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# CHAPTER 2

## PROPERTIES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE

2.1- 2.8 Refer to the relative section in text
2.3
Estimate the modulus of elasticity and shear modulus of concrete
Dry density= 150 pcf
Compressive strength= 4500 psi
Poissons ratio, = 0.18
Modulus of elasticity
Ec = 33w1.5 f c ' psi
Ec= 33(1501.5)(4500)
Ec= 4.07x106 psi
Shear Modulus
Gc= Ec/(2(1+)
Gc= (4.07x106)/(2(1+0.18)
Gc= 1.72x106 psi
2.9

## Calculate the modulus of elasticity; Ec (see the table below)

Density

fc

Ec

fr

160 pcf

5000 psi

4,723,000 psi

6.14

530.3 psi

145 pcf

4000 psi

3,644,000 psi

7.96

474.3 psi

125 pcf

2500 psi

2,306,000 psi

12.58

375.0 psi

2400 kg/m3

35 MPa

29,910 MPa

6.69

3.668 MPa

2300 kg/m3

30 MPa

25,980 MPa

7.70

3.396 MPa

2100 kg/m3

25 MPa

20,690 MPa

9.67

3.10 MPa

2.10

Calculate modular ratio; n and modulus of rupture; fr: for each case in Example 2.9
Ec = 33w1.5 f c ' psi
Ec = 0.043w1.5 f c ' MPa
Ec= 0.62(N/2)

Ec=7.50 psi

## Where: is a modification factor for type of concrete (ACI 8.6.1)

= 1.0 Normal-weight concrete
= 0.85 Sand-lightweight concrete
= 0.75 for all-lightweight concrete

n=

29000 (ksi)
Ec (ksi)

n=

2-1

2,000,000 (MPa)
Ec (MPa)

2.11

a.)
b.)
c.)

## Draw the stress-strain diagram.

Determine the secant modulus and initial modulus
Calculate Ec using ACI formula and compare results. Area of 6 in
Diameter cylinder = 28.274 in.2. Stress = load / area

## Maximum fc= 3820 psi at a strain = 0.003.

a.) See figure below.
b.) Secant modulus (at fc/2 = 1910 psi)
Ec = 1910 / 6.1010-4 = 3130 ksi
Approximate Initial Modulus = 2.6(ksi) / 5.4510-4 = 4771 ksi
(Possible range 4600 5200)
c.) Ec (ACI formula) = 57000 f c ' = 57000 3820 = 3523 ksi.
Approximately percentage change from test = (3523-3130) / 3523 = 11.15% (from
secant modulus).

Stress (psi)

Strain10-4

0.00
424.42
848.84
1273.25
1697.67
2122.09
2546.51
2970.93
3395.35
3819.76
3359.98
2900.19

12
24
36
48
60
72
84
96
108
95
82

1.2
2.0
3.2
5.2
7.2
10.0
13.6
18.0
30.0
39.0
42.0

2-2

2-3

CHAPTER 3
FLEXURAL ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS
Problem 3.1a ( max = 0.01806, min = 0.00333 ) for all problems.
Given: b = 14 in., d = 22.5 in., As = 5.08 in.2, fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Solution:
= 0.9
a=

As f y

0.85 f c ' b

5.08 60
= 6.4 in.
0.85 4 14

Mn = Asfy (d - a/2)
= 0.9 5.08 + 60 (22.5 - 6.4/2)
= 5294 k-in. = 441.2 k-ft

5.08
= 0.016
14 22.5
< max = 0.01806, > min = 0.00333
= As / bd =

Ok

General Equations:
a=

As f y
0.85 f c ' b

= As / bd,
Mn = Asfy (d - a/2)
Problem 3.1
Prob.
No.a

Prob.
No.b

Prob.
No.c

Prob.
No.d

Prob.
No.e

Prob.
No.f

Prob.
No.g

Prob.
No.h

b (in.)

14

18

12

12

16

14

10

20

d (in.)

22.5

28.5

23.5

18.5

24.5

26.5

17.5

31.5

As (in.2)

4#10
5.08

6#10
7.62

4#9
4.00

4#8
3.16

5#10
6.35

5#9
5.00

3#9
3.00

4#9
4.00

6.4

7.47

5.88

4.65

7.00

6.30

5.29

3.53

Mn (k.ft)

441.2

849.1

370.1

230.0

600.0

525.3

200.5

535.2

0.0161

0.0149

0.0142

0.0142

0.0162

0.0135

0.0171

0.0063

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Variables

a(in.)

max<<min

3-1

Problem 3.2a ( max = 0.01806, min = 0.00333 ) for all problems. Typical Solution, comp.
steel yields.
Given: b = 15 in., d = 22.5 in., As = 8 in.2, As = 2 in.2 , fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Solution:
= 0.9

8
= 0.0237
15 22.5
2
= As/bd =
= 0.0059
15 22.5
= As/bd =

k = 0.85 2

fc ' d '
87
4
2.5
87
= 0.852
= 0.0172

60 22.5 87 60
f y d 87 f y

## - = 0.0178 > k = 0.0172, Compression steel yields.

( As As ' ) f y
(8 2) 60
a=
=
= 7.06 in.
0.85 f c ' b
0.85 4 15
Mn = [(As - As) fy (d - a/2)+ Asfy(d-d)]
= 0.9[( 8 - 2)60(22.5 - 7.06/2) + 260(22.5-2.5)]
= 8306.5 k.in = 692.2 k.ft
since max > ( - ) > min , OK
General Equations:
= As/bd,
a=

( As As ' ) f y

= As/bd,

0.85 f c ' b
f ' d'
87
k = 0.852 c
f y d 87 f y
A = 0.85 fc1b,

## B = As (87 - 0.85 fc) - As fy,

c = [-B B 4 AC ] / 2A
fs= 87( c - d )/c fy,
C1 = 0.85 fcab,
C2 = As (fs- 0.85 fc )
2

a=

( As As ' ) f y
0.85 f c ' b

3-2

C = -87Asd

3-3

## 3.2 e: Typical solution, Comp. steel does not yield.

Given: b = 14 in., d = 20.5 in., As = 7.62 in.2, As = 2.54 in.2, fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Solution:
= 0.9

7.62
= 0.0266
14 20.5
2.54
= As/bd =
= 0.0089
14 20.5
- = 0.0266 - 0.0089 = 0.0177
4
2.5
87
f ' d'
87
k = 0.852 c
= 0.852
= 0.0189

60 20.5 87 60
f y d 87 f y
- = 0.0177 < k = 0.0189, Compression steel does not yield.
= As/bd =

## A = 0.85 fc1b = 0.85 4 0.85 14 = 40.46

B = As (87 - 0.85 fc) - As fy = 2.54(87 - 0.85 4) - 7.62 60 = - 244.9
C = -87Asd = - 87 2.54 2.5 = - 552.45
c = [-B B 2 4 AC ] / 2A = 7.8 in.
a = 1c = 0.85 7.8 = 6.63 in.
fs= 87( c - d )/c = 87( 7.8 - 2.5 )/7.8 = 59.1 ksi fy
Cc = 0.85 fcab = 0.85 4 6.63 14 = 315.7 kip
Cs = As (fs- 0.85 fc ) = 2.54(59.1 - 0.85 4) = 141.48 kip
As1 = Cc / fy = 315.7/60 = 5.26 in.2
1 = As1 / bd = 5.26/(14 20.5) = 0.0183 < max
Mn = [ Cc (d - a/2)+ Cs(d-d)]
= 0.9[315.7(20.5 - 6.63/2) + 141.48(20.5-2.5)]
= 7173.2 k.in = 597.9 k.ft

3-4

Problem 3.2

Variables

Prob.
No.a

Prob.
No.b

Prob.
No.c

Prob.
No.d

Prob.
No.e

Prob.
No.f

Prob.
No.g

Prob.
No.h

b (in.)

15

17

13

10

14

16

20

18

d (in.)

22.5

24.5

22

21.5

20.5

20.5

18

20.5

As (in.2)

8#9
8.00

8#10
10.08

7#9
7.00

4#10
5.08

6#10
7.62

9#9
9.00

12#9
12.00

8#10
10.12

As (in.2)

2#9
2.0

2#10
2.54

3#7
1.8

2#7
1.2

2#10
2.54

4#9
4.0

6#9
6.0

4#10
5.08

0.0237

0.0242

0.0245

0.0236

0.0266

0.0274

0.0333

0.0275

0.0059

0.0061

0.0063

0.0056

0.0089

0.0122

0.0167

0.0138

0.0178

0.0181

0.0182

0.0180

0.0177

0.0152

0.0167

0.0137

0.0172

0.0158

0.0176

0.0180

0.0189

0.0189

0.0216

0.0189

a (in.)

7.06

7.83

7.06

6.85

Mn

692.2

950

590.2

418.2

40.46

46.24

57.8

52.6

-244.9

-205.6

-218.4

-184.9

-552.45

-870

-1305

-1100.49

7.8

7.097

7.0

6.7

6.63

6.033

5.95

5.71

fs

59.1

56.36

55.94

54.62

C1

315.7

328.2

504.8

349.4

C2

141.5

211.8

315.2

260.2

As1

5.26

5.47

6.75

5.82

0.0183

0.0167

0.0187

0.0158

1max

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Mn

597.9

716.3

822.5

813.7

3-5

## Problem 3.3 a: Typical solution of T-sections, Rect. Section analysis.

Given: bw = 14 in., b = 54 in., t = 3 in., d = 17.5 in., As = 5.08 in.2,
fc = 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Solution:
Assume = 0.9
a=

As f y

0.85 f c ' b

5.08 60
= 2.213 in < t
0.85 3 54

c = 2.6 in.
dt = 17.5 in.
t = 0.003(dt c)/c = 0.0172 > 0.005 then = 0.9
Rectangular section analysis
Mn = Asfy ( d - a/2 )
= 0.9 5.08 60 (17.5 2.21/2)
= 4497 k.in = 374.7 k.ft
Asmax = 0.0425 [t (be-bw) + 0.319bwd]
= 0.0425 [3(54-14) + 0.3195417.5])
= 8.42 in.2
Asmin = minbwd = 0.00333 1417.5 = 0.81 in.2
Asmin < As< Asmax Ok
Problem 3.3 d: Typical solution forcT-section analysis.
Given: bw = 16 in., b = 32 in., t = 3 in., d = 15.5 in., As = 6 in.2, fc = 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Solution:
a=

As f y
0.85 f c ' b

6 60
= 4.41 in. > t
0.85 3 32

T-section
Asmax = 0.0425 [t (be-bw) + 0.319bwd]
= 0.0425 [3(32-16) + 0.3191615.5]
= 5.40 in.2
As = 6 in.2 > Asmax
N.G.
Section doesnt meet ACI code.
If max is used:
Asf = 0.85 fct(b-bw)/fy = 0.8533 (32-16) /60 =2.04 in.2
Mflange = Asffy (d - t/2)
= 0.9 2.04 60 (15.5 3/2) = 1542.24 k.in = 128.52 k.ft
As1 (web) = 5.40 2.04 = 3.36 in.2
3.36 60
a=
= 4.94 in; c = 5.81 in.
0.85 3 16
dt = 15.5 + 1 = 16.5 in.
t = 0.003(dt c)/c = 0.0055 > 0.005
Mn (web)= As1fy ( d - a/2 ) = 0.9 3.36 60 (15.5 4.94/2)/12 = 197.01 k.ft
Total Mn = 128.52 + 197.01 = 325.53 k.ft
3-6

## Problem 3.3 e: Typical solution for T-section analysis.

Given: bw = 12 in., b = 44 in., t = 4 in., d = 20.5 in., As = 8 in.2, fc = 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Solution:
= 0.9
a=

As f y
0.85 f c ' b

8 60
= 4.27 in > t
0.85 3 44

T-section
Asf = 0.85 fct(b-bw)/fy
= 0.8534 (44-12) /60 = 5.44 in2
( As Asf ) f y
(8 5.44) 60
a=
=
= 5.02 in
0.85 f c ' bw
0.85 3 12
c = 5.906 in
dt = 21.5 in
t = 0.003(dt c)/c = 0.0079 > 0.005 therfore = 0.9
Mn = [(As - Asf ) fy ( d - a/2 ) + Asf fy ( d - t/2 )
= 0.9[(8 5.44)60(20.5 5.02/2) + 5.44 60(20.5 4/2)
= 7921 k.in = 660.1 k.ft
Asmax = 0.0425 [t (be-bw) + 0.319bwd]
= 0.0425 [4(44-12) + 0.3191220.5]
= 8.77 in.2
Asmin = minbwd = 0.00333 1220.5 = 0.82 in.2
Asmin < As< Asmax
Ok
Problem 3.3
Variables
b ( in.)
bw ( in.)
t ( in.)
d ( in.)
As (in.2)
a ( in.)
Rect. or T
Mn (k.ft)
Asmin< As < Asmax
Asf (in.2)
a ( in.)
Mn (k.ft)
Asmin< As < Asmax

Prob.
No.a
54
14
3
17.5
4#10
5.08
2.213
R
374.7
Yes

Prob.
No.b
48
14
4
16.5
4#9
4.00
1.961
R
279.4
Yes

Prob.
No.c
72
16
4
18.5
8#10
10.16
3.32
R
769.9
Yes

3-7

Prob.
No.d
32
16
3
15.5
6#9
6.00
4.41
T

Prob.
No.e
44
12
4
20.5
8#9
8.00
4.27
T

Prob.
No.f
50
14
3
16.5
7#9
7.00
3.29
T

Prob.
No.g
40
16
3
16.5
5#10
6.35
3.74
T

Prob.
No.h
42
12
3
17.5
6#9
6.00
3.36
T

2.04
4.94
293.4
No

5.44
5.02
660.1
Yes

4.59
4.05
466.8
Yes

3.06
4.84
415
Yes

3.83
4.25
425.9
Yes

3-8

3.4 a:
Typical Solution:
Given: b = 12 in., d = 20 in., As = 3.14 in.2, fc = 3 ksi, fy = 40 ksi
Solution:
b = 0.851(fc/fy)[87/( 87+ fy)]
= 0.85 0.85( 3/40 ) [87/(87+40)] = 0.0371
max = 0.5474b = 0.5474 0.0371 = 0.0203
Ru(max) = max fy ( 1

max f y
1.7 f c '

0.0203 40
) = 0.615 ksi
1.7 3
= As / bd = 3.14/ (1220) = 0.01308
fy
)
Ru = fy ( 1
1.7 f c '
0.01308 40
= 0.9 0.0130840 ( 1
) = 0.4226 ksi
1.7 3
fy
0.01308 40
a / d ratio =
=
= 0.2052
0.85 f c '
0.85 3
max f y
0.0203 40
(a / d) max =
=
= 0.319
0.85 f c '
0.85 3
= 0.9 0.020340

Problem 3.4 e:

Typical Solution:

(30 )2

## = 2121mm2, fc = 30MPa, fy = 400MPa

4
Solution:
b = 0.851(fc/fy)[600/( 600+ fy)]
= 0.85 0.85(30/400) [600/ (600+400)] = 0.0325
max = 0.625b = 0.625 0.0325 = 0.0203
Ru(max) = max fy ( 1

max f y
1.7 f c '

0.0203 400
) = 6.14 MPa
1.7 30
= As / bd = 2121/(300500) = 0.01414
fy
) = 0.9 0.01414400 ( 1 0.01414 400
Ru = fy ( 1
1.7 f c '
1.7 30
fy
0.01414 400
a / d ratio =
=
= 0.2218
0.85 f c '
0.85 30
max f y
0.0203 400
(a/ d) max =
=
= 0.3184
0.85 f c '
0.85 30
= 0.9 0.0203400

3-9

) = 4.53 MPa

Problem 3.4
DIM.

Prob.
No.a

Prob.
No.b

Prob.
No.c

Prob.
No.d

Prob.
No.e

Prob.
No.f

Prob.
No.g

Prob.
No.h

fc

3 ksi

4 ksi

4 ksi

5 ksi

30 MPa

20 MPa

30 MPa

25 MPa

Fy

40 ksi

60 ksi

75 ksi

60 ksi

400 MPa

300 MPa

500 MPa

300 MPa

12 in.

12 in.

12 in.

12 in.

300 mm

300 mm

300 mm

300 mm

20 in.

20 in.

20 in.

20 in.

500 mm

500 mm

500 mm

500 mm

As
(in.2)
(mm2)

4#8

4#7

4#9

4#9

3*30 mm

3*25 mm

4*25 mm

4*20 mm

3.14

2.41

4.00

4.00

2121mm2

1473

1963

1257

0.85

0.85

0.85

0.8

0.85

0.85

0.85

0.85

0.0371

0.0285

0.0207

0.0335

0.0325

0.0321

0.0236

0.04

max

0.0203

0.0181

0.0145

0.0212

0.0203

0.01805

0.0162

0.0225

Rumax

0.614
ksi

0.821
ksi

0.822
ksi

0.973
ksi

6.14
MPa

4.11
MPa

6.13
MPa

5.11
MPa

0.0131

0.01004

0.01667

0.01667

0.01414

0.00982

0.01309

0.0084

Ru

0.4227
ksi

0.4942
ksi

0.9182
ksi

0.7941
ksi

4.52
MPa

2.42
MPa

5.13
MPa

2.13
MPa

a/d ratio

0.2052

0.1772

0.3676

0.2353

0.2218

0.1732

0.2567

0.118

(a/d) max

0.3184

0.3194

0.3199

0.2993

0.3184

0.3194

0.3176

0.3176

min<<max

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

3.5 a:
Given: b = 250 mm, d = 550mm, As = 420mm, fc = 20 MPa, fy = 420 MPa
Solution:
(20 )2
As = 4
= 1256.6mm2
4
= As / bd = 1256.6/(250550) = 0.00914
Ru = fy ( 1

fy
1.7 f c '

= 0.9 0.00914420

## ( 1 0.00914 420 ) = 3.06 MPa

1.7 20
Mn = Ru bd =3.0610 0.250.552 = 231.4 KN.m
b = 0.851(fc/fy)[600/( 600+ fy)]
= 0.85 0.85(20/420) [600/ (600+420)] = 0.02024
max = 0.6375b = 0.6375 0.02024 = 0.0129
Ok
2

3-10

3.5 b:
Given: b = 250 mm, d = 550mm, As = 325 mm, fc = 20 MPa, f= = 420 MPa
Solution:
As = 3

(25 )2

= 1472 mm2

4
= As / bd = 1472 / (250550) = 0.0107
b = 0.851(fc/fy)[600/( 600+ fy)] = 0.02024
max = 0.6375b = 0.0129
< max

fy
1.7 f c '

= 0.9 0.0107420

Ru = fy ( 1

= 3.51 MPa

0.0107 420
1.7 20

Ok

Mn = Ru bd2 =3.510.250.552
= 265.4 KN.m
3.5 c:
Given: b = 250 mm, d = 550mm, As = 430 mm, fc = 20 MPa, fy = 420 MPa
Solution:
As = 4

(30 )2

= 2827 mm2

4
= As / bd = 2827/ (250550 ) = 0.02056
max = 0.0129
> max
N.G.
Section does not meet ACI code, reduce steel.
Ru(max) = max fy ( 1

max f y
1.7 f c '

= 0.9 0.0129420
= 4.1 MPa

0.0129 420
1.7 20

## Mn = Ru (max) bd2 = 4.10.250.552

= 310 KN.m

3-11

3.5 d:
Given: b = 10 in., d = 22 in., As = 2.0 in.2, fc = 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Solution:
= As / bd = 2/(1022) = 0.0091
b = 0.851(fc/fy)[87/( 87+ fy)]
= 0.85 0.85(3/60) [87/ (87+60)] = 0.0214
max = 0.01356
min < < max
Ru = fy ( 1

Ok

fy
1.7 f c '

= 0.9 0.009160

)
(

= 0.439 ksi

0.0091 60
1.7 3

## Mn = Ru bd2 = 0.43910222 = 2124 k.in.

= 177 k.ft
3.5 e:
Given: b = 10 in., d = 22 in., As = 6.0 in.2, fc = 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Solution:
= As / bd = 6/(1022) = 0.02727
max = 0.01356 <
N.G. ,
Section does not meet ACI code, reduce steel.
Ru(max) = max fy ( 1

max f y
1.7 f c '

= 0.9 0.0135660
= 0.615 Ksi

0.01356 60
1.7 3

## Mn = Ru(max) bd2 =0.61510222 = 2976.6 k.in.

= 248.1 k.ft

3-12

3.6:
Given: b = 8 in., d = 18 in., fc = 3 ksi, fy = 50 ksi
Solution:
f
50
(a) y = y =
= 0.00172, c = 0.003
E 29000
y > s = 0.015
This section is over- reinforced.

cb
0.003
=
d 0.003 + 0.00172
0.003
cb =
18 = 11.44 in.
0.003 + 0.00172
ab = 1cb = 0.8511.44 = 9.725 in.
0.85fcab b = Asbfy
0.85 f c ' ab b 0.85 3 9.725 8
Asb =
=
= 3.97 in.2
fy
50
c
0.003
(c)
=
d 0.003 + 0.0015
0.003
c=
18 = 12 in.
0.003 + 0.0015
a = 1c = 0.8512 = 10.2 in.
fs = Ess = 290000.0015 = 43.5 ksi
0.85fca b = Asfs
0.85 f c ' a b 0.85 3 10.2 8
As =
=
= 4.783 in.2
fs
43.5
Mn = Asfs (d - a/2)
= 0.94.78343.5(18 10.2/2) = 2416 k.in. = 201.3 k.ft
From tables:
max = 0.01624
As max = max bd = 0.01624818 = 2.34 in.2
As max f y
2.34 50
a=
=
= 5.74 in.
0.85 f c ' b
0.85 3 8
(max) Mn = Asmaxfy (d - a/2 )
= 0.92.3450(18 5.74/2) = 1593.2 k.in. = 132.8 k.ft
(max) Mn allowed by ACI code is less than Mn of the section = 201.3 k.ft
(b)

## (d) = 0.014 < max

As = bd = 0.014818 = 2.016
As f y
2.016 50
a=
=
= 4.941 in.
0.85 f c ' b
0.85 3 8
Mn = Asfy (d - a/2
= 0.92.01650(18 4.941/2) = 1408.8 k.in. = 117.4 k.ft
3-13

3-14

Problem 3.7:
Given: b = 12 in., d = 24 in., L = 10 ft, As = 3.93 in.2, fc = 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Solution:

As f y

3.93 60
= 7.706 in.
0.85 f c ' b
0.85 3 12
Mn = Asfy (d - a/2)
= 0.93.9360(24 7.706/2) = 4275.6 k.in. = 356.3 k.ft
W l2
W l2
Mu = 1.2( D ) + 1.6( L ) = Mn
2
2
2
W
10 2
0.685 10
1.2(
) + 1.6( l
) = 356.3
2
2
Wl = 3.94 k/ft
a=

Problem 3.8:
Given: b = 10 in. h = 28 in., d = 24.5 in., L = 17 ft, As = 3.53 in.2, fc = 3 ksi, fy = 40 ksi
Solution:

As f y

3.53 40
= 5.537 in.
0.85 f c ' b
0.85 3 10
Mn = Asfy (d - a/2)
= 0.93.5340(24.5 5.537/2) = 2761.6 k.in. = 230.1 k.ft
W l2
p l
Mu = 1.2( D ) + 1.6( L ) = Mn
8
4
2
p 17
2.55 17
1.2(
) + 1.6( L
) = 230.1
8
4
Pl = 17.6 k
a=

Problem 3.9 a:
Given: b = 12 in., d = 20 in., As = 3.14 in.2, fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Solution:
(1) At balanced condition
cb
0.003
=
cb = 11.834 in.
d 0.003 + 0.00207
ab = 1cb = 0.8511.834 = 10.059 in.
C = 20.85fc34 + 0.85 fc12(10.059 4) = 328.8 k
Asb = C/fy = 328.8/60 = 5.48 in.2
Asmax = 0.63375Asb = 0.633755.48 = 3.473 in.2
As < Asmax

3-15

## (2) T = Asfy = 3.1460 = 188.4 k

T = C = 20.85 fc34 + 0.85 fc12(a 4)
188.4 = 20.85434 + 0.85412(a 4)
a = 6.618 in.
C1= 20.85fc34 = 81.6 k
C2= 0.85 fc12(a 4) = 0.85412(6.618 4) = 106.8 k
a4
Mn = [C1( d - 4/2 )+ C2( d 4 )]
2
6.618 4
= 0.9[81.6( 20 - 4/2 )+ 106.8( 20 4 )]
2
= 2734 k.in. = 277.83 k.ft
Problem 3.9 b:
Given: b = 12 in., d = 16 in., As = 3.93 in.2, fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Solution:
(1) At balanced condition
cb
0.003
=
cb = 9.467 in.
d 0.003 + 0.00207
ab = 1cb = 0.859.467 = 8.047 in.
C = 0.85 fc54 + 0.85 fc12(ab 4 ) = 233.1 k
Asb = C/fy = 233.1/60 = 3.89 in.2
Asmax = 0.63375Asb = 0.633753.89 = 2.465 in.2
As = 3.93> Asmax ,
N.G.
Section does not meet ACI code, reduce steel.
(2) Use As = As max = 2.465 in.2
T = Asfy = 2.46560 = 147.9 k
T = C = 0.85 fc54 + 0.85 fc12(a 4)
174.85 = 0.85454 + 0.85412(a 4)
a = 5.96 in.
C1= 0.85fc54 = 68 k
C2= 0.85 fc12(a 4) = 0.85412(5.96 4) = 79.97 k
Mn = [C1( d 4/2 )+ C2( d 4
= 137.5 K.ft

a4
)]
2

3-16

Problem 3.10 a:
Given: b = 12 in., d = 18 in., d = 2.5 in., As = 2.41 in.2, As = 1.2 in.2, fc = 3ksi, fy = 40ksi
Solution:

2.41
= 0.011157
12 18
1.2
= As/bd =
= 0.00556
12 18
- = 0.005597 < max = 0.0203
3 2.5
87
f ' d'
87
k = 0.852 c
= 0.85 2
= 0.0139

40 18 87 40
f y d 87 f y
- < k = 0.0139, Compression steel doesnt yield.
A = 0.85 fc1b = 0.85 3 0.85 12 = 26.01
B = As ( 87 - 0.85 fc) - As fy = 1.2( 87 - 0.85 3) 2.41 40 = 4.94
C = -87 Asd = - 87 1.2 2.5 = - 261
= As/bd =

## c = [-B B 2 4 AC ] / 2A = 3.07 in.

a = 1c = 0.85 3.07 = 6.61 in.
fs= 87( c - d )/c = 87( 3.07 - 2.5 )/3.07 = 16.15 ksi fy
C1 = 0.85 fcab = 0.85 3 2.61 12 = 79.85 k
C2 = As ( fs- 0.85 fc ) = 1.2( 16.15 - 0.85 3 ) = 16.32 k
As1 = C1 / fy = 79.85/40 = 1.996 in.2
1 = As1 / bd = 1.996/(12 18) = 0.009242 < max
Mn = [ C1(d - a/2 )+ C2(d-d)]
= 0.9[79.85(18 2.61/2) + 16.32(18-2.5)] = 1428 k.in. = 119 k.ft

Problem 3.10 b:
Given: b = 12 in., d = 18 in., As = 4.82 in.2, As = 1.2 in.2, fc = 3 ksi, fy = 40 ksi
Solution:

4.82
= 0.0223
12 18
1.2
= As/bd =
= 0.00556
12 18
- = 0.0167
3 2.5
87
f ' d'
87
k = 0.852 c
= 0.85 2
= 0.0139

40 18 87 40
f y d 87 f y
- > k = 0.0139, Compression steel yields.
- < max = 0.0203
Ok
( As As ' ) f y
(4.82 1.2) 40
a=
=
= 4.73 in.
0.85 f c ' b
0.85 3 12
Mn = [(As-As)fy ( d - a/2 ) + Asfy ( d d )
= 0.9[(4.82-1.2)40(18 4.73/2) +1.240(18 2.5)] = 2707 k.in. = 225.6 K.ft
= As/bd =

3-17

Problem 3.11:
Given: b = 12 in., d = 22 in., d = 2.5 in., As= 1.32 in.2, fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, l = 16 ft
Solution:
(1) At balanced condition:
cb
0.003
=
cb = 13.02 in.
d 0.003 + 0.00207
ab = 1cb = 0.8513.02 = 11.07 in.
13.02 2.5
c 2.5
fs = 87( b
) = 70.3 > 60
) = 87(
13.02
cb
Compression steel yields, fs = 60 ksi
C1 = 0.85 fcabb = 0.8541211.07 = 451.66 k
C2 = As fy = 1.3260 = 79.2 k
T = C1 + C2 = 530.86 k
As1b = C1/fy =451.66/60 = 7.53 in.2
As max = 0.63375As1b + As= 0.633757.53+1.32 = 6.09 in.2

6.09
= 0.02307
12 22
1.32
= As/bd =
= 0.005
12 22
- = 0.01807
4 2.5
87
f ' d'
87
k = 0.852 c
= 0.852
= 0.0176

60 22 87 60
f y d 87 f y
- > k,
Compression steel yields.
- = max
Ok
(2) = As / bd =

a=

( As As ' ) f y
0.85 f c ' b

(6.09 1.32) 60
= 7.01 in.
0.85 4 12

## Mn = [(As-As)fy ( d - a/2 ) + Asfy ( d d )

= 0.9[(6.09-1.32)60(22 7.01/2) + 1.3260(22 2.5)]
= 6153.9 k.in. = 512.8 k.ft
W l2
p l
Mu = 1.2 MD + 1.6ML = 1.2( D )+1.6( L ) = Mn
8
4
2
2
W 16
2 16
1.2(
)+1.6( L
)= 512.8
4
8
Wl = 4.258 k/ft

3-18

Problem 3.12
Given: b = 10 in., d = 20 in., d = 2.5 in., As = 3.61 in.2, As = 0.62 in.2, fc = 4 ksi,
fy = 60 ksi, l = 10 ft, WL = 1.25 k/ft, WD = 2 k/ft (excluding self weight)
Solution:

3.61
= 0.01805
10 20
0.62
= As/bd =
= 0.0031
10 20
- = 0.015 < max = 0.01806
4 2.5
87
f ' d'
87
k = 0.852 c
= 0.85 2
= 0.0194

60 20 87 60
f y d 87 f y
- < k , Compression steel doesnt yield.
= As/bd =

## A = 0.85 fc1b = 0.85 4 0.85 10 = 28.9

B = As (87 - 0.85 fc) - As fy = 0.62(87 - 0.85 4) 3.61 60 = -165
C = -87 Asd = - 87 0.62 2.5 = - 134.85
c = [-B B 2 4 AC ] / 2A = 6.44 in.
a = 1c = 0.85 6.44 = 5.47 in.
fs= 87( c - d )/c = 87( 6.44 - 2.5 )/6.44 = 53.23 ksi < fy
C1 = 0.85 fcab = 0.85 4 5.47 10 = 186 k
C2 = As ( fs- 0.85 fc ) = 0.62( 53.23 - 0.85 4 ) = 30.4 k
As1 = C1 / fy = 186/60 = 3.1 in.2
1 = As1 / bd = 3.1/(10 20) = 0.0155 < max
Mn = [ C1 (d - a/2)+ C2(d-d)]
= 0.9[186(20 5.47/2) + 30.4(20-2.5)]
= 3369 k.in. = 280.7 k.ft

10 20
0.15 = 2.208 k/ft
144
WL = 1.25 k /ft
WD = 2 +

WL l 2
WD l 2
) + 1.6(
) = Mn
2
2
2.208 10 2
1.25 10 2
1.2(
) + 1.6(
) = 232.5 k.ft
2
2
Mu = 1.2 MD + 1.6ML = 1.2(

The internal design moment of 280.7 k.ft is great than the external ultimate moment of 232.5

3-19

Problem 3.13:
Given: bw= 10 in., t = 4 in., d =18 in., As = 3 in.2, l = 18 ft, b = 9 ft, fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Solution:
(1) Effective width, be= b = 108 in.
be= l/4 = 1812/4 = 54 in.
be= 16t+bw = 164 +10 = 74 in., use be = 54 in.
As f y
3 60
(2) a =
=
= 0.98 in. < t
0.85 f c ' b
0.85 4 54
Rectangular Section
(3) Mn = Asfy (d - a/2)
= 0.9360(18 0.98/2) = 2836.6 k.in. = 236.4 k.ft
Asmin = minbwd = 0.003331018 = 0.6 in.2
Asmax = 0.0567 [t (be-bw) + 0.319bwd]
= 0.0567 [4(54-10) + 0.3191018]
= 13.23 in.2
Asmin < As< Asmax
Ok
Problem 3.14:
Given: bw= 10 in., t = 3 in., d =18 in., As = 4.71 in.2, b = 30 in., fc = 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Solution:
As f y
4.71 60
(1) a =
=
= 3.69 in. > t
0.85 f c ' b
0.85 3 30
T section
Asmax = 0.0425 [t (be-bw) + 0.319bwd]
= 0.0425 [3(30-10) + 0.3191018]
= 4.99 in.2 > As
Ok
(2) Asf = 0.85 fct(b-bw)/fy = 0.8533( 30 10)/60 = 2.55 in.2
( As As f ') f y
(4.71 2.55) 60
a=
=
= 5.08 in.
0.85 f c ' b
0.85 3 10
Mn = [(As-As) fy ( d - a/2 ) + Asf fy ( d d )
= 0.9[(4.71-2.55)60(18 5.08/2)+2.5560(18 3/2)]
= 4075.3 k.in. = 339.6 k.ft
Problem 3.15:
a = 3.69 in. > t, T-section, Asf = 2.55 in.2, Asw = 2.16 in.2, As(max) = 5.80 in.2,
a = 5.08 in., Mu = 466.78 k-ft.
Problem 3.16:
Same analysis and answer as 3.14

3-20

CHAPTER 4
FLUXURAL DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS
Problem 4.1:(a)
Mu = 272.7 k.ft, b = 12 in, d = 21.5 in
Ru = Mu / (bd2) = 272.7 12000 / [(12) (21.5)2]= 589.9 psi
From Table A.2, = 1.22 % < max = 1.806%
AS = bd = 0.0122 12 21.5 = 3.15 in2
Use 3 # 10 bars (As = 3.79 in 2 )
Problem 4.1:(j)
Mu = 510 k.ft, b = 0.5d, = max
From Table A.2,
max = 1.806 %, Rumax = 820 psi
Ru = Mu / (bd2) => d = 24.62 in,
b = 12.31 in
Use b=12in
Mu
510 12000
d=
=
= 24.9in.
Ru b
820 12
AS = bd = 0.01806 12 24.9 = 5.4 in2 Use 6 # 9 bars (two rows, AS = 6.00 in 2)
h= 24.9 + 3.5 = 28.4 in => h = 29 in
Problem 4.1:(k)
Mu = 720 k.ft, d = 2.5b, = 1.8 %
From Table A.2,
Ru = 818 psi
2
Ru = Mu / (bd ) => b = 11.9 in
Use b = 12 in
Mu
720 12000
d=
=
= 29.67in.
Ru b
818 12
AS = bd = 0.018 12 29.67 = 6.4 in2
Use 5 # 10 bars (two rows, AS = 6.33 in2 )
h= 29.67+3.5=33in
Problem 4.1:(L)
Mu = 605 k.ft, d = 1.5b, =1.8%
From Table A.2
Ru = 818 psi
Ru = Mu / (bd2) => b = 15.8 in
Use b = 16 in
4-1

Mu
605 12000
=
= 23.6in.
Ru b
818 16
AS = bd = 0.018 x 16 x 23.6 = 6.8 in2
h = 23.6 + 3.5. use h = 28 in
Problems 4.1:
d=

DIM.

Prob.
No.a

Prob.
No.b

Prob.
No.c

Mu (k.ft)

272.7

969.2 816

b (in)

12

18

d (in)

21.5

Ru psi

## Use 7 # 9 bars (two rows, As = 7.0 in 2)

Prob.
No.d

Prob.
No.e

Prob.
No.f

657

559.4

254.5

16

16

14

10

32

29.52

26.5

24.5

21.5

21.75 28

589.9

631

780

700

799

660.7

818

708

(% )

1.168

1.206

1.7

1.5

1.75

1.115

1.8

1.27

AS (in2)

3.013

6.947

8.029

6.36

6.0

2.39

5.48

6.42

Bars
rows
h (in)

5#7
One
24

7#9
two
36

7#10
two
32

6#6
one
24

6#9 8#9
two two
25 32

5#10 6#9
one two
29
28

DIM.

Prob.
No.i

Prob.
No.j

Prob.
No.k

Prob.
No.l

Mu(k.ft)

345

510

720

605

b (in)

15

12

12

16

d (in)

18.5

24.9

29.67

23.6

(%)

1.77

1.81

1.8

1.8

AS (in)2

4.91

5.4

6.4

6.8

Bars
rows

5#9
one

6#9
two

5#10
two

7#9
Two

21

29

33

28

h (in)

4-2

Prob.
No.g

Prob.
No.h

451.4 832
14

18

Problem 4.2:(a)
Mu = 554 k.ft,
b = 14 in, d = 20.5 in
From Table A.2,
Rumax = 820 psi
Mn = Rumaxbd2 = 0.820 x 14 x 20.52 = 402 k.ft < Mu
Compression steel is needed.
Mu1 = 402 k.ft
Mu2 = Mu Mu1 = 554 - 402 = 152 k.ft
AS1= maxbd = 0.018 x 14 x 20.5 = 5.17 in2
AS2 = Mu2 / [fy(d - d)] = 152(12) / [0.9(60) (20.52.5)] = 1.88 in2
AS =AS1 + AS2 = 5.17 + 1.88 = 7.05 i n 2
Use 6 # 10 ( two rows A s = 7.59 in2 )
Calculate A s '
a = As1 fy / (0.85fc b) = (5.17)(60) / [0.85(4)(14)] = 6.52 in
c = a/ = 6.52/0.85 = 7.67 in
fs' = 87( c - d' ) / c = 87(7.67 - 2.5)/7.67 = 58.6 ksi < 60Ksi
A S' = 1.88(60/58.6) = 1.93 in2
Use 2 # 9 bars ( A S '=2.0 in2 )
Problem 4.2:
Assume c/dt = 0.375 for fy = 60Ksi,(all problem)
dt = (d + 1)in for 2 rows of bars; d = 2.5 in
DIM.

## Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob.

No.a No.b No.c No.d No.e No.f

## Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob.

