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Lecture #24

Urban Drainage

Urban Drainage System


Drainage inlets - catch basins

(CB)
Openings in the gutter/curb
Low points of streets
Storm sewers (by material)
Reinforced concrete pipe
(RCP)
Polyvinyl chloride pipe (PVC)
Corrugated steel pipe (CSP)
Manholes
Pump stations

Storm sewers (by size)


Lateral sewers

Submain sewers

Receiving discharges from


a number of laterals
Main sewers
Receiving discharges from
one of a number of
submains
Discharging into receiving
waters

Drainage Inlet Types


Based on location
Curb inlets
Gutter inlets
Combination inlets

Based of features
Undepressed
Depressed
Deflector
Slotted

Catch Basins

Connection of Various Types of


Drainage Inlets to Lateral Sewer

Manholes
Manholes are installed at the following locations for the

purpose of service and maintenance:


Sewer connections
Major changes in slope of sewers
Change in size of sewers
Change in horizontal layout of sewers
Along straight sewer runs at a spacing of 300 to 500
ft. For larger diameter sewers, the spacing my be
increased to 500 to 1,000 ft.

Manholes
for Smaller Sewers

Manholes
for Intermediate-sized Sewers

Drop Manholes
Sewers entering at an elevation of 24 in or more above the

manhole invert.

Connection of Lateral sewer


to Main Sewer via a Manhole

Manhole

Manhole

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Design Criteria for


Urban Storm Drainage System
Capacity
Adequate sewer size to ensure safe conveyance of design stormwater.

Minimum cover depth


Avoid frost and breakage due to ground surface loading.
Generally greater than 3 ft.

Minimum velocity
3 ft/sec to avoid excessive deposition due to low flow velocity.

Maximum velocity
15 ft/sec to avoid excessive erosion and scour due to high flow

velocity.
Increasing capacity in the downstream direction:
Increase in sewer size
Increase in sewer slope
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Peak Discharge Estimation


Using Rational Formula
The peak discharge can be

estimated using the rational


formula as follows:
Q = CfCiA
Q = Peak discharge (cfs)
Cf = Frequency factor
C = Runoff coefficient
i = Rainfall intensity (in/hr)

Frequency Factor

Return Period
(years)

Cf

2 - 10
25
50
100

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.25

A = Drainage area (acres)

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Runoff Coefficients

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Rainfall Intensity
Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves
Rainfall intensity is a function of duration and recurrence interval
Example

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Rainfall Intensity
National Weather Service Formula

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Time of Concentration
Empirical formulas for overland flow
Kirpich
Kerby
Izzard
Bransby-Williams
Federal Aviation Agency
Kinematic Wave
NCRS (SCS)

Sheet flow
Shallow concentrated flow
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Time of Concentration
Overland Flow

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Time of Concentration
Overland Flow

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Time of Concentration
Overland Flow

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Time of Concentration
Overland Flow

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Urban Drainage System


Peak Discharge Estimation

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Urban Drainage System


Peak Discharge Estimation
Calculate peak discharge at CB #1
Calculate peak discharge from subbasin 1 using Rational formula
Calculate travel time for the 60 lateral to MH #1based on the calculated peak

discharge
Calculate time of concentration at MH#1 by for subbasin 1 by adding the time of
concentration for subbasin 1 and travel time through the lateral to MH #1.
Calculate peak discharge at CB #2
Calculate peak discharge from subbasin 2 using Rational formula
Calculate travel time for the 50 lateral to MH #1based on the calculated peak
discharge
Calculate time of concentration at MH#1 for subbasin 2 by adding the time of
concentration for subbasin 2 and travel time through the lateral to MH #1.
Calculate peak discharge for MH#1
Combine drainage area for subbasins 1 and 2
Obtain composite runoff coefficient for subbasins 1 and 2
Take time of concentration for MH #1 as the larger of the times of concentration
for subbasins 1 and 2
Calculate peak discharge at MH#1 using Rational formula.
Repeat the above steps to calculate peak discharges for the rest of the CBs and MHs .
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