

0.35
0.60

0.50-0.80
0.60-0.90
0.10-0.25
0.20-0.35
0.20-0.35
0.10-0.30

0.65
0.75
0.20
0.30
0.30
0.20

Description of Areas
Business
Downtown
Neighborhood
Residential
Single-family

Rational Method
Runoff Coefficients
Range of Runoff
Coefficient

Recommended
Value

Asphaltic and concrete

0.70-0.95

0.85

Brick

0.75-0.85

0.80

0.75-0.95

0.85

Flat ( 2%)

0.05-0.10

0.08

Average (2 to 7%)

0.10-0.15

0.13

Steep (7%)

0.15-0.20

0.18

Flat ( 2%)

0.13-0.17

0.15

Average (2 to 7%)

0.18-0.22

0.20

Steep (7%)

0.25-0.35

0.30

Characteristics of Surface
Pavement

Roofs
Lawns, sandy soil

Lawns, heavy soil

Rational Method
Example:
For a basin with the characteristics shown in the table below, calculate the
weighted runoff coefficient and the peak discharge of a 25-year storm with a
time of concentration of 30 minutes and a rainfall intensity of 3.6 in/hr.
Land Use
Open space
Forest
Residential (1/2
acre)
Light commercial
Streets
Total Area

Ci
0.19
0.14

Ai (acres)
14.2
11.6

0.32
0.89
0.82

8.9
4.3
3.9
42.9

Solution:
The composite C and peak discharge are calculated below:
Cw

(0.19 14.2 0.14 11.6 0.32 8.9 0.89 4.3 0.82 3.9)
0.33
(14.2 11.6 8.9 4.3 3.9)

Q p CiA 0.33 3.6 42.9 51cfs


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