No.g No.h No.i No.j

Prob.
No.k

Prob.
No.l

Mu(k.ft)

554

790

448

520

765

855

555

300

400

280

290

400

b (in)

14

16

12

12

16

18

16

12

16

12

14

14

d (in)

20.5

24.5

18.5

20.5

20.5

22

18.5

16.5

16.5

16.5

14.5

17.5

c (in)

8.39
7.13

9.156
7.78

6.91
5.87

## 7.66 7.66 8.22 3.258 6.166 6.166 6.187 5.41

6.511 6.512 6.988 2.769 5.24 5.241 5.26 4.606

6.54
5.56

402

656.3 280.6 344.6 459.5 595.3 374.2 223.2 297.7 223.2 201.1

293.0

a (in)
Mu1(k.ft)
Mu2(k.ft)

152

133.7 167.4 175.4 305.5 259.7 180.8 76.76 102.3 56.76 88.86 107.02

5.44

7.37

4.75

3.576 3.654

4.41

1.68

1.13

2.324 2.165

3.77

1.62

1.35

1.645

1.585

7.12
60
1.68

8.50
60
1.35

6.38
55.52
2.51

6.66
58.6
2.22

## 9.674 10.09 7.839 4.784 6.376 4.925 5.299

58.6
60 20.24 51.73 51.73 51.84 46.8
3.862 2.96 7.44 1.413 1.88 1.0425 2.12

5.995
53.74
1.77

6#10

2#8

2#10

2#10

9#6

10#5

6#10

5#5

10#4

2#7

7#5

4#6

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

h (in)
24

2#7
28

2#10
22

2#9
24

4#9
24

3#9
26

3#8
22

2#9
20

2#8
20

2#6
20

2#9
18

2#8
21

As1(in )
As2(in )
2

As (in )
fs (ksi)
As (in2)
Tension
Bars
rows

4-3

2.959 2.511

1.22

## Problem 4.3: (a)

fc = 3 Ksi; fy = 60 Ksi
Mu =394 k.ft, b = 48 in, bw = 14 in,
Check if a t

t = 3 in

## Mn ( Flange) = (0.85fc')bt( d - t/2 ) = 0.9 x 0.85 x 3 x 48 x 3 (18.5 3/2)

= 5618 k.in = 468.2 k.ft >Mu
Rectangular section:
Ru = Mu / (bd2) = 394 x 12000 / [(48) (18.5)2] = 288 psi
From Table (Al ),
= 0.0057,
min= 0.33 %;
2
AS = bd = 0.0057 x 48 x 18.5 = 5.06 in
Use 4 # 10 bars (As = 5.06 in2)
min < < max
OK
( Min As = min bwd = 0.86 in2 )
From Equ. 3.72; As max = 7.85 in2 > As
OK.

max= 1.356 %

## Problem 4.3: (g)

fc = 3 Ksi; fy = 60 Ksi
Mu=388 k.ft, b = 44 in, bw = 12 in, t = 3 in, d = 16 in
Check if a < t
Mn ( Flange) = (0.85fc')bt( d - t/2 ) = 0.9 x 0.85 x 3 x 44 x 3 (16 - 3/2)
= 4392.6 k.in = 366 k.ft < Mu
T section:
Cf= 0.85fc't(b - bw) = 0.85 x 3 x 3 (44-12) = 244.8 k
ASf = 244.8 / 60 = 4.08 in2
Muf= Cf (d - t/2) = 0.9 x 244.8(16 - 3/2) = 3194.6 k.in = 266.2 k.ft
Muw=Mu-Muf = 388 - 266.2 = 121.8k.ft
Ru = Muw / (bw d2) = 121.8 x 12000 / [(12) (16)2] = 476 psi .
From Table A.1, w=0.01
Asw= w bwd = 0.01 x 12 x 16 = 1.92 in2
As = Asf+ Asw = 4.08 + 1.92 = 6 in2
Check AS(max)= 0.425[t(b-bw)+0.319bwd] = 6.68 in2 > As = 6 in2 OK.
Problem 4.3: (m)
Mu=378 k.ft, b = 44 in, bw = 16 in, t = 3 in, a = t
Mu = (0.85fc')bt( d - t/2)
d = Mu / [(0.85fc')bt] + t / 2 = 378(12) / [0.9(0.85) (3) (44) (3)] + 3/2 = 16.5 in
As = Mu / [fy(d t / 2)] = 378 (12) / [0.9 (60) (16.5-3/2)] = 5.6 in2
Use 6#9 bars (two rows. AS = 6.0 in2 )
Check AS(max)= 7.15 in2 > As = 5.6 in2
OK
h = 20in
4-4

## Problem 4.3: (n)

Mu =440 k.ft, b = 36 in, bw = 16 in

t = 4 in,

a=t

Mu = (0.85fc')bt( d - t/2)
d = Mu / [(0.85fc')bt] + t / 2 = 440(12) / [0.9(0.85) (3) (36) (4)] + 4/2 = 18 in
As = Mu / [fy(d t / 2)] = 440 (12) / [0.9 (60) (18-4/2)] = 6.11 in2
Use 5 #10 bars (two rows, AS = 6.33 in2 )
Check AS(max)= 7.30 in2 > As =6.11 in2
OK
h = 21.5 in
Problem 4.3: (o)
Mu =567 k.ft, b = 48 in, bw = 12 in,
Check if a < t

t = 3 in

As = 6 in

## a = As / (0.85fc'b) = 6 (60) / (0.85348) = 2.94 in < 3 in

Rectangular section
d = Mu / [(0.85fc')bt] + a / 2 = 567(12) / [0.9(0.85) (3) (48) (2.94)] + 2.94/2 = 22.5 in
h = 26 in
Check AS(max)= 8.25 in2 > As =6 in2 OK
Problem 4.3: (p)
Mu =507 k.ft, b = 46 in, bw = 14 in, t = 3 in Check if a t
(1) a = As / (0.85fc'b) = 7 (60) / (0.85346) = 3.58 in > 3 in
T section
(2) A sfy = 0.85fc'(b bw)t + 0.85fc'bwa
a = [760 - 0.853(46-14)3] / [0.85314] = 4.91 in
Mn= 0.85fc'(b bw)t( d - t/2) + 0.85fc'bwa( d - a/2); solve for d, d = 18 in
h = 22 in
Check AS(max)= 7.5 in2 > As = 7 in2 OK

4-5

Problems 4.3:
DIM.

Prob.
No.a

Prob.
No.b

Prob.
No.c

Prob.
No.d

Prob.
No.e

Prob.
No.f

Prob.
No.g

Prob.
No.h

Mu (ft)

394

800

250

327

577

559

388

380

b (in)

48

60

44

50

54

48

44

46

bw (in)

14

16

15

14

16

14

12

14

t (in)

d (in)

18.5

19.5

15

13

18.5

17.5

16

15

Mn(k.ft)

468.2

803.3

340.8

329.9

681.6

569.2

366

356.3

R or_T

Ru (psi)

288

421

303

464

375

456

(%)

0.00628

0.769

0.646

0.558

0.76

0.804

AS (in )

5.577

9.006

4.264

3.631

7.59

6.754

Bars
rows

10#7
Two

4#14
one

4#9
One

12#5
two

6#10
two

3#14
one

6#9
two

5#10
two

c/ dt 0.375

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cf (k)

244.8

244.8

ASf (in2)

4.08

4.08

Muf (ft)

266.2

247.9

Muw (ft)

121.8

132.1

Ru (web) (psi)

476

503

w(%)

1.0

1.07

ASw (in2)

1.92

2.25

6.0

6.33

AS (in )
AS (max) (in2)

7.85

11.7

6.75

7.06

10.50

9.10

6.68

6.93

h (in)

21

23

18

18

22

21

20

19

4-6

## Problems 4.3: (continued)

DIM.

Prob.
No.i

Prob.
No.j

Prob.
No.k

Prob.
No.l

Prob.
No.m

Prob.
No.n

Prob.
No.o

Prob.
No.p

Mu (ft)

537

515

361

405

378

440

567

507

b (in)

60

54

44

50

44

36

48

46

bw (in)

16

16

15

14

16

16

12

14

t (in)

d (in)

16.5

17.5

15

15.5

13.5

18

22.5

18

Mn(k.ft)

516.4

495.7

340.8

401.6

R or_T

452
5#10
one

280
6#9
two

7#9
two

Ru (psi)
Bars
rows

8#9
two

6#10
two

6#9
two

7#9
two

379
6#9
two

c/ dt 0.375

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cf (k)

336.6

290.7

221.9

275.4

ASf (in2)

5.61

4.85

3.7

4.59

Muf (ft)

378.7

348.8

224.6

289.2

Muw (ft)

158.3

166.2

136.44

115.8

Ru (web) (psi)

436.12

407

485

413

w(%)

0.9

0.84

1.02

0.85

ASw (in2)

2.38

2.35

2.3

1.84

AS (in2)

7.99

7.2

6.0

6.43

AS (max) (in2)

9.19

8.64

6.75

7.53

6.49

7.30

8.25

3.58

h (in)

20

21

19

19

20

21

26

22

4-7

Problem 4.4:
Mu = 232 k.ft, fc' = 4 ksi,

fy = 60 ksi,

b = 10 in,

## (a) = max , From Table A.2,

max = 1.8 %
Ru(max) = 820 psi
Ru = Mu / (bd2) => d = 18.4 in
AS = bd = 0.01806 x 10 x 18.4 = 3.31 in2
Use 4#9 bars (two rows. AS = 4.0 in2);
h = 18.4 + 3.5 = 21.9 in
h = 22 in
a = 5.84 in; c = 6.87 in; dt = 19.5 in => c / dt =0.352 < 0.375;
OK
(b) =0.016, From Table A.2,
Ru = 742 psi
Ru = Mu / (bd2) => d = 19.4 in
AS = bd = 0.016 10 19.4 = 3.1 in2
Use 4#8 bars (two rows. AS = 3.16 in2);
h = 19.4 + 3.5 = 22.9 in
h = 23 in
a = 5.47 in; c = 6.43 in; dt = 20.5 in => c / dt =0.314 < 0.375 ;

OK

## (c) = 0.012, From Table A.2;

Ru= 580 psi
Ru = Mu / (bd2) => d = 21.9 in
AS = bd = 0.012 10 21.9 = 2.63 in2
Use 3#9 bars ( AS = 3 in2 );
h= 21.9 + 2.5 = 24.4 in => h = 25 in
a = 4.64 in; c = 5.46 in; dt = 22.5 in => c / dt =0.243 < 0.375 ;

OK

Problem 4.5:
Mu = 186 k.ft, b = 12 in,
d = 20 in,
fc = 3 ksi ,
fy = 40 ksi
From Equation 3.21
Ru = Mu / (bd2) = 186(12000) / [12(20)2] = 465 psi
It is a common practice to assume between max between balance when not assigned.
But based on the Ru and fy , using appendix A.1
From Table A.1, =0.0146
As = bd = 0.0146 12 20 = 3.5 in 2
From Appendix A.13 of design table,
Use 3# 10 bars (As = 3.79 in2)
min = 200/ fy = 200/ 40000=0.005
Using Table 4.1, max = 0.02031 and balance = 0.0371
From Table 4.2 , with = 0.9 and /b = 0.0146/0.0371 = 0.39, we got t = 0.01 > 0.005
The ACI code, section 8.4.2 indicates that should be >= 0.0075 for the redistribution of moments
in continuous flexural members producing a ductility index of 3.75.
min < < max , t > 0.005 ( net tensile strain for tension controlled section)

4-8

Problem 4.6:
Mu = 186 k.ft, b = 12 in,
d = 20 in,
fc = 4 ksi ,
fy = 60 ksi
From Equation 3.21
Ru = Mu / (bd2) = 186(12000) / [12(20)2] = 465 psi
From the Table A.2, = 0.0094
As = bd = 0.0094 12 20 = 2.27 in2
From Table A.13, design table
Use 2#10 bars ( AS = 2.53 in 2 )
Check min = 200/ fy = 200/ 60000=0.003
Using Table 4.1, max = 0.01806 and balance = 0.0285
Using Table 4.2 , with = 0.9 and /b = 0.0094/0.0285 = 0.329,
we got t = 0.018 > 0.005
min < < max , t > 0.005
Problem 4.7:
For the beam shown, design the section at C using fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, b = 12 in
Solution:
Assume a total depth = Beam Length / 15 = 2012 / 15 =16 in
Mu = 1.2 MD + 1.6 ML
Mu = 1.2[0.8 k-ft(20)2 /8] + 1.6 [9 kip20 ft / 4] + 1.2 [12 in 16 in 0.15 / 144] [(20ft)2 / 8]
= 132 k.ft
From Table 4.1
(a) Using max = 0.01806,
Ru(max) = 820 psi
Ru = Mu / (bd2) => d = 12.7 in and AS = 2.75 in2
Using Table A.13, design table,
Use 3#9 bars ( AS = 3.0 in 2 )
h= d+ bar dia+stirrup dia+ con; cover =12.7 + 2.5 = 15.2 in, say h =16 in
Check min = 200/ fy = 200/ 60000=0.003
Using Table 4.1, max = 0.01806 and balance = 0.0285
Using Table 4.2 , with = 0.9 and /b = 0.0094/0.0285 = 0.329,
we got t = 0.018 > 0.005
min < = max , t = 0.005
(b) It is a common practice to assume between max between balance when not
assigned.
max=0.009 , balance = 0.01425
Using s = 0.014, From Table A.1, Ru = 662 psi
Ru = Mu / (bd2) => d = 14.2 in and AS = 2.38 in2
Use 4#7 bars (As = 2.41 in2).
h=d+1/2 (7/8)+ 3/8 + 3/2= 14.2 + 2.5 = 16.7 in,
say 17 in
Check min and max steel ratio,
Check min = 200/ fy = 200/ 60000=0.003
Using Table 4.1, max = 0.01806 and balance = 0.0285

4-9

## Using Table 4.2, with = 0.9 and /b = 0.014/0.0285 = 0.49,

We got t = 0.007 > 0.005
min < < max , t > 0.005
Problem 4.8:
Given: D.L.= 2.3 k/ft., L.L.= 1.3 k/ft., fc' = 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Required: Design the beam using the smallest singly reinforced section for AB.
Case 1:
(1) D.L. on ABC, L.L. on AB for maximum positive B.M.
U = 1.2 D + 1.6 L = 1.2 2.3 +1.6 1.3 = 4.84 k/ft.
(2) Positive ultimate B.M. = 305.15 k.ft
From Table 4.1, max=0.01356 and balance = 0.0214
Assume between max between balance.
max=0.00678, balance = 0.0107.Let =0.015, From Table A.1=>Ru = 667psi,
Ru = Mu / (bd2) => d = 21.38
(3) AS = 0.015 12 21.38= 3.84 in2
use 4#9 bars in one row.
From Equation 4.5,
bmin = nD+(n-1)s +2(stirrups dia)+2(concrete over)= nD+(n-1)s+3.75
bmin= 11.625 in< 12 in
h = 20.88 + 2.5 = 23.38 in Say 24 in ( < max then t > 0.005 )
Case 2:
D.L. on ABC, L.L. on BC only for maximum negative B.M.
(1) For b = 12 in, h = 24 in
Actual d = 24 - 2.5 = 21.5 in,
Mu = 154.88 k.ft
Ru = Mu / (bd2) = 154.88 12000/(1221.52) = 335 psi
From Table A.1, = 0.00674;
Check min = 200/ fy = 200/ 60000=0.003
Using Table 4.1max =0.01356 and balance = 0.0214
Using Table 4.2, with = 0.9 and /b = 0.00674/0.0214 = 0.314
We got t > 0.005
Therefore, min < < max, t > 0.005
AS = 0.00674 12 21 .5 = 1.74 in2
Use 2#9 bars (AS = 2.0 in 2) (or 3#7 )
Problem 4.9:
Given: D.L.= 0.88 k/ft., L.L.= 1.1 k/ft.
Required: Design the beam.
fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi , L = 15 ft cantilever beam.

4-10

Solution:
Mu = 1.2 MD + 1.6 ML
Mu = 1.2[0.88(15)2 /2] + 1.6 [1.1(15)2 / 2] = 317 k.ft
From Table 4.1, max =0.01806 and balance = 0.0285
Assume between max between balance.
max =0.009, balance = 0.01425.
Using Let = 0.014, From Table A.1=> Ru = 622 psi,
min < < max , t > 0.005
Ru = Mu / (bd2) => d = 20.27 in
AS= bd = 0.014 14 20.27 = 3.97 in2
Use 4#9 bars ( AS = 4.0 in 2 ) in one row.
bmin = nD+(n-1)s+3.75=7 9/8 + 3.75 = 11.7 in < 14 in
h = 20.27 + 2.5 = 22.77 in, say 23 in
Problem 4.10:
Given: D.L.= 1.5 k/ft., L.L.= 0.77 k1ft., b = 12 in, fc' = 3 ksi, fY = 40 ksi
Mu = 1.2 MD + 1.6 ML
Mu = 1.2[1.5(10)2 /2] + 1.6 [0.77(10)2 / 2] = 151.6 k.ft
Using Let =0.015,
Ru = 476 psi,
min < < max , t > 0.005
Ru = Mu / (bd2) => d = 17.8 in
AS= bd = 0.015 12 17.8 = 3.2 in2
Use 3#10 bars ( AS = 3.79 in 2 ) in one row.
h = 17.8 + 2.5 = 20.3 in, say 21 in
Problem 4.11:
Mu=290k.ft, fc' = 3 ksi,

fy = 60 ksi,

b = 12 in,

d =19 in,

d' = 2.5 in

Solution:
From Table A.1, Ru(max) = 615 psi; max = 0.01356
Mn = Rumaxbd2 = 0.615 12 192 = 222 k.ft < Mu
Compression steel is needed.
Mu1 = 222 k.ft
Mu2 = Mu Mu1 = 290 - 222 = 68 k.ft
AS1= maxbd = 0.01356 12 19 = 3.10 in2
AS2 = Mu2 / [fy(d - d)] = 68(12) / [0.9(60) (192.5)] = 0.92 in2
AS =AS1 + AS2 = 3.10 + 0.92 = 4.02 i n 2
Use 4 # 9 ( one row A s = 4.0 in2 )
Calculate A s '
a = As1 fy / (0.85fc b) = (3.10)(60) / [0.85(3)(12)] = 6.08 in
c = a/ = 6.08/0.85 = 7.15 in; dt = 23 2.5 = 20.5 in; t =0.0056 > 0.005;
OK
fs' = 87( c - d' ) / c = 87(7.15 - 2.5)/7.15 = 57 ksi < 60Ksi
C o m p r e s s i o n s t e e l y i e l d s . fs' = 60 ksi;
A S' = 0 . 9 2 (60/57) = 0.98 in2
AS(max)= bd[max+'(fs'/ fy)]=1219[0.01356+0.0043(57/60)]=4.27 in2
'= A S' / b d = 0 . 9 8 / ( 1 2 19)=0.0043
Check AS(max)= 4.27 in2 > As = 4.02 in2 ;
h = 23 in OK.

4-11

Problem 4.12:
Given: Mu = 260 k.ft.,
fc' = 3 ksi,
fy = 60 ksi
Required: Design the section as:
a) singly reinforced, b =10 in
b) doubly reinforced, Mu1 = 0.75 Mu and M u2 = 0.25 Mu
c) As T-section, slab thickness= 3 in and flange width =20 in, bw = 10 in
Solution:
a) For max = 0.01356,
Ru(max) = 615 psi
Ru = Mu / (bd2) => d = 22.5 in and AS = 3.05 in2
Use 3#9 bars in one row ( AS = 3.0 in 2 )
h= 22.5 + 2.5 = 25 in, say h =26 in
Check Mu = 0.9 3.0 60(23.5 7.06/2) = 269.6 k.ft.
a = As1 fy / (0.85fc b) = (3. 0)(60) / [0.85(3)(10)] = 7.06 in
c = a/ = 7.06/0.85 = 8.3 in; dt = 26 2.5 = 23.5 in; t =0.0055 > 0.005;
Check Mu = 0.9 3.0 60(23.5 7.06/2) = 269.6 k.ft;
OK
b) Mu1 = 0.75 260 = 195 k.ft,

## For Mu1 = 195 k.ft., max = 0.01356,

Ru(max) = 615 psi
Ru = Mu / (bd2) => d = 19.5 in and AS1 = 2.64 in2
Let h = 23 in and d = 2.5 in
For M u 2 = 65 k.ft.,
As= AS2 = Mu2 / [fy(d - d)] = 65(12) / [0.9(60) (17)] = 0.85 in2
AS =AS1 + AS2 = 2.64 + 0.85 = 3.49 i n 2
Use 5 # 8
For compression steel, use 2#6 bars (AS = 0.88 i n 2)
Check if compression steel yields:
- ' = ma x = 0.01356
fs' = 87( c - d' ) / c = 87(7.69 - 2.5)/7.69 = 58.7 ksi < 60Ksi
t =0.00542 > 0.005;
OK
Therefore compression steel does not yield.
c) Mu = 260 k.ft
1) Since b = 20 in is small, determine d using bw in Mu = Ru(max) bd2
max = 0.01356,
Ru(max) = 615 psi
Ru = Mu / (bd2) => d = 22.5 in
For two rows of steel h = 26 in, d =22.5 in and dt = 23.5 in
2) check if a t
For a = t, M u = ( 0.85fc'bt)(d-t/2)
M u (flange) = 0.90 (0.853) 20 3(22.5 - 1.5) = 241 k.ft < 260 k.ft

4-12

OK

## Section behaves as a T-section.

ASf = 0.85fc'(b-bw) t / fy = 0.85 3 (20-10) 3 / 60 = 1.28 in2
M u2 = ( 0.85fc'(b-bw) t (d-t/2) = 0.90 0.85 3 10 3(22.5 - 1.5) = 1446 k.in = 120.5 k.ft
Mu1 = Mu Mu2 = 260 120.5 = 139.5 k.ft
Ru = Mu / (bwd2) = 139.512000 / (10 22.52) = 331 psi < Ru(max)
= 0 . 0 0 6 8 < ma x
AS1 = 0.0068 10 22.5 = 1.53 in2
Total AS = 1.53 + 1.28 = 2.81 in2
Check AS(max)= 4.33 in2 > As = 2.81 in2 ;
OK
2
Choose 3#9 bars, ( A S = 3.0 in )
d) Cost analysis: Cost of concrete = \$50/c.y.,
Per foot of beam:
Concrete
Concrete
Volume/ft
Cost
Single Reinforced
1.80 ft3
3.32
Doubly Reinforced
1.6 ft3
2.96
3
T-Section
2.0ft
3.73

steel= \$0.3/lb
Steel
Weight lb
10.2
16.35
10.2

Cost \$
3.06
4.9
3.06

Total
Cost \$
6.39
7.86
6.79

## Section one controls.

Problem 4.13:
Mu= 545k.ft, b = 40 in, t = 4 in, fc' = 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, bw= 10 in
Asssume a = t
d = Mu / [(0.85fc')bt] + t / 2 = 545(12) / [0.9(0.85) (3) (40) (4)] + 4/2 = 19.8 in
As = Mu / [fy (d t / 2)] = 544 (12) / [0.9 (60) (19.8-4/2)] = 6.8 in2
Use 7#9 bars (two rows. AS = 7.0 in2 ) if d = 22 in is used;
h = 26in
AS(max)=(0.85 fc'/ fy)[(b-bw) t+ 0.3751bwd]=7.78 in2
Check AS(max)= 7.78 in2 > As = 6.8 in2
AS(min)= mi n b w d = 0 . 0 0 3 3 10 26 = 0.86 in2
AS(min) < AS < AS(max)
OK
Problem 4.14:
Given: L = 20 ft.,

## b = 12 in, h = 24 in, fc' = 4 ksi,

fy = 60 ksi

Solution:
Ultimate load W = 1.2D.L. + 1.6 L.L. = 1.2 2.6 + 1.6 3 = 7.9 k/ft
a) MB( maximum negative) = RAL wL2 / 2 = (3 /8) wL2 wL2 / 2 =-(1 /8) wL2
= (1/8) 7.9 202 = -395 K.ft
Max positive moment occurs in span AB when live load acts on span AB only.

4-13

## M Dmax =1.2[(3 /8) (DL)L(0.42L) - [(1 /2) (DL)(0.42L)2] + 1.6[(7/16) (LL)L(0.42L)(1/2)(LL)(0.42L)]

=1.2[(3/8)2.62020.42-(1/2)2.6(0.42 202)] +1.6[(7/16)32020.42-(1/2)30.4220]
= 270 k-ft
b) Design critical section at B:
Mu = 395 k.ft
From Table A.2, max = 0.01806, Ru(max) = 820 psi
Mn = Ru(max) (bd2) = 0.82 12 20.52 = 4135 k.in = 344.6 k.ft < Mu
Compression steel is needed.
Mu1 = 344.6 k.ft
Mu2 = Mu Mu1 = 395 344.6 = 50 k.ft
AS1= maxbd = 0.01806 12 20.5 = 4.42 in2
AS2 = Mu2 / [fy(d - d)] = 50(12) / [0.9(60) (20.52.5)] = 0.84 in2
AS =AS1 + AS2 = 4.42 + 0.84 = 5.26 i n 2
Use 7 # 8 (two rows)
Calculate A s '
a = As1 fy / (0.85fc b) = (4.42)(60) / [0.85(4)(12)] = 6.50 in
c = a/ = 6.5/0.85 = 7.65 in; t =0.0054 > 0.005
OK
fs' = 87( c - d' ) / c = 87(7.65 - 2.5)/7.65 = 58.5 ksi < 60Ksi
A S' = 0 . 8 4 (60/58.5) = 0.86 in2
Ru = Mu / (bd2) = 27012000 / (12 21.52) = 584 psi < Ru(max)
From Table A.2, = 0 . 0 0 1 2 1 < ma x
AS1 = 0.0121 12 21.5 = 3.12 in2
Use 4#8 bars in one row, (A S = 3.16 in2)
Problem 4.15:
a) W = 1.2D.L. + 1.6 L.L. = 1.2 3.93 + 1.6 2.4 = 8.56 k/ft
H A = H D = WL / 9 = 8.56 36 / 9 = 34.24 k
R A = R D = WL / 2 = 8.56 36 / 2 = 154.08 k
M B = M C = -H Ah = -34.24 18 = - 616.32 k.ft.
MBC (midspan) = MB + (WL2) / 8 = - 616.32 + (8.56 362) / 8 = 770.4 k.ft
Design beam BC for positive moment,
Mu = 770.4 k.ft
Given b = 72 in, bW = 16 in, t = 5 in,
h = 24 in, fc' = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Mn(flange) = (0.85fc')bt(d-t/2) = 0.90 0.85 4 72 5(20.5 - 5/2)
= 19828.8K.in = 1652.4 k.ft > Mu
Rectangular Section
Ru = Mu / (bd2) = 770.412000 / (72 20.52) = 305.5 psi
From Table A.2, = 0.006
AS = 0.006 72 20.5 = 8.86 in2
Use 9#9 bars (two rows, As = 9.0 in2 )
ASmax =maxbd=0.01806 72 20.5=26.65 in2
AS(min)= mi n b w d = 1 . 0 9 in2
AS(min) < AS < AS(max)
OK

4-14

a = As fy / (0.85fc b) = 2.57 in
c = a/ = 2.56 in; dt = 21.5 in; t =0.0222 > 0.005;
OK
Design beam BC for negative moment,
Mu =616.32 k.ft
Given b = 16 in, h = 24 in, fc' = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
Ru = Mu / (bd2) = 616.3212000 / (16 20.52) = 1100 psi > Ru(max)
Compression steel is needed.
From Table A.2, max = 0.01806, Ru(max) = 820 psi
AS1= maxbd = 0.01806 16 20.5 = 5.9 in2
Mu1 = Ru(max) (bd2) = 0.82 16 20.52 = 459.5 k.ft
Mu2 = Mu Mu1 = 616.32 495.5 = 156.8 k.ft
AS2 = Mu2 / [fy(d - d)] = 157.8(12) / [0.9(60) (20.52.5)] = 1.94 in2
AS =AS1 + AS2 = 5.9 + 1.94 = 7.93 i n 2
Use 8 # 9 in two rows, ( A S = 8 in2 )
Calculate A s '
a = As1 fy / (0.85fc b) = (5.9)(60) / [0.85(4)(16)] = 6.50 in
c = a/ = 6.5/0.85 = 7.65 in
fs' = 87( c - d' ) / c = 87(7.65 - 2.5)/7.65 = 58.5 ksi < 60Ksi
A S' = 1 . 9 4 (60/58.5) = 1.99 in2
Use 2 # 9 in one row, ( A S = 2 in2 )

4-15

CHAPTER 5
SHEAR AND DIAGONAL TENSION
Problem 5.1.a)
Determine shear reinforcement if needed. T-section;
bw = 14 in., d = 17.50 in., Vu = 22 kip, fc= 4 ksi., fyt = 60 ksi.
Solution:
1. Nominal shear provided by concrete
Vc = 2 f c 'bwd = 2 4000 14 17.5 = 30.99 kip

## Vc = 0.75 30.99 = 23.24 kip > Vu

Vc /2 = 11.62 kip < Vu , use min. shear reinforcement
Choose #3 stirrups, 2 legs, Av = 0.22 in2. Maximum spacing is the smaller of:
1.) S2 = d/2 = 17.5/2 = 8.75 in., say 8.5 in. (Controls)
2.) S3 = (Av fy)/(50 bw) = (0.22)(60000)/(50)(14) = 18.85 in., say 18.5 in.
3.) S4 = 24 in.
Use #3 stirrups spaced at 8.5 in.
General: Vc = 30.99 kip
Vc = 23.24 k., Vc /2 = 11.62 kip
Vc1 = 4 f c 'bw d = 2Vc = 60.98 kip

Av f y d

## 0.22 60 17.5 231

=
for #3 stirrups.
Vs
Vs
Vs
S2 = 8.5 in., S3 =18.5 in., S4 = 24 in.
S1 =

5-1

Problem 5.1.b)
Determine shear reinforcement if needed. T-section
bw = 14 in., d = 17.50 in., Vu = 56 kip, fc= 4 ksi, fyt = 60 ksi.
Solution:
1. Nominal shear provided by concrete
Vc = 30.99 k., Vc = 23.24 k.< Vu and Vs = Vu - Vc = 56 23.24 = 32.76 kip
Vs = 32.76/0.75 = 43.68 kip, Vs < Vc1 , S2 = d/2
Use #3 stirrup, Av = 2 x 0.11 = 0.22 in.2
Av f y d 0.22 60 17.5
S1 =
=
= 5.3 in.
Vs
43.68
S2 = 8.5 in., S3 =18.5 in., S4 = 24 in.
Therefore, use #3 @ 5.0 in.

Problem 5.1.c)
Determine shear reinforcement if needed. T-section
bw = 14 in., d = 17.50 in., Vu = 69 kip, fc= 4 ksi, fyt = 60 ksi.
Solution:
1. Nominal shear provided by concrete
Vc = 30.99 k., Vc = 23.24 k.> Vu and Vs = Vu - Vc = 69-23.24 = 45.76 kip
Vs = 45.76/0.75 = 61.0 kip < Vc1 = 61.98 k., then S2 = d/2, use # 4 stirrups, Av = 0.2 x 2 =0.4 in.2
Av f y d 0.4 60 17.5
S1 =
=
= 6.88 in.
Vs
61.0
S2 = 8.5 in., S3 =34.28 in. (34 in.), S4 = 24 in.
Therefore, use #4 @ 6.5 in.

5-2

Problem 5.2.a)
Determine shear reinforcement if needed. T-section
bw = 16 in., d = 23.50 in., Vu = 22 kip, fc= 4 ksi, fyt = 60 ksi
Solution:
1. Nominal shear provided by concrete:
Vc = 2 f c 'bwd = 2 4000 16 23.5 = 47.6 kip
Vc = 0.7547.56 = 35.67 kip, Vc /2 = 17.84 k., Vc > Vu > Vc /2, use min. shear reinforcement.
Choose 2 legs #3 stirrups, Av = 2 x 0.11 = 0.22 in.2
Maximum spacing is the least of:
S2 = d/2 = 23.5/2 = 11.75 in., say 11.5 in.
Av f y 0.22 60000
S3 =
=
= 16.50 in.
50bw
50 16
S4 = 24 in.
Therefore, use #3 @ 11.5 in.
General:
Vc = 47.56 kip, Vc = 35.67 kip, Vc /2 = 17.84 kip
Vc1 = 4 f c 'bw d = 2Vc = 95.12 kip

S1 =

Av f y d
Vs

=
for #3 stirrups.
Vs
Vs

## S2 = 11.5 in., S3 =16.5 in., for #3 steels, S4 = 24 in.

Problem 5.2.b)
Determine shear reinforcement if needed. T-section
bw = 16 in., d = 23.50 in., Vu = 56 kip, fc= 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi.
Solution:
1. Nominal shear provided by concrete
Vc = 47.56 k., Vc = 35.67 k < Vu , Vs = Vu - Vc = 56 35.67 = 20.33 kip
Vs = 20.33/0.75 = 27.10 kip < Vc1 = 95.12 k., S2 = d/2,
Use stirrup- #3, Av = 0.22 in.2
Av f y d 0.22 60 23.5
S1 =
=
= 11.4 in.
Vs
27.1
Say 11 in.
S2 = 11.5 in., S3 =16.5 in., for #3 steels, S4 = 24 in.
Therefore, use #3 @11 in.

5-3

Problem 5.2.c)
Determine shear reinforcement if needed. T-section
bw = 16 in., d = 23.50 in., Vu = 69 kip, fc= 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi.
Solution:
1. Nominal shear provided by concrete
Vc = 47.56 k., Vc = 35.67 k < Vu ; Vs = Vu - Vc = 69 35.67 = 33.33 kip
Vs = 33.33/0.75 = 44.44 kip < Vc1 = 95.12 k., S2 = d/2,
Use stirrup- #3, Av = 0.22 in.2
Av f y d 0.22 60 23.5
S1 =
=
= 6.98 in.
Vs
44.44
S2 = 11.5 in., S3 =16.5 in., for #3 steels, S4 = 24 in.
Therefore, use #3 @6.5 in.
Problem 5.3.a)
Determine shear reinforcement if needed. Rectangular section
b = 18 in., d = 27.50 in., Vu = 55 kip. fc= 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi.
Solution:
1. Nominal shear provided by concrete
Vc = 0.75 54.224 = 40.67 kip < Vu Vs = Vu - Vc = 55 40.67 = 14.33 kip
Vs = 14.33/0.75 = 19.1 kip, Vs < Vc1, then S2 = d/2, Vc1 = 2Vc = 108.45 k., Vc2 = 4Vc = 216.9 kip
Av f y d 0.22 60 27.5
S1 =
=
= 19 in.
Vs
19.1
Use #3 @ stirrups
S2 = 27.5/2 = 13.75 in. Say 13.5 in.
Av f y d 0.22 60000
S3 =
=
= 14.67 in.
50bw
50 18
S4 = 24 in., Therefore, use #3 @13.5 in. (Controls)

5-4

Problem 5.3.b)
Determine shear reinforcement if needed. Rectangular section b = 18 in., d = 27.50 in.,
Vu = 110 kip. Use fc= 3 ksi. and fyt = 60 ksi.
Solution:
1. Nominal shear provided by concrete
Vc = 54.224 k., Vc = 40.67 kip < Vu , Vc1 = 108.45 k., Vc2 = 216.9 k.
Vs = Vu - Vc = 110 40.67 = 69.33 kip
Vs = 69.33/0.75 = 92.44 kip < Vc1 , S2 = d/2, Use stirrup- #4, Av = 0.4 in.2
S1 =

Av f y d
Vs

0.4 60 27.5
= 7.13 in.
92.44

## S2 = d/2 = 13.5 in. , S3 = 14.5 in., S4 = 24 in. Therefore, use #4 @ 7 in.

Problem 5.3.c)
Determine shear reinforcement if needed. Rectangular section b = 18 in., d = 27.50 in.,
Vu = 144 kip. Use fc= 3 ksi. and fyt = 60 ksi.
Solution:
1. Nominal shear provided by concrete
Vc = 54.224 kip, Vc = 40.67 kip < Vu, Vc1 = 108.45 kip, Vc2 = 216.9 kip
Vs = Vu - Vc = 144 40.67 = 103.3 kip
Vs = 103.3/0.75 = 137.8 kip > Vc1 but less than Vc2 , S2 = d/4 = 6.875 in. (6.5 in.)
S1 =

Av f y d
Vs

0.4 60 27.5
= 4.8in. (4.5 in.)
137.8

S2 = 6.5 in.
S3 =

0.4 60000
= 26.7 in.
50 18

## S4 = 12 in. Therefore, use #4 @ 4.5 in.

5-5

Problem 5.4)
A 16 ft. simply supported beam carries Wu = 11.1 k/ft. Use fc=3 ksi and fyt = 60 ksi,
clear span = 15 ft.
Solution:
1. Factored shear at the face of the support; Vu = 11.115/2 = 83.25 kip
Max. shear at distance d from the face of the column; Vu @ d = 83.25 - (11.120.5/12) = 64.29 kip
2. Nominal shear provided by concrete
Vc = 2 f c 'bwd = 2 3000 16 20.5 = 35.93 kip
Vc = 0.7535.93 = 26.95 kip < Vu @d , Vc1 = 2Vc = 71.86 kip, Vc2 = 4Vc = 143.72 kip
Vs = Vu - Vc = 58.5 26.95= 37.34 kip
Vs = 37.34 / 0.75 = 49.78 kip < Vc1, then S2 = d/2 = 20.5/2 = 10.25 in. (10 in.)
Choose #3 stirrups, Av = 0.22 in2 and
A f d 0.22 60 20.5
S1 = v y =
= 5.44 in Say 5 in
Vs
49.78
3. The Maximum spacing S2 = d/2 = 20.5/2 = 10.25 in. Say 10 in.
Af
0.22 60000
S3 = v y =
= 16.5 in.
50b
50 16
S4 = 24 in. Therefore, use #3 @ 6 in.
4. Maximum spacing = 10 in., Vs for Smax = 10 in.

Vs =

Av f y d
S

0.22 60 20.5
= 27.06 kip
10

Vs = 20.3 k.
Vc + Vs = 26.95 + 20.3 = 47.25 k.

X1 =

83.25

## (83.25 13.48)(7.5) = 6.29 ft = 75.43 in

X=
83.25

5. Distribution of stirrups
1st stirrup @ S/2 =3.0 in.
6 stirrup @6.5 in. = 39 in. 39 in. > 38.92 in.
4 stirrup @11 in. = 44 in. 86 in. > 75.43 in.

5-6

5-7

Problem 5.5)
An 18 ft. simply supported beam carries Wd = 4 k/ft. and Wl= 1.5 k/ft. b = 12", d = 24" Use fc=3
ksi. and fy = 50 ksi.
Solution:
1. Calculate Factored Shearing Force
Ultimate load: Wu = 1.2(4) + 1.6(1.5) = 7.2 k/ft.
Ultimate shear at the support: Vu = 7.2 18/2 = 64.8 kip
Maximum shear at distance d from the face of column: Vud = 64.8 7.22 = 50.4 kip
2. Nominal shear provided by concrete

## Vc = 2 f c 'bwd = 2 1.0 3000 12 24 = 31.55 kip

Vc = 0.7531.548 = 23.66 kip,
Vc/2 = 11.83 kip
3. Determine if Shear Reinforcement is required
since Vc < Vud

Vs =

Vu Vc

50.4 23.66
= 35.65 kip
.75

## 5. Determine adequacy of section

Vc1 = 2Vc =2(31.548)= 63.1 kip
Vc2 = 4Vc =4(31.548)= 126.2 k.
Vs < Vc2

Section is ok

## 6. Calculate Stirrup Spacing

Use # 3 stirrups

S1 =

Av f y d
Vs

.22 50 24
= 7.41 in say 7in
35.65

## 7. Determine Maximum Spacing

S2 = d/2 = 12 in.

(Vs<Vc1)

5-8

S3 =

Av f y

= 18.33 in

50b

S4 = 24 in.
Smax = 12 in.
S1<Smax, Therefore, use #3 @ S=7 in. and Smax=12 in.,
8. Determine distance where Smax can be used:

.22 50 24
= 22 kip
S max
12
Vs = .75(22)=16.5 kip
Vc + Vs = 23.66 +16.5 = 40.16 kip
40.16(108)
X 1 = 108
= 41.07 in
64.8
Vs =

Av f y d

X = 108

11.83(108)
= 88.28 in
64.8

## 10. Distribution of stirrups:

Use 1 stirrup @ S/2=3.5 in.
6 stirrup @ 7 in. = 42 in. 45.5 > 41.07 in.
4 stirrup @ 12 in. = 48 in. 93.5 > 88.22 in.

5-9

40.16 k

41.07 in

X'=88 in

3.5 in

6 7 = 42 in

14.5 in

45.5 in

62.5 in

PROBLEM 5.5

5-10

Problem 5.6)
A 14-ft simply supported beam carries Wu = 10 k/ft. and Pu = 24 kip at mid-span.
b = 14 in. d = 16.5 in. fc= 4 ksi. and fy = 60 ksi.
Solution:
1. Calculate Factored Shearing Force
Vu at support =Pu/2+WuL/2=12 + (7)(10) = 82 kip
Vu@d = 82 - 1016.5/12 = 68.25 kip
2. Nominal shear provided by concrete

## Vc = 2 f c 'bwd = 2 1.0 4000 14 16.5 = 29.22 kip

Vc = .75(29.219)=21.91 kip
Vc /2 = 21.91/2=10.96 kip
3. Determine if Shear Reinforcement is required
since Vc < Vud

Vs =

Vu Vc

68.25 21.91
= 61.78 kip
.75

## 5. Determine adequacy of section

Vc1 = 2Vc =2(29.219)= 58.44 kip
Vc2 = 4Vc =4(29.219)= 116.88 k.
Vs < Vc2

Section is ok

## 6. Calculate Stirrup Spacing

Use # 3 stirrups

S1 =

Av f y d
Vs

.22 60 16.5
= 3.53 in say 3.5 in.
61.78

## 7. Determine Maximum Spacing

S2 = d/4 = 16.5/4=4.125 in.

## (Vc1<Vs<Vc2) (see ACI-318 11.4.5.3)

5-11

S3 =

Av f y
50b

S4 = 24 in.

.22 60000
= 18.86 in
50 14

Smax = 4 in.
S1<Smax, Therefore, use #3 @ S=3.5 in.,
8. Determine distance where Smax can be used

.22 50 16.5
= 45.38 kip
S max
4
Vs = .75(45.38) = 34.04 in.
Vc + Vs = 21.91 + 34.04 = 55.95 k.
55.95 84
X 1 = 84
=26.7 in
82
Vs =

Av f y d

X = 84

10.96(84)
=72.77 in
82

## 10. Distribution of stirrups:

1 stirrup@ S/2 in = 1.75 in.~2in.
8-stirrups @ 3.5 in. = 28 in 30 in. > 26.7 in.
12-stirrup @ 4 in. = 48 in. 74.7 in. > 72.77 in

5-12

55.95 k
10.96 k

26.7 in
72.77 in

8@3.5=28 in.

12@4=48 in.

3.5 in

30 in

62.5 in

5-13

6 in

Problem 5.7)
A 7.4-ft cantilever beam carries a uniform dead load of 2.5 k/ft and concentrated live load of 18
kip at a distance of 3 ft from the face of support.
Use fc= 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, b = 12 in.
Solution:
1. Design for Moment
Mu = 1.2(2.5) (7.4)2/2 + 1.6(18) (3) = 168.5 kip.ft
=.75 max
max = .01356 (from Table 4.1)
=.75 max=.75(.01356) = .0102
fy

.0102(60000)
Ru = f y 1
= .9(.0102)(60000) 1
= 485 lb = 0.485 kip
'

1.7(3000)
1.7 fc
(See Hassoun & Al-Manaseer eq. 3.22)

Mu
168.5 12
=
= 18.6 in.
Ru b
.485 12
Use d = 19 in.
and As = 0.01021912 = 2.33 in2
d=

## Therefore, use 3 #9, As = 3.0 in.2 and h = 21.5 in.

2. Calculate Factored Shearing Force
Ultimate shear at the support: Vu = 1.2(2.5) (7.4) + 1.6(18) = 51.02 kip
Max shear at distance d from the face of column: Vud = 51.02 - (19/12) (2.5) (1.2) = 46.27 kip
3. Nominal shear provided by concrete

## Vc = 2 f c 'bd = 2 1.0 3000 12 19 = 25 kip

Vc = .75(25)=18.75 kip
Vc /2 = 18.75/2=9.38 kip
4. Determine Need for Shear Reinforcement
Vc < Vud

Vs =

Vu Vc

46.27 18.75
= 36.69 kip
.75

5-14

## 6. Determine adequacy of section

Vc1 = 2Vc =2(25)= 50 kip
Vc2 = 4Vc =4(25)= 100 k.
Vs < Vc2

Section is ok

## 7. Calculate Stirrup Spacing

Use # 3 stirrups

S1 =

Av f y d 0.22 60 19
=
= 6.83 in say 6.5 in.
Vs
36.69

## 8. Determine Maximum Spacing

S2 = d/2 = 19/2=9.5 in.

S3 =

Av f y
50b

(Vs<Vc1)

= 22 in

S4 = 24 in.
Smax = 9.5 in.
S1<Smax, Therefore, use #3 @ S = 6.5 in.
9. Determine Distance where Smax can be used

Av f y d 0.22 60 19
=
= 26.4 kip
Smax
9.5
Vs = 0.75(26.4) =19.8 in.
Vc + Vs = 18.75 +19.8=38.55 kip
Occurs at X1=36 in. (see shear diagram)
Vs =

X = 88.8

9.38(88.8)
=72.47in.
51.02

## 11. Distribution of stirrups:

1st stirrup @ S/2 =6.5/2=3.25 use 3 in.
6 stirrup @ 6.5 in. = 39 in. 42 in. > 36 in.
4 stirrup @ 9.5 in. = 38 in. 80 in. > 72.47 in.

5-15

19 in.

46.27 k
38.55 k

16.33 in.
9.38 k

3 in.

72.47 in.

6@6.5 = 39 in

4@9.5 = 38 in

8.8 in

5-16

Problem 5.8)
An 11-ft simply supported beam carries dead load of 2.75 k/ft and live load of 1.375 k/ft.
Use fc= 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, b = 10 in
Solution:
1. Design for moment
Mu = 1.2(2.75)(11)2/8 + 1.6(1.375)(11)2/8 = 83.2 k-ft
= 0.016
f y

.0102(60000)
= .9(.0102)(60000)1
= 700 lb = .700 kip
Ru = f y 1
'
1
.
7
(
3000
)
1
.
7
f

## (See Hassoun & Al-Manaseer eq. 3.22)

Mu
83.2 12
=
= 11.94 in
Ru b
.700 10
Use d = 12 in.
As = 0.0161210 = 1.92 in2
d=

## Therefore, use 2 #9, As = 2 in2 and h = 14.5 in

2. Calculate factored shearing force
Ultimate load: Wu = (1.2) (2.75) + (1.6) (1.375) = 5.5 k/ft.
Ultimate shear at the support: Vu = (5.5) (11/2) = 30.25 kip,
Maximum shear at distance d from the face of column: Vud = 30.25 - 1 (5.5) = 24.75 kip
3. Nominal shear provided by concrete

## Vc = 2 3000 10 12 = 13.15 kip

Vc = 0.7513.15 = 9.86 kip
Vc /2 = 4.93 k.,
4. Determine if shear reinforcement is required:
since Vc < Vud

Vs =

Vu Vc

24.75 9.86
= 19.85 kip
.75
5-17

## 6. Determine adequacy of section

Vc1 = 2Vc =2(13.15)= 26.3 kip
Vc2 = 4Vc=4(13.15) = 52.6 kip
Vs < Vc2

Section is ok

## 7. Calculate Stirrup Spacing

Use # 3 stirrups

S1 =

Av f y d 0.22 60 12
=
= 7.98 in say 7.5 in.
Vs
19.85

## 8. Determine Maximum Spacing

S2 = d/2 = 12/2=6 in. (Vs<Vc1)
A f
S3 = v y = 26.4 in.
50b
S4 = 24 in.
Smax = 6 in.
S1>Smax,
Therefore, use Smax = 6 in. all over with first stirrup at 3 in. from the face of the support.

30.25 k

14.5 in

24.75 k

6 in

5-18

Problem 5.9)
Vu = 75 kips determine beam section if controlled by shear. Use fc= 4 ksi, fy = 40 ksi,
b = 16 in.
Solution:
1. Use #3 stirrups, 2 legs, Av = 0.22 in2 ; let S = S3
0.22 40000
S3 =
= 11 in.
50 16
2.
A f d 0.22 40 d
Vs = v y =
= 0.8d kip
S
11
3.
Vc = 2 f c 'b d = 2 1.0 4000 16 d = 2.024d (kip)
4. Vu = Vc + Vs
75 = 0.75(0.8d + 2.024d), d = 35.4 in.
Then h = 35.4 + 2.5 = 37.9 in., say 38 in., d = 35.5 in.
5. Check S d/2 = 35.5/2 = 17.75 in. > 11 in. Used.
Use 16 38 in. Section, with #3 stirrups @ 11 in.
6. Check: Vc = 53.89 k., Vs = 21.4 k.
Vc + Vs = 75.2 k. > 75 k.
Problem 5.10)
Redesign Prob. 8.5 using fyt = 60 ksi.
Solution:
1. Factored load; Wu = 1.2(4) + 1.6(1.5) = 7.2 k/ft.
Factored shear at the support; Vu = 7.218/2 = 64.8 kip
Maximum shear at d distance from the face of column; Vu @d = 64.8 7.22 = 50.4 kip
2. Nominal shear provided by concrete:
Vc = 2 f c 'bwd = 2 1.0 3000 12 24 = 31.55 kip
Vc = 0.7531.548 = 23.66 kip < Vu @d, Vc1 = 63.1 k.,Vc2 = 126.2 k., Vc /2 = 11.83 k.
Vs = Vu - Vc = 50.4 23.66 = 26.74 kip
Vs = 26.74/0.75 = 35.65 kip < Vc1 , S2 = d/2, use stirrup- #3, Av = 0.22 in.2
Av f y d 0.22 60 24
S1 =
=
= 8.90 in. Say 8.5 in.
Vs
35.65
3. The maximum spacing: S2 = d/2 = 24/2 = 12 in., or

5-19

S3 =

Av f y
50b

= 22 in.

## S4 = 24 in., Smax = 12 in.

Therefore, use #3 @ 8.5 in.
4. For Smax =12 in.
0.22 60 24
Vs =
= 26.4 kip
12
Vs = 19.8 k.
Vs + Vc = 43.46 k.
X1 =

## ( 64.8 43.46 ) 108 = 35.5 in.

( 64.8)

X = 88 in. at Vc /2
(Shear diagram is similar to the figure of problem 8.5)
5. Distribution of stirrup:
1st stirrup @ 4 in. = 4.0 in.
4 stirrup @ 8.5 in. = 38 in. 42 in. > 35.5 in.
4 stirrup @ 12 in. = 48 in. 90 in. > 88 in.
Problem 5.11)
Redesign Prob. 5.6 if factored uniform dead load of 6 k/ft and Pu = 24 k is a moving live load.
Change the position of the live load to cause the maximum shear at the support and mid-span.
Solution:
1. Draw maximum shear diagram. Maximum shear at the support,
Vu at support = 24 + (7)(6) = 66 kip
Maximum shear at centerline occurs when Pu = 24 kip is at centerline,
Vu @C.L. = 24/2 = 12 kip
Shear varies between 66 kip at support to 12 kip at centerline
Vu @d = 66-10.6 = 55.4 kip
2. Nominal shear strength provided by concrete:
Vc = 2 f c 'bwd = 2 1.0 4000 14 16.5 = 29.22 kip < Vu @ d
Vc = 21.91 k.,
Vc1 = 2Vc = 43.83 k.
Therefore, shear reinforcement is required.
Vs = Vu - Vc = 55.4 - (0.75)(29.219) = 33.49 kip, Vs = 33.49/0.75 = 44.65 kip > Vc1, S2 = d/4
3. Use #3 Stirrups
0.22 60 16.5
= 4.9 in. Use S = 4.5 in.
S1 =
44.65
5-20

S2 =

16.5
0.22 60000
= 4.125 in. (4in), S 3 =
= 18.86 in.
4
50 14

## S4 = 12 in., Smax = 4 in. (Controls)

4. Vs (for Smax = 4 in.)

Vs =

Av f y d
0.22 60 16.5
=
= 54.45 kip
S
4

Vs = 40.84 kip
From shear diagram, X1 = 28 in. (Where S = 4 in. can be used)
Vs + Vc = 40.84 + 21.91 = 62.75 kip
5. Distribution of stirrup:

V s (at S max) =

0.22 60 16.5
= 54.45 kip
4

Therefore,
Use 1-stirrup @ 2 in. = 2 in.
17-stirrup @ 4 in. = 68 in. 70 in. = 70 in.

5-21

Problem 5.12)
A 9-ft cantilever beam carries a factored triangular load that varies from zero load at the free end
to max. load of 8 k/ft at the support. Using max. d at free end = 10 in, = 0.016 ,
fc= 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, fy for stirrup = 40 ksi, and b = 11 in.
Solution:
1. Mmax = (8) (9)2/6 = 108 k-ft = 1296 k-in. and = 0.016 , Ru = 0.742 ksi.

1296
= 12.6 in.
0.742 11
As = 0.0161112.6 = 2.22 in.2
d=

## Use 3 #8, As = 2.35 in.2

h = 12.6 + 0.5 +1.875 = 15.32 in.
Use h = 15.5 in., d = 13 in.
2. Check at 2 ft. from support: W2 = 6.22 k/ft, Mu= (6.22) (7)(7/6) = 50.80 k/ft = 609.8 k-in.
h = 10 + (7/9) (5.5) = 14.28 in., d = 11.78 in.

Ru =

609.8
= 0.4 ksi
11 (11.78)2

## and = 0.016, As = 0.0161111.78 = 2.08 in.2, use 3 #8

3. Transfer length; ld = 48 in = 4 ft from the face of support.
4. Design for shear: Ru = (0.5) (8) (9) = 36 kip

Vu =

Vu
M
u 2 (tan )
bd bd

The d distance at free end = 7.5 in., and at support = 13 in. tan = (13-7.5)/108 = 0.0509
a) At support:
36000
1296000 0.0509
Vu =

= 288 psi
0.75 1113
0.75 11132
b) At free end Mu = 0
c) Max d = 13 in., for d = 12.5 in.
d (at 12.5 in from support)

d = 7.5 +

(108 12.5)
108

## d (at 12.4 in from support)

(108 12.4 ) 5.5 = 12.37 in.
d = 7.5 +
( )
108
w (at 12.4 in from support)

12.4
8 9

12
w=
= 7.08 k/ft
9
5-22

12.4 8 + 7.08

= 28.21 k
12 2
Mu (at 12.4 in from support)
Vu = 36

12.4
7.08 9

12

Mu =
= 74.908 k-ft=898.9 k-in.
6
Vu =

28210
898900 0.0509

= 240 psi
0.75 1112.37 0.75 1112.37 2

## d) At mid-span (108/2 = 54 in from support),

d = 7.5 + 5.5/2 = 10.25 in.
8 ( 9 4.5 )
w=
= 4 k / ft
9
Vu = (0.5) (4) (4.5) = 9 k, Mu =(4) (4.5)2/6 = 13.5 k-ft = 162 k-in.

Vu =

9000
162000 0.0509

= 97 psi
0.75 1110.25 0.75 1110.252

## e) vc = 2 f c ' = 2 1.0 4000 = 126.5 psi

Vus = 288-126.5 = 161.5 psi
f) Choose #3 stirrup;
0.22 40000
S=
= 5.0 in.
161.5 11
d
0.22 40000
= 5.5 in. , S3 =
= 16 in.
2
50 11
d
0.22 40000
S 2 = = 7.5 in, S 3 =
= 16 in.
2
50 11
S2 =

S4 = 24 in.
g)

## 161.5 = Vus 4 4000 = 253 psi OK.

h) Distribution of stirrups from the support
First stirrup at 2 in. = 2 in.
21 stirrups at 5 in. = 105 in.
Total = 107 in. < 108 in.

5-23

5-24

CHAPTER 6
DEFLECTION AND CONTROL OF CRACKING
Prob. 6.1.a)
Given: fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., d = 2.5 in., b = 14 in., d = 17.5 in., h = 20 in.,
As = 5 in.2, Wd = 2.2 k/ft., Wl = 1.8 k/ft., T = 5 years, L = 20 ft.
Solution:
bh3 14 203
Ig =
=
= 9333.3 in.4
12
12
Wd + Wl ) 2 ( 2.2 + 1.8 ) 202
(
Ma =
L =
= 200 k ft.
8
8
f r I g 7.5 4000 9333.3
M cr =
=
= 442719 in - lb = 36.8 k - ft
yr
(20 / 2)

bx 2
nAs ( d x ) = 0,
2
I cr =

x = 7.543in.

bx3
14 7.5433
2
2
+ nAs ( d x ) =
+ 8 5 (17.5 7.543) = 5968.5 in.4
3
3

3
3
M 3
36.89 3
M cr
36.89
4
cr
Ie =
I g + 1
I cr =
9333.3 + 1
5968.5 = 5989.6 in.
M
M
200
200

a
a

## Ec = 57000 4000 = 3600 ksi.

4
4000
5
( 20 12 )
5 (Wd + Wl ) L
12
=
=
= 0.667 in.
384 Ec I e
384 3600000 5989.6
4

## For long term deflection:

for (DL + 10% LL) = (2.2 + 0.11.8)0.667 / 4 = 0.3969 in.
Factor = T/ (1+50P) = 2 / (1 + 500) = 2
Additional long-term deflection = 20.3969 = 0.7937 in.
Total deflection = 0.667 + 0.7937 = 1.46 in.

6-1

Prob. 6.1.e)
Given: fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., d = 2.5 in., b = 16 in., d = 22.5 in., h = 26 in.,
As = 9.37 in.2, As = 2.53 in.2, Wd = 5 k/ft., Wl = 3.2 k/ft., Pd = 12 k., Pl = 10 k.,
T = 5 years, L = 20 ft., n = 8
Solution:
bh3 16 263
Ig =
=
= 23434.7 in.4
12
12
f r I g 7.5 4000 23434.7
M cr =
=
= 71.26 k ft.
Yc
( 26 / 2 ) 12

Ma

Wd + Wl ) 2 ( Pd + Pl )
5 + 3.2 ) 202 (12 + 10 ) 20
(
(
=
L +
L=
+
= 520 k ft.
8

bx
+ (n 1) As ' ( x d ' ) nAs(d x) = 0
2
2

16 x
+ (8 1) 2.53 ( x 2.5) 8 9.37 ( 22.5 x ) = 0,
2

x=10.017 in.

bx3
2
2
I cr =
+ ( n 1) As ' ( x d ') + nAs ( d x )
3
16 10.0173
2
2
+ (8 1) 2.53 (10.017 2.5) + 8 9.37 ( 22.5 10.017 ) = 18042 in.4
3
3
3
M 3
71.26 3
M cr
71.26
4
cr
Ie =
I g + 1
I cr =
23434.7 + 1
18042 = 18056 in.
520
M a
Ma
520

## Ec = 57000 4000 = 3600 ksi.

=

5 (Wd + Wl ) L4 ( Pd + Pl ) L3
+
384 Ec I e
48 Ec I e

5000 + 3200
4
5
(20 12)
(12000 + 10000)(20 12) 3
12

=
+
= 0.454 + 0.097 = 0.551 in.
384 3.6 10 6 18056
48 3.6 10 6 18056
For long term deflection:
for (DL + 10% LL)
5000 + (3200 0.1)
4
5
(20 12)
(12000 + 0.1 10000 )(20 12 )3 = 0.352 in.
12

=
+
384 3.6 10 6 18056
4.8 3.6 10 6 18056
Factor = T/ (1+50P) = 2 / (1 + 502.53/(1622.5)) = 1.48
Additional long-term deflection = 1.480.352 = 0.521 in.
Total deflection = 0.551 + 0.521 = 1.07 in.
6-2

Prob. 6.1(a)-6.1(f):
Description

Prob. (a)

Prob. (b)

Prob. (c)

Prob. (d)

Prob. (e)

Prob. (f)

b (in.)

14

20

12

18

16

14

d (in.)

17.5

27.5

19.5

20.5

22.5

20.5

h (in.)

20

30

23

24

26

24

As (in2.)

7.59

4.71

7.59

9.37

As (in2.)

2.53

Wd (k/ft.)

2.2

3.8

Wl (k/ft.)

1.8

3.6

1.5

3.2

2.8

Pd (k.)

12

Pl (k.)

10

Ig (in4.)

9333.3

45000

12167

20736

23434.7

16128

x (in.)

7.543

10.238

8.363

Icr (in4.)

5968.5

25247.2

7013.2

x (in.)

8.475

10.017

9.377

Icr (in4.)

12932.3

18042

12427.9

Mcr (k-ft.)

36.89

118.59

41.82

68.31

71.26

53.13

Ma (k-ft.)

200

530

225

400

520

400

Ie (in4.)

5989.6

25468.5

7046.3

12971.1

18055.8

12436.6

I (in.)

0.667

0.416

0.638

0.616

0.551

0.62

1.57

1.48

1.48

I (in.)

0.397

0.289

0.447

0.478

0.352

0.384

a (in.)

0.794

0.577

0.893

0.751

0.521

0.568

T = I + a (in.)

1.46

0.99

1.53

1.37

1.07

1.19

6-3

Prob. 6.2.a)
Given: fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., b = 15 in., d = 20.5 in., h = 24 in., As = 8 in.2,
As = 2 in.2, Wd = 3.5 k/ft., Wl = 2 k/ft.,T = 5 years, L = 12 ft., n = 8
Solution:
bh3 15 243
Ig =
=
= 17280 in.4
12
12

M cr =
Ma =

fr I g
Yc

## 7.5 4000 17280

= 56.92 k ft.
( 24 / 2) 12

(Wd + Wl ) 2
L + 8Pl + 12 Pd = 396k ft
2

bx 2
+ (n 1) As ' ( x d ' ) nAs(d x) = 0
2
2
15 x
+ (8 1) 2 ( x 2.5) 8 8 ( 20.5 x ) = 0,
2

I cr =

x=9.175 in.

bx3
2
2
+ ( n 1) As ' ( x d ') + nAs ( d x )
3

15 9.1753
2
2
+ (8 1) 2 (9.175 2.5) + 8 8 ( 20.5 9.175) = 12694 in.4
3
3
M 3
M cr
cr
Ie =
I g + 1
I cr
M a
Ma
3
56.92 3
56.92
4
Ie =
17280 + 1
12694 = 12707.5 in.
396
396
Ec = 57000 4000 = 3600 ksi.
4
3500 + 2000
12 12 )
(

(W + Wl ) L =
12

= d
= 0.538 in.
6
8Ec I e
8 3.6 10 12707.5
4

## For long term deflection:

DL = (0.538 3.5)/(3.5+2) =0.342 in.
Factor = T/ (1+50P) = 2 / (1 + 502 / (1520.5)) = 1.51
Additional long-term deflection = 1.510.342 = 0.516 in.
Total deflection = 0.538 + 0.516 = 1.05 in.

6-4

Prob. 6.2.b)
Given: fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., b = 18 in., d = 22.5 in., h = 26 in., As = 7.59 in.2,
Wd = 2 k/ft., Wl = 1.5 k/ft., Pd = 7.4 k., Pl = 5 k., T = 5 years, L = 12 ft., n = 8
Solution:
bh3 18 263
Ig =
=
= 26364 in.4
12
12

M cr =
Ma =

fr I g
Yc

## 7.5 4000 26364

= 80.16 k ft.
( 26 / 2 ) 12

(Wd + Wl ) 2
L + 8Pl + 12 Pd = 381k ft
2

bx 2
nAs ( d x ) = 0,
2
I cr =

18 x 2
8 7.59 ( 2.25 x ) = 0,
2

x = 9.401 in.

bx3
18 9.4013
2
2
+ nAs ( d x ) =
+ 8 7.59 ( 22.5 9.401) = 15403.7 in.4
3
3

3
M 3
M cr
cr
Ie =
I g + 1
I cr
M
M
a
a
3
80.16 3
80.16
4
Ie =
26364 + 1
15403.7 = 15506 in.
381
381
Ec = 57000 4000 = 3600 ksi.

Wd + Wl ) L4 ( Pd ) L3
(
=
+
+
8 Ec I e

3Ec I e

( Pl ) L3
6 Ec I e

4
2000 + 1500
3
3

(12 12 )
7400 (12 12 )
5000 (12 12 )
12

=
+
+
= 0.614 in.
8 3.6 106 15506
3 3.6 106 15506 6 3.6 106 15506

## For long term deflection:

DL = 0.358 in.
Factor = T/ (1+50P) = 2
Additional long-term deflection = 20.358 = 0.716 in.
Total deflection = 0.614 + 0.716 = 1.33 in.
6-5

Prob. 6.2(a)-6.2(d):
Discription

Prob. (a)

Prob. (b)

Prob. (c)

Prob. (d)

b (in.)

15

18

12

14

d (in.)

20.5

22.5

19.5

20.5

h (in.)

24

26

23

24

As (in2.)

7.59

6.28

As (in2.)

1.57

Wd (k/ft.)

3.5

2.4

Wl (k/ft.)

1.5

1.6

1.1

Pd (k.)

7.4

5.5

Pl (k.)

Ig (in4.)

17280

26364

12167

16128

x (in.)

9.175

9.401

8.822

9.377

12693.9

1540.3

8914

12427.9

x (in.)

Icr (in4.)

Mcr (k-ft.)

56.92

80.16

41.82

53.13

Ma (k-ft.)

396

381

288

393

Ie (in4.)

12707.5

15505.9

8923.9

12437.1

I (in.)

0.538

0.457

0.558

0.577

1.51

1.5

1.48

I (in.)

0.342

0.29

0.33

0.42

a (in.)

0.516

0.58

0.5

0.63

T = I + a (in.)

1.05

1.042

1.06

1.203

Icr (in4.)

6-6

Prob. 6.3)
Given: fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., b = 12 in., As = not given, Wd = 2 k/ft., Wl = 1.33 k/ft., L = 28 ft.
Solution:
1.)

282

282
M u = 1.2 2
+ 1.6 1.33
= 444 k ft.
8
8

Ru = 820 psi.,

M u = Ru bd

= 0.018

d = 23.27 in.

## As = 0.018(12)(23.27) = 5.0 in.2

use 5 #9, As = 5.0 in.2
h = 23.27 + 3.5 = 26.77 in., say 27 in.
2.)

5WL4
384 EI
Ec = 57000 4000 = 3630 ksi.
max =

bh3 12 273
Ig =
=
= 19683 in.4
12
12
2
WL 3.33(28)2
Ma =
=
= 326.34 k ft. = 3916 k in.
8
8
M cr =

fr I g
Yc

## 7.5 4000 19683

= 691.1 k in.
13.5

12
2
kd = 9.56 in.
( kd ) nAs ( d kd ) = 0,
2
bx3
12 9.563
2
2
I cr =
+ nAs ( d x ) =
+ 8 5 ( 23.5 9.56 ) = 11268 in.4
3
3
3
M 3
M cr
cr
Ie =
I g + 1
I cr
M
M

a
a
3
691.1 3
691.1
4
Ie =
19683 + 1
11268 = 11314in < I g
3916
3916

6-7

3300
4
5
(28 12 )
12
=
= 1.12in.
384 3.63 10 6 11314
Prob. 6.4)
Given: fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., b = 12 in., As = not given, As=not given, Wd = 2 k/ft., Wl =
1.33 k/ft.,
L = 28 ft., = max
Solution:
1.)
282

282
M u = 1.2 2
+
1.6
1.33

= 444 k ft.
8
8

## Ru = 820 psi., = 0.018

As1 = 0.018(12)(20.82) = 4.49 in.2

As2 =

Mu2
88.8 12
=
= 1.08 in.2
fy ( d d ') 0.9 60 ( 20.82 2.5)

## Total As = 4.49 + 1.08 = 5.57 in.2 Use 6 #9, As = 6.0 in.2

Compression steel, fs = 59 ksi.
h = 20.82 + 3.5 = 24.32 in., say 25 in.
d = 21.5 in.
For comp. steel, use 2 #7, As = 1.2 in.2
2.)

5WL4
max =
384 EI
Ec = 57000 4000 = 3630 ksi.
bh3 12 253
Ig =
=
= 15625 in.4
12
12

WL2 3.33(28)2
Ma =
=
= 326.34 k ft. = 3916.4 k in.
8
8
M cr =

fr I g
Yc

## 7.5 4000 15625

= 592.93 k ft.
12.5

6-8

12
(kd )2 + (n 1) As ' (kd 2.5) nAs(d kd ) = 0
2

I cr =

kd = 9.35 in.

bx3
14 7.5433
2
2
+ nAs ( d x ) =
+ 8 5 (17.5 7.543) = 5968.5 in.4
3
3

bx 2
I cr =
+ (n 1) As ' (kd 2.5' ) 2 nAs(d kd ) 2 = 10749 in 4
3
3
M 3
M cr
cr
Ie =
I g + 1
I cr
M
M

a
a
3
592.9 3
592.9
4
Ie =

15625
+

10749 = 10766in
1
3916
3916

3310
4
5
(28 12)
12
=
= 1.17in
384 3.63 10 6 10766
If total sustained load = 2 + (0.21.33) = 2.27 k/t.
(DUE TO SUSTAINED LOAD) = (2.271.17) / 3.33 = 0.80 in.
= 1.2 / (1221.5) = 0.00465,
Factor = T/ (1+50P) = 1.623
Additional long-term deflection = 1.6230.80 = 1.29 in.
Total deflection = 1.17 + 1.29 = 2.46 in.
Prob. 6.5.a)
Given: fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., b = 12 in., d = 19.5 in., dc = 2.5 in., As = 3.79 in.2 , a = 2.5 in.
Solution:
fs = 0.6 fy = 36 ksi., clear cover = 2.5 10 / 16 = 1.875
S = 15(40/fs) 2.5(1.875) = 11.98 in. is less than 12(40 / 36) = 13.33 in.
Provided spacing = 0.5(12 2.5 2.5) = 3.5 in., OK.
A = b (2a) / n = (1222.5) / 3 = 20 in.2

## W = 0.076(1.2)(36000) 3 20 2.5 106 = 0.0121 in. OK .

6-9

Prob. 6.5.b)
Given: fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., b = 16 in., dc = 2.5 in., a = 2.5 in.
Solution:
1) fs = 0.6 fy = 36 ksi., clear cover = 2.5 9 / 16 = 1.94 in.
S.
Provided spacing = (16 2.5 2.5) / 4 = 2.75 in.,
(4015) / 36 2.5(1.94) = 11.81 in. less than 12(40 / 36) = 13.33 in
2) A = b (2a) / n = (1622.5) / 5 = 16 in.2

## W = 0.076(1.2)(36000) 3 16 2.5 106 = 0.011 in. OK .

Prob. 6.5.c)
Given: fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., b = 14 in., dc = 2.5 in., a = 3.5 in.
Solution:
1) fs = 0.6 fy = 36 ksi., clear cover = 3.5 0.5 1.0 = 2 in.
(Assume vertical distance between bars = 1.0 in., or bar diameter whichever is greater)
S = 600 / 36 2.5(2.0) = 11.66 in. less than 12(40 / 36) = 13.33 in.
Provided spacing = (14 2.5 2.5) / 3 = 3 in., OK.
2) A = b (2a) / n = (1423.5) / 8 = 12.25 in.2

## W = 0.076(1.2)(36000) 3 12.25 2.5 106 = 0.0103 in. OK .

Prob. 6.5.d)
Given: fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., a = 3.5 in.
Solution:
1) fs = 0.6 fy = 36 ksi., clear cover = 3.5 10 / 16 10 / 8 = 1.625 in.
(Assume vertical distance between bars = 1.0 in.,
or bar diameter whichever is greater, here vertical spacing = 10 / 8 = 1.25 in.)
S = 600 / 36 2.5(1.625) = 12.6 in. less than 12(40 / 36) = 13.33 in.
Provided spacing = (14 2.25 2.25) = 9.5 in.
(Note that 2.25 = clear cover plus half bar diameter = 1.625 + 10 / 16 = 2.25 in. = dc
2) As = 8.2 in.2, n = 8.2 / (1.27) = 6.47 = As / (area of # 10 bar)
A = b (2a) / n = (1423.5) / 6.47 = 15.2 in.2, dc = 2.25 in.

## W = 0.076(1.2)(36000) 3 15.2 2.25 10 6 = 0.011 in. OK .

6-10

Prob. 6.6)
Given: fy = 60 ksi., fc = 4 ksi., d = 40 in.
Solution:
As (min.) = 0.012(d-30) = 0.012(40.5-30) = 0.126 in2 /ft./side.
Max. spacing = d / 6 = 40.5 / 6 = 6.75 in., say 6.5 in.
As/side = (0.12640.5) / (212) = 0.212 in2
Choose 3 #3 bars each side.

6-11

CHAPTER 7
DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF REINFORCING BARS
Problem 7.1: Development length in tension:
General formulas: If conditions are met:
f
l
1.) d = y e t = K1 For #7 bars of larger.
db
f c ' 20
2.)
f y e t
ld
=

## = K 2 For #6 bars of smaller.

db
f c ' 25
3.)

4.)

t e1.7 and
fc' 100 psi.
Check l d 12 in.
If conditions are not met, multiply by 1.5

## Problem 7.1(a): Typical example:

Given: fc= 3 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar #5, clear cover = 2 in., clear spacing = 2.25 in.
Calculate ld
Solution:
db = 0.625 in.
1.) Clear spacing = 2.25 in. > 2 db = 1.25in.
Clear cover = 2.0 in. > db = 0.625 in., Conditions are met.
2.) Determine multipliers: e = t= = 1.0 , t e < 1.7

## 3000 = 54.8 psi.< 100 psi.,

use equation (2).
ld = K2 db =
60000 0.625
= 27.4 in.

3000 25
Use 28 in.
Problem 7.1(b): Typical example:
Given: fc= 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar #6, clear cover = 2 in., clear spacing = 2.5 in.
Calculate ld

7-1

Solution:
db = 0.75 in.
1.) Clear spacing = 2.5 in. > 2 db = 1.5 in.
Clear cover = 2.0 in. > db = 0.75 in., Conditions are met.
2.) Determine multipliers: e = t = 1.0, = 0.75, t e < 1.7;
f c ' < 100 psi.

## Use equation (2).

ld = K2 db =

Use 38 in.
Problems 7.1(a) - 7.1(j)
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

fc(ksi.)

fy (ksi.)

60

60

60

40

60

60

60

40

60

60

Bar No.

10

11

db (in.)

0.625

0.75

0.875

1.0

1.128

1.27

1.41

1.128

1.0

0.75

Clear
Cover (in.)

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.5

1.5

2.0

3.0

2.0

2.0

1.5

Clear
Spacing(in.)

2.25

2.5

2.13

2.3

1.5

2.5

3.0

1.5

1.75

1.65

Cond. met

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.3

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.3

1.0

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.5

1.0

0.75

1.0

0.75

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

t e 1.7

28

38

56

64

81

54

60

93

48

49

fc '

<100

ld (in.)

## (1) If conditions are not met, multiply by 1.5.

(2) If t e >1.7, use 1.7
(Y = Yes, N = No)
7-2

7-3

## Problem 7.2(a): Typical example (ld in compression)

Given: fc= 3 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar no. 8 , db = 1.0, = 1.0. Calculate ld in compression.
Solution:
0.02 d b f y
l dc =
0.0003d b f y
fc '

ldc =

0.02 1 60000
= 21.9 in. 0.0003 1.0 60000 = 18 in.
3000
Use ld = 22 in.

## Problem 7.2(b): Typical example

Given: fc= 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar no. 9 , db = 1.128, = 1.0. Calculate ld
Solution:
0.02 d b f y
l dc =
0.0003d b f y
fc '

ldc =

## 0.02 1.128 60000

= 21.4 in. 0.0003 1.128 60000 = 20.3 in.
4000
Use ld = 22 in.

## Problem 7.2(c): Typical example

Given: fc= 4 ksi., fy = 40 ksi., bar no.10 , db = 1.27, = 1.0. Calculate ld
Solution:

## ldc = 16.06 in. 15.24 in.,use ld = 17 in.

Problem 7.2(d):
Given: fc= 5 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar no.11 , db = 1.41, Rs = 0.8, = 1.0. Calculate ld
Solution:
ldc = 23.93 in. 25.38 in., ld = 0.8(25.38) = 20.3 in., use 21 in.
Problem 7.2(e):
Given: fc= 6 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar no.7 , db = 0.875, Rs = 0.9, = 1.0. Calculate ld
Solution:
ldc = 13.55 in. 15.75 in., ld = 0.9(15.75) = 14.12 in., use 15 in.

7-4

Problem 7.2(f):
Given: fc= 5 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar no.9 , db = 1.128, Rs = 0.75, = 1.0. Calculate ld
Solution:
ldc = 19.1 in. 20.25 in., ld = 0.75(20.25) = 15.2 in., use 16 in.
Problem 7.3:
Given: fc= 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar no.9 , confined with #3 stirrups, Clear cover = 2 in., Clear
spacing = 2.5 in.
Solution:
a.) Straight bars: For #9 bars, db = 1.128 in., Clear cover = 2 in.> db
Clear spacing > db , Conditions are met.
f c ' = 4000 = 63.2 psi. < 100 psi.

## t = 1.3, e = 1.0, = 1.0, t e < 1.7

f y e t
ld
=

= 61.66
db
f c ' 20
ld = 1.128(61.66) = 69.56 in., use 70 in.
b.) Bars with 90 hook, db = 1.128 in.
1200d b 1200 1.128
l hb =
=
= 21.4 in.
f c ' 1.0 4000
Use 22 in.
Interior radius = 4 db = 4.5 in.
Exterior radius = 5 db = 5.64 in.
Extended part = 12 db = 13.54 in.
c.) Bars with 180 hook, db = 1.128 in.
Stirrups at 5 in. O.C. > 3 db = 3.38 in. Modification not applicable (ACI 12.5.3 (c))
Basic lhb = 22 in.
Interior radius = 4 db = 4.5 in.
Exterior radius = 5 db = 5.64 in.
Extended part = 4 db = 4.5 in.
Problem 7.4:
Given: fc= 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar no.7 , confined with #3 stirrups, Clear cover = 2 in., Clear
spacing = 2.5 in.

7-5

Solution:
a.) Straight bars: For #7 bars, db = 0.875 in., Clear cover = 2 in.> db
Clear spacing > db , Conditions are met.
f c ' = 4000 = 63.2 psi. < 100 psi.

## t = 1.3, e = 1.0, = 1.0, t e < 1.7

f y e t
ld
=

= 61.66
db
f c ' 20
ld = 0.875(61.66) = 53.96 in., use 54 in.
b.) Bars with 90 hook, db = 0.875 in.
1200d b 1200 0.875
l hb =
=
= 16.6 in.
f c ' 1.0 4000
Use 17 in. > 8 db
Interior radius = 3 db = 2.625 in.
Exterior radius = 4 db = 3.5 in.
Extended part = 12 db = 10.5 in.
c.) Bars with 180 hook, db = 1.128 in.
Stirrups at 5 in. O.C. > 3 db = 2.625 in. Modification not applicable (ACI 12.5.3 (c))
Basic lhb = 17 in. > 8 db
Extended part = 4 db = 3.5 in.
Problem 7.5:
Given: fc= 3 ksi., fy = 40 ksi., bar no.9 , confined with #3 stirrups, Clear cover = 2 in., Clear
spacing = 2.5 in.
Solution:
a.) Straight bars: For #9 bars, db = 1.128 in., Clear cover = 2 in.> db
Clear spacing > db , Conditions are met.

## f c ' = 3000 = 54.77 psi. < 100 psi.

t = 1.3, e = 1.0, = 1.0, t e < 1.7
f y e t
ld
=

= 47.47
db
f c ' 20
ld = 1.128(47.47) = 53.54 in., use 54 in.
b.) Bars with 90 hook, db = 1.128 in.
7-6

l hb =

0.02 e f y
0.02 1.0 40000 1.128
db =
= 16.48 in.

fc '
1.0 54.77

Use 17 in.
Interior radius = 4 db = 4.5 in.
Exterior radius = 5 db = 5.64 in.
Extended part = 12 db = 13.54 in., use 13.5 in.
c.) Bars with 180 hook, db = 1.128 in.
Stirrups at 5 in. O.C. > 3 db = 3.38 in. Modification not applicable (ACI 12.5.3 (c))
Basic lhb = 17 in.
Interior radius = 4 db = 4.5 in.
Exterior radius = 5 db = 5.64 in.
Extended part = 4 db = 4.5 in.
Problem 7.6:
Given: fc= 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar no.10 , confined with #3 stirrups, Clear cover = 2 in.,
Clear spacing = 2.5 in.
Solution:
a.) Straight bars: For #10 bars, db = 1.27 in., Clear cover = 2 in.> db
Clear spacing > db , Conditions are met.
f c ' = 4000 = 63.2 psi. < 100 psi.

## t = 1.3, e = 1.0, = 1.0, t e < 1.7

f y e t
ld
=

= 61.66
db
f c ' 20
ld = 1.27(61.66) = 78.3 in., use 79 in.
b.) Bars with 90 hook, db = 1.27 in.
1200d b 1200 1.27
l hb =
=
= 24.09 in.
f c ' 1.0 4000
Use 25 in.
Interior radius = 4 db = 5.08 in.
Exterior radius = 5 db = 6.35 in.
Extended part = 12 db = 15.24 in.
c.) Bars with 180 hook, db = 1.27 in.
Stirrups at 5 in. O.C. > 3 db = 3.38 in. Modification not applicable (ACI 12.5.3 (c))
Basic lhb = 25 in.,
Interior radius = 4 db = 5.08 in.,
Exterior radius = 5 db = 6.35 in.,
Extended part = 4 db = 5.08 in., use 5 in.
7-7

7-8

Problem 7.7:
Given: fc= 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar no.9 , Clear cover = 2 in., Clear spacing = 2 in.
Calculate lap splices:
Solution:
For #9 bars, db = 1.128 in., Clear cover = 2 in.> db
Clear spacing < 2 db = 2.256 in., Conditions are not met.
a.) When 50% of bars are spliced, (As provided / As required) = 2.0
f c ' = 4000 = 63.2 psi. < 100 psi.

## t = 1.0, e = 1.0, = 1.0

f y e t
ld
=

= 47.43
db
f c ' 20
ldc = 1.128(47.43) = 53.5 in.
ld = 1.5(53.5) = 80.3 in., use 81 in., lst = ldc = 81 in.
Class A splice (ACI 12.15.2 (a) & (b))
b.) When 75% of bars are spliced, (As provided / As required) = 1.5
Class B splice (ACI 12.15.1 & 12.15.2)
lst = 1.3ld = 1.3(80.3) = 104.3 in., use 105 in.
c.) All bars are spliced, Rs = 2.0, Class B splice, lst = 105 in.
d.) When all bars are spliced, Rs = 1.3, Class B splice, lst = 105 in.
Problem 7.8:
Given: fc= 3 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar no.9, = 1.0. Calculate lap splices:
Solution:
a.) When 50% of bars are spliced, Rs = 2.0, t = 1.0, e = 1.0, = 1.0
Conditions are not met.
f y e t
ld
=

= 61.78
db
f c ' 20
ld = 1.5(61.78) = 92.7 in., use 93 in.
Class A splice (ACI 12.15.2 (a) & (b)), lst = ldc = 93 in.
b.) When 75% of bars are spliced, Rs = 1.5
Class B splice (ACI 12.15.1 & 12.15.2), ld = 93 in., lst = 1.3ldc = 1.3(93) = 121 in.
c.) All bars are spliced, Rs = 2.0, Class B splice, lst = 121 in.
d.) When all bars are spliced, Rs = 1.3, Class B splice, lst = 121 in.> 12 in.
7-9

Problem 7.9:
Given: fc= 5 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar no.9, = 1.0. Calculate splice length in compression:
Solution:
0.02 d b f y
l dc =
0.0005d b f y
fc '

l dc =

## = 19.14 0.0005 1.18 60000 = 33.84 in.

1.0 5000
Use lsc = ldc = 34 in. Controls

Problem 7.10:
Given: fc= 5 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar no.11, = 1.0. Calculate splice length in compresion:
Solution:
db = 1.41 in.
0.02 d b f y
l dc =
0.0005d b f y
fc '
0.02 1.41 60000
l dc =
= 23.9 in. 0.0005 1.41 60000 = 42.3 in.
1.0 5000
Use lsc = ldc = 43 in. Controls
Problem 7.11:
Given: fc= 5 ksi., fy = 80 ksi., bar no.9, Calculate splice length in compresion:
Solution:
0.02d b f y
l dc =
(0.0009 f y 24)d b , if f y > 60 ksi.
fc '

l dc =

## = 25.52 in. (0.0009 80000 24) 1.128 = 54.14 in.

1.0 5000
lsc = 54.14 in., use lsc = 55 in. Controls

Problem 7.12:
Given: fc= 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bar no.9, = 1.0. Calculate splice length in compresion:
Solution:
0.02d b f y
l sc = l dc =
0.0005d b f y
fc '
0.02 1.128 60000
l dc =
= 21.4 in. 0.0005 1.128 60000 = 33.84 in.
1.0 4000
Use lsc = 34 in. Controls
7-10

Problem 7.13:
Given: Figure (7.16),
f c' = 4 ksi and fY = 60 ksi
Required: Calculate the development lengths.
Solution: Consider the variables X1, X2, X3, X5, X6, X7, y defined in Figure 7.7
1.) X1 is the minimum distance all the top bars must extend from the face of the support. Let d
= 18 in; Development length X1 (tension bars),
f y e t
ld =

d b = 47.47 in.
f c ' 20
For top bars, ld = 1.3 (47.4) = 62 in. (ACI 12.2.4)
Min. ld = 12 in.< 62 in. XI = 5 2 = 62 in.
2.) X2 is the distance that bars must be extended past the point where they are required to resist
flexure before they can be terminated. (ACI 12.10.3)
X2 = Greater of d = 18 in., or 12d b = 12 (1) = 12 in., then X2 = 18 in.
Value is irrelevant for this exercise since the magnitudes are not given for the moment
diagram.
3.) X3 is the distance that bars not cut short must be extended past the point of inflection.
4#8 bars are extended beyond point of inflection. 4#8 bars = 1/2 As which is greater than
that required of 1/3 As (ACI 12.12.3)
ld for X3: Consider the greatest of: d = 18 in., 12 db = 12 in. or span/16 = (24)(12)/16 = 18 in.,
Use X3 = 18 in.
y is the total length of the bars extended past the point of inflection. y = 4-6 + X3 = 6-0
4.) X5 is the distance compression reinforcement is extended into the face of the support.
Compression reinforcement:

ld =

0.02(1)(60000)
= 19in.
4000

## Min.ld = 0.0003 db.fy = 18 in., Therefore use X5 = 19 in.

5.) Development length for positive moment:
f y e t
ld =

d b = 47.47 in.
f c ' 20
Min. l d = 12 in. < 48 in., 48 in. controls.
X7 is the distance that bars must be extended past the point where they are required to resist
flexure before they can be terminated. (ACI 12.10.3) It is the greater of: d = 18 in., 12db = 12
in., therefore use X7 = 18 in.
X6 is the minimum distance all the bottom bars must extend from the centerline of the beam. X6
= ld = 4-0. Extend 3#8 bars 4' - 0" from centerline of beam, and extend the other 3#8 bars to
the support. (ACI 12.11.1)

7-11

Problem 7.14:
Given: max , D. L. = 1.5 K/ft, L.L. = 2.2 K/ft, f c' = 4 Ksi, f y = 60 Ksi, b = 12 in.,
and span = 20ft
Required: Design beam
Solution:
max = 0.01806, R u = 820 psi (Text Eqn. 3-22), a/d = 0.319 (Text Eqn. 3-23)

(1.5)(20)2
(2.2)(20) 2
+ 1.6
= 266 K . ft.
8
8
(266)(12000)
d2 =
= 324.39
(820)(12)
M u max = 1.2

## d = 18.01 in. (Text Eqn. 3-21)

As max = (0.01806) (18.01) (12) = 3.9 in.2 Use 5#8 bars in two rows, (As = 3.93 in.2)
h = 18.01 + 3.5 = 21.51 ; use 22 in. total length
Actual d = 22 - 3.5 = 18.5 in.
a =0.319 (18.5) = 5.90 in.
Mur (one bar) = 0.9 x .79 x 60 (18.5 - 5.90/2) = 663 K.in. = 55.3 K.ft.
Extend bars d = 18.5 in. or 12 db = 12 in, (use 18 in) beyond theoretical moment. Therefore,
extend bars 1 and 2 20 ft., 1/3 of total bars, which meets code requirement.
(d = 18. 5" = 1.54 ft)
Length of bar 3 = 18 + 2(1.54) = 21.5 ft, i.e. span length = 20ft.
Length of bar 4 = 14.8 + 2 (1.54) = 17.8 ft.
Length of bar 5 = 12.1 + 2 (1.54) = 15.1 ft. (for #8 bars, ld = 48 in.)

7-12

Problem 7.15:
Given: = b /2, f c ' = 3 ksi, f y = 60 ksi, b = 12 in.
Required: M.R.D. and cut off points.
Solution:
max = 0.01356, = 0.0214/2 = 0.0107 < max - Tension controlled, = 0.9
From Text, Eqn. 3-18 and 1 = 0.85 (ACI 10.2.7.3)

f y 87

## = 0.85(85) 60000 87 = 0.0214

f 87
+ (f0y .0107
)(60) 3000 87 + 60
c

## = 0.505 ksi. = 505 psi.

Ru = 0.9(0.0107)(60)1
1.7(3)

b = 0.851

M u max

(2)(12)2
= 1.2
+ 1.6(16 8 + 10 12) = 569.6 K. ft.
2

(569.6)(12000)
= 1128.5
(505)(12)
d = 33.59 in.
As = (0.0107) (33.59) (12) = 4.31 in.2 Use 6#8 bars in two rows, (As = 4.74 in.2)
h = 33.59 + 3.5 = 37.09 ; use 38 in.
Actual d = 38 - 3.5 = 34.5 in.
a =4.31(60)/[(0.85)(3)(12)] = 8.45 in.
Mur (one bar) = 0.9 x 0.79 x 60 (34.5 8.45/2) /12 = 107.6 K-ft
For 5 bars, Mu = 6(107.6) = 645.6 K-ft > 570 K-ft
Extend bars 4, 5 and 6 to the cantilevered end with appropriate cover, 3/6 meet ACI code.
X = d = 34.5" (Use 3' - 0")
d2 =

## Length of bar # 1 = 7.5 + 3 = 10.5 ft.

Length of bar # 2 = 5.5 + 3 = 8.5 ft.
Length of bar # 3 = 3.75 + 3 = 6.75 ft.
ldh = 22 in.
ld = 55 in., For top bars, ld = 1.3(55) = 71.5
in., or 72 in. = 6 ft.

7-13

Problem 7.16:
Given: Fig (7.19), max , f c ' = 4 ksi, f y = 60 ksi, b = 12"
Required: Design section at support B using max and then use same dimension for entire
beam. Find reinforcement and draw M.R.D. for ABC.
Solution:
max = 0.01806, R u = 820 psi, a/d = 0.319
D.L. = 6 K/ft, L.L. = 4 K/ft.

1.) Maximum positive moment M u occurs with LL between AB and is given by:
6
4 20 2
2
2
(
)
(
)
M u ma x = 1.2
20
+
8
20

8
+
1
.
6
= 574 k - ft
8
8 20 2
Maximum negative moment M u occurs with LL between AC and is given by:
6 82
4 82
M u max = 1.2
+ 1.6
= 435.2 k - ft
2
2
2.) Section at B:

d2 =

(435.2)(12000)
= 530.7
(820)(12)

d = 23.04 in.
As max = (0.01806) (23.04) (12) = 4.99 in.2 Use 5#9 bars in two rows, (As = 5 in.2)
h = 23.04 + 3.5 = 26.54 ; use 27 in. total length
Actual d = 27 - 3.5 = 23.5 in.
a =0.319 (23.5) = 7.50 in.
Mur (one bar) = 0.9 x 1 x 60 (23.5 7.50/2) = 88.9 K.ft./ bar
For 5 bars, Mu = 444 K.ft.
3.) Section within AB, (positive moment):
Mu = 574 > 444, need compression steel
574 444 = 130 K.ft. to be resisted by compression steel, assume d = 2.5 in.
130 12
As 2 =
= 1.4in 2
0.9(60)( 23.5 2.5)
Use 2 # 9 bars; As = 2.0 in.2
As = As1 + As2 = 4.99 + 1.4 = 6.39 in.2
Use 7 # 9 bars; As = 7.0 in.2
Actual Mu = 0.9[5(60)(23.5-7.50/2) + 2(60)(23.5-2.5)] = 633.4 K.ft.

7-14

# 9 bars will be on the top of the beam full length for both compression and tension steel. This is
the reason for choosing a larger As2.

7-15

## Reinforcement details at section B:

Extend bars 1, 2, & 3 of cantilever with appropriate cover. 3/5 > 1/3 per ACI Code
Determine development length
f y
t e d = 60000 (1.3)(1.0) d = 61.7(1.128 ) = 70in
ld =
f ' 20 b 4000 20(1.0) b
c
Determine distance from face of support for 2 bars to be developed. w = 13.6 k/ft, a = 8ft,
M=267 k-ft(2 bars)
w
M = (a x1 ) = 267k ft
2
x1 = 1.73 ft
Bars must extend ld past x1.
Total distance = 1.73+5.833=7.6ft
7.6 ft > 8 ft, therefore bars must extend to end of cantilever
Design positive reinforcement details, use 7-#9 bars
Determine development length
f y
t e d = 60000 (1.0)(1.0) d = 47.4(1.128 ) = 54in
ld =
f ' 20 b 4000 20(1.0) b
c
Extend bars 1-4 for span AB. 4/7 > 1/3 per (ACI 12.11.1)
M=355k-ft, w=13.6k/ft, l=20ft, a=8ft
wx 2
Mx =
l a 2 xl = 355k ft
2l
x = 12.7or 4.1
dist from max moment = 4.3 ft
bars 5, 6, 7 cutof 6-3 from CL span AB

7-16

7-17

CHAPTER 8
ALTERNATE DESIGN METHODS
Extra Problems
Problem E8.1: Design of Column Corbel

Design the single corbel on a 24in. x 24in. concrete column with the forces shown.
Assume !! = 6000 , 60

1.

Shown above

2.

## Provide reinforcement for ties

Use = 0.75
The nominal strength of ties is taken as:
Fnt = Ats f y + Atp ( f se + f p )

Tie AB
8-1

Fu = 58.75kips
Ats =

Fu
58.75
=
= 1.31in 2
f y 0.75 60

Tie CD

Fu = 15.0kips
Ats =

Fu
15.0
=
= 0.33in 2
f y 0.75 60

## Provide 1 No. 4 Bar, 2 legs Ats = 0.40in 2

Tie BD & DF

Fu = 68.21kips
Ats =

Fu
68.21
=
= 1.52in 2
f y 0.75 60

Provide steel in addition of the vertical column reinforcement. This reinforcement may be
added longitudinal bar or rebar bent at Node A, that is used as Tie AB as well.
3. Calculate strut widths
It is assumed that transverse reinforcement will comply with A.3.3.3, so
s = 0.75

## f ce = 0.75 3825 = 2868 psi

Calculate width of struts
Strut AC

Pu = 86.83kips
w=

86830
= 1.26in
24 2668

Strut BC
8-2

Pu = 80.93kips
w=

80930
= 1.18in
24 2668

Strut CE

Pu = 130.67 kips
w=

130670
= 1.90in
24 2668

Strut DE

Pu = 16 kips
w=

16000
= 1.26in
24 2668

## Provide confinement reinforcement for the struts per A.3.3.

!
20.20
sin =
= 0.0032 > 0.003
!
244.5

8-3

Problem E8.2: Deep Beam Design Example: Bridge Bent Cap Using Strut and Tie Method
Given: A bridge bent cap is to carry 2 train tracks and 5 girders spanning between abutments,
with the factored loads and geometry given below. The cap has a width of b = 6 ft and height of
h = 7 ft, supported by two 6 ft wide columns. Design the cap using f'c = 5000 psi and fy = 60000
psi.

## PGirder = 1.8 x 580 kips = 1044 kip

WDL = 1.8 x 8.5 kips/lf = 15.3 kip/ft
WLL = 1.8 x 7.6 kips/lf = 13.6 kip/ft
Since uniform load WDL and WLL are small relative to PGirder, they are distributed to PGirder
evenly.
Strut And Tie Model:
P1 = 1044 kip + (15.3 kip/ft 29.1 ft / 5) + (13.6 kip/ft 22.6 ft / 5) = 1195 kip

8-4

Since the column support is wide, the section is subdivided into 3 supports, 1.5 ft apart from each
other.
Check if Bent Cap is considered Deep Beam: (ACI 318 A.1)
Lclr = 8.5 ft
Distance from column face to column face
Ds = 7 ft
Bent Cap Depth
Lclr / Ds = 1.21 < 4 Bent Cap is considered a deep beam
Angle between strut and tie = 46d > 26d Good
Check Maximum Shear Strength of Beam X-Section:

## (ACI 318 11.7)

Vu = 1195 kip
Assume d = 0.9 h = 75.6 in.
Vn = 0.7510 (fc')0.5 b d = 0.75 10 (50000.5) psi 72 in. 75.6 in./1000#/kip
= 2886 kip > Vu Good
Force Resultants:
From Truss Analysis, internal forces are presented below. Since the bent cap is symmetrical, the
left side is designed and reinforcement will be applied symmetrically.
Member 1 and 2 (Tie) T1 = T2= 1020 kip Tension
Member 3 (Strut) C3 = 1570 kip Compression
Member 4 (Strut) C4 = 1195 kip Compression
Member 5 (Strut) C5 = 910 kip Compression
Member 6, 7 and 8 (Tie) T6 = T7 =T8 = 0 kip
Support Reaction D1x = -1016 kip, D1y = 1195 kip
Support Reaction D2x = 0 kip, D2y = 1195 kip
Support Reaction D3x = 627 kip, D3y = 655 kip

8-5

## Calculate Effective Strength, fce:

(ACI 318 A.3)
Member 3
Member 5
Member 4

Bottle-shape struts

## (ACI 318 A.5)

Nodal Zone A C-C-T
Nodal Zone B C-T-T
Nodal Zone C C-C-T
Nodal Zone D1
C-C-T
Nodal Zone D3
C-C-T

## fce = 0.85n fc' = 0.850.85ksi = 3.4 ksi

fce = 0.85n fc' = 0.850.65ksi = 2.55 ksi
fce = 0.85n fc' = 0.850.85ksi = 3.4 ksi
fce = 0.85n fc' = 0.850.85ksi = 3.4 ksi
fce = 0.85n fc' = 0.850.85ksi = 3.4 ksi

## Dimensions of nodal zones:

Use the lower value between Nodal and Strut effective strength for design
F n > Fu
(ACI 318-08 A2.6)
fce Acs > Fu
Member width w = Fu / fce b
= 0.75
for struts, ties and nodes
Nodal zone A

Horizontal width
wc = 1570 kip / 0.75 3.4ksi 72in. = 8.55 in.
Tie 1 width
w1 = 8.55 (1020kip / 1570kip)
= 5.55 in.
Strut 3 width
w3 = 10.2 in.
Nodal zone B
Horizontal width
wc = 1195 kip / 0.75 2.55 ksi 72in. = 8.68 in.
Nodal zone C
Horizontal width
wc = 910 kip / 0.75 3.4ksi 72in. = 4.96 in.
Tie 2 width
w2 = 6.5 (1020kip / 910kip) = 5.6 in.
Strut 5 width
w5 = 7.45 in.
Nodal zone D1 and D3
Assume same widths as Nodal zone A and C
Nodal zone D2
Assume same widths as Nodal zone B
Check Capacity of Struts:
Use the lower value between Nodal and Strut effective strength for design
Capacity of Strut 3
fns = fce Acs = 0.75 3.18 ksi 10.2 in. 72 in. = 1751 kips > 1570
Capacity of Strut 4
fns = fce Acs = 0.75 2.55 ksi 8.68 in. 72 in. = 1195 kips = 1195
Capacity of Strut 5
fns = fce Acs = 0.75 3.18 ksi 7.45 in. 72 in. = 1280 kips > 910
8-6

Good
Good
Good

Vertical Bars

## Use #6 @ 12 4 legged stirrups, As = 4 0.44 = 1.76 in.2

Sin 50d = 0.76
As / (b s) sin = (1.76 in.2) / (72 in. 12 in.) 0.76 = 0.0015

Horizontal Bars

## Use #8 @ 9 2 sides, As = 2 0.79 = 1.58 in.2

Sin 40d = 0.64
As / (b s) sin = (1.58 in.2) / (72 in. 9 in.) 0.64 = 0.00156

(ACI 318 A.4)
Fu = Asfy

## As = 1020 kip / (0.75 60 ksi) = 22.7 in.2

22.7 in.2 / (1 in.2)
#9 Bars = 23
Use #9 Tot 24, Vertically Bundled in 2s

Anchorage Length

## (ACI 318 12.5.2)

Ldh
= 0.02 e fy db/ ( (fc')0.5)
= 0.02 1 60000 psi 1 in.2 / ( 1 (50000.5) = 17 in..

8-7

CHAPTER 9
ONE-WAY SLABS
Problem 9.1 (b): Typical example
Given: fc = 3 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., h = 6 in., As = #5 bars at 8 in., calculate Mn
Solution:
max = 0.01356, min = 0.00333
1.) For # 5 bars, Ab = 0.31 in2,
A 12 0.3112
As = b
=
= 0.465 in.2
S
8
d = h - 0.75 - db /2 = 6 - 0.75 - 5/16 = 4.9 in.
2.)
A
0.465
= s =
= 0.0079 OK.
bd 12 4.9
3.)

a=

As f y
0.85 f c ' b

0.465 60
= 0.91 in.
0.85 3 12

a 0.9
0.9

M n = As f y d =
( 0.465 60 ) 4.9 = 9.3 k.ft.
2 12
2

## Problem 9.2 (b): Typical example

Given: fc = 3 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., b = 12 in., h = 7.5 in., Mu = 13.8 k.ft.
Determine the necessary reinforcement.
Solution:
1.) max = 0.001356, min = 0.00333, assume #6 bars, d = 7.5 - 0.75 - 6/16 = 6.375 in.
M
13.8 12000
Ru = u2 =
= 340 psi.
bd
12 6.3752
2.)
0.85 f c '
2 Ru
=
1 1
or from Table A1
fy
0.85 f c '
0.85 3
2 0.34
=
1 1
= 0.00685
60
0.9 0.85 3
As = (0.00685)(12)(6.375) = 0.524 in.2
3.) Using #6 bars, Ab = 0.44 in2 , and spacing S;
12 Ab 12 0.44
S=
=
= 10 in.
As
0.524
Use #6 bars @ 10 in.
4.) Secondary bars (Shrinkage reinforcement) = 0.0018 bh
As = (0.0018)(12)(7.5) = 0.162 in2, use #3 @ 8 in.
9-1

## Problem 9.2 (e): Typical example

Given: fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., Mu = 22.6 k.ft., = 1.18 %
Solution:
1.) max = 0.018, min = 0.00333, > min and < max ; For = 0.0118,
fy

0.0118 60
Ru = f y 1
= 0.9 0.0118 60 1
= 571 psi.
1.7 4

1.7 f c '
2.) Mu = Ru bd2,
(22.6) (12) = (0.571) (12)d2,
d = 6.3 in.
As = (0.0118) (12) (6.3) = 0.89 in2, use #7 bars @ 8 in.,(As = 0.9 in2) Table A14.
3.) h = 6.3 + 0.75 + 7/16 = 7.48 in., use 7.5 in.
4.) Secondary bars (Shrinkage reinforcement) = 0.0018 bh, As = 0.162 in2
use #3 @ 8 in., (As = 0.17 in2)
Problems 9.1(a) - 9.1(j):
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

fc (ksi)

h (in.)

5.5

7.5

d (in.)

4.9

5.9

6.75

4.44

4.8

6.38

6.75

3.94

4.94

As (in2)

0.39

0.46

0.59

0.78

0.37

0.6

0.88

0.79

0.37

0.46

a (in.)

0.76

0.91

1.16

1.53

0.78

1.17

1.72

1.55

0.73

0.90

Mn (k.ft.)

8.03

9.3

11.46

14.51

7.55

11.65

16.0

14.66

7.55

9.21

## Problems 9.2(a) - 9.2(j):

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

fc (ksi)

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

5.0

5.0

Mu (k.ft.)

5.4

13.8

24.4

8.1

22.6

13.9

13.0

11.2

20.0

10.6

h (in.)

6.0

7.5

9.0

5.0

7.5

8.5

6.0

7.5

9.0

6.0

d (in.)

4.9

6.375

6.7

3.87

6.3

7.375

4.875

4.5

7.8

4.875

(%)

0.43

0.685

0.85

1.11

1.18

0.495

1.10

0.51

0.637

0.9

As (in2)

0.252

0.524

0.95

0.526

0.89

0.438

0.67

0.64

0.59

0.52

Bars No.

Spacing (in.)

10

12

7.5

5.5

12

10

As (Tran.)*

0.13

0.162

0.194

0.108

0.162

0.184

0.13

0.162

0.168

0.13

Bars No.

10

10

Spacing (in.)
10
8
12
12
8
* Transverse bars (shrinkage and temperature steel).
9-2

Problem 9.3:
Given: one-way slab, span = 16 ft., thickness = 7 in.,
reinforced with #6 bars spaced at 5 in., f c ' = 4 Ksi and f y = 60 Ksi.
Required: allowable L.L.
Solution:
1. M(D.L.) =0.2(16) 2 /8 + 7(0.15)(16) 2 /8= 9.2 K.ft.
Effective depth d = 7 3 / 4 6 / 1 6 = 5.875 in.
Area of one #6 bar = 0.44 in. 2
A s per one foot width = (0.44) (12/5 = 1.056 in.
= 1.056 / [(12) (5.875)] = 0.015
This less than max of 0.018 and greater than min .
2. Compute M u:
Mu = A s . f y (d a/2),
a = [1.056(60)] / [0.85(4) (12)] = 1.55 in.
Mu = 0.9 (1.056) (60) (5.875 -1.55/2) = 291 K. in.= 24.25 K.ft.
M u = 1.2 M D + 1.6 M L = 1.2(9. 2) + 1.6 [WL x (16)2 /8]
W L = 0.258 K/ft. = 258 psf.
Problem 9.4:
Given 10ft. cantilever slab, D.L. = 170 psf, L.L. = 2 K/ft,at the free end,
f c ' = 4 Ksi and f y = 60 Ksi.
Required: Design the slab
Solution:
1. M u = 1.2 M D + 1.6 M L = 1.2 [0.17(10) 2 /2] + 1.6 [2(10) 2 /2]= 170.2 K.ft.
2. Assume = 0.014 < max of 0.018; R u = 662 psi (from tables in appendix A).
M u = R u .b .d 2 ,
d 2 = [422(12)] / [0.662(12)] = 64 in., d = 8 in.
A s = 0.014 (12) (8) = 1.344 in. 2
Use #7 bars spaced at 5 in. (As = 1.44 in. 2 , table A14 in Appendix A)
h = 8 + 3/4 +7/16 = 9.19 in., say 10 in.
3. Check shear requirement:
V u at support = 1.2 (0.17 x 10) + 1.6(2) = 5.24 K.
V u at distance d = 5.24 1.2(0.17)(8.81/12) = 5.09K.

## Allowable Vc = 2 f 'c bd = 0.75 2 4000 12 8.81 = 10.03 k. > 5.09 k.

4. Determine if deflection should be checked.
Minimum d for deflection checking = L / 10 = 10(12)/10= 12 in.
h used = 10 in. < 12 in., therefore deflection should be checked.
5. Secondary (shrinkage reinforcement):
min = 0.0018, A s = 0.0018 (12) (10) = 0.216 in. 2
Use #3 bars spaced at 6 in.
(A s = 0.22 in. 2 )
Problem 9.5:
9-3

Given: 6 in. slab, span = 12 ft., D.L. = 190 psf., L.L. = 80 psf, fc ' = 4 Ksi and f y = 50 Ksi
Required: Reinforcement in slab
Solution:
1. Mu = 1.2 [0.19(12) 2 /8] + 1.6 [0.08(12) 2 /8] = 6.41 K.ft. /ft.
Let d = 6 - 3/4 - 1/4 = 5 in.
2. M u = R u .bd 2 ; 6.41 (12000) = R u (12) (5) 2 ; R u = 256 psi
From tables, = 0.006, A s = 0.006 (12) (5) = 0.36 in. 2
Use # 4 bars spaced at 6 in. (A s = 0.39 in. 2 )
min < used < max
3. Shrinkage reinforcement:
A s = 0.002 (12) (6) = 0.144 in. 2 ,
Use #3 bars spaced at 9 in. (A s = 0.15 in. 2 )
Problem 9.6:
Data similar to problem 9.4
Required: Design the slab using a variable cross-section.
Solution:
1.
From Problem 9.4: M u (at support) = 42.2 K.ft.
h (at support) = 10 in.,
h (at free end) = 4 in., A s = 1.44 in. 2
2. Check section at midspan:
h = 7 in., d = 7 - 3 / 4 - 7 / 16 = 5.81 in.
External M u = 1.2 [(0.17) (5) 2 /2] + 1.6 [2(5)] = 18.55 K.ft.
Internal moment = Moment capacity = M u = A s .f y (d a / 2)
a = [1.44(60)] / [0.85(4) (12)] = 2.12 in.
M u =0.9(1.44) (60) (5.81-2.12/2) = 369.36 K.in. = 30.8K.ft.
Use 10 in. depth at fixed end, 4 in. at free end and # 7 bars spaced at 5in. at the top of
slab.
Problem 9.7:
Given: continuous slab, clear spans = 13 ft., D.L. = 126 psf, L.L. = 120 psf,
f c ' = 3 Ksi and f y = 40 Ksi.
Required: Design of slab
Solution:
1. Minimum depth = L / 30 =13(12)/30 = 5.2 in. (Table A6, Appendix A)
For interior spans, minimum depth = L/35 = 4.5 in.
Assume a uniform thickness of 5.0 in.

9-4

9-5

2. Mu =1.2 MD + 1.6 ML = 1.2 [0.126 (13)2 / 10] + 1.6 [0.12 (13)2 / 10] = 5.81 K.ft.
U = 1.2 (0.126) + (1.6) (0.12) = 0.344 K/f t .
3. Assume = 0.014 < max = 0.023; then Ru = 450 psi
Mu = Ru bd2, (5.81) (12) = 0.45(12) d2, d = 3.6 in.
As = 0.014 (12) (3.6) = 0.60 in.2, choose #4 bars.
h = 3.6 + 3/4 + 5/16 = 4.66 in.
Use h = 5 in., d = 3.94 in.
4. Moments and As required at other locations:
Location
Moment
Mu
Ru
%
(See example 9.5)
Coeff.
K.ft.
psi
A
- 1/24
2.42
187
0.54
B
+ 1/14
4.15
320
0.96
C
- 1/10
5.81
448
1.39
D
- 1/11
5.29
408
1.26
E
+ 1/16
3.63
280
0.83
Reinforcement details are similar to figure (9.7) in text.

As(in.2)

# 5 bars
spaced at (in.)
12
7
5
5
8

0.30
0.54
0.77
0.705
0.46

Problem 9.8:
Data similar to problem 9 .7; fc' = 3 Ksi and fy = 60 Ksi
Required: Design of slab
Solution:
L/28 = 5.57 in., use 5 in. and check deflection, or use 5.5 in.
1. Mu = 5.81 K.ft., U = 0.344 K/ft, Use h = 5 in., and assuming #4 bars are used.
Then d = 5 - 3/4 - 1/4 = 4.0 in.
2. Moments, As and bars.
Location
Moment
(See example 9.5) Coeff.
A
B
C
D
E

- 1/24
+ 1/14
- 1/10
- 1/11
+ 1/16

Mu
K.ft.

Ru
psi

As(in. )

# 4 bars
spaced at (in.)

1.43
2.45
3.43
3.12
2.14

89
153
214
195
134

0.14
0.250
0.420
0.38
0.26

0.16
0.16
0.20
0.182
0.16

15
15
12
13
15

## 3. Check shear which is adequate.

9-6

Problem 9.9:
Data similar to Problem 9.7; f c ' = 4 Ksi and f y = 60 Ksi
Required: Design of slab
Solution:
(See solution of Problem 9.8)
1. Mu = 5.81 K.ft.; U = 0.344 K/ft.
Use h = 5 in. and assume # 4 bars are used then d = 4.0 in.
2. Moments, A s , and bars.
Ru
Psi

As
(in. 2 )

#4 bars
spacing (in.)

A
2.42
151
B
4.15
259
C
5.81
363
D
5.29
331
E
3.63
227

0.33
0.50
0.73
0.66
0.45

0.16
0.24
0.36
0.33
0.22

12
9
6
6
10

Location
(See example 9.5)

3.

Mu
K.ft.

Problem 9.10:
Given: concrete joist, span = 18 ft., D.L. = 30 psf, L.L. = 100 psf.
Support width = 14 in., f c ' = 3 Ksi and f y = 60 Ksi
Required: Design an interior rib using 30 in. wide pans.
Solution:
1.a. Design of slab: Assume top slab thickness = 2 in.
Own weight of slab = 2 (150) / 12 = 25 psf.
D.L. = 30 + 25 = 55 psf, U = 1.2 (55) + 1.6 (100) = 226 psf.
M u = UL 2 / 12 = (0.226) (30/12) 2 / 12 = 0.1177 K.ft. = 1.41 K.in.
1.b. Assuming that moment is resisted by plain concrete only,
ft = 5 f 'c = 5 3000 = 274 psi.
I = bh 3 / 12 = 12 (2) 3 /12 = 8 in. 4 , c = h / 2 = 1 in.
f t = M.c / I; ( = 0.65)
M = 0.65 (0.274) (8/1) = 1.42 K.in. > Applied moment of 1.41K.in.
1.c. Shrinkage reinforcement, A s = 0.0018 (12) (2) = 0.0432 in. 2
Use #3 bars spaced at 12 in. laid normal to the direction of ribs. Similar bars are
used parallel to ribs.
2. Moment in an interior rib: (Use h=14 in. or 12 in., but check deflection).
Min. h = L/16 = 18(12) / (16) = 13.5in.
Assume h = 12 in. (including 2 in. slab)
9-7

Let rib width = 4in. at lower end and 6in. at top, average = 5 in.
Height of rib = 12-2 = 10 in., weight of rib = [5(12-2) (150)] / [(12) (12)] = 52 lb/ft.
Say 60 lb/ft.
Rib carries a load from (30+4) in. slab + own weight., b = 34 in.
U = 34(226)/12 + 1.2(60) = 713 lb/ft.
Mu = UL2 / 8 = 0.713(12) (18)2 /8 = 346.5 K.in.
3. Design of rib: Assuming # 6 bars, d = 12 - 3/4- 6/16= 10.875 in.
Moment capacity of flange = c(d t/2 )
Mu (flange) = 0.9(0.85)(3)(34)(2)(10.875 2 / 2 ) = 1541 K.in.
Thus section acts as rectangular section.
Mu = As f y(d - a/2), for a = 0.6 in.
346.5 = 0.9As (60)(10.875 0.6/2);
As = 0.61 in.2
= 0.61 / [(34) (10.875)] = 0.00165 < max = 0.01356
Check a = [0.61(60)] / [0.85(3) (34)] = 0.43 in.2
Choose 2#5 bars
(As = 0.62 in. 2)
4. Shear in rib:
Vc = (1.1)2 f 'c bw d = 0.75 1.1 2 3000 6 10.875 = 5897 lbs.
Vu (at d distance) = 713 (9) - 713 (10.875/12) = 5771 lbs. < Vc
Use min. stirrups, # 3 spaced at 5 in.
(Check deflection)
Problem 9.11:
Given: data of Problem 9.10; width of pan = 20 in.
Required: design of rib
Solution:
1. Design of slab. (Same as problem 9.10)
2 in. slab reinforced with #3 bars spaced at 12 in.
2. Moment in ribs:
Use h = 12 in., rib height = 10 in.
Weight of rib = 60 lbs/f t., U = 226 psf (Problem 9.10)
U = 24 (226) / 12 + 1 . 2 ( 6 0 ) = 525 lb/ft.
Mu = 0.525 (18)2 (12) / 8 = 255 K.in.
Let d = 10.94 in.
Mu = As fy (d a / 2)
Let a = 0.5 in.
255 = 0.9 As (60)(10.94 - 0.25); As = 0.44 in.2
Choose 2#5 bars (As = 0.62 in. 2)

9-8

Problem 9.12:
Given: Data of Problem 9.10; fc' = 3 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi
Required: Design a continuous interior rib.
Solution:
L / 21 = 10.3 in.
1. Design of slab: same as in Problem 9.10
2. Choose h = 12 in., U = 713 lb/ft.

## Calculate M u and As:

For positive moment b = 34 in., and for negative moment, b = 4 in., d = 10.875 in.
Location

Moment
Coeff.

Mu
K.ft.

Ru
psi

As
(in) 2

bars

A
B
C
D

- 1/24
+ 1/4
- 1/10
+ 1/16

9.62
16.50
23.10
14.43

244
49
586
43

0.50
1.30
-

0.22
0.35
0.57
0.35

2#3
2#4
2#5
2#4

## For M = + 16.50 K.ft, let a = 0.5 in., Mu = As fy (d a/2)

16.50 (12) = 0.9 As (60) (10.875 - 0.25), AS = 0.35 in.2
Check a = [0.35(60)] / [0.85(3) (34)] = 0.24 in.,

## then As = 0.35 in.2

Use 2#4 bars at the bottom of ribs to resist the positive moments, and 2#5 bars at the top of ribs
to resist the negative moments at the interior supports.
2 # 3 bars are used at the top of the ribs only at the exterior supports.

9-9

CHAPTER 10
Problem 10.1(a): Typical Solution:
Given: b = 16 in., h = 16 in., bars = 8#9, fc= 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi.
Calculate Pn
Solution: Ag = bh = 256 in.2, Ast = 8 in.2
1)
Pn = 0.8 0.85 f c ' Ag + Ast ( f y 0.85 f c ')

## Pn = 0.8 ( 0.65) 0.85 4 256 + 8 (60 0.85 4 ) = 688 kip

2) g = 8 / 256 =0.0313 < 0.08 (max.) and > 0.01 (min.).
Problems 10.1(a)-10.1(j):
Given: = 0.65, K = 0.8, g (max.) = 8%, g (min.) = 1%
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

fc(ksi.)

As (in.2)

25

6.28

15.2

10

5.06

15.2

12.5

10.12

7.59

g (%)

3.13

6.25

4.36

5.28

5.1

1.98

4.18

2.17

3.95

3.16

1244

1634

968

852

688
1442
439
955
722
712
Pn(k.)
Note: For typical bars arrangement, refer to figure 10.3 in text.

## Problem 10.2(a): Typical Solution :( Spiral Columns)

Given: diameter = 14 in., = 0.75, bars = 8#9, fc= 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi.
Calculate Pn
Solution:
Ag = D2 /4 = 153.94 in.2, Ast = 8 in.2
1)

## Pn = 0.85(0.75)[0.85 4 153.94 + 8(60 0.85 4)] = 622 kip

2) g = 8 / 153.94 = 0.052 < 0.08 (max.) and > 0.01 (min.).

10-1

Problems 10.2(a)-10.2(e):
Given: = 0.75, K = 0.85, g (max.) = 8%, g (min.) = 1%
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

fc (ksi.)

Ag (in.2)

153.9

201.1

254.5

314.2

176.7

As (in.2)

7.59

10.12

15.2

g (%)

5.2

3.77

3.97

4.84

4.53

622
710
1049
Pn(k.)
Note: For typical bars arrangement, refer to figure 10.3 in text.

1391

855

## Problem 10.3(d): Typical Solution: (Design square column)

Given: fc= 5 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., Pd = 330 k., Pl = 230 k., g = 3%
Solution:
1) Pu = 1.2 Pd + 1.6 Pl = (1.2) (330) + (1.6) (230) = 764 k.
2)
Pu = 0.8 Ag 0.85 f c '+ g ( f y 0.85 f c ' )

## 764 = 0.8 ( 0.65) Ag 0.85 5 + 0.03( 60 0.85 5)

Ag = 248 in.2, column size 15.75 in.,
Use 16 16 in., Ag = 256 in.2
3) Calculate Ast
Pu = 0.8 0.65 0.85 f c ' Ag + Ast ( f y 0.85 f c ' )

## 764 = 0.8 0.65 0.85 5 256 + Ast ( 60 0.85 5)

Ast = 6.83 in.2, use 8#9 bars (Ast = 8 in.2)
4) Design for ties: use #3 for #9 bars.
S1 = 48(3/8) = 18 in., S2 = 16(9/8) = 18.05 in., S3 = 16 in.,
Use #3 ties @ 16 in.
5) Spacing between bars = (16-5) / 2 = 5.5 in. to center of bars.
Clear spacing, X = 5.5 - 9/8 = 4.37 in. < 6 in., No additional ties are needed.

10-2

## Problem 10.3(h): Typical Solution :( Design Rectangular Column)

Given: fc= 5 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., Pd = 690 k., Pl = 460 k., g = 2%, b = 18 in.
Solution: = 0.65, K = 0.8
1) Pu = 1.2 Pd + 1.6 Pl = (1.2) (690) + (1.6) (460) = 1564 k.
2)

## Ag = 561 in.2, h = 561 / 18 = 31.1 in.,

Use 18 32 in., Ag = 576 in.2
3) Calculate Ast

## 1564 = 0.8 0.65 0.85 5 576 + Ast (60 0.85 5' )

Ast = 10.1 in.2, use 8#10 bars (Ast = 10.16 in.2)
4) Design for ties: use #4 for #10 bars.
S1 = 48(1/2) = 24 in., S2 = 16(10/8) = 20 in., S3 = 18 in., Use #4 ties @ 18 in.
5) Spacing between bars = (32-6) / 3 = 8.67 in. to center of bars.
Clear spacing, X = 8.67 - 10/8 = 7.4 in. > 6 in.
Use additional ties for the middle bars, #4 at 18 in.

10-3

## Problem 10.3(L):Typical Solution :(Design Spiral Column)

Given: fc= 5 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., Pd = 285 k., Pl = 200 k., g = 4.25%
Solution: = 0.75, K = 0.85
1) Pu = 1.2 Pd + 1.6 Pl = (1.2) (285) + (1.6) (200) = 662 k.
2)

## 662 = 0.85(0.75 ) Ag [0.85 5 + 0.0425(60 0.85 5)]

Ag = 156.9 in.2, D = 14.13 in., Use D = 15 in. , Ag = 176.7 in.2

3) Calculate Ast

)]

## 4) Design for spirals: Dc =15 - 3 = 12 in.

Ac = area of core = (12)2/4 = 113.1 in.2
Minimum s is given by:
Ag
f '
176.7 5
Min. s = 0.45
1 c = 0.45
1 = 0.0211
113.1 60
Ac
fy

s = 0.0211 =

4 As ( Dc d s )
S ( Dc )

S (12 )

, S = 3.03 in.

## Use spiral #4 @ 3 in.

Note: If #3 spirals are used, then S = 1.7 in. Therefore, use #3 spiral @ 1.5 in.

10-4

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

fc(ksi.)

Pu (k.)

560

1546

528

764

500

840

492

1564

Ag (in.2)

190

552

138

249

213

272

186

561

Section(in.in.)

14x14

24x24

12x12

16x16

12x18

14x20

12x16

18x32

Ast (in.2)

7.25

17.93

9.3

6.84

4.01

11.72

5.18

10.1

Bars

8#9

16#10

8#10

8#9

6#8

10#10

6#9

8#10

Ties #

Spacing (in.)

14

18

12

16

12

14

12

18

NO

#3@18

NO

NO

NO

#3@14

NO

#3@18

## Problem 10.3(i) 10.3(L): Spiral Columns.

(i)

(j)

(k)

(L)

fc(ksi.)

Pu (k.)

628

922

896

662

Ag (in.2)

174

276

226

157

Diam (in.)

16

20

18

15

Ast (in.2)

5.33

6.68

9.54

5.16

Bars

6#9

6#10

8#10

6#9

Spiral #

#3

#3

#3

#4

Pitch (in.)

10-5

10-6

CHAPTER 11
MEMBERS IN COMPRESSION AND BENDING
d/ = 2.5 in.,

fy = 60 ksi,

y = 0.00207,

A S = A S /,

= 0.65

## Problem 11-1-a to 11-1-l. Balanced condition (12 Problems)

1
2
3
4
5
6

Rectangular sections
Balanced condtion
b, h, d
As
f c/ , B 1
Cb = 87d/(87+Fy)
ab = B1 cb
fS/ = 87( cb - d/ )/cb

7
8
9
10

Cc = 0.85 fc/ ab
CS = AS/ ( fs/ - 0.85 fc/ )
T = A S fy
Pb = Cc + CS - T

11
12

## d// = ( d -d/ )/2

Mb = Cc (d - ab / 2 - d// )
+ Cs ( d - d/ - d// ) + T d//

13
14

e = M b / Pb

Step

step

Pb (k.),

Mb (k-ft.)

Prob. 11-1-d

problem 11-1-a

Prob. 11-1-b

Prob. 11-1-c

## b = 20 in, h = 20 in, d = 17.5 in.

6#10 = 7.59 in.2
fc/ = 4 ksi , B1 = 0.85
cb = 87 17.5/(87 + 4 ) = 10.36 in.
ab = 0.85 10.35 = 8.8 in.
fs/ = 87 ( 10.35 -2.5 )/10.36 =
65.98 ksi, use 60 ksi

4#8 = 3.14
4, 0.85
6.8
5.78
55 < 60

## 24, 24, 21.5

8#10 = 10.12
4, 0.85
12.72
10.82
69.4
use 60

Cc = 0.8548.820 = 598.6 K
CS = 7.59( 60- 0.854 ) = 429.6 K
T = 7.5960 = 455.4 K
Pb = 598.6+429.6-455.4 = 572.84
K
d// = ( 20/2-2.5 ) = 7.5 in.
Mb = 598.6(17.5-8.8/2-7.5) + 429.6
(17.5-2.5-7.5) + 455.47.5 =
9988.68/12 = 832.39 k.ft.

275.38
162.16
188
249.14

882.57
572.79
607.2
848.16

4.5
225.72 k.ft

9.5
1418.99 k.ft.

## e = 9988/572.6 = 17.44 in.

10.87
162, 146.7

20.08
551.31, 922.35

Prob. 11-1-g

Prob. 11-1-h

Pb = 372, Mb = 541

Prob. 11-1-e

Prob. 11-1-f

6#10 = 7.59

4#9 = 4

4#10 = 5.06

5#10 = 6.33

5#9 = 5

4, 0.85

4, 0.85

4, 0.85

5, 0.8

5, 0.8

13.91

9.17

9.17

7.99

9.17

11.82

7.80

7.8

6.39

7.34

71 use 60

63 use 60

63 use 60

59.7

63.28 use 60

723.50

318.14

371.16

434.64

561.42

429.6

226.4

286.4

351.49

278.75

455.4

240

303.6

379.8

300

10

697.69

304.54

353.95

406.3

540.17

11

10.5

6.5

6.5

5.5

6.5

12

1201.78

387.87

477.36

509.18

562.88

13

20.67

15.28

16.18

15.04

12.5

14

453.5, 781.16

197.95, 252.12

230.1, 310.3

264.12, 330.97

351.1, 365.9

11-1

step

Prob.11-1-i

Prob. 11-1-j

Prob. 11-1-l

16,24, 21.5

4#9 = 4

5.06

6.33

5, 0.8

5, 0.8

6, 0.75

6, 0.75

10.36

11.54

12.72

10.36

8.29

9.23

9.54

7.77

66 use 60

68 use 60

69 use 60

66 use 60

493.00

627.82

778.74

554.63

223

282.10

347.52

219.6

240

303.6

379.8

240

10

476

606.32

746.46

534.23

11

7.5

8.5

9.5

7.5

12

530

748.85

1044.87

569.93

13

13.36

14.82

16.79

12.80

14

390.4, 344.5

394.1, 486.75

485.2, 679.17

347.25, 370.45

## Problem 11-2-a to 11-2-l. Compression controls:

Step

Prob. 11-1-k

Rectangular sections
Compression controls
e/ = d// + e
/

## e = 6 in. (12 Problems); = 0.65

Prob. 11-2-a
refer to prob. 11-1-a

Prob. 11-2-b
Refer to 11-1-b

Prob. 11-2-c
Refer to 11-1-c

## e/ = 7.5+6 = 13.5 in.

10.5

15.5

2
3
4

A = 0.85 fc b/2
B = 0.85 fc/ b ( e/ - d )
C = As/( fY - 0.85 fc/ )
(e -d -d ) +87 AS/e/

A = 0.85420/2 = 34
B = 0.85420(13.5-17.5 ) = -272
C = 7.59(60-0.854)(13.5-17.5 +
2.5) +877.5913.5 = 8 270

23.8
-47.6
3 134.98

40.8
-489.6
11 642

D = - 87AS e/ B1d

D = -877.5913.50.8517.5
= -132 603

- 28 038.5

-249 396

Aa3+Ba2+Ca+D = 0,
a
, c = a/B1

## a = 12.8 in, c = 15.06 in.

7.05, 8.29

16.75, 19.7

Cc = 0.85 fc/ ab

Cc = 0.854x12.820 = 870.4 K

335.58

1 366.8

fS/ = 87 ( c - d/ ) / c

60.78

75.96

## fS/ = 87(15.1-2.5)/ 15.06= 72.56

ksi
CS = 7.59( 60 - 0.854 ) = 429.6K

177.72

572.8

10

fS = 87 ( d - c ) / c

33.73

7.9

11
12

T = A S fS
Pn = Cc + CS - T

FS = 87(17.5-15.1)
/15.06=14.10ksi
T = 7.5914.1 = 107 K
Pn = 870.4+429.6-107=1192.95k

105.92
407.1

79.9
1859.43

13
14

M n = Pn e

## Mn = 1193 6 = 596.5 K.ft

Pn (k.), Mn (k.-ft.)

Pn = 775.4, Mn = 387.7

203.86
265, 132.51

929.72
1208.6, 604.3

11-2

Step

Prob. 11-2-d
Refer to 11-1-d

Prob. 11-2-e
Refer to 11-1-e

Prob. 11-2-f
Refer to 11-1-f

Prob. 11-2-g
Refer to 11-1-g

Prob. 11-2-h
Refer to 11-1-h

16.5

12.5

12.5

11.5

12.5

30.6

20.4

23.8

34

38.25

-428.4

-122.4

-142.8

-136

-229.5

8 926.3

4 236.8

5 359.6

6 509.6

5 298

-217 637

-57 311.3

-72 498.7

-68 398

-67 425

18.7, 22

10.8, 12.7

10.92, 12.85

8.67, 10.84

9.92, 12.4

1 144.44

440.64

519.8

589.56

758.88

77.11

69.88

70

66.93

69.46

429.6

226.4

286.4

352.89

278.75

10

5.93

19.13

17.97

21.37

21.75

11

45.02

76.53

90.91

135.30

108.75

12

1529.01

590.51

715.28

807.16

928.88

13

764.51

295.26

357.64

403.58

464.44

14

993.86, 496.93

383.83, 191.92

464.93, 232.47

524.66, 262.33

603.77, 301.89

Step

Prob. 11-2-i
Refer to11-1-i

Prob. 11-2-j
Refer to 11-1-j

Prob. 11-2-k
Refer to 11-1-k

Prob. 11-2-l
Refer to 11-1-l

13.5

14.5

15.5

13.5

29.75

34

40.8

35.7

-238

-340

-489.6

-285.6

4 363.5

5 677.95

7 319.7

4 368.6

-65 772

-99 577.8

-137 643

-61 661.3

11.66, 14.58

13.58, 16.98

15, 20

11.05, 14.73

693.77

923.44

1224.00

788.97

72.08

74.19

76.13

72.24

223

282.1

347.52

219.6

10

17.46

12.94

6.53

16.34

11

69.84

65.48

41.30

65.35

12

846.93

1140.05

1 530.21

943.22

13

423.47

570.03

765.11

471.61

14

550.51, 275.25

741, 370.5

994.64, 497.32

613.09, 306.55

11-3

## Problem11-3-a to 11-3-l. Tension controls: e = 24 in. (12 Problems)

Step

Rectangular sections
tension controls

Prob. 11-3-a
refer to prob. 11-1-a

Prob. 11-3-b
refer to 11-1-b

Prob. 11-3-c
Refer to 11-1-c

1
2
3
4

e/ = d// + e
A = 0.425 fc/ b
B = 0.85 fc/ b ( e/ - d )
C = As/( fS - 0.85 fc/ )
(e/ -d d/ ) AS fy e/

## e/ = 24 +7.5 = 31.5 in.

A = 0.425420 = 34
B = 0.85420(31.5-17.5) = 952
C = 7.59(60-.854) (31.517.5+2.5)-7.596031.5 = -7256.8

28.5
23.8
809.2
-1 903.7

33.5
40.8
979.2
-12 035.72

## a = 6.23 in., c = 7.33 in.

2.21, 2.60

8.95, 10.53

6
7
8
9

Aa2+ B a + C = 0
a
, c = a/B1
Cc = 0.85 fc/ ab
CS = As (fy - 0.85 fc/ )
T = A S fS
Pn = Cc + CS - T

105.15
117.72
188.4
94.48

730.50
572.8
607.2
696.09

10
11

M n = Pn e
Pb (k.), Mb (k-ft)

Cc = 0.8546.2320 = 423.95 K
Cs = 7.59(60-0.854) = 429.59 K
T = 7.5960 = 455.4 K
Pn = 423.95+429.59-455.4
=398.14k.
Mn = 796.28 K.ft
Pb = 258.79, Mb = 517.58

188.96
61.41, 122.82

1392.18
452.46, 904.91

Step

Prob. 11-3-d
Refer to 11-1-d

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Step

34.5
30.6
673.2
-9 911.78
10.09, 11.87
617.69
429.6
455.4
591.89
1183.77
384.73, 769.45

Prob. 11-3-i
Refer to 11-1-i

Prob. 11-3-e
Refer to 11-1-e
30.5
20.4
612
-3 358
4.74, 5.57
193.33
226.40
240
179.73
359.46
116.82, 233.65

Prob. 11-3-f
Refer to 11-1-f
30.5
23.8
714
-4 247.87
5.09, 5.98
242.13
286.40
303.6
224.93
449.86
146.20, 292.41

Prob. 11-3-j
Refer to 11-1-j

Prob. 11-3-g
Refer to 11-1-g
29.5
34
1 088
-4 675.5
3..84, 4.80
260.93
352.90
379.8
234.03
468.05
152.12, 304.24

Prob. 11-3-k
Refer to 11-1-k

Prob. 11-3-h
Refer to 11-1-h
30.5
38.25
1 147.5
-4 271.9
3.35, 4.19
256.19
278.75
300
234.94
469.89
152.71, 305.43

Prob. 11-3-l
Refer to 11-1-l

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

31.5
29.75
833
-3 880.5
4.07, 5.08
242.02
223.00
240
225.02

32.5
34
884
-5 494.53
5.18, 6.48
352.41
282.10
303.6
330.91

33.5
40.8
979.2
-7 684.30
6.23,8.31
508.39
347.52
379.8
476.10

31.5
35.7
999.6
-3 936.6
3.50, 4.67
249.94
219.60
240
229.54

10
11

450.04
146.26, 292.53

661.81
215.09, 430.18

952.21
309.47, 618.93

459.08
149.20, 298.40

11-4

Problem 11.4:
Given: ey = 8in., fc/ = 4ksi, fy = 60ksi, b = 16in., h = 24in., d = 21.5in., As = As/ = 5.06in.2
Solution:
Balanced condition:
cb = 87/(87+fy)d = (87) (21.5) / (87+60) = 12.72in, ab = .cb = (0.85) (12.72) = 10.82in.
Cc = 0.85fc/ab = (0.85) (4) (10.82) (16) = 588.38K
fs/ = 87(c-d/) / c = 87(12.72-2.5) / 12.72 = 69.9ksi; comp. steel yields. Use fs/ = 60ksi
Cs1 = As/ (fy-0.85fc/) = 5.06 [60-(0.85) (4)] = 286.4K
fs2/ = 87 (12.72-2.5-6.33) / 12.72 = 26.63ksi
Cs2 = 2(1.27[26.63-(0.85) (4)] = 59.00K
Tension zone:
= 0.65
s2 = 5.7710-4, fs3 = sE = 5.7510-429 000 = 16.72ksi,
T1 = (2) (1.27) (16.72) = 42.47K
T2 = (5.06) (60) = 303.6K,
Pb = 588.38+286.4+59.00-42.47-303.6 = 587.70K
Mb = 588.38(6.59) + (286.4) (9.5) + (59.00) (3.17) + (42.37) (3.17) + (303.6) (9.5)
= 9804.08/12 = 817.01K.ft,
Eb = 816.9712/587.73 = 16.68in.
Pb = 382 K, Mb = 531K.ft
e = 8in., e < eb compression controls. Assume c = 16.99 in., a = 14.40 in.
Cc = 0.85(4) (14.40) (16) = 783.36.K, fs/ = 87(14.40-2.5)/14.40 = 74.16ksi,
Comp. steel yields.
Cs1 = 5.06[60-0.85(4)] = 286.4K, fs2/ = 87(14.40-2.5-6.33) / 14.40 = 41.65ksi
Cs2 = 21.27(41.65-40.85) = 97.17K, fs3/ = 87(14.40-2.5-6.33-6.33)/14.40 = 9.15ksi
Cs3 = 21.27(9.15-40.85) = 14.60K
Tension zone:
= 0.65
s = 8.0710-4, fs = 23.41ksi,
T = 23.415.06 = 135.84K
Pn = 783.36+286.4+97.17+14.6-135.84 = 1063.06K
Mn = 81063.06 = 708.71.ft
Pn = 690.99 K, Mn = 460.66 K.ft
e/ = 8+21.5-24/2 = 17.5in
Pn = 1/17.5[783.36(21.5-13.96/2) + 286.4(21.5-2.5) + 97.17(21.5-2.5-6.33) + 14.6(21.5-2.56.332)] = 1026.70 K very close to Pn O.K.

11-5

Problem 11.5:
Given: e = 8in., fc/ = 4ksi, fy = 60ksi, b = 20in., h = 20in., d = 17.5in., As = As/ = 6.33in.2
Solution:
Balanced condition:
cb = 17.587 / (87+60) = 10.36in., a = 8.81in.,
Cc = 0.8548.8120 = 599.08K
fs/ = 87(10.36-2.5) / 10.36 = 66.01ksi, use 60ksi
Cs1 = 6.33(60-0.854) = 358.28K, fs2/ = 87(10.36-2.5-3.75) / 10.36 = 34.51ksi
Cs2 = 21.27(34.51-0.854) = 79.02K, fs3/ = 87(10.36-10)/10.36 = 3.02ksi
Cs3 = 21.27(3.02-0.854) =-0.97= Zero
Tension zone:
s4 = 9.8210-4, fs = 28.47ksi,
T1 = 28.4721.27 = 72.31K,
T = 606.33 = 379.8K
Pb = 599.08+358.28+79.02-72.31-379.8 = 584.27K
Mb = 599.085.6+358.287.5+79.023.75+72.313.75+379.87.5 = 788.16K.ft
eb = 16.19in.
Pb = 379.8K, Mb = 512.3K.ft
e = 8in., e < eb Comp. Controls.
Assume c = 13.08 in., a = 11.12 in.
Cc = 0.8542011.12 = 756.16 K, fs/ = 87(11.22-2.5)/11.22 = 70.37 K, use 60ksi
Cs1 = 6.33(60-0.854) = 358.28K, fs2/ = 87(11.22-2.5-3.75)/11.22 = 45.44 K
Cs2 = 21.27(45.44-40.85) = 106.77 K, fs3/ = 87(11.22-10)/11.22 = 20.50 ksi
Cs3 = 21.27(20.50-40.85) = 43.43 K
Tension zone:
s4 = 1.5310-4, fs = 4.44 ksi, T1 = 4.441.272 = 28.11 K
s5 = 0.001, fs = 29.38 ksi, T2 = 6.3329.38 = 185.96 K
Pn = 756.16 +358+106.77 +43.43 -28.11 -185.96 = 1050.57 K,
Mn = 700.38 K.ft
Pn = 682.87 K, Mn = 455.25 K.ft, e/ = 15.5in.
Problem 11.6:
Solution:
Balanced condition:
cb = (8717.5)/(87+60) = 10.36in., a = 8.8in.,
Cc = 0.8548.814 = 418.88K
fc/ = 87(10.36-2.5)/10.36 = 66.01ksi,
Cs/ = 3(60-0.854) = 169.8K
T = 360 = 180K
11-6

Pb = 418.88+169.8-180 = 408.68K
Mb = 418.88(10-8.8/2) + 169.8(10-2.5) + 180(10-2.5) = 414.1K.ft,
eb = 12.16in.
Mb = 269.17K.ft, Pb = 265.6K
Compression controls:
e = 8 < eb comp. controls.
Assume c = 12.35 in., a = 10.50 in.
Cc = 0.85410.5014 = 499.80 K , fc/ = 87(10.50-2.5)/10.50 = 69.39 ksi
Cs1/ = 3(60-0.854) = 169.8K, fs2/ = 87(10.50-10)/10.50 = 16.57 ksi
Cs2/ = 2(15.04-0.854) = 23.28K
Tension zone:
s = 0.0013, fs = 36.25 ksi, T = 108.75 K,
Pn = 587.19 K, Mn = 391.46 K.ft
Pn = 381.68 K, Mn = 245.45 K.ft, e/ = 15.5in.
Problem 11.7:
Solution:
Balanced condition:
cb = (8721.5) / (87+60) = 12.72in., ab = 10.82in.,
Cc = 0.85410.8220 = 735.76K
fs1/ = 87(12.72-2.5)/12.72 = 69.9ksi, Cs1 = 5(60-0.854) = 283K
fs2 = 87(12.72-2.5-4.75)/12.72 = 37.41ksi, Cs2 = 2(37.41-0.854) = 68.03K
fs3 = 87(12.72-12)/12.72 = 4.92ksi, Cs3 = 2(4.92-0.854) = 3.05K
Tension zone:
s4 = 9.510-4, fs = 27.56ksi,
T1 = 55.56K, T = 300K
Pn = 734.27K, Pn = 477.3K
Mb = 735.76(12-10.82/2) + 283(12-2.5) + 68.034.75 + 55.564.75 + 3004.752
Mb = 914.52K.ft, Mb = 594.4K.ft, eb = 14.95in.
Compression controls:
e = 8 < eb comp. controls.
Assume c = 16.35 in., a = 13.90 in.
Cc = 0.85413.902 = 945.20 K, fs1 = 87(13.90-2.5)/13.90 = 73.70 ksi
Cs1 = 5(60-0.854) = 283K, fs2 = 87(13.90-2.5-4.75)/13.90 = 48.43 ksi
Cs2 = 2(48.43-0.854) = 90.06 K, fs3 = 87(13.90-2.5-4.752)/13.90 = 23.16 ksi
Cs3 = 2(23.16-0.854) = 39.52 K
Tension zone:
s4 = 0.7310-4, fs = 2.11 ksi, T1 = 10.56 K, s5 = 9.4410-4, fs = 27.38 ksi
T = 136.92 K, Pn = 1210.30 , Mn = 806.86 K.ft, Pn = 786.69 K, Mn = 524,46 ft

11-7

Problem 11.8.a:
Given: fc/ = 4ksi, fy = 60
, Pu = 530k, Mu = 353K.ft, b = 16in., = 0.04,
e = 35312/530 = 8.01in.
Solution:
Assume compression controls, As = As/
For = 4% and fc/ = 4ksi, from table 11.2 Kc = 0.137, Pu = Kcbh2
530 = 0.650.13716h2, h = 19.3in. take h = 20in.
As = As/ = 0.041620/2 = 6.4in.2, Use 5#10, As = 6.33in.2
Choose #4 ties spaced at 18in.
Check section:
Cb = 8717.5 / (87+60) = 10.36in., a = 8.8in.,
A = 0.85416/2 = 27.2
B = 0.85416(15.5-17.5) = -108.8
C = 6.33(60-0.854) (15.5-17.5+2.5) +876.3315.5 = 8715.14
D = -876.3315.50.8517.5 = -126 973.07
a = 11.49in., c = 13.52in. > cb comp. Controls.
Cc = 0.85411.4916 = 625.23K,
Cs = 6.33(25.60-0.854) = 140.52K
fs = 87(17.5-13.52)/13.52 = 25.60ksi, T = 6.3325.60 = 162.04K
Pn = 927.79K and Pn = 603.07K > Pu, O.K. section is adequate.
Mn = 625.06(17.5-11.49/2) + 6.3315 = 620.29K.ft Mn = 403.2K.ft O.K.
Problem 11.8.b:
Given: fc/ = 4ksi, Pu = 410K, Mu = 205K.ft, b = 14in., h = 18in., d = 15.5in., d/ = 2.5in.
e = 20512/410 = 6in. Assume compression controls.
Solution:
Let As = As/, Pn = 410/0.65 = 631K
Eq. 11-17

f
bhf c/
y

Pn =
+ As/
e
3he

+ 0.5
2 + 1.18
/

d
(d d )
As/ = 3.68in.2 use 5#8 As/ = 3.93in.2,
g = 23.93 / (1418) = 0.03 < 0.08 and >0.01
Check the section:
cb = 8715.5/(87+60) = 9.17in., a = 7.8in., d// = 6.5in., e/ = 6+6.5in.
A = 0.85414/2 = 23.8,
B = 0.85414(12.5-15.5) = -142.8
11-8

## C = 3.93(60-0.854) (12.5-15.5+2.5) +873.9312.5 = 4162.66

D = -873.9312.50.8515.5 = -56 308.3
a = 10.61in., c = 12.48 > cb compression controls as assumed.
Cc = 0.85410.5914 = 505.05K,
Cs = 3.93(21.03-0.854) = 69.29K
fs = 87(15.5-12.46)/12.46 = 21.03ksi,
T = 82.65K, Pn = 656.98K, Pn = 427K > Pu
Mn = 505.05(15.5-10.61/2) + 69.2913 = 433.1K.ft, Mn = 281.52K.ft > Mu
Problem 11.8.c:
Given: fc/ = 4ksi, Pu = 480K, Mu = 640K.ft,b = 18in., = 3.5%
e = 64012/480 = 16in. assume comp. controls.
For = 3.5%, fc/ = 4ksi, from table 11.2 Kc = 0.129
Pu = Kcbh2, 515 = 0.70.12918h2, h = 17.8in., use h = 24in.
As = As/ = 0.0351824/2 = 7.56in.2, use 6#10
Check section:
Cb = 8721.5/ (87+60) = 12.72in, ab = 10.82in.
A = 0.85418/2 = 30.6
B = 0.85418(25.51-21.5) = 244.80
C = 7.59(60-0.854)(25.51-21.5+2.5) +877.5925.51 = 19630.78
D = -877.5925.510.8521.5 = -307722.03
a = 11.58in., c = 13.62in. > cb O.K,
Cc = 0.85411.5818 = 708.7K
Cs = 7.59(50.28-0.854) = 354.43K, fs = 87(21.5-13.62)/13.62 = 50.28ksi, T = 381.64K
Pn = 1444.853K, Pn = 939.15K > Pu O.K.,
Mn = 708.7(21.5-11.58/2) +7.5919
Mn = 939.89K.ft, Mn = 610.93K.ft> Mu O.K.
Problem 11.8.d:
Given: fc/ = 4ksi, Pu = 440K, Mu = 440K.ft, b = 20in., h = 20in., d = 17.5in., d/ = 2.5in.
d// = 7.5in.
Solution:
e = 44012/440 = 12in. assume comp. controls. Let As = As/
Pn = 440/0.65 = 676.9K, Use eq. 11-17 to find, As = As/ = 4.73in.2, use 6#9
g = 26/ (2020) = 0.03< 0.08 and > 0.01

11-9

Check section:
Cb = 8717.5/ (87+60) = 10.36in, ab = 8.80in.
A = 0.85420/2 = 34,
B = 0.85420(19.5-17.5) = 136,
C = 6(60-0.854) (19.5-17.5+2.5) + 87619.5 = 11 707
D = -87619.50.8517.5 = -151412
a = 9.45in., c = 11.12in. > cb comp. Controls, cb = 8717.5/(87+60) = 10.36in.
Cc = 0.8549.4520 = 642.6K
Cs = 6(49.98-40.85) = 279.48K
fs = 87(17.5-11.12)/11.2 = 49.98ksi, T = 299.88K
Pn = 1221.80K, Pn = 794.17K > Pu, O.K.]
Mn = 690.05K.ft, Mn = 448.53K.ft> Mu O.K.
Problem 11.8.e:
Given: fc/ = 4ksi, Pu = 1125K, Mu = 375K.ft, b = 20in., h = 24in., d = 21.5in., d/ = 2.5in., d// =
9.5in.
Solution:
e = 37512/1125 = 4in., e/ = 13.5in. Assume comp. controls.
Let As = As/, Pn = 1735.0K, Use eq.11-17 to find As = As/ = 7.59 in2, use 6#10
g = 7.592/ (2024) = 0.0316 > 0.01, and < 0.08 O.K.
Check section:
Cb = 8721.5/ (87+60) = 12.72in, ab = 10.82in.
A = 0.85420/2 = 34,
B = 0.85420(13.50-21.5) = -544,
C = 7.62(60-0.854) (13.5-21.5+2.5) + 877.6213.5 = 6577.58
D = -877.6240.8521.5 = -163555.58
a = 21.72in., c = 25.55in. > cb comp. Controls,
Cc = 0.85421.7220 = 1477.02K
Cs = 7.62(13.80-0.854) = 79.26K, fs = 87(25.55-21.5)/25.55 = 13.80, T = 105.17K
Pn = 1661.46 K, Pn = 1079.95K O.K.
Mn = 1322.06K.ft, Mn = 859.34K.ft> Mu O.K.

11-10

Problem 11.8.f:
Given: fc/ = 4ksi, Pu = 710K, Mu = 473K.ft, b = 18in., = 3%, e = 47312/710 = 8in.
Solution:
Assume comp. Controls for = 3%, fc/ = 4ksi, from table 11.2; Kc = 0.1213
710 = 0.650.121318h2, h = 22.37in., use h = 24in.
As = As/ = 0.031824/2 = 6.48in.2, Use 5#10
Check section:
cb = 8721.5/(87+60) = 12.72in, ab = 10.82in,
A = 30.6, B = -245.14, C = 9094.89, D = -176067.24
a = 14.65in., c = 17.24in. > cb O.K.,
Cc = 0.85414.6118 = 896.59 K
Cs = 6.33(21.53-400.85) = 117.46K, fs/ = 87(21.5-17.24)/17.24 = 21.53ksi, T = 136.26K
Pn = 1150.31 K, Pn = 747.7 K > Pn O.K.
Mn = 1069.12K.ft, Mn = 694.92K.ft> Mu O.K.
Problem 11.8.g:
Given: fc/ = 5ksi, Pu = 300K, Mu = 300K.ft, b = 14in., = 2%, e = 30012/300 = 12in.
Solution:
Assume comp. controls.
For = 2%, fc/ = 5ksi, from table 11.2; Kc = 0.126
300 = 0.650.12614h2, h = 15.84in., use h = 20in.,
As = As/ = 0.021420/2 = 2.8in.2, Use 3#9
Check section:
cb = 8717.5/(87+60) = 10.36in., ab = 8.8in,
A = 29.75, B = 119, C = 5 842, D = -75 706,
a = 8.44, c = 9.93in. < cb comp. does not control.
Assume tension controls:
A = 0.8614/(87+60) = 29.75,
B = 0.85514(19.5-17.5) = 119
C = 3(60-0.855) (19.5-17.5+2.5) 38719.5 = 5842.13
D = -75706.31
a = 8.44in., c = 9.93in. < cb tension controls
Cc = 0.8558.4414 = 502.33K,
Cs = 3(66.29-50.85) = 173.7K, fs/ = 87(159.93)/17.24 = 66.29ksi, T = 198.86K
Pn = 874.89 K, Pn = 568.68 K > Pn O.K.
Mn = 559.61K.ft, Mn = 363.75K.ft> Mu O.K.

11-11

Problem 11.8.h:
Given: fc/ = 5K, Pu = 1000 K, Mu = 665K.ft, b = 20in., h = 26in., d = 23.5in., d/ = 2.5in., d// =
10.5in.

Solution:
e = 66512/1000 = 8.00in., let As = As/, Pn = 1000/0.65 = 1538K
Use eq. 11.17 to find As = As/ = 6.57in.2, use 6#10
= 27.59/ (2620) = 0.03> 0.01 and < 0.08 O.K.
Check section:
cb = 8723.5/(87+60) = 13.9in., ab = 11.8in.
Assume comp. controls.
A = 42.5, B = -426.70, C = 11180.60, D = -244716.35
a = 16.1 in., c = 18.94in > cb O.K. comp. controls as assumed.
Cc = 0.85516.120 = 1368.70K,
Cs = 7.59(20.92-50.85) = 127.05K
fs = 87(23.5-18.8)/18.8 = 20.92ksi, T = 159.44K
Pn = 1655.19K, Pn = 1075.87 K > Pu, O.K.
Problem 11.8.i:
Given: fc/ = 6ksi, Pu = 590K, Mu = 197K.ft, b = 14in., = 2%, e = 19712/590 = 4in.
Solution:
For = 2%, and fc/ = 6ksi, from table 11.2; Kc = 0.145
590 = 0.650.14514h2, h = 20.9in., use h = 18 in.
As = As/ = 0.022014/2 = 2.8in.2, Use 3#9 As = 3.00 in2
Check section:
cb = 8717.5/(87+60) = 10.36in., ab = 8.8in.
Assume comp. controls
A = 35.7, B = -427.92, C=2427.94, D = -44673.63
a = 15.23 in., c = 17.92 in. > cb O.K. comp. controls as assumed.
Cc = 0.85615.2314 = 1087.57K
Cs = 2.53(2.04-0.856) = -8.57K
fs = 87(17.92-9)/15.9 = 2.04ksi, T = 6.12 K
Pn = 1085.12K, Pn = 705.33 K > Pu

11-12

Problem 11.8.j
Given: fc/ = 6ksi, Pu = 664K, Mu = 332K.ft, b = 16in., h = 20in., d = 17.5in., d/ = 2.5in., d// =
7.5in.
e = 33212/664 = 6in., Pn = 664/0.65 = 991K, use eq. 11.17 to find:
As = As/ = 2.64in2, Use 4#9, = 42/ (1620) = 0.03 > 0.01 and < 0.08 O.K.
Check section:
cb = 8717.5/(87+60) = 10.4in., ab = 8.8in.
Assume comp. controls, a = 11.61 in., c = 13.66 in. > cb comp. controls
Cc = 0.85610.8916 = 947.22 K,
Cs = 4(24.49-0.856) = 77.54K
fs = 87(17.5-13.6)/13.6 = 24.49ksi, T = 97.94 K
Pn = 1122.7 K, Pn = 729.75 K > Pu, O.K. section is adequate.
Problem 11.9.a:
Solution: Refer to problem 11.2.b
fc/ = 4ksi, = (11.5-2.5)/14 = 0.64, e/h = 6/14 = 0.43, = 23.14/(1414) = 0.03,
Pn = 407K from 11.2b, Pn = 265K
From chart 11.16.a; Pn / (Ag fc) = 0.5, Pn = 254.8K
From chart 11.16.b; Pn / (Ag fc) = 0.55, Pn = 280.3K
By interpolation
Pn = 265K compared to 265 K by calculation.
Problem 11.9.b:
Solution: Refer to problem 11.2.d
= (23.5-2.5)/26 = 0.81, e/h = 6/26 = 0.23, = 27.59/ (2618) = 0.032
Pn = 1528K from 11.2b, Pn = 993.2K
From chart 11.16.c; Pn / (Ag fc) = 0.81, Pn = 985.6K
From char 11.16.d; Pn / (Ag fc) = 0.85, Pn = 1034.3K
By interpolation, Pn = 991K compared to 993.2 K by calculation.
Problem 11.9.c:
Solution: Refer to problem 11.2.f
= (15.5-2.5)/18 = 0.72, e/h = 6/18 = 0.33, = 25.06/ (1418) = 0.0402
Pn = 715K from 11.2b, Pn = 465K
From chart 11.16.b; Pn / (Ag fc) = 0.7, Pn = 459K
From char 11.16.c; Pn / (Ag fc) = 0.73, Pn = 478.3K,
By interpolation Pn = 462.9K compared to 465 K by calculation.
11-13

Problem 11.9.d:
Solution: Refer to problem 11.8.a
Mu = 353K.ft, Pu = 530K, e = 35312/530 = 8in., b = 16in., assume h = 20in.
= (17.5-2.5)/20 = 0.75, from chart 11.16.b & c, e/h = 8/20 = 0.4
Kn = Pn / (bhfc) = 530/ (162040.65) = 0.637, = 0.036 from interpolation (0.039+0.034)/2 =
0.036
As = As/ = 0.0361620/2 = 5.8in2, Use 5#10, As = 6.33in.2
Problem 11.9.e:
Solution: Refer to problem 11.8.c
Mu = 640K.ft, Pu = 480K, e = 16in., b = 18in., assume h = 24in., = (21.5-2.5)/24 = 0.79
From chart 11.16.c & d, e/h = 16/24 = 0.67
Pn / (bhfc) = 480 / (182440.65) = 0.43, = 0.03
As = As/ = 0.031824/2 = 6.48in.2, Use 6#10, As = 7.59in.2
Problem 11.9.f:
Solution: Refer to problem 11.8.e
Mu = 375K.ft, Pu = 1125K, e = 4in., b = 20in., assume h = 24in., = (21.5-2.5)/24 = 0.79
e / h = 4 / 24 = 0.17, Pn / (bhfc) = 0.9, From chart 11.16.c, = 0.03
As = As/ = 0.032024/2 = 7.2in.2, Use 7#10, As = 7.59in.2
Problem 11.10:
Solution:
d = 6+3.08 = 9.08in., cb = 879.08/ (87+60) = 5.38in., a = 4.57in.
cos = (r a)/r = 1.43/6, = 76.21 = 1.33 radians,
Segment area = 62(1.33-sin76.21 cos76.21) = 39.55in.2,
X = 26sin376.21/ [3 (1.33 (sin 76.21) (cos76.21))] = 3.34in.
Cc = 0.85 fc x area of segment = 0.85439.55 = 134.47K,
T1 = 602 = 120K,
s2 = (3.08-0.62)0.003/5.38 = 0.0014; fs2 = 39.78ksi, Cs2 = 72.76K
s3 = 0.620.00207 / (3.08+0.62) = 0.0003; fs3 = 10.06, T3 = 20.12K
Pb = 67.11K, Pb = 43.62K
Mb = 134.473.34+1203.08+72.763.08 = 86.9K.ft, Mb = 56.5K.ft, e = 15.54in.

11-14

Problem 11.11:
Solution:
d = 5.07 + 8 = 13.07in., cb = 8713.07 / (87+60) = 7.74in., a = 6.59in.
cos = 1.41/8 = 79.85 = 1.39 radians
Segment area = 82[1.39- (sin 1.39)(cos 1.39)] = 78.09in.2
X = 28sin31.39/[3(1.39-(sin 1.39)(cos1.39))] = 4.18in.
Cc = 0.85477.86 = 265.5K, T1 = 21.2760 = 152.4K
s2 = (2.13+0.26) 0.00207 / (5.07+0.26) = 0.0009, fs2 = 26.96ksi, T2 = 68.48K
s3 = (2.1-0.26) 0.003/7.74 = 0.0007, fs3 = 21.00ksi, Cs3 = 44.69K
s4 = (5.07+0.26) 0.003/7.74 = 0.0021, fs4 = 60.00ksi, Cs4 = 143.76K
Pb = 217.96K, Pb = 141.68 K
Mb = 265.54.18+152.45.07+68.482.1+44.692.1+143.765.07 = 237.48K.ft
Mb = 154.36K.ft, eb = 12.23 in.
Problem 11.12:
Solution:
d = 10+7.12 = 17.12in., cb = 8717.12 / (87+60) = 10.13in., ab = 8.6in.
cos = 1.39/10 = 82.02 = 1.43 radians.
Segment area = 102[1.43-(sin1.43) (cos1.43)] = 129.38in.2
X = 210sin31.43 / [1.43-(sin1.43)(cos1.43)] = 5.01in.
Cc = 0.854129.38 = 439.90K, T1 = 21.2760 = 152.4K
2 = (2.37+0.13)0.00207/(7.12+0.13) = 0.0007, fs2 = 20.69ksi, T = 52.55K
s3 = 0.130.003/10.13 = 3.8510-5, fs3 = 1.12ksi, Cs3 = Zero,
s4 = (2.37-0.13)0.003/10.13 = 0.0007, fs4 = 19.21ksi, Cs4 = 40.17K
s5 = (7.12+0.13)0.003/10.13 = 0.0021, fs5 = 62.27ksi use 60 ksi, Cs5 = 143.76K
Pb = 418.88K, Pb = 272.27K
Mb = 439.455.01+152.47.12+52.554.19+40.174.19+143.767.12 = 377.38K.ft
Mb = 245.29K.ft, eb = 10.81in.

11-15

Problem 11.13:
Solution:
d = 12+9.24 = 21.2in., cb = 8721.2 / (87+60) = 12.57in., ab = 10.68in.
cos = 1.32/12, = 83.7 = 1.46 radians.
Segment area = 122[1.46-(sin 1.46) (cos1.46)] = 194.67 in2
X = (212sin31.46)/[3[1.46-(sin 1.46) (cos1.46)]] = 5.82in.
Cc = 0.854194.67 = 661.9K, T1 = 260 = 120K
s2 = (2.22+0.57) 0.00207/(9.56+0.57) = 0.0006, fs/ = 17.06ksi, T2 = 34.12K
s3 = (4.80+0.57) 0.00207/(9.56+0.57) = 0.001, fs3 = 28.11ksi, T3 = 56.22K
s4 = (4.80-0.57) 0.003/12.57 = 0.0011, fs4 = 32.88ksi, Cs4 = 65.76K
s5 = (2.22-0.57) 0.003/12.57 = 0.0010, fs5 = 29.30ksi, Cs5 = 58.60K
s6 = (9.24+0.57) 0.003/12.57 = 0.0023, fs6 = 67.88ksi, Cs6 = 128.96K
Pb = 652.73K, Pb = 424.28K
Mb = 661.45.82+1209.24+34.122.22+56.224.80+65.764.80+58.602.22+ 128.969.24 =
571.20K.ft, Mb = 371.28K.ft, eb = 10.50in.
Problem 11.14.a:
Solution:
e = 6in., c = 6.14in., a = 5.22in., = 0.05, h = 12 in, Ds = 7 in, Ast (6#9) = 6 in2, Ag = 113.10
in2, Pn = 199.9K, Mn = 99.95K.ft
Pn = 129.93K (tied)
Mn = 64.97K.ft (tied)

11-16

Problem 11.14.b:
Solution:
e = 6in., c = 9.35in., a = 7.95in., = 0.05, h = 16 in, Ds = 11 in, Ast (8#10) = 10.16 in2, Ag =
201.06 in2,Pn = 464.66K, Mn = 232.33K.ft
Pn = 302.03K (tied)
Mn = 151.01K.ft (tied)
Problem 11.14.c:
Solution:
e = 6in., c = 12.24in., a = 10.4in., = 0.04, h = 20 in, Ds = 15 in, Ast (10#10) = 12.7 in2, Ag =
314.16 in2, Pn = 783.06K, Mn = 391.53K.ft
Pn = 509K (tied)
Mn = 254.49K.ft (tied)
Problem 11.14.d:
Solution:
e = 6in., c = 15.47in., a = 13.155in., = 0.0265, h = 24 in, Ds = 19 in, Ast (12#9) = 12 in2, Ag
= 452.39 in2, Pn = 1083.30K, Mn = 541.65K.ft
Pn = 704.14K (tied)
Mn = 352.07K.ft (tied)
Problem 11.15.a:
Given: fc/ = 4ksi, fy = 60ksi, ey = 8in., d = 21.5in., d/ = 2.5in., d// = 9.5in., e/ = 17.5in.
Solution:
cb = 8721.5/(87+60) = 12.7in., ab = 10.8in.
Cc = 0.85410.816 = 588.4K, fs/ = 87(12.7-2.5)/12.72 = 69.9ksi, Use fs/ = 60ksi
Cs = 5.08(60-3.4) = 287.5K, fs = 87(21.5-12.7)/12.7 = 60ksi
T = 5.0860 = 304.8K
Pbx = 571.1K, Pbx = 371.22K,
Mbx = 588.4(21.5-10.82/2-9.5) + 287.5(21.5-2.5-9.5) + 304.89.5 = 792.1K.ft
eb = 16.64in.
e<eb compression controls.
A = 27.2, B = -217.6, C = 7 303.0, D = -141344.3
a = 14.4in., c = 16.95in.
Cc = 0.85414.416 = 783.36K,
Cs = 5.08(60-0.854) = 287.5K
fs = 87(21.5-16.9)/16.9 = 23.4ksi
T = 118.75K, Pnx = 952.4K, Mnx = 634.93K.ft
ex = 6in., d = 13.5in., d/ = 2.5in., d// = 5.5in., e/ = 11.5in.
cb = 8713.5/(87+60) = 7.99in., ab = 6.79in.,
Cc = 0.8546.7924 = 554.1K, fs/ = 87(7.99-2.5)/7.99 = 59.8ksi
Cs = 5.08(59.8-3.4) = 287.5K,
11-17

T = 5.0859.8 = 303.6K,
Pby = 538 K,
Mby = 554.1(13.5-6.79/2-5.5) + 287.5(13.5-2.5-5.5) + 303.65.5 = 484 K.ft,
eby = 10.79in.
e<eby compression controls.
A = 40.8, B = -163.2, C = 5 226.3, D = -58 322.1
a = 8.56in., c = 10.07in.
Cc = 0.8548.5624 = 698.16K
Cs = 5.08(60-3.4) = 287.5K
fs = 87(13.5-10.06)/10.06 = 29.68ksi,
T = 150.8K
Pny = 834.9K, Mny = 417.45K.ft
Pno = 0.85fc/Ag+Ast (fy-0.85fc/) = 0.8541624+15.18(60-0.854) = 2168K
1
1
1
1
=
+

## Pn Pnx Pny Pno

1
1
1
1
=
+

Pn
95126
.
83355
.
2164

Pn = 559.76 K, Pn = 363.8 K
Problem 11.15.b:
Given: fc/ = 4ksi, fy = 60ksi, ey = 8in., d = 17.5in., d/ = 2.5in., d// = 7.5in., e/ = 15.5in.
Solution:
cb = 8717.5/(87+60) = 10.36in., ab = 8.8in.
Cc = 0.8548.820 = 598.6K
Cs = 6.35(60-3.4) = 359.4K
T = 6.3560 = 381K
Pbx = 577.05K
Mbx = 598.6(17.5-8.8/2-7.5) + 359.4(17.5-2.5-7.5) + 3817.5 = 740.55K.ft
ebx = 15.4in.
e<eb compression controls.
A = 34, B = -136, C = 8742, D = -127374.3
a = 11.13in., c = 13.1in.
Cc = 0.85411.1320 = 757K
Cs = 6.3556.6 = 359.41K, fs = 87(17.5-13.1)/13.1 = 29.3ksi,
T = 185.8K
Pnx = 930.64K, Mnx = 620.43K.ft
ex = 6in., e/ = 13.5in.
A = 34, B = -272, C = 6919, D = -110938.9
a = 12.53in., c = 14.75in.
Cc = 0.85412.5320 = 852.3K
11-18

Cs = 6.3556.6 = 359.4K
fs = 87(17.5-14.75)/14.75 = 16.25ksi
T = 103K
Pny = 1108 K, Mny = 554.26K.ft
Pno = 0.8542020+20.3256.6 = 2505.5K
Pn = 634 K, Pn = 412.1 K
Problem 11.15.c:
Given: fc/ = 4ksi, fy = 60ksi, ey = 8in., d = 17.5in., d/ = 2.5in., d// = 7.5in., e/ = 15.5in.
Solution:
cb = 8717.5/(87+60) = 10.36in., ab = 8.8in.
Cc = 0.8548.814 = 419.05K
Cs = 3(60-0.854) = 169.8K
T = 603 = 180K
Pbx = 408.85K
Mbx = 419.05(17.5-8.8-7.5) +169.8(17.5-2.5-7.5) +1807.5 = 414.1K.ft
eb = 12.16in.

## e<eb compression controls.

A = 23.8, B = -95.2, C = 4130.4, D = -60 176.8
a = 10.48in., c = 12.32in.
Cc = 0.85410.4814 = 498.62K
Cs = 3(60-0.854) = 169.8K
fs = 87(17.5-12.32)/12.32 = 36.48ksi
T = 109.63K, Pnx = 558.8K, Mnx = 372.53K.ft
ex = 6in., d = 11.5in., d/ = 2.5in., d// = 4.5in., e/ = 10.5in.
cb = 8711.5/(87+60) = 6.81in., ab = 5.79in.
Cc = 0.8545.7920 = 393.4K
fs/ = 87(6.81-2.5)/6.81 = 55.04ksi, Cs = 3(55.04-0.854) = 155K
T = 355.04 = 165.13K, Pby = 383.19K
Mby = 393.4(11.5-5.79/2-4.5) + 155(11.5-2.5-4.5) + 165.134.5 = 260.3K.ft
eb = 7.98in.
e < eb compression controls
A = 34, B = -68, C = 2 995, D = - 26 788.4
a = 6.63in., c = 7.8in.
Cc = 0.8546.6320 = 450.9K
Cs = 3(60-3.4) = 169.8K
fs = 87(11.5-7.8)/7.8 = 41.24ksi
T = 123.7K
Pny = 497K, Mny = 248.5K.ft
Pno = 0.8541420+856.6 = 1404.8 K, Pn = 323 K., Pn = 210 K.
11-19

Problem 11.15.d:
Given: fc/ = 4ksi, fy = 60ksi, ey = 8in., ey = 8in., d = 21.5in., d/ = 2.5in., d// = 9.5in.
e/ = 17.5in.
Solution:
cb = 8721.5/(87+60) = 12.7in., ab = 10.8in.
Cc = 0.85410.820 = 735.5K
Cs = 5(60-3.4) = 283K
T = 560 = 300K, Pbx = 718.5K
Mbx = 735.5(21.5-10.8/2-9.5) + 283(21.5-2.5-9.5) + 3009.5 = 865.6K.ft, ebx = 14.5in.
ey < eb compression controls.
A = 34, B = -272, C = 7 188, D = -139 118
a = 13.92in., c = 16.4in.
Cc = 0.85413.920 = 946.8K
Cs = 5(60-0.854) = 283K
fs = 87(21.5-16.4)/16.4 = 27.2ksi
T = 135.97K
Pnx = 1 093.8K, Mnx = 729.2K.ft
ex = 6in., d = 17.5in., d/ = 2.5in., d// = 7.5in., e/ = 13.5in.
cb = 8717.5/(87+60) = 10.4in., ab = 8.8in.
Cc = 0.8548.824 = 718.4K
Cs = 5(60-3.4) = 283K
T = 560 = 300K, Pby = 701.4K
Mby = 718.4(17.5-8.8/2-7.5) + 283(17.5-2.5-7.5) + 3007.5 = 699.5K.ft, eby = 12 in.
e<eb compression controls.
A = 40.8, B = -326.4, C = 5448, D = -87 353
a = 11.9in., c = 14in.
Cc = 0.85411.924 = 971K
Cs = 5(60-0.854) = 283K
fs = 87(17.5-17) / 14 = 21.76ksi, T = 108.78K
Pny = 1145.2K, Mny = 572.6K.ft
Pno = 0.8542024+16(60-3.4) = 2537.6 K, Pn = 717.6 K., Pn = 466 K.

11-20

Problem 11.16.a:
Solution: Refer to problem 11.6.5;
Assume = 0.65, Pnx = 952.4K, Pux = 619.06K
Pny = 834.9K, Puy = 542.7K, Mox = 634.9K.ft, Moy = 417.45K.ft
Mnx = 8Pn, Mny = 6Pn; 6Pn/(8336) > 8Pn/(951.38), use eq. 11.34

M ny
M oy

M nx
M ox

6 Pn
8 Pn 1 0.65
+

833 6 9513
. 8 0.65
Pn = 567.17K, Pn = 368.6 K
Problem 11.16.b:
Solution: Refer to problem 11.6.6
Pnx = 930.64K, Pny = 1108.53K, Mnx = 8Pn, Mny = 6Pn
6Pn / (1108.536) < 8Pn/(930.648), use eq. 11.35, Pn = 640.9K., Pn = 416.6K
Problem 11.16.c:
Solution: Refer to problem 11.6.7
Pnx = 558.79K, Pny = 497K, 6Pn/(4976) > 8Pn/(558.798)
Use eq. 11.34, Pn = 336 K., Pn = 218 K
Problem 11.16.d:
Solution: Refer to problem 11.6.8
Pnx = 1 093.8K, Pny = 1 145.2K, 6Pn/1145.3 < 8Pn/1093.6, Use eq. 11.35
P (1-0.65) / (1145.30.65)+Pn/1093.6 = 1, Pn = 722.3 K, Pn = 469 K

11-21

Problem 11.17.a:
Solution: Refer to problem 11.6.5
tan = 6/8, = 36.87o
(Pbx-Pby)/90 = P / (90 - ), (572.5-540.46)/90 = P / (90-36.87)
P = 20.2K, Pbb = Pby+ P = 536.9+20.2 = 557.1K, Use eq. 11.40

Pn Pb M nx

Po Pb M bx

1.5

M ny
+

M by

Pn 559.4 Pn * 8
1878 559.4 + 9491.2

1.5

=1

1.5

1.5

P *6
+ n
=1
5776.7
Pn = 646 K., Pn = 420 K
Problem 11.17.b:
Solution: Refer to problem 11.6.6
= 36.87o, (576.88-576.88)/90 = P / (90-38.87), P = Zero
Use eq. 11.40, Pn = 749 K., Pn = 487 K
Problem 11.17.c:
Solution: refer to problem 11.6.7
= 36.87o, (408.68-368.7)/90 = P / (90-38.87), P = 15.15K
Pbb = 383.15+15.15 = 398.3K, use eq. 11.40, Pn = 365 K., Pn = 237 K
Problem 11.17.d:
Solution: Refer to problem 11.6.8
= 36.87o, (718.76-701.9)/90 = P / (90-38.87), P = 10.1K
Pbb = 701.4+10.1 = 711.5K, use eq. 11.40, Pn = 816 K., Pn = 530 K

## Problem 11.18 to 11.21:

Solution is similar to problems 11.6.5 to 11.6.8 for Bresler method and 11.7.7 to 11.6.8 for Hsu
method.
Results are as follow:

11-22

Problem 11.18:
Solution:
Axial load: Pno = 2168K, 0.8Pno = 1734K, 0.56Pno = 1214K
Balanced load: Pbx = 571.11K, Pby = 538.03K, Mbx = 792.15K.ft, Mby = 483.6K.ft
ebx = 16.6in., eby = 10.8in.
X-axis
A = 16.23, fs = 10.95ksi, fs/ = 60ksi, Cc = 883K, Cs = 287.5K
T = 55.6K, = 0.65, Pb = 371.22K, Pn = 1114.9K, Pu = 724.7K
Mn = 557.5K.ft, Mu = 362K.ft
Y-axis
A = 8.56, fs = 29.7ksi, fs/ = 60ksi, Cc = 698.2K, Cs = 287.5K
T = 150.8K, = 0.65, Pb = 349.7K, Pn = 834.9K, Pu = 543K
Mn = 417.4K.ft, Mu = 271K.ft
Bresler method
Pu = 398K, Pn = 612.2K
Hsu method
Pu = 455K, Pn = 700K
Problem 11.19:
Solution:
Axial load: Pno = 2510K, 0.8Pno = 2008K, 0.56Pno = 1406K
Balanced load: Pbx = 577.1K, Pby = 577.1K, Mbx = 742K.ft, Mby = 742K.ft
ebx = 15.4in., eby = 15.4in.
X-axis
A = 12.53, fs = 16.3ksi, fs/ = 60ksi, Cc = 852.3K, Cs = 359.4K
T = 103.2K, = 0.65, Pb = 375.1K, Pn = 1109K, Pu = 721K
Mn = 554.3K.ft, Mu = 360K.ft
Y-axis
A = 12.53, fs = 16.3ksi, fs/ = 60ksi, Cc = 852.3K, Cs = 359.4K
T = 103.2K, = 0.65, Pb = 375.1K, Pn = 1109K, Pu = 721K
Mn = 554.3K.ft, Mu = 360K.ft
Bresler method
Pu = 462.6K, Pn = 711.7K
Hsu method
Pu = 550 K, Pn = 846.3K

11-23

Problem 11.20:
Solution:
Axial load: Pno = 1404.8K, 0.8Pno = 1123.8K, 0.56Pno = 786.68K
Balanced load: Pbx = 408.85K, Pby = 398.1K, Mbx = 414.12K.ft, Mby = 260.25K.ft
ebx = 12.2in., eby = 7.8in.
X-axis
A = 11.94, fs = 21.37ksi, fs/ = 60ksi, Cc = 568.4K, Cs = 169.8K
T = 64.11K, = 0.65, Pb = 265.75K, Pn = 674.1K, Pu = 438K
Mn = 337.1K.ft, Mu = 219K.ft
Y-axis
A = 6.63, fs = 41.24ksi, fs/ = 55ksi, Cc = 450.9K, Cs = 169.8K
T = 123.7K, = 0.65, Pb = 258.7K, Pn = 497K, Pu = 323K
Mn = 248.5K.ft, Mu = 161.5K.ft
Bresler method
Pu = 233.4K, Pn = 359K
Hsu method
Pu = 259.2K, Pn = 398.8K
Problem 11.21:
Solution:
Axial load: Pno = 2537.6K, 0.8Pno = 2030.08K, 0.56Pno = 1421.1K
Balanced load: Pbx = 718.5K, Pby = 701.4K, Mbx = 865.6K.ft, Mby = 699.5K.ft
ebx = 14.5in., eby = 11.97in.
X-axis
A = 15.8, fs = 13.6ksi, fs/ = 60ksi, Cc = 1074.7K, Cs = 283.00K
T = 67.99K, = 0.65, Pb = 467.01K, Pn = 1289.7K, Pu = 838.3K
Mn = 644.86K.ft, Mu = 419.2K.ft
Y-axis
A = 11.899, fs = 21.76ksi, fs/ = 60ksi, Cc = 970.98K, Cs = 283K
T = 108.78K, = 0.65, Pb = 455.89K, Pn = 1145.2K, Pu = 744.4K
Mn = 572.6K.ft, Mu = 372.2K.ft
Bresler method
Pu = 518.1K, Pn = 797.1K
Hsu method
Pu = 587K, Pn = 902.5K

11-24

CHAPTER 12
SLENDER COLUMNS
Problem 12.1:
Given: Braced Frame, lu = 18 ft.
Solution:
Pu = (1.2) (128) + (1.6) (95) = 306 kips; Mu = (1.2) (117) + (1.6) (100) = 300.4 k-ft.
e = Mu / Pu = (300.4) (12) / (306) = 11.8 in.
2.) Check the slenderness effect; k = 1.0 for braced frame
(K lu) / r 34-12(M1 / M2), r = 0.288(20) = 5.76 in.2
(1) (18) (12) / 5.76 = 37.5 > 22
Therefore; consider the slenderness effect.

## 3.) Calculate EI: EI = [(0.20 Ec Ig) + (Es Ise)] / (1 + dns)

dns = (1.2) (128) / (306) = 0.50196 Ec = 57000 4000 = 3,604.99653 ksi.
Ig = (14) (20)3 / 12 = 9,333.33 in.4 Es = 29,000 ksi.
Ise = (2) (5) [(20-5) / 2]2 = 562.5 in.4
EI = [(0.20) (3,604.99653)(9,333.33) + (29,000)(562.5)] / (1+ 0.50196)
EI = 15,341,171 k- in.2
4.) Calculate Pc : Pc = (2 EI) / (k lu)2
Pc = (2 15,341,171) / (1812)2 = 3,245.269 kips
5.) Calculate Cm: Cm =0.60 + 0.40(M1 / M2) = 1.0
6.) Calculate moment magnifier factor
ns = Cm / [1- (Pu / (0.75 Pc))] = 1.0 / [1- (306 / (0.75 3245.269))] = 1.144
7.) Calculate the design moment
Pn = 306 / 0.65 = 470.8 kips; Mn = 300.4 / 0.65 = 462.2 k-ft.
Mc = 462.2 1.144 = 528.76 k-ft.
e = (528.76 12) / 470.8 = 13.48 in.
8.) Calculate the nominal load capacity, Pn = Cc + Cs -T
Cc = (0.85) (4) (a) (14) = 47.6a kips
Cs = 5(60 - 3.4) = 283 kips
T = (5) (34) = 170 kips
Pn = 47.6a + 283 -170 = 47.6a -113 (I)
12-1

## Pn = [Cc (d - a/2) + Cs (d - d)] / e, e = 13.48 + 17.5 - 10 = 20.98 in.

Pn = [47.6a (17.5 - a/2) + 283 (17.5 - 2.5)] / 20.98
Pn = 39.704a -1.134a2 + 202.336 (II)
Equating (I) and (II)
47.6a -113 = 39.704a -1.134a2 + 202.336, a = 13.55 in.
Substitute a in (I)
Pn = 47.6 (13.55) - 113 = 531.98 kips > 470.8 kips
Pn = (0.65) (531.98) = 345.787 kips > Pu = 306 Kips
Problem 12.2:
Given: Braced Frame, lu = 12 ft.
Solution:
k = 1.0 for braced frame
Pu = (1.2) (128) + (1.6)(95) = 306 kips, Mu = (1.2) (117) + (1.6) (100) = 300.4 k-ft.
e = Mu / Pu = (300.4)(12) / (306) = 11.8 in.
2.) Check the slenderness effect,
(K lu) / r 34-12(M1 / M2)
r = 0.288 h = (0.288) (20) = 5.76, (1) (12) (12) / 5.76 = 25 > 22
Therefore; consider the slenderness effect.
3.) Calculate EI: EI = [(0.20 Ec Ig) + (Es Ise)] / (1 + dns)
dns = (1.2) (128) / (306) = 0.50196, Ec = 57,000 4000 = 3,604.99653 ksi.
Ig = (14) (20)3 / 12 = 9,333.33 in.4
Es = 29,000 ksi.
Ise = (2) (5) [(20-5) / 2]2 = 562.5 in.4
EI = [(0.20) (3,604.99653) (9,333.33) + (29,000) (562.5)] / (1+ 0.50196)
EI = 15341171 k- in.2
4.) Calculate Pc : Pc = (2 EI) / (k lu)2
Pc = (2 15,341,171) / (1212)2 = 7,301.856 kips
5.) Calculate Cm:

## 6.) Calculate moment magnifier factor, ns = Cm / [1- (Pu / 0.75 Pc)]

ns = 1.0 / [1- (306 / 0.75 7,301.856)] = 1.06
7.) Calculate the design moment
Pn = 306 / 0.65 = 470.8 kips;
Mn = 300.4 / 0.65 = 462.2 k-ft.
Mc = 462.2 1.06 = 489.932 k-ft.; e = (489.932 12)/ 470.8 = 12.5 in.
8.) Calculate the nominal load capacity, Pn = Cc + Cs -T
Cc = (0.85) (4) (a) (14) = 47.6a kips, Cs = 5(60 - 3.4) = 283 kips
12-2

## T = (5) (34) = 170 kips

Pn = 47.6a + 283 -170 = 47.6a -113 (I)
Pn = [Cc (d - a/2) + Cs (d - d)] / e; e = 12.5 + 17.5 - 10 = 20.0 in.
Pn = [47.6a (17.5 - a/2) + 283 (17.5 - 2.5)] / 20.0
Pn = 41.65a -1.19a2 + 212.25 (II)
Equating (I) and (II);
47.6a -113 = 41.65a -1.19a2 + 212.25;

a = 14.22 in.

Substitute a in (I);
Pn = 47.6 (14.22) - 113 = 563.87 kips > 470.8 kips
Pn = (0.65) (563.87) = 366.52 kips > Pu
Problem 12.3:
Given: Unbraced Frame, lu = 14 ft., top = 0.7 and bottom = 1.8, k = 1.37
Solution:
Pu = (1.2) (128) + (1.6) (95) = 306 kips; Mu = (1.2) (117) + (1.6) (100) = 300.4 k-ft.
e = Mu / Pu = (300.4) (12) / (306) = 11.8 in.
2.) Check the slenderness effect,
(K lu) / r 34-12(M1 / M2)
r = 0.288 h = (0.288) (20) = 5.76,
(1.37) (14) (12) / 5.76 = 39.958 > 22
Therefore; consider the slenderness effect.
3.) Calculate EI:
EI = [(0.20 Ec Ig) + (Es Ise)] / (1 + dns)
dns = (1.2) (128) / (306) = 0.50196, Ec = 57,000 4000 = 3,604.99653 ksi.
Ig = (14) (20)3 / 12 = 9,333.33 in.4 Es = 29,000 ksi.
Ise = (2) (5) [(20-5) / 2]2 = 562.5 in.4
EI = [(0.20) (3,604.99653) (9,333.33) + (29,000) (562.5)] / (1+ 0.50196)
EI = 15,341,171 k- in.2
4.) Calculate Pc: Pc = (2 EI) / (k lu)2
Pc = (2 15,341,171) / (1.37)(1412)2 = 3,915.788 kips
5.) Calculate Cm:

## 6.) Calculate moment magnifier factor, ns = Cm / [1- (Pu / 0.75 Pc)]

ns = 1.0 / [1- (306 / (0.75 3,915.788))] = 1.116
7.) Calculate the design moment
Pn = 306 / 0.65 = 470.8 kips; Mn = 300.4 / 0.65 = 462.2 k-ft.
Mc = 462.2 1.116 = 515.82 k-ft., e = (515.82 12)/ 470.8 = 13.15 in.
12-3

## Assume tension control

8.) Calculate the nominal load capacity,
Pn = Cc + Cs -T
Cc = (0.85) (4) (a) (14) = 47.6a kips;
Cs = 5(60 - 3.4) = 283 kips
T = (5) (34) = 170 kips
Pn = 47.6a + 283 -170 = 47.6a -113 (I)
Pn = [Cc (d - a/2) + Cs (d - d)] / e
e = 13.15 + 17.5 - 10 = 20.65 in.
Pn = [47.6a (17.5 - a/2) + 283 (17.5 - 2.5)] / 20.65
Pn = 40.34a -1.153a2 + 205.57 (II)
Equating (I) and (II);
47.6a -113 = 40.34a -1.153a2 + 205.57;

a = 13.77 in.

Substitute a in (I)
Pn = 47.6 (13.77) - 113 = 542.45 kips > 470.8 kips
Pn = (0.65) (542.45) = 352.6 kips > Pu
Problem 12.4:
Given: Unbraced Frame, lu = 16 ft., top = 2.0 and bottom = 1.0, k = 1.45
Pu = (1.2) (166) + (1.6) (115) = 383 kips, Mu = (1.2) (107) + (1.6) (80) = 256.4 k-ft.
e = Mu / Pu = (256.4) (12) / (383) = 8.03 in.
2.) Check the slenderness effect,
(K lu) / r 34-12(M1 / M2)
r = 0.288 h = (0.288) (24) = 6.912
(1.45) (16) (12) / 6.912 = 40.277 > (34 - 12(1 / 1.5)) = 26
Therefore; consider the slenderness effect.
3.) Calculate EI:
EI = [(0.20 Ec Ig) + (Es Ise)] / (1 + dns)
dns = (1.2) (166) / (383) = 0.52
Ec = 57,000 5000 = 4,030.508 ksi.
3
4
Ig = (20) (24) / 12 = 23,040 in.
Es = 29,000 ksi.
Ise = (15.19) (9.5)2 = 1,370.8975 in.4
EI = [(0.20) (4,030.508) (23,040) + (29,000) (1,370.8975)] / (1+ 0.52)
EI = 38,374,084.45 k- in.2
4.) Calculate Pc:
Pc = (2 EI) / (k lu)2
Pc = (2 38,374,084.45) / [(1.45)(1612)2 ] = 7,085.45 kips
5.) Calculate Cm:
Cm =0.60 + 0.40(1 / 1.5) = 0.8667 0.40
6.) Calculate moment magnifier factor,
ns = Cm / [1- (Pu / 0.75 Pc)]
ns = 0.8667 / [1- (383 / (0.75 7085.45))] = 0.934 < 1.0 , use 1.0
12-4

## 7.) Calculate the design moment

Pn = 383 / 0.65 = 589.23 kips;
Mn = 256.4 / 0.65 = 394.462 k-ft.
Mc = 394.462 1.0 = 394.462 k-ft. e = (394.462 12)/ 589.23 = 8.03 in.
Assume Compression control
8.) Calculate the nominal load capacity,
Using Numerical Analysis
Aa3 + Ba2 + Ca + D = 0 and e = 8.03 + 21.5 - 12 = 17.53 in.
A = 0.85fcb/2 = (0.85) (5) (20 / 2) = 42.5
B = 0.85 fcb (e - d) = (0.85) (5) (20) (17.53 - 21.5) = -337.45
C = As(fy - 0.85 fc)( e - d + d ) + 87As e
C = (7.59) (60 - (0.855)) (17.53 - 21.5 + 2.5) + (87) (7.59) (17.53) = 10,953.56
D = -87As ed = (-87) (7.59) (17.53) (0.8) (21.5) = -199,100.06
42.5a3 337.45a2 + 10,953.56a 199,100.06 = 0;
a = 13.82 in.
Pn = [Cc (d - a/2) + Cs (d - d)] / e
Cc = (0.85) (5) (13.82) (20) = 1174.70 kips
Cs = (7.59) (60 - 0.855) = 423.142 kips
Pn = [1174.7 (21.5 13.82/2) + 423.142 (21.5 - 2.5)] / 17.53
Pn = 1,436.31 kips > 589.285 kips
Pn = (0.65) (1,436.31) = 933.6 kips > Pu
Problem 12.5:
Given: Unbraced Frame, lu = 14 ft. top = 2.0 and bottom = 1.0, k = 1.45
Solution:
Pu = (1.2) (166) + (1.6) (115) = 383 kips, Mu = (1.2) (107) + (1.6) (80) = 256.4 k-ft.
e = Mu / Pu = (256.4) (12) / (383) = 8.03 in.
2.) Check the slenderness effect,
(K lu) / r 34-12(M1 / M2)
r = 0.288 h = (0.288) (24) = 6.912
(1.45) (14) (12) / 6.912 = 35.243 > (34 - 12(1 / 1.5)) = 26
Therefore; consider the slenderness effect.
3.) Calculate EI:
EI = [(0.20 Ec Ig) + (Es Ise)] / (1 + dns)
dns = (1.2) (166) / (383) = 0.52
Ec = 57,000 5000 = 4,030.508 ksi.
3
4
Ig = (20) (24) / 12 = 23,040 in.
Es = 29,000 ksi.
Ise = (15.19) (9.5)2 = 1,370.8975 in.4
EI = [(0.20) (4,030.508) (23,040) + (29,000) (1,370.8975)] / (1+ 0.52)
EI = 38,374,084.45 k- in.2

12-5

## 4.) Calculate Pc:

Pc = (2 EI) / (k lu)2
Pc = (2 38,374,084.45) / [(1.45) (1412)2] = 9,254.463 kips
5.) Calculate Cm:

## 6.) Calculate moment magnifier factor,

ns = Cm / [1- (Pu / 0.75 Pc)]
ns = 0.8667 / [1- (383 / (0.75 9,254.463))] = 0.917 < 1.0 use 1.0
7.) Calculate the design moment
Pn = 383 / 0.65 = 589.23 kips, Mn = 256.4 / 0.65 = 394.462 k-ft.
Mc = 394.462 1.0 = 394.462 k-ft.; e = (394.462 12)/ 589.23 = 8.03 in.
Assume Compression control
8.) Calculate the nominal load capacity,
Using Numerical Analysis
Aa3 + Ba2 + Ca + D = 0 and e = 8.029 + 21.5 - 12 = 17.53 in.
A = 0.85fcb/2 = (0.85) (5) (20/2) = 42.5
B = 0.85 fcb (e - d) = (0.85) (5) (20) (17.53 - 21.5) = -337.45
C = As(fy - 0.85 fc) ( e - d + d ) + 87As e
C = (7.59) (60 - (0.855)) (17.53 - 21.5 + 2.5) + (87) (7.59) (17.53) = 10,953.565
D = -87As ed = (-87) (7.59) (17.53) (0.8) (21.5) = -199,100.06
42.5a3 337.45a2 + 10,953.565a 199,100.06 = 0;
a = 13.819 in.
Pn = [Cc (d - a/2) + Cs (d - d)] / e
Cc = (0.85) (5) (13.819) (20) = 1,174.615 kips
Cs = (7.59) (60 - 0.855) = 423.1425 kips
Pn = [1,174.615 (21.5 13.819/2) + 423.1425 (21.5 - 2.5)] / 17.53
Pn = 1,436.276 kips > 589.23 kips
Pn = (0.65) (1,436.276) = 933.6 kips > Pu
Problem 12.6:
Given: Braced Frame, lu = 16 ft., k = 1.0 for Braced Frame
Solution:
Pu = (1.2) (166) + (1.6) (115) = 383 kips, Mu = (1.2) (107) + (1.6) (80) = 256.4 k-ft.
e = Mu / Pu = (256.4) (12) / (383) = 8.03 in.
2.) Check the slenderness effect,
(K lu) / r 34-12(M1 / M2)
r = 0.288 h = (0.288) (24) = 6.912 in.,
(1) (16) (12) / 6.912 = 27.778 > 22
Therefore; consider the slenderness effect.

12-6

## 3.) Calculate EI:

EI = [(0.20 Ec Ig) + (Es Ise)] / (1 + dns)
dns = (1.2) (166) / (383) = 0.52;
Ec = 57000 5000 = 4030.508 ksi.
3
4
Ig = (20) (24) / 12 = 23040 in.
Es = 29000 ksi.
Ise = (15.19) (9.5)2 = 1,370.8975 in.4
EI = [(0.20) (4030.508) (23040) + (29000) (1370.8975)] / (1+ 0.52)
EI = 38374084.45 k- in2
4.) Calculate Pc:
Pc = (2 EI) / (k lu)2
Pc = (2 38374084.45) / [(1) (1612)]2 = 10273.9 kips
5.) Calculate Cm:

Cm =0.60 + 0.40(1) = 1

## 6.) Calculate moment magnifier factor,

ns = Cm / [1- (Pu / 0.75 Pc)]
ns = 1 / [1- (383 / (0.75 10273.9))] = 1.052
7.) Calculate the design moment
Pn = 383 / 0.65 = 589.23 kips, Mn = 256.4 / 0.65 = 394.462 k-ft.
Mc = 394.462 1.052 = 414.974 k-ft.
e = (414.974 12)/ 589.23 = 8.45 in.
Assume Compression control
8.) Calculate the nominal load capacity,
Using Numerical Analysis
Aa3 + Ba2 + Ca + D = 0 and e = 8.45 + 21.5 - 12 = 17.95 in.
A = 0.85fcb/2 = (0.85) (5) (20 / 2) = 42.5
B = 0.85 fcb (e - d) = (0.85) (5) (20) (17.95 - 21.5) = -301.75
C = As(fy - 0.85 fc) ( e - d + d ) + 87As e
C = (7.59) (60 - (0.855)) (17.985 - 21.5 + 2.5) + (87) (7.59) (17.95)
C = 11408.62
D = -87As e1d = (-87) (7.59) (17.95) (0.8) (21.5) = -203870.28
42.5a3 301.75a2 + 11408.62a 203870.28 = 0;
a = 13.51 in.
Pn = [Cc (d - a/2) + Cs (d - d)] / e
Cc = (0.85) (5) (13.51) (20) = 1148.35 kips
Cs = (7.59) (60 - 0.855) = 423.1425 kips
Pn = [1148.35 (21.5 - 13.51 / 2) + 423.1425 (21.5 - 2.5)] / 17.95
Pn = 1391.205 kips > 589.23 kips
Pn = (0.65) (1391.205) = 904.283 kips > Pu

12-7

Problem 12.7:
Given: Unbraced Frame, lu = 16 ft., top = 2.0 and bottom = 1.0, k = 1.45

Solution:
Pu = (1.2) (166) + (1.6) (115) = 383 kips, Mu = (1.2) (107) + (1.6) (80) = 256.4 k-ft.
e = Mu / Pu = 8.03 in.
2.) Check the slenderness effect,
(K lu) / r < 22
r = Ig / Ag = 23040 / 480 = 6.928, (1.45) (16) (12) / 6.928 = 40.1847 > 22
Therefore; consider the slenderness effect.
3.) Calculate EI:
EI = [(0.20 Ec Ig) + (Es Ise)] / (1 + dns)
dns = (1.2) (166) / (383) = 0.52
Ec = 57000 4000 = 3604.996 ksi.
Ise = (15.19) (9.5)2 = 1370.8975 in.4
EI = [(0.20) (3604.996) (23040) + (29000) (1370.8975)] / (1+ 0.52)
EI = 37.084 106 k- in.2
4.) Calculate Pc:
Pc = (2 EI) / (k lu)2
Pc = (2 37.084 106) / [(1.45) (1612)]2 = 4722.24 kips
5.) Calculate Cm:

## 6.) Calculate moment magnifier factor,

s = 1 / [1- (Pu / 0.75 Pc)]
s = 1 / [1- (383 / 0.75 4722.24)] = 1.12 1.0
7.) Calculate the design moment
Pn = 383 / 0.65 = 589.23 kips,
Mn = 256.4 / 0.65 = 394.462 k-ft.
Mc = 394.462 1.12 = 441.797 k-ft., e = (394.462 12)/ 589.23 = 9.0 in.
Assume Compression control
8.) Calculate the nominal load capacity,
Using Numerical Analysis
3
2
Aa + Ba + Ca + D = 0 and e = 9.0 + 21.5 - 12 = 18.5 in.
A = 0.85fcb/2 = (0.85) (4) (20 / 2) = 34
B = 0.85 fcb (e - d) = (0.85) (4) (20) (18.5 - 21.5) = -204
C = As(fy - 0.85 fc)( e - d + d ) + 87As e
C = (7.59) (60 - (0.854)) (18.5 - 21.5 + 2.5) + (87) (7.59) (18.5) = 12001.308
D = -87As e1d = (-87) (7.59) (18.5) (0.85) (21.5) = -223249.319
34a3 204a2 + 12001.3082a 223249.319 = 0;
a = 14.07 in.
Pn = [Cc (d - a/2) + Cs (d - d)] / e
12-8

## Cc = (0.85) (4) (18.5) (20) = 1258 kips

Cs = (7.59) (60 - 0.854) = 429.594 kips
Pn = [1258 (21.5 14.07/2) + 429.594 (21.5 - 2.5)] / 14.07
Pn = 1873.437 kips > 589.23 kips
Pn = (0.65) (1873.437) = 1217.734 kips > Pu
Problem 12.8:
Given: Braced Frame, lu = 20 ft., k = 1.0
Solution:
Pu = (1.2) (214.5) + (1.6) (120) = 449.4 kips, Mu = (1.2) (64) + (1.6) (40) = 141 k-ft.
e = Mu / Pu = 3.765 in.
2.) Check the slenderness effect, assume h = 16 in., (K lu) / r 34-12(M1 / M2)
r = 0.288(16) = 4.608 in.,
(1) (20) (12) / 4.608 = 52.083 > 22
Therefore; consider the slenderness effect.
3.) Calculate EI:
EI = [(0.20 Ec Ig) + (Es Ise)] / (1 + dns)
dns = (1.2) (214.5) / (449.4) = 0.5728,
Ec = 57000 5000 = 4030.508 ksi.
Ig = (15) (163)/12 = 5120 in.4, Steel 5 # 10, As = As = 6.33 in.2
Ise = (2) (6.33) ((16-5) / 2)2 = 382.965 in4
EI = [(0.20) (4030.508) (5120) + (29000) (382.965)] / (1+ 0.5728)
EI = 9685418 k- in2
4.) Calculate Pc: Pc = (2 EI) / (k lu)2
Pc = (2 9685418) / [(1) (2012)]2 = 1659.6 kips
5.) Calculate Cm:

## 6.) Calculate moment magnifier factor,

ns = Cm / [1- (Pu / 0.75 Pc)] 1.0
ns = 1 / [1- (449.4 / (0.75 1659.6))] = 1.565
7.) Calculate the design moment
Pn = 449.4 / 0.65 = 691.385 kips,
Mn = 141 / 0.65 = 216.923 k-ft.
Mc = 216.923 1.565 = 339.484 k-ft., e = (339.484 12) / 691.385 = 5.89 in.
Assume Compression control
8.) Calculate the nominal load capacity,
Using Numerical Analysis
Aa3 + Ba2 + Ca + D = 0 and e = 5.89 + 13.5 - 8 = 11.39 in.
A = 0.85fcb/2 = (0.85) (5) (15 / 2) = 31.875
B = 0.85 fcb (e - d) = (0.85) (5) (15) (11.39 - 13.5) = -134.513
C = As(fy - 0.85 fc) ( e - d + d ) + 87As e
C = (6.33) (60 - (0.855)) (11.39 - 13.5 + 2.5) + (87) (6.33) (11.39) = 6410.217
12-9

## D = -87As e1d = (-87) (6.33) (11.39) (0.8) (13.5) = -67743.939

31.875a3 134.513a2 + 6410.217a 67743.939 = 0;
a = 8.803 in.
Pn = [Cc (d - a/2) + Cs (d - d)] / e
Cc = (0.85) (5) (8.803) (15) = 561.191 kips
Cs = (6.33) (60 - 0.855) = 352.89 kips
Pn = [561.191 (13.5 - 8.803 / 2) + 352.89 (13.5 - 2.5)] / 11.39
Pn = 789.094 kips > 691.385 kips
Pn = (0.65) (789.094) = 512.911 kips > Pu
Problem 12.9:
Given: Braced Frame, lu = 10 ft., k = 1.0
Solution:
Pu = (1.2) (214.5) + (1.6) (120) = 449.4 kips, Mu = (1.2) (64) + (1.6) (40) = 141 k-ft.
e = Mu / Pu = 3.765 in.
2.) Check the slenderness effect, assume h = 16 in., (K lu) / r 34-12(M1 / M2)
r = 0.288(16) = 4.608 in.,
(1)(10)(12) / 4.608 = 26.041 > 22
Therefore; consider the slenderness effect.
3.) Calculate EI:
EI = [(0.20 Ec Ig) + (Es Ise)] / (1 + dns)
dns = (1.2) (214.5) / (449.4) = 0.5728,
Ec = 57000 5000 = 4030.508 ksi.
3
4
Ig = (15) (16 )/12 = 5120 in.
Steel 5 # 10, As = As = 6.33 in2
Ise = (2) (6.33) ((16-5) / 2)2 = 382.965 in.4
EI = [(0.20) (4030.508) (5120) + (29000) (382.965)] / (1+ 0.5728)
EI = 9685418 k- in.2
4.) Calculate Pc:
Pc = (2 EI) / (k lu)2
Pc = (2 9685418) / [(1) (1012)]2 = 6638.28 kips
5.) Calculate Cm:

## 6.) Calculate moment magnifier factor,

ns = Cm / [1- (Pu / 0.75 Pc)]
ns = 1 / [1- (449.4 / (0.75 6638.28))] = 1.1
7.) Calculate the design moment
Pn = 449.4 / 0.65 = 691.385 kips,
Mn = 141 / 0.65 = 216.923 k-ft.
Mc = 216.923 1.1 = 238.615 k-ft.,
e = (238.615 12) / 691.385 = 4.142 in.
Assume Compression control
8.) Calculate the nominal load capacity,

12-10

## Aa3 + Ba2 + Ca + D = 0 and e = 4.142 + 13.5 - 8 = 9.642 in.

A = 0.85fcb/2 = (0.85) (5) (15 / 2) = 31.875
B = 0.85 fcb (e - d) = (0.85) (5) (15) (9.642 - 13.5) = -245.948
C = As(fy - 0.85 fc) ( e - d + d ) + 87As e
C = (6.33) (60 - (0.855)) (9.642 - 13.5 + 2.5) + (87) (6.33) (9.642) = 4830.711
D = -87As e1d = (-87) (6.33) (9.642) (0.8) (13.5) = -57347.415
31.875a3 245.948a2 + 4830.711a 57347.415 = 0;
a = 10.183 in.
Pn = [Cc (d - a/2) + Cs (d - d)] / e
Cc = (0.85) (5) (10.183) (15) = 649.166 kips
Cs = (6.33) (60 - 0.855) = 352.89 kips
Pn = [649.166 (13.5 - 10.183 / 2) + 352.89 (13.5 - 2.5)] / 9.642
Pn = 968.710 kips > 691.385 kips
Pn = (0.65) (968.710) = 629.662 kips > Pu
Problem 12.10:
Given: Unbraced Frame, lu = 20 ft., top = 2.5 and bottom = 1.4, k = 1.56
Solution:
Pu = (1.2) (214.5) + (1.6) (120) = 449.4 kips, Mu = (1.2) (64) + (1.6) (40) = 141 k-ft.
e = Mu / Pu = 3.765 in.
2.) Check the slenderness effect, assume h = 20 in., (K lu) / r < 22
r = 0.288(20) = 5.76 in.,
(1.56) (20) (12) / 5.76 = 65 > 22
Therefore; consider the slenderness effect.
3.) Calculate EI:
EI = [(0.20 Ec Ig) + (Es Ise)] / (1 + dns)
dns = (1.2) (214.5) / (449.4) = 0.5785,
Ec = 57000 5000 = 4030.508 ksi.
Ig = (15) (203) / 12 = 10000 in.4
Steel 5 # 10, As = As = 6.33 in.2
Ise = (2) (6.33) ((20-5) / 2)2 = 712.125 in4
EI = [(0.20) (4030.508) (10000) + (29000) (712.125)] / (1+ 0.5728)
EI = 18255749 k- in.2
4.) Calculate Pc:
Pc = (2 EI) / (k lu)2
Pc = (2 18255749) / [(1.56) (2012)] 2 = 1285.368 kips
5.) Calculate Cm:

## 6.) Calculate moment magnifier factor,

s = 1 / [1- (Pu / 0.75 Pc)]
s = 1 / [1- (449.4 / (0.75 1285.368))] = 1.872

12-11

## 7.) Calculate the design moment

Pn = 449.4 / 0.65 = 691.385 kips,
Mn = 141 / 0.65 = 216.923 k-ft.
Mc = 216.923 1.872 = 406.079 k-ft., e = (406.079 12) / 691.385 = 7.048 in.
Assume Compression control
8.) Calculate the nominal load capacity,
Using Numerical Analysis
3
2
Aa + Ba + Ca + D = 0 and e = 7.048 + 17.5 - 10 = 14.548 in.
A = 0.85fcb/2 = (0.85) (5) (15 / 2) = 31.875
B = 0.85 fcb (e - d) = (0.85) (5) (15) (14.548 17.5) = -188.19
C = As(fy - 0.85 fc) ( e - d + d ) + 87As e
C = (6.33) (60 - (0.855)) (14.548 - 17.5+ 2.5) + (87) (6.33) (14.548) = 7852.219
D = -87As e1d = (-87) (6.33) (14.548) (0.8) (17.5) = -112164.207
31.875a3 188.19a2 + 7852.219a 112164.207 = 0;
a = 11.393 in.
Taking moment about tension steel, Pn = [Cc (d - a/2) + Cs (d - d)] / e
Cc = (0.85) (5) (11.393) (15) = 726.304 kips
Cs = (6.33) (60 - 0.855) = 352.89 kips
Pn = [726.304 (17.5 11.393 / 2) + 352.89 (17.5 - 2.5)] / 14.548
Pn = 953.14 kips > 691.385 kips
Pn = (0.65) (835.947) = 619.541 kips > Pu

12-12

CHAPTER 13
FOOTINGS
Problem 13.1: Wall Footings
13.1(a): Typical example:
Given: A continuous wall, D.L. = 22 k/ft., L.L. = 12 k/ft., bottom of footing = 5 ft. below
ground level, fc= 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi Allowable soil pressure = 4 ksf., and weight of
soil = 100 pcf.
Design of wall footing.
Solution:
1.) Effective soil pressure: Assume total depth of footing = 19 in.
Weight of footing = (19)(150)/12 = 237.5 lb./ft.2
Weight of soil = (5-19/12)(100) = 341.7 lb/ft.2
qe = 4000-238-342 = 3420 lb./ft.2 = 3.42 k/ft.2
22 + 12
2.) Width of footing =
=
= 9.94 ft (app.10 ft)
Effective Soil Pressure
3.42
3.) Net upward pressure = Pu / Area
Pu = 1.2D + 1.6L = (1.2)(22) + (1.6)(12) = 45.6 k/ft.
qu = 45.6 / (101) = 4.56 k/ft.
4.) Check one-way shear: d = 19 - 3.5 = 15.5 in.
L a

10 12 15.5
Vu = qu d = 4.56

= 14.63 kip
2 2

2 2 12 12

d=

Vu
14.63 1000
=
= 14.8 in. < 15.5 in.
2 fc 'b 0.75 2 3000 12

## use actual d = 15.5 in.

5.) Calculate B.M. and As :
2

Mu =

qu L a
4.56 10
12
=

= 46.17 k.ft.
2 2 2
2 2 2 12

M u 46.17 12000
=
= 192.17 psi
2
bd 2
12(15.5)
The steel percentage is = 0.0039

Ru =

## Therefore area of steel, ! = 0.00391215.5 = 0.72 !

!(!"#) = 0.0018! = 0.33 in2
Use #7 bars @ 9 in. (As = 0.80 in.2)
6.) ldav = available development length = (1012/2) - (12/2) - 3 = 51 in.
Required ld = 42 in. < 51 in. (ld from Table 7.2, chapter 7)
7.) Longitudinal reinforcement = As(min) = 0.41 in.2, use #5 bars @ 9 in. (As = 0.41 in.2)

13-1

## Problem 13.1: Wall Footings:

General: L = length of footings, h= total depth of footing, d = h - 3.5 in., Vu1 = one-way
shear, ld = development length, ldav = available development length.
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

h (in.)

19

17

20

27

23

19

19

21

14

16

d (in.)

15.5

13.5

16.5

23.5

19.5

15.5

15.5

17.5

10.5

12.5

L (ft.)

10

7.5

8.5

15.0

11

11.5 11.0

Pu (k.)

45.6

44

59.2

69.6

64

60.8

52.8

65.6

44

51.2

qu (ksf.)

4.56

5.87

6.96

4.8

5.82

6.76

4.59

5.96

7.33

7.31

Vu1 (k.)

14.63

12.47

15.95

23.00

18.67

11.91

13.71

Mu (k.ft.)

46.17

31.00

46.79

111.00

67.96

22.91

31.09

As (in.2)

0.7

0.54

0.66

1.10

0.83

0.77

0.92

0.98

0.54

0.59

Bar No.

spacing (in.)

7.5

10

ld (in.)

48

28

33

55

55

42

55

42

24

29

ldav (in.)

51

36

41

77

55

43

59

53

27

32

Ash (in.2)

0.41

0.367

0.43

0.58

0.5

0.41

0.41

0.45

0.3

0.346

Bar No.

spacing (in.)

10

10

12

10

13-2

## Problem 13.2: Square Footings

13.2(a): Typical example: single footing:
Given: D.L. = 150 k., L.L. = 115 k., column size 1616 in. (bars = 8 #8), bottom of
footing = 6 ft. below ground level, fc= 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi Allowable soil pressure =
5 ksf.
Design a single square footing.
Solution:
1.) Assume h = 20 in., d = 20 - 3 - 1.5(1) = 15.5 in. (assuming #8 bars)
qe = 5000 - (20/12)(150) - (6 - 20/12)(100) = 4317 lb/ft.2 = 4.317 k/ft.2
Area = (150 + 115)/4.317 = 61.34 ft.2 , L = 7.84 ft., use L = 8 ft.
1.2 150 + 1.6 115
qu =
= 5.7 k/ft 2
64
2.) Check punching shear: bo = 4(a + d) = 4(16 + 15.5) = 126 in.
2

31.5
Vu = 5.7 64
= 325.5 kip

12

Required d1 =

Vu
4 f c 'bo

Check, Required d 2 =

325.5 1000
= 15.7 in
4 0.75 1.0 3000 126

Vu
d

s + 2 f c 'bo
bo

= 15.35 in

Ok

Ok

3.) Check one-way shear: x = L/2 - a/2 - d = 8/2 - 16/24 - 15.5/12 = 2.04 ft.
Vu = 5.7(8)(2.04) = 93.1 k.

= 2 ! = 0.752 300081215.5
= 122.3 > 93.1

4.) Calculate B.M. and As : (critical section at the face of the support)
x1 = L/2 - a/2 = 8/2 - 16/24 = 3.33 ft.
2
qu x1
5.7 3.332 8
Mu =
=
= 253.3 k.ft
2
2
M
253.3 12000
Ru = u2 =
= 131.78 psi
2
bd
8 12(15.5)
The steel percentage is = 0.0025
Therefore area of steel, ! = 0.002581215.5 = 3.72 !
choose 10 #6 bars, (As = 4.42 in.2)
!(!"#) = 0.0018! = 2.68 in2
Use 10#6@ 10 spacing in both directions.
13-3

## 5.) Check bearing stress at base of column.

N1 = (0.85 fcA1) = 0.65(0.8531616) = 424.3 k. > Pu = 364 k. bearing stress
Check bearing stress ! , ! = 88
! =
!!
!!

!
2!
!

## 6.) Dowels: As(min) for dowels = 0.005A1 = 0.0051616 = 1.28 in.2

Min. of 4 #8 bars from the column must be extended to footing.
7.) Development length: For #8 bars in compression,
ld =

0.02 f y db
fc '

0.02 60000 1
= 21.9 in. 0.0003(60000)(1) = 18in. 8in.
3000

Extend #8 bars of column into the footing, and bend them at 90.
8.) Check development length in footing: ld (in tension) = 33 (for #6 bars, Table 7.2)
ldav = L/2 - a/2 - 3 = (812) - (16/2) - 3 = 37 in. > 33 in., O.K.
NOTE: If ldav is less than ld , bend the bars at the ends at 90hook and check length
required as in chapter 7.

13-4

## Problem 13.2: Square Footings.

General: L = length of footing, AF = area of footing, h = total depth of footing, d = h - 4.5
in., Vu1 = one-way shear, Vu2 = 2-way (punching) shear, ld = development length, ldav = available
development length, x = number of dowel bars, N1 = bearing force, As = area of steel in each
direction, Ads = area of dowel bars in column, Ldd = length of dowel.

(a)
61.38
20
15.5
8
364
5.7
23.1
325.5
253.3
3.75

(b)
47.9
19
14.5
7
352
7.2
77.7
300
190.6
3.0

(c)
77.1
23
18.5
9
548.4
6.8
130.1
480.8
411.4
5.1

(d)
77.5
24
19.5
9
440
5.4
115.4
400.2
388.8
4.6

(e)
69.1
21
16.5
8.5
424
5.9
114.9
388.2
337.2
4.7

(f)
95.4
21
16.5
10
452
4.5
113.1
417
422.5
5.9

(g)
61.5
20
15.5
8
432
6.8
106.5
382.2
287.3
4.3

(h)
95.1
22
17.5
10
546
5.5
148.96
426.3
477.4
6.24

(i)
46.6
16
11.5
7
280
5.7
68.2
240.0
141.9
2.9

(j)
60.4
18
13.5
8
276
4.3
75.97
249.2
191.1
3.3

AF (ft. )
h (in.)
d (in.)
L (ft.)
Pu (k.)
qu (ksf.)
Vu1 (k.)
Vu2 (k.)
Mu (k.ft.)
As (in.2)
Bars
10#6
8#6
13#6 12#6 12#6 11#7 11#6
9#8
8#6
9#6
ld (in.)
33
33
33
33
29
42
29
48
29
33
ldav (in.)
37
30
41
45
41
49
36
47
30
38
424.3
537
663
238.6 433.2 565.5
716
884
696.4 334.2
N1 (k.)
X
4
4
4
7
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
1.28
1.62
2.0
5.54
0.98
1.28
1.62
2.0
1.57
1.0
Ldd (in.)
22
22
24.7
22
21.4
21.4
19
21.4
21.4
22
Note: 1) If ldav is less than ld, bend the bars at the ends at 90 hook and check length
required as in chapter 7.
2) If ldd is greater than d, extend the dowel bars into the footing and bent at 90.
Problem 13.3: Rectangular Footings:
13.3(a): Typical example:
Given: D.L. = 150 k., L.L. = 115 k., column size 1616 in. (bars = 8 #8), bottom of
footing = 6 ft. below ground level, fc= 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi Allowable soil pressure =
5 ksf., width of footing, B = 6 ft.
Design a rectangular footing.
Solution:
1.) Assume h = 20 in., d = 20 - 3 - 1.5(1) = 15.5 in.
qe = 5000 - (20/12)(150) - (6 - 20/12)(100) = 4317 lb/ft.2 = 4.317 k/ft.2
Area = (150 + 115)/4.317 = 61.38 ft.2 , L = 61.38/6 = 10.23 ft., use L = 10.5 ft.
Area of footing = 610.5 = 63 ft.2, Pu = (1.2)(150) + (1.6)(115) = 364 k.
13-5

qu =

= 5.78 k/ft 2
63

2

31.5
Vu 2 = 5.78 63
= 324.3 kip

12

## (Critical section at d/2 from the face of the support)

Check =
d=

!".!

Vu

4 f c 'bo

= 1.75 < 2 , ! = 4 ! !
324.3 1000
= 15.66 in 15.5 in
0.75 4 1.0 3000 126

3.) Check one-way shear: x = L/2 - a/2 - d = 6/2 - 16/24 - 15.5/12 = 1.04 ft.
Vu1 = 5.78(10.5)(1.04) = 63.1 k.( not critical)
2 f 'bd = 0.75 2 3000 10.5 12 15.5 = 160.4 k. > 63.1 k.

c
Shear capacity =
Long-direction: x = L/2 - a/2 - d = 10.5/2 - 16/24 - 15.5/12 = 3.29 ft.
Vu1 = 5.78 (6)(3.29) = 114.1 k.

## 2 f 'bd = 0.75 2 3000 6 12 15.5 = 91.7 k. < 114.1 k.

c
Shear capacity =
One-way shear controls. Increase h to 23 in., d = 18.5 in., qe = 4.3 ksf.,
Vu2 = is O.K., x = 3.04 ft., Vu1 = 105.5 k., Vc = 109.5 k.> Vu1 = O.K.

4.) Calculate B.M. and As : (critical section at the face of the support)
x1 = L/2 - a/2 = 6/2 - 16/24 = 2.33 ft., length of section 10.5 ft., d = 18.5 in.
Short bars:
M us =

Ru =

## qu x12 L 5.78 2.332 10.5

=
= 165.3 k.ft. (short direction)
2
2

Mu
165.3 12000
=
= 50 psi
2
bd
10.5 12 18.52
The steel percentage is = 0.00096

## Therefore area of steel, = 0.0009610.51218.5 = 2.23 !

!(!"#) = 0.0018! = 5.22 in.2 > 2.23 in.2
Choose 12 #6 bars (As = 5.3 in.2 ), spacing = ((10.5)(12) - 6)/12 = 10 in.
Distribute bars in a band width of 6 ft. and a ratio
( = L/W = 10.5/6) = 2/( + 1) = 2/(1.75 + 1) = 0.73

2
2
=
= 0.73
+ 1 10.5 + 1
6
No. of bars = (0.73)(12) = 9 bars #6, spacing = (6)(12)/8 = 9 in.
Use 2 #6 bars in each side band space at ((2.25)(12) - 3)/2 = 12 in.
Calculation for s =

13-6

5.) Long direction (long bars): length of section = 6 ft., d = 18.5 in.
x2 = L/2 - a/2 = 10.5/2 - 16/24 = 4.58 ft.
M ul =

qu x2 2 B 5.78 4.582 6
=
= 363.7 k.ft
2
2

M u 363.7 12000
=
= 177.11 psi
bd 2 8 12 (18.5)2
The steel percentage is = 0.0034
Therefore area of steel, ! = 0.003461218.5 = 4.52 !
As(min) = 0.0018bh = (0.0018)(72)(23) = 2.98 in.2 < 4.55 in.2
Choose 9 #7 bars, (As = 5.41 in.2), spacing = ((6)(12) - 6)/8 = 8.25 in.
Ru =

## 6.) Check bearing stress:

N1 = (0.85 fcA1) = 0.65(0.8531616) = 424.3 k. > Pu = 364 k., O.K.
Area of dowel required = 0.005 A1 = 0.005162 = 1.28 in.2
Extend #8 bars of column into footing.
7.) Dowel length of bars #8:

ld =

0.02 f y db
fc '

## = 22 in. 0.0003f y db = 18in. > 8in.

Extend 4#8 bars of column (at conner) to a depth, d = 18.5 in., then bend the bars 90
8.) Check development length in footing:
ld for #6 bars = 33 in., ld (provided) = (6)(12)/2) - 8 - 3 = 25 in., bend the bars.
ld for #7 bars = 48 in., ld (provided) = (10.5)(12)/2) - 8 - 3 = 52 in., O.K.
13.3(b): Typical example:
Given: D.L. = 160 k., L.L. = 100 k., column size 1818 in. (bars = 8 #9), bottom of
footing = 5 ft. below ground level, fc= 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi Allowable soil pressure =
6 ksf.
Design a rectangular footing.
Solution:
1.) Assume h = 20 in., d = 20 - 3 - 1.5(1) = 15.5 in.
qe = 6000 - (20/12)(150) - (5 - 20/12)(100) = 5420 lb/ft.2 = 5.42 k/ft.2
Area = (160 + 100)/5.42 = 48 ft.2 , L = 48/6 = 8 ft., use L = 8 ft.
Area of footing = 68 = 48 ft.2, Pu = (1.2)(160) + (1.6)(100) = 352 k.
qu = 352 / 48 = 7.33 ksf.
2.) Check punching shear: bo = 4(a + d) = 4(18 + 15.5) = 134 in.
2

33.5
Vu 2 = 7.33 48
= 294.7 kip

12

## (Critical section at d/2 from the face of the support)

Vu
294700
d=
=
= 13.4 in. < 15.5 in., o.k.
4 f c 'bo 4 0.75 3000 134
13-7

3.) Check one-way shear: short-direction, x = L/2-a/2-d = 6/2 - 18/24 - 15.5/12 = 0.96 ft.
Vu1 = 7.33(8)(0.96) = 56.2 k.
Shear capacity =
2 f c 'bd = 0.75 2 3000 8 12 15.5 = 122.25 k. > Vu .

## Long-direction, x = L/2 - a/2 - d = 8/2 - 18/24 -15.5/12 = 1.96 ft.

Vu1 = 7.33(6)(1.96) = 86.2 k.
Shear capacity =
2 f c 'bd = 0.75 2 3000 6 12 15.5 = 91.7 k. > Vu .

4.) Calculate B.M. and As : (critical section at the face of the support)
Short-direction, x1 = B/2 - a/2 = 6/2 - 18/24 = 2.25 ft., width of section 8 ft., d =
15.5 in.
M us =

## qu x12 L 7.33 2.252 8

=
= 148.4 k.ft
2
2

Ru =

Mu
148.4 12000
=
= 77.21 psi
2
2
bd
8 12 (15.5)
The steel percentage is = 0.0015

!(!"#) =

!""
!!

or

!(!"#) =

! !! !
!!

## ! = 3.46 in.2 (Controls)

Choose 8 #6 bars (As = 3.53 in.2 ), spacing = ((8)(12) - 6)/7 = 12.8 in.
Distribute bars in a band width of 6 ft. and a ratio
( = L/W = 8/6) = 2/( + 1) = 2/(1.33 + 1) = 0.86
No. of bars = (0.86)(8) = 7 bars #6, spacing = (6)(12)/7 = 10.3 in.
Use 1 #6 bars on each side band space
Total number of bars is 9 #6 bars(! = 3.96)
5.) Long direction: width of section = 6 ft., d = 15.5 in.
x2 = L/2 - a/2 = 8/2 - 18/24 = 3.25 ft.
M ul =

Ru =

qu x2 2 B 7.33 3.252 6
=
= 232.3 k.ft
2
2

M u 232.3 12000
=
= 161.15 psi
2
bd 2
8 12(15.5)
The steel percentage is = 0.0031

## Therefore area of steel, ! = 0.003161215.5 = 3.46 !

As(min) = 0.0018bh = (0.0018)(72)(20) = 2.6 in.2 < 3.47 in.2
Choose 9 #6 bars, (As = 3.98 in.2 ), spacing = ((6)(12) - 6)/8 = 8.25 in.

13-8

## 6.) Check bearing stress:

N1 = (0.85 fcA1) = 0.65(0.8531818) = 537 k. > Pu = 352 k., O.K.
Area of dowel required = 0.005 A1 = 0.005182 = 1.62 in.2
Extend 4#9 bars of column into footing.
7.) Dowel length of bars #9:
0.02 f y db
ld =
= 24.7 in. 0.0003f y db = 20.3in. 8in., ld = 25in.
fc '
Extend and bend 4#9 bars of column bars at the 4 corner.
8.) Check development length in footing:
Short-direction: ld for #6 bars = 33 in.,
ld (provided) = (6)(12)/2) - 9 - 3 = 24 in.< 33 in.
Bend the bars at 90.
Long-direction: ld for #6 bars = 33 in.,
ld (provided) = (8)(12)/2) - 9 - 3 = 36 in.> 33 in.

13-9

Problem 13.3:
General: See general of problem 13.2 also;
L, B = long and short dimensions of footing
N1 , N2 = bearing force, N2 = 2N1 (not critical).
MuL , MuS = moments in the long and short directions.
AsL , AsS = steel area in the long and short directions.
AsB , AsE = steel area within and outside square band.
ldL , ldS = development length in long and short directions.
ldaL , ldaS = available development length in long and short directions.
ldd = development length in dowel bars.

AF (ft. )
L (ft.)
B (ft.)
h (in.)
d (in.)
Pu (k.)
qu (ksf.)
Vu1 (k.)
Vu2 (k.)
MuL (k.ft.)
MuS (k.ft.)
AsL (in.2)
Bars
AsS (in.2)
Bars
AsB (in.2)
Bars
AsE (in.2)
Bars
ldL (in.)
ldaL (in.)
lds (in.)
ldas (in.)
N1 (k.)
X
ldd (in.)

(a)
61.4
10.5
6
23
18.5
364
5.78
105.5
316.4
363.7
165.2
4.52
9#7
5.22
12#6
3.79
9#6
1.8
4#6
48
52
28
25*
424.3
1.28
4
22

(b)
47.9
8
6
20
15.5
352
7.33
56.2
294.7
232.3
148.4
3.47
10#6
3.46
8#6
2.98
7#6
0.87
4#6
33
36
33
24*
537
1.62
4
25

(c)
77.6
10
8
23
18.5
548.4
6.86
111.5
478.2
476.4
344
5.92
11#7
4.95
11#6
4.42
10#6
0.8
2#6
48
47
33
35
663
2.0
4
25

(d)
78
10
8
24
19.5
440
5.5
103.1
402.1
445.5
336.9
5.25
10#7
5.18
12#6
4.61
11#6
0.84
2#6
48
51
33
39
238.6
5.55
7
22

13-10

(e)
69.6
10
7
21
16.5
424
6.06
93.4
385.1
413.7
257.8
5.79
9#8
4.54
8#7
3.7
6#7
1.09
2#7
48
50
42
32*
433.2
1.0
4
22

(f)
96.7
12.5
8
21
16.5
452
4.52
110.6
418.8
563.62
313.9
7.9
9#9
5.7
10#7
4.44
8#7
1.6
4#7
54
64
42
37*
565.5
1.28
4
22

(g)
61.5
10.5
6
23
18.5
432
6.86
51
368.7
416.7
182.3
5.2
10#7
5.22
9#7
3.76
7#7
1.77
4#7
42
51
42
24*
716
1.62
4
19

(h)
95
11
9
22
17.5
546
5.52
134.1
492.6
540.96
408.2
7.12
8#9
5.23
10#7
5.28
9#7
0.76
2#7
54
53
42
41
884
2.0
4
22

13-11

## Problem 13.4: Rectangular footings.

General: see general of problem 13.3.
(a)
AF (ft.2)
61.4
L (ft.)
9.5
B (ft.)
6.5
h (in.)
20
d (in.)
15.5
364
Pu (k.)
5.9
qu (ksf.)
110.26
Vu1 (k.)
321.05
Vu2 (k.)
294.15
MuL (k.ft.)
199.29
MuS (k.ft.)
2
4.43
AsL (in. )
Bars
9#7
2
AsS (in. )
4.10
Bars
11#6
2
AsB (in. )
3.59
Bars
8.#6
2
AsE (in. )
1.02
Bars
4#6
ldL (in.)
48
ldaL (in.)
44*
lds (in.)
33
ldas (in.)
29*
464.3
N1 (k.)
2
1.4
X
4
ldd (in.)
22
* bend the bars 90 into footing.

(b)

(c)

(d)

47.9
8.5
5.75
21
16.5
352
7.2
91.43
292.39
241.64
149.23
3.38
9#6
3.86
9#6
3.2
8#6
1.0
4#6
33
38
33
24*
530.2
1.6
4
25

77.6
11
7.25
26
21.5
548.4
6.88
151.72
466.4
505.04
331.17
5.44
10#7
6.18
10#7
4.9
8#7
1.77
4#7
48
51
48
33*
636.1
1.92
4
25

78
11
7.25
24
19.5
440
5.52
135.07
394.6
451.48
296.48
5.42
10#7
5.70
10#7
4.49
8#7
1.57
4#6
48
54
48
35*
357.5
2.49
4
22

13-12

## Problem 13.5: Plain footings.

13.5(a): Typical example:
Given: 12 in. wall, D.L. = 11 k/ft., L.L. = 6 k/ft., fc= 3 ksi, allowable soil pressure = 6
ksf.
Design a plain concrete footing.
Solution:
1.) Bottom of the footing is at 5 ft. below grade, assume depth of footing = 22 in.
Weight of footing = (22)(145)/12 = 266 psf.
Weight of soil = (5-22/12)(100) = 317 psf.
Effective soil pressure = 4000 - 266 - 317 = 3417 psf. = 3.417 ksf.
Width of footing, B = (11 + 6)/3.417 = 4.98 ft., say 5 ft.
Net upward pressure = Pu / B ,
Pu = (1.2)(11)+(1.6)(6) = 22.8 k.
qu = 22.8 / 5 = 4.56 ksf.
2.) Check bending stresses, Ig = 6859 in4
Mu =

qu
2

4.56 5
12
L a
=

= 9.12 k.ft.
2 2 2 12
2 2

d = 22 - 3 = 19 in.
Ig =

12 193
= 6859 in 4
12

## Flexural tensile stress:

ft =

M u c 9.12 12000 19
=
= 152 psi.
Ig
6859 2

## Allowable flexural tensile stress =

5 f c ' = 0.65 5 3000 = 178 psi.
Which is greater than the flexural tensile stress ft .
3.) Check shear stress at d = 19 in. from face of wall.
L a

5 12 19
Vu = qu d = 4.56
= 1.9 k.
2 2

2 2 12 12

13-13

## Problem 13.5: Plain concrete wall footings:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

D.L. (k.)

11

14

13

L.L. (k.)

12

B (ft.)

7.5

h (in.)

22

20

22

34

d (in.)

19
22.8

17
22

19
29.6

31
34.8

qu (ksf.)

4.56

5.5

7.4

4.64

Mu (k.ft.)

9.12

6.19

7.43

23.27

Ig (in4)

6859
152

4913
129

6859
124

29791
145

178
1.9

178
0.46

178
0

178
2.71

18.75

16.76

21.85

35.66

Pu (k.)

ft (psi.)
fta (psi.)
Vu (k.)
Vc (k.)

Problem 13.6:
Given: Exterior column 18 18 in. (#8 bars), D.L. = 160 K, L.L. = 140 K.
Interior column 20 20 in, (#9 bars), D.L. = 240 K, L.L. = 150 K.
fc' = 4 KSi, fy = 50 KSi, qu = 5 KSf.
Required: Design of a combined footing.
Solution:
Exterior Pe = (160 + 140) = 300 K.
Interior Pi = 240 + 150 = 390 K.
x (from centroid of exterior column) = 390 14 / 690 = 7.91 ft.
Distance from property line = 7.91 + 1 = 8.91 ft.
Length of footing = 2 8.91 = 17.82 ft. say L = 18 ft.
2. Assume total depth, h = 30 in., d = 30 - 4.5 = 25.5 in.
q - 5000 30150 / 12 - (5 30/12) 100 = 4375 psf.
Required Area = 690 / 4.375 = 157.71 ft. 2
Width of footing = 157.71 / 18 = 8.77 ft., use 9 18 ft.
13-14

13-15

## 3. Calculate the bending moment end shearing forces:

P u =1.2(400) + 1.6(290) = 944 K.
Pue(exterior) = 416 K., Pui(interior) = 528 K.
qu = 944/9(18) = 5.83 Ksf
q u = 5.83 9 = 52.5 K/ft. length.
a) Shearing forces: shear at left side of ! =0.25 52.5 = 13.125 K.
Shear at right side of Pe = 462 - 1.75 (52.5) = 324.125 K.
Shear at right side of Pi = 2.165 52.5 = 113.7 K.
Shear at left side of Pi = 528 - (1.67 + 2.165) 52.5 = 326.7 K.
b) Bending moment:
At right of interior column: Mu = 52.5 (2.165)2/2 = 123.04 K.ft.
At left of interior column: Mu = 528 (1.67/2) - 52.5 (3.835)2/2 = 54.82 K.ft.
At outer face of exterior column=0.2552.5
!.!"#!

!.!"
!

= 1.64

## At right face of interior column = ! 52.5 = 123

Max. moment at zero shear:
Calculation for the point of zero shear:
324.125 52.5 = 0
= 6.15
From left hand side, Mmax = 416 (6.9) - 52.5 (7.9)2/2 = 1232.14 K.ft.
Mmax from right will be less.
4.a) Check depth for one-way shear: Vu(ma) = 366.7 K. VU (at d = 25.5 in. from face of interior
column)
= 326.7 (25.5/12) x 52.5 = 215.14 K.

d=
b)

215.14 1000
= 20.99 in. < 25.5 in. o.k.
2 (0.75) 4000(9 12)

## Interior column: Vu = 528 (

d=

45.5 2
) (5.83) = 444.2 k.
12

444.2 1000
= 12.9 in. < 25.5 in.
4 (0.75) 4000 (4 45.5)

## Exterior column: Vu = 416 (

43.5 33.75
) (5.83) = 356.6 k.
12 12

## b0 = 43.5 + 2 (33.75) = 111 in.

d=

356.6 1000
= 16.9 in. < 25.5 in.
4 (0.75) 4000 (111)
13-16

## For Mu (max) = 1232.14 k.ft. , Ru =

M u 1232.14 (12)
=
= 0.21 ksi.
bd 2 (9 12)(25.5)2

## = 0.00404, As = 0.00404 (9 12)(25.5) = 11.13 in. 2

Use 12 #9 bars, (As = 12 in.2). Spacing = [(9x12)-6]/11 = 9.3 in.
ld = 54 in. (for #9 top bars). ld (provided) > 44 in.
AS(min) = 0.0018 (9 12)(30) = 5.83 in.2 < 12 in. 2 provided.
Extend the bars between columns.

## 6. reinforcement under exterior column(* in short direction):

!"#
Net upward pressure in the short direction= ! = 46.22 /
Distance from the free end to the face of the column= 3.73 ft
3.75!
! = 46.22
= 324.98
2
M
324.98 12000
Ru = u2 =
= 128.97 psi
2
bd
46.5 (25.5)
The steel percentage is = 0.0025
Therefore area of steel, ! = 0.002546.525.5 = 2.96 !
! !"# = 0.001846.530 = 2.51! < !
Use 6 #8 bars under exterior column in the transverse direction.
. reinforcement under interior column(in short direction):
!"#
Net upward pressure in the short direction= ! = 58.67 /
Distance from the free end to the face of the column= 3.66 ft
3.66!
! = 58.67
= 392.95
2
M
392.95 12000
Ru = u2 =
= 102.13 psi
2
bd
71 (25.5)
The steel percentage is = 0.0020
Therefore area of steel, ! = 0.00207125.5 = 3.62 !
! !"# = 0.00187130 = 3.83! > !
Use 8 #8 bars under interior column in the transverse direction.

13-17

Problem 13.7:
Given: D.L. and L.L. as shown. Usual load = 25%,
allowable soil pressure = 5 Ksf .
Required: Area of footings for a balanced footing design.
Solution:
1. Footing No. 3 has maximum L.L./D.L. ratio. Calculate the usual load
(D.L.+ 0.25 L.L.) for all footings as shown in table below.
2. Determine the area of footing No. 3:

Area =

D.L. + L.L.
150 + 210
=
= 72 ft.2
allow. soil pressure
5

## Usual soil pressure under footing No. 3 = 202.5/72 = 2.81 Ksf.

3. Calculate area of each footing in ft. 2 by dividing its usual load by 2.81 Ksf,
then calculate the maximum soil pressure = (D.L. + L.L.) / Area.
Results are tabulated below.
Footing No.
D.L. (K)
L.L. (K)
L.L. / D.L.
Max. Soil Pressure (Ksf)

1
130
160
1.23
170
60.5
4.8

2
220
220
1.00
275
97.9
4.5

3
150
210
1.40
202.5
72.0
5.0

4
180
180
1.00
225
80.1
4.5

5
200
220
1.10
255
90.7
4.6

6
240
200
0.83
290
103.2
4.3

Problem 13.8:
Given: (12 x 20) in. column, allowable soil pressure = 4 Ksf, f c ' = 4 Ksi,
f y = 40 Ksi, P D = 200K, M D = 120 K.ft., P L = 160K, M L = 110 K.ft.
Footing base will be at 4' below final grade level.
Required: Design the eccentrically loaded footing.
Solution:
1. P = 200 + 160 = 360 K.
M = 120 + 110 = 230 K.ft., e = M/P = (230/360)(12) = 7.67 in., say 8 in.
2. Uniform pressure method: Move the center of the footing 8 in. from the
center of the column, so that the soil pressure will be uniform.
a) Assume total depth = 2 ft., and assume the weight of the soil is 100 pcf.
Net upward pressure = 4000 - 2(150) - (4-2) (100) = 3500 psf = 3.5Ksf
Area = 360/3.5 = 102.9 ft. 2 , d = 24 - 4.5 = 19.5 in.
Choose a footing (11 x 10) ft., Area = 110 ft. 2
Center of the footing is 8 in. away from the center of the column.
b) Due to eccentricity of the footong, the max. moment will be on left face of
the column, in the long direction.
P u = 1.2 (200) + 1.6 (160) = 496 K.
13-18

## q u = 496 / 110 = 4.51 Ksf.

Max. moment in the long direction, M u = 4.51(10)(5.33) 2 /2 = 640.62 K.ft.
Max. moment in the short direction, M u = 4.51(11)(4.5) 2 /2 = 502.30 K.ft.
3. One way shear: Max. shear occurs at distance d from the left face of the \
column.
V u = 4.51(10)(44.5/12) = 167.25K, [distance = (5.33 x 12) 19.5 = 44.5 in.]

Required d =

167.25 1000
= 14.7 in. < provided d = 19.5in. o.k.
2 (0.75) 4000 (10)(12)

## 4. Two way shear: b0 = 2(12 + 19.5) + 2(20 + 19.5) = 142 in.

A0 = (12 + 19.5)(20 + 19.5) = 1244.25 in.2
Shear at distance d/2 from column face,
V u = 496 4.51(1244.25)/144 = 457.03K.

Required d =

457.03 1000
= 16.96 in. < provided d = 19.5in. o.k.
4 (0.75) 4000 (142)

## 5. Reinforcement in the long direction:

Ru = (640.62 x 12000) / (10 x 12 x 19.5 2 ) = 168.5 psi, = 0.00481
A s = 0.00481 x 10 x 12 x 19.5 = 11.26 in. 2 , use 9 #10 (11.39 in. 2 )
Spacing = (10 x 12 6 ) / 8 = 14.25 in.
Use 9 #10 (11.39in. 2 ) spaced at 14.25in., provided l d > required 32 in.
6. Reinforcement in the short direction:
Ru = (502.3 x 12000) / (11 x 12 x 19.5 2 ) = 120.1 psi, = 0.003415
A s = 0.003415 x 11 x 12 x 19.5 = 8.8 in. 2 , use 9 #9 (9 in. 2 )
Spacing = (11 x 12 6 ) / 8 = 15.75 in.
Use 9 #9 (9 in. 2 ) spaced at 15.75 in., provided l d > required 28 in.
Minimum A s = 0.0018 x 11 x 12 x 24 = 5.70 in. 2 < A s used.
7. Developments length:
Long direction, ld = (11 x 12 - 6 - 20) / 2 = 53 in. > required ld = 32 in.
Short direction, ld = (10 x 12 - 6 - 12) / 2 = 49 in. > required ld = 25 in.
8. Bearing stress at column base:
N1 = 0.65(0.85)(4)(12x20) = 530.1 K > Pu = 496 K
Use min. dowels which are 4 bars.
Min. area of dowels required = 0.005 (14 x 20) = 1.2 in.2
ld = 0.002 (40)(1.128)/(4000) = 14.3 in.
or ld = 0.0003(40, 000) (1.128) = 13.5 in. or ld = 8 in.
Min. ld = 14. 3 in.
Extend the bars 19 in. and bend them to be based and tied on the basic steel.
13-19

Problem 13.9:
Given: Data as Problem 13.8
Required: Design of a centric footing.
Solution:
1. Assume a total footing depth = 28 in., d = 27 - 4.5 = 22.5 in.,
Allowable upward pressure = q net = 4000 27(150)/12 (4 27/12)(100) = 3488 psf.
P = 200 + 160 = 360 K.
M = 120 + 110 = 230 K.ft.
e = 230 (12) / 360 = 7.67 in.
Choose a footing 8 x 16 ft.

q max =

P
6M
360,000 6 (230)(1000)
+
=
+
= 3486 psf.
2
L.B. B L
8 (16)
8 (16)2

13-20

## 2. Pu = 1.2 (200)+ 1.6 (160) = 496 K.

Mu = 1.2 (120) + 1.6 (110) = 320 K.ft.
q u (max) =

496
6 (320)
+
= 4.813 psf.
8 (16)
8 (16) 2

## 3. Check one-way shear (at d from column face).

Distance from edge of footing = 8 10/12 - 22.5/12 = 5.29 ft.
q ul = 4.18 Ksf.
V u = 8 [4.18(5.29) + (4.813 4.18)(5.29/2)] = 190.3 K.

d=

190.3 1000
= 20.9 in. < 22.5in. o.k.
0.75(2) 4000 (8 12)

## 4. Check punching shear: (Critical section at d/2 from column face)

bo = 2 (20 + 22.5) + 2(12 + 22.5) = 154 in.
q at center of column = (4.813 + 2.94) / 2 = 3.88 Ksf.
V u = 496 3.88 [(12 + 22.5)/12] [(20 + 22.5)/12]= 456.5 K.

d=

456.5 1000
= 15.62 in. < 22.5in.
0.75(4) 4000 (154)

## 5. Reinforcement in the long direction:

Distance to face of column = 8 10/12= 7.17 ft.
qu (at face of column) = 3.97 Ksf.
Mu = (3.97 / 2)(7.17) 2 + (4.813 3.97)(7.17)(7.17 / 3) = 116.5 K.ft. (in one ft. width)
Ru = (116.5 x 12000) / (12 x 22.5 2 ) = 230.12 psi, = 0.00665
A s = 0.00665 (12 x 8 )(22.5) = 14.4 in. 2 ,
Choose 15 #9 bars (A s = 15 in. 2 )
Spacing = (8 x 12 6 ) / 14 = 6.4 in.
6. Reinforcement in the short direction:
Distance from end of footing = 8/2 6/12 = 3.5 ft.
Mu (per foot) at qmax = (4.813/2)(3.5)2 = 29.5 K.ft.
Mu (per foot) at center of footing = (4.18/2)(3.5)2 = 25.60 K.ft.
Mu (per foot) at qmin = (2.94/2) (3.5)2 = 18 K.ft.
Ru = (29.5 x 12000) / (12 x 22.52) = 58.3 psi, is very small.
U s e A s(min) = 0.005 (12 x 16)(22.5) = 21.6 in. 2 (flexure)
or As(min) = 0.002 (12 x 16)(27) = 10.37 in. 2 (shrinkage)

13-21

## Use 20 #8 bars (As = 15.7 in.2)

Spacing = (12 x 16 6) / 19 = 9.8 in.
7.

## Development lengths ld in both directions for #9 and #8 bars are adequate.

13-22

Problem 13.10:
Given: Data as problem # (13.9 ).
Required: Size of a square or round centric footing.
Solution: (see solution of Problem 13.9)
1. Assume total depth = 27 in:
q net = 3488 psf.
P = 360 K, M = 230 K, e = 7.67 in.
2. Choose a square footing 12 x 12 ft.

q max =

P
6M
360
6 (230)
+
=
+
= 3.3 ksf. < 3.488 ksf.
2
L.B. B L
12 (12) 12 (12)2

3. Checking any other location of crane will produce qmax < q (allowable)

13-23

CHAPTER 14
RETAINING WALLS
Problem 14.1:
Given: gravity wall, w(soil) = 110 pcf, = 30, = 0.5,
and the allowable soil pressure = 3.5 ksf.
Required: check the adequacy of wall with regard to overturning, sliding and allowable soil
pressure.
Solution:
1. Using Rankine formula: Ca = 1/3 and Cp = 3.0
Ha = Cawh2/2 = 110(10)2/6 = 1833 lbs., acting at 10/3 = 3.33 ft. from base.
Passive pressure on the toe is small and can be neglected.
Overturning moment Mo = 1.833 (3.33) = 6.10 K.ft.
2. Calculate the balancing moment taken about toe O.
W1 = 5 x 10 x 145 = 7250 lbs., arm = 2.5 ft., Ml = 18.125 K.ft.
-W2 = -(3 x 6 x 145/2) = -1305, arm = 1.0 ft., -M2 = -1.305 K.ft.
R = W = 5945 lb.,
M b = 16.82 K.ft.
Factor of safety against overturning = 16.82/6.1 = 2.76 > 2.0

## 3. Force resisting sliding, F = R = 0.5 (5.945) = 2.97 K.

Factor of safety against sliding = F / H a = 2.97/1,833 = 1.62 > 1.5
4. Soil pressure under the base:
Distance of resultant from toe O, X = (Mb Mo) / R = (16.82 6.10) / 5.945 = 1.8 ft.
Eccentricity e = 2.5 - 1.80 = 0.7 ft. (R acts within the middle third).
I = 1 x (5)3 / 12 = 10.42ft.4 , Area =l x 5= 5 ft.2
q(max) = R / A + (R.e).c / I = 5.945/5 + 5.945 (0.7)(2.5) / 10.42 = 2.19 ksf < 3.5 ksf
q(min) = 1.189 - 0.998 = 0.19 ksf.

14-1

Problem 14.2:
Given: Semi-gravity wall, w(soil) = 110 pcf, = 0.30, = 0.5,
and the allowable soil pressure = 3.5 ksf.
Required: Check the adequacy of wall with regard to overturning, sliding and soil pressure.
Solution:
1. Using Rankine formula, Ca = 1/3 and Cp = 3.0
Ha = Cawh2/2 = 110(15)2/6 = 4125 lbs., acting at 15/3 = 5 ft. from base.
Passive pressure is small and can be neglected.
Overturning moment M o = 4.125 (5) = 20.625 K.ft.
2.

## Calculate the balancing moment taken about the toe O:

Weight lb.
W1 = 2 x 13 x 145 = 3770
W2 =(1/2) x 4 x 13 x 145 = 3770
W3 = 2 x 8 x 145 = 2320
W4=(1/2) x4x 13x110=2860
W5 =1x13x110=1430
Total W = R = 14.150 K.

arm (ft)
2.00
4.33
4.00
5.67
7.5
Mb =

Moment
7.54
16.32
9.28
16.22
10.72
60.08

## " Factor of safety against overturning = 60.08/20.625 = 2.91 > 2.0

3. Force resisting sliding: F = R = 0.5 (14.15) = 7.08 K.
Factor of safety against sliding = F/Ha = 7.08 / 4.125= 1.72 > 1.5
4. Calculate soil pressure under base:
Distance of resultant from toe O, X = (Mb Mo) / R = (60.08 20.625) / 14.15 = 2.79 ft.
Eccentricity e = 4 - 2.79 = 1.21 ft. < 8/6 = 1.33 ft.
Therefore, R acts within the middle third of wall.
I = 1 x (8)3 / 12 = 42.67 ft.4 , Area =l x 8 = 8 ft.2
q(max) = R / A + (R.e).c / I = 14.15/8 + 14.15 (1.21)(4) / 42.67 = 3.37 ksf < 3.5 ksf
q(min) = 1.769 1.605 = 0.164 ksf.
14-2

## Problem 14.3: (a) to (j)

For all problems :
Weight of soil = 110 psf, = 35
Weight of concrete = 150 psf
Allowable soil pressure = 4 ksf
Coefficient of friction : (soil - concrete) = 0.5
(soil - soil) = 0.6
No surcharge.
For dimensions, refer to table 14.4, page 456 in text and figure 14.20, page 457.
Effective passive soil pressure height = 3 - 1 = 2 ft.
Solution:
14.3 (a) :
GIVEN DATA:
-------------------------------------------------HEIGHT OF THE WALL AND FOOTING (FT)
HEIGHT OF THE PASSIVE SOIL (FT)
SOIL UNIT WEIGHT (LBS/FT 3 )
CONCRETE UNIT WEIGHT (LBS/FT 3 )
ANGLE OF INTERNAL FRICTION (DEGREES)
SURCHARGE INCLINATION (DEGREES)
SURCHARGE WEIGHT (LBS/FT)
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION CONCRETE/SOIL
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION SOIL/SOIL
ALLOWABLE SOIL BEARING CAPACITY (KSF)
CONCRETE COMPRESSION STRENGTH, F C (KSI)
STEEL YIELDING STRENGTH, FY (KSI)
------------------------------------------------

12.00
2.00
110.00
150.00
35.00
0.00
0.00
0.50
0.60
4.00
3.00
60.00

## RETAINING WALL DIMENSIONS:

-------------------------------------------------THICKNESS OF THE BASE
LENGTH OF THE BASE
LENGTH OF THE TOE
LENGTH OF THE HEEL
THICKNESS OF THE STEM (TOP)
THICKNESS OF THE STEM (BOTTOM)
---------------------------------------------------

(IN)
(FT)
(FT)
(FT)
(IN)
(IN)

## F.S. AGAINST OVERTURNING

F.S. AGAINST SLIDING
F.S. AGAINST SLIDING (Pp INCLUDED)
--------------------------------------------------

14-3

12.00
7.00
2.00
4.00
12.00
12.00
2.00
1.50
2.00

## BALANCED FORCES AND MOMENTS:

ITEM
WEIGHT
ARM
(K)
(FT)
--------------------------------------W1
1.650
W2
0.000
W3
1.050
W4
4.840
W5
0.000
W6
0.000
--------------------------------------RESULTANT
7.540
---------------------------------------

MOMENT
(K.FT)

2.50
2.00
3.50
5.00
5.67
5.00

4.125
0.000
3.675
24.200
0.000
0.000

4.24

32.000

## EARTH PRESSURE FORCES AND MOMENTS:

FORCE
ARM
(K)
(FT)
-----------------------------------------PAH
2.146
PH2
0.000
-----------------------------------------TOTAL
2.146
------------------------------------------

MOMENT
(K. FT)

4.00
6.00

8.585
0.000

4.00

8.585

1) OVERTURNING
---------------------------FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST OVERTURNING = 3.73
2) BEARING CAPACITY
--------------------------------RESULTANT ECCENTRICITY
MOMENT OF INERTIA OF THE BASE
BEARING CAPACITY AT THE TOE
BEARING CAPACITY AT THE HEEL
BEARING CAPACITY AT THE KEY

(FT) =
(FT4)=
(KSF) =
(KSF) =
(KSF) =

0.39
28.58
1.44
0.71
1.10

3) SLIDING
--------------------------------PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE AT TOE, Pp
FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST SLIDING

(KSF)=
=

0.00
1.76

14-4

REINFORCEMENT
------------------------1) STEM REINFORCEMENT
SECTION AT 11.00
FT FROM TOP,
VC = 9.36
K > VU

AS =

0.38

IN2

SECTION AT 7.33

FT FROM TOP,

AS =

0.38

IN2

SECTION AT 3.67

FT FROM TOP,

AS =

0.38

IN2

2) HEEL REINFORCEMENT
AS =
0.42
VC = 8.38
K > VU

IN2

3) TOE REINFORCEMENT
AS =
VC = 8.38

IN2

0.34
K > VU

## QUANTITIES OF STEEL AND CONCRETE PER FOOT LENGTH OF WALL

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1) MAIN STEEL
22.21
LBS
2) TOTAL STEEL
44.25
LBS
3) TOTAL CONCRETE
18.00
FT3
GENERAL :
-------------Shrinkage steel for the stem = 0.0025 bh
For stem thickness of 12 in :
A sh = 0.36 in. 2 (0.24 in 2 externally abd 0.12 in 2 internally)
For stem thickness of 18 in. :
A sh = 0.54 in. 2 (0.36 in 2 externally and 0.18 in 2 internally)
For stem thickness of 21 in .
A sh = 0.63 in

14-5

14-6

## Problem 14.3 (e) :

Refer to the given data in the problem.
BALANCED FORCES AND MOMENTS:
------------------------------------------------ITEM
WEIGHT
ARM
(K)
(FT)
---------------------------------------------W1
2.325
4.00
W2
0.581
3.33
W3
2.025
4.50
W4
7.673
6.75
W5
0.000
7.50
W6
0.000
6.75
--------------------------------------RESULTANT
12.604
5.72
EARTH PRESSURE FORCES AND MOMENTS:
-------------------------------------------------------------FORCE
(K)
--------------------------------------PAH
4.307
PH2
0.000
--------------------------------------TOTAL
4.307

MOMENT
(K. FT)
9.300
1.938
9.113
51.789
0.000
0.000
72.139

ARM
(FT)

MOMENT
(K. FT)

5.67
8.50

24.409
0.000

5.67

24.409

1) OVERTURNING
------------------------FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST OVERTURNING

2.96

2) BEARING CAPACITY
-------------------------------RESULTANT ECCENTRICITY
MOMENT OF INERTIA OF THE BASE
BEARING CAPACITY AT THE TOE
BEARING CAPACITY AT THE HEEL
BEARING CAPACITY AT THE KEY

(FT) =
(FT4)=
(KSF) =
(KSF) =
(KSF) =

0.71
60.75
2.07
0.73
1.47

3) SLIDING
---------------KEY DEPTH
DISTANCE FROM THE TOE TO THE KEY
KEY WIDTH
PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE AT TOE, Pp
FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST SLIDING

(FT)=
(FT)=
(FT)=
(KSF)=
=

1.00
4.00
1.50
1.83
1.63

14-7

REINFORCEMENT
------------------------1) STEM REINFORCEMENT
SECTION AT 15.50
VC = 17.65

FT FROM TOP, AS =
K > VU

0.62 IN2

SECTION AT 10.33

FT FROM TOP, AS =

0.54

IN2

SECTION AT 5.17

FT FROM TOP, AS =

0.46

IN2

2) HEEL REINFORCEMENT
AS =
VC = 16.51

0.58
K > VU

IN2

0.58
K > VU

IN2

3) TOE REINFORCEMENT
AS =
VC = 16.51

## QUANTITIES OF STEEL AND CONCRETE PER FOOT LENGTH OF WALL

-------------------------------------------------------1) MAIN STEEL
43.25 LBS
2) TOTAL STEEL
83.49 LBS
3) TOTAL CONCRETE
34.38 FT3

14-8

14-9

## Problem 14.4 (e) :

Given: uniform surcharge = 300 psf (W6). All other data similar to problem 14.3 (e).
1. Balanced forces and Moments :
W1 = 2.325 K
arm
W2 = 0.581
arm
W3 = 2.025
arm
W4 = 7.673
arm
W6 = 1.35
arm
Total W = 13.964

= 4 ft
= 3.33
= 4.5
= 6.75
= 6.75

## 2. Earth pressure forces and moments:

PAH = 4.307 K
arm = 5.67 ft.
PH2 = 1.382
arm = 8.5 ft.
Total P = 5.69
Overturning F.S. = 81.25/ 36.16 = 2.24

M = 9.3K.ft.
M = 1 .938
M = 9.113
M = 51.79
M = 9.113
Total M = 81.25
M = 24.41 K.ft.
M = 11.76 K.ft.
Total M = 36.16
OK

## 3. Sliding: F.S.= 1.23 less than 1.5, NO GOOD;

Key 1.5 x 1.5 ft is not adequate.
Increase length of footing L to 11 ft. Shear in toe is not adequate,
increase depth of footing hf to 21 New solution is shown below :
GIVEN DATA: 14.4 (e) :
------------------------------------------------HEIGHT OF THE WALL AND FOOTING (FT)
HEIGHT OF THE PASSIVE SOIL (FT)
SOIL UNIT WEIGHT (LBS/FT3 )
CONCRETE UNIT WEIGHT (LBS/FT 3 )
ANGLE OF INTERNAL FRICTION (DEGREES)
SURCHARGE INCLINATION (DEGREES)
SURCHARGE WEIGHT (LBS/FT)
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION CONCRETE/SOIL
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION SOIL/SOIL
ALLOWABLE SOIL BEARING CAPACITY (KSF)
CONCRETE COMPRESSION STRENGTH, F C ' (KSI)
STEEL YIELDING STRENGTH, FY (KSI)
-------------------------------------------------RETAINING WALL DIMENSIONS:
-------------------------------------------THICKNESS OF THE BASE
LENGTH OF THE BASE
LENGTH OF THE TOE
LENGTH OF THE HEEL
THICKNESS OF THE STEM (TOP)
THICKNESS OF THE STEM (BOTTOM)

(IN)
(FT)
(FT)
(FT)
(IN)
(IN)
14-10

17.00
2.00
110.00
150.00
35.00
0.00
300.00
0.50
0.60
4.00
3.00
60.00

21.00
11.00
4.00
5.50
12.00
18.00

## F.S. AGAINST OVERTURNING

F.S. AGAINST SLIDING
F.S. AGAINST SLIDING (Pp INCLUDED)

2.00
1.50
2.00

## BALANCED FORCES AND MOMENTS:

-------------------------------------------------ITEM
WEIGHT
ARM
(K)
(FT)
--------------------------- -----------W1
2.288
5.00
W2
0.572
4.33
W3
2.888
5.50
W4
9.226
8.25
W5
0.000
9.17
W6
1.650
8.25
--------------------------------------RESULTANT:
16.623
7.19
EARTH PRESSURE FORCES AND MOMENTS:
----------------------------------------------------------FORCE
ARM
(K)
(FT)
--------------------------------------PAH
4.307
5.67
PH2
1.382
8.50
--------------------------------------TOTAL
5.689
6.35

MOMENT
(K.FT)
11.438
2.478
15.881
76.117
0.000
13.613
119.526

MOMENT
(K. FT)
24.409
11.748
36.156

STABILITY CHECK:
-------------------------1) OVERTURNING
-----------------------FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST OVERTURNING =

3.31

2) BEARING CAPACITY
------------------------------RESULTANT ECCENTRICITY
MOMENT OF INERTIA OF THE BASE
BEARING CAPACITY AT THE TOE
BEARING CAPACITY AT THE HEEL
BEARING CAPACITY AT THE KEY

(FT)=
(FT 4 )=
(KSF)=
(KSF)=
(KSF)=

14-11

0.48
110.92
1.91
1.11
1.55

3) SLIDING
--------------KEY DEPTH
DISTANCE FROM THE TOE TO THE KEY
KEY WIDTH
PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE AT TOE, Pp
FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST SLIDING

(FT)
(FT)
(FT)
(KSF)

=
=
=
=
=

1.00
5.00
1.50
1.83
1.61

REINFORCEMENT
-----------------------1) STEM REINFORCEMENT:
SECTION AT 15.25
VC = 15.3

FT FROM TOP, AS =
K > VU

0.69 IN2

SECTION AT 10.17

FT FROM TOP, AS =

0.54

IN2

SECTION AT 5.08

FT FROM TOP, AS =

0.46

IN2

2) HEEL REINFORCEMENT
AS =
VC = 17.25

0.70
K > VU

IN2

0.70

IN2

3) TOE REINFORCEMENT
AS =
VC = 17.25

K > VU

14-12

14-13

## Problem 14.5 (e) :

GIVEN DATA:
-------------------------------------------------HEIGHT OF THE WALL AND FOOTING (FT)
HEIGHT OF THE PASSIVE SOIL (FT)
SOIL UNIT WEIGHT (LBS/FT3 )
CONCRETE UNIT WEIGHT (LBS/FT 3 )
ANGLE OF INTERNAL FRICTION (DEGREES)
SURCHARGE INCLINATION (DEGREES)
SURCHARGE WEIGHT (LBS/FT)
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION CONCRETE/SOIL
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION SOIL/SOIL
ALLOWABLE SOIL BEARING CAPACITY (KSF)
CONCRETE COMPRESSION STRENGTH, FC ' (KSI)
STEEL YIELDING STRENGTH, FY (KSI)
------------------------------------------------RETAINING WALL DIMENSIONS:
-------------------------------------------THICKNESS OF THE BASE
LENGTH OF THE BASE
LENGTH OF THE TOE
LENGTH OF THE HEEL
THICKNESS OF THE STEM (TOP)
THICKNESS OF THE STEM (BOTTOM)
--------------------------------------------

(IN)
(FT)
(FT)
(FT)
(IN)
(IN)

## F.S. AGAINST OVERTURNING

F.S. AGAINST SLIDING
F.S. AGAINST SLIDING (Pp INCLUDED)
-------------------------------------------BALANCED FORCES AND MOMENTS:
-------------------------------------------------ITEM
WEIGHT ARM
MOMENT
(K)
(FT)
(K. FT)
--------------------------------------W1
2.325
4.00
9.300
W2
0.581
3.33
1.938
W3
2.025
4.50
9.113
W4
7.673
6.75
51.789
W5
0.196
7.50
1.473
W6
0.000
6.75
0.000
--------------------------------------RESULTANT 12.800
5.75
73.612
14-14

17.00
2.00
110.00
150.00
35.00
10.00
0.00
0.50
0.60
4.00
3.00
60.00

18.00
9.00
3.00
4.50
12.00
18.00
2.00
1.50
2.00

## EARTH PRESSURE FORCES AND MOMENTS:

----------------------------------------------------------FORCE
ARM
MOMENT
(K)
(FT)
(K. FT)
--------------------------------------PAH
4.906
5.93
29.100
PH2
0.000
8.90
0.000
--------------------------------------TOTAL:
4.906
5.93
29.100
STABILITY CHECK:
-------------------------1) OVERTURNING
-----------------------FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST OVERTURNING =
2) BEARING CAPACITY
------------------------------RESULTANT ECCENTRICITY
MOMENT OF INERTIA OF THE BASE
BEARING CAPACITY AT THE TOE
BEARING CAPACITY AT THE HEEL
BEARING CAPACITY AT THE KEY

2.53

(FT)=
(FT 4 )=
(KSF)=
(KSF)=
(KSF)=

1.02
60.75
2.39
0.45
1.53

3) SLIDING
--------------KEY DEPTH
(FT)=
DISTANCE FROM THE TOE TO THE KEY
(FT)=
KEY WIDTH
(FT)=
PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE AT TOE, Pp
(KSF)=
FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST SLIDING (Pp INCLUDED)=

1.75
4.00
1.50
2.85
2.05

REINFORCEMENT:
-----------------------1) STEM REINFORCEMENT:
SECTION AT 15. 5
VC = 15.3

FT FROM TOP, AS =
K > VU

0.62 IN2

SECTION AT 10.33

FT FROM TOP, AS =

0.54

IN2

SECTION AT 5.17

FT FROM TOP, AS =

0.46

IN2

14-15

14-16

2) HEEL REINFORCEMENT
AS =
VC = 14.3

0.58
K > VU

IN2

0.58
K > VU

IN2

3) TOE REINFORCEMENT
AS =
VC = 14.3

## QUANTITIES OF STEEL AND CONCRETE PER FOOT LENGTH OF WALL:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1) MAIN STEEL
43.25 LBS
2) TOTAL STEEL
83.49 LBS
3) TOTAL CONCRETE
35.50 FT 3
Problem 14.6 (e) to (h) :
Determine the reinforcement required for the stem, heel and toe of problems given in
14.3 (e) to (h).
All the steel areas are given at the last part of each problem of 14.3 (e) to (h).
Problem 14.7:
Given: w(soil) = 120 pcf, 0 = 33 , u = 0.45 (concrete and soil) y = 0.65 (soil), qa = 4 ksf.
Required: Determine approximate dimensions of a cantilever R.N. Solution:
Solution:
1. For = 33, C a = 0.295
Ha = Ca .wh2 /2 = 0.295 (0.120)(20) 2 /2 = 7.08 K.
Mo = Ha h / 3 = 7.08 (20)/3 = 47.2 K.ft.
Weight

arm (ft)

W 1 = 1 (16)(0.15)
= 2.4
W 2 = 0.5 (1)(16)(0.15) = 1.2
W 3 = 12 (2) (0.15)
= 3.6
W 4 = 7 (16)(0.12)
= 13.44
W = R
= 20.64

4.50
3.67
6.00
8.50

Moment (k.ft.)
10.8
4.4
21.6
114.2
M = 151.0

14-17

## 2. Check sliding condition:

F = R = 0.45 (20.64) = 9.29
F.S. = 9.29 / 7.08 = 1.31 < 1.5
Not good, use Key.
Either increase base length to 14 ft., heel = 9 ft., or use a Key 1.5 x 1.5ft as in prob. 14.4.
For L = 14 ft., W4 = 9 (16)(0.12) = 17.28 (arm = 9.5 ft.)
R = 24.48 and F.S. (sliding) = 0.45 (24.48) / 7.08 = 1.56 > 1.5
3. If L = 12 ft. and a key is placed such that its edge is 4.5 ft. from edge of base leaving 6 in.
from back face of wall for dowel action,
then: q 1 = 1.72 + 0.83 = 2 .55 ksf
X = (151 47.2) / 20.64 = 5.03 ft.
q 2 = 1.72 - 0.83 = 0.89 ksf
e = 6 5 . 03 = 0. 97 f t.

F = 11.31 K
F . S . ( s l i d i n g ) = 11.31/7.08 = 1.6 > 1.5

Problem 14.11:
Given: w(soil) = 120 pcf,
= 30, surcharge = 400 psf, f c' = 3 Ksi, f y= 60 Ksi.
Required: Design of basement wall.
Solution:
1. For = 30, Ca = 0.333, hs(Surcharge) = 400/120 = 3.33 ft.
h = 12+ 0.5 - 12.5ft.,
L = 12 ft.
pa (soil) = (12.5) (0.333) (0.12) = 0.5 ksf,
Ha = 0.5 (12.5 / 2) = 3.125 K.
pw (water) = 0.0625 (12.5) = 0.78 ksf.,
Hw = 0.78 (12.5 / 2) = 4.875 K.
For intermittently wet ground,
Hw = 0.5 (4.875) = 2.44 K.
Ps (surcharge)=(0.333)(0.120)(3.33) = 0.133 ksf., Hs= 0.133(12.5) = 1.66 K.
2. Mu = 1.6 (Ha + Hw) L / 7.5 + 1.6 Hs (L / 8) = 18.23 K.ft.
R (top) = 1.6[(3.125 + 2.44) / 3 + 1.66 / 2] - 18.23 / 12 = 2.78 K.
R (bottom) = 8.8 K.
For zero shear (max. positive moment):
Vu = 2.78 - 1.6 (0.133)(X) - 1.6 (0.107)(X)2/2 = 0, X = 4.6ft.
Mu(positive) = 2.78 (4.6) - 1.6 [(0.133)(4.6)2 /2 + 0.49 (4.6)2/6] = 7.77 K.ft.
3. Assuming = 0.01,
Ru = 476 psi
Mu = Ru.bd2,
19.37 (12) = 0.476 (12) d2,
h = 6.2 + 1.5 + 0.25 = 7.95 in.
Use 8 in. slab, d = 6.25 in., Ru = 496 psi, = 0.0105
As = 0.0105 (12)(6.25) = 0.79 in.2
Use #6 bars spaced at 6 in.

d = 6.38 in.

## For Mu = 7.77 K.ft;

Ru = 199 psi;
= 0.0039
As = 0.0039 (12)(6.25) = 0.31 in.2, use #5 bars spaced at 12 in.
Longitudinal reinforcement = 0.002 (8)(12) = 0.192 in.2
Use #4 bars spaced at 12 in. (As = 0.20 in.2)
14-18

14-19

CHAPTER 15
DESIGN FOR TORSION
Tcr , Tn without torsional web reinforcement.
Use fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi.
Problem 15.1:
Given: b = 16in., h = 24 in. and rectangular section.
Solution:
2
Acp
Tcr = 4 f c '
Pcp
x0 = 16in., yo = 24 in. , Acp = 1624 = 384 in.2, Pcp = 2(16+24) = 80 in.

T
(384) 2
Tcr = 4 0.75 1.0 4000
= 349.8 k.in , Tn = cr = 87.4 k.in.
4
80
Problem 15.2:
Given: b = 12 in., h = 20in. and rectangular section.
Solution: Use equation 15-19
xo = 12in., yo = 24 in., Acp = 1220 = 240 in.2, Pcp = 2(12+20) = 64 in.
T
(240) 2
Tcr = 4 0.75 1.0 4000
= 170.8 k.in , Tn = cr = 42.7 k.in.
4
64
Problem 15.3:
Given: b = 48 in., bw = 12in., h = 25in., hw = 21in. and t = 4in.
Solution:
Flanges are confined with closed stirrups, T-section.
Effective flange part = 4 t = 44 = 16in, Acp = (1225) + 2(164) = 428in.2
Pcp = 2(b+h) = 2(44+25) = 138 in.
T
(428) 2
Tcr = 4 0.75 1.0 4000
= 251.9 k.in , Tn = cr = 63 k.in.
4
138
Problem 15.4:
Given: b = 60 in., bw = 16in., h = 30in., t = 4in., Effective flange part = 4t = 16in.
Solution:
Acp = (1630) + 2(164) = 608in.2, Pcp = 2(48+30) = 156in.
15-1

## Tcr = 4 0.75 1.0 4000

T
(608) 2
= 449.6 k.in , Tn = cr = 112.4 k.in.
4
156

Problem 15.5:
Given: b = 32in., bw = 14in., h = 24in. and t = 6in.
Solution:
Flanges neglected
Acp = 1424 = 336 in.2
Pcp = 2(14+24) = 76in.2, Use equation 15-19

## Tcr = 281.9 K .in.

Tn = 77.1 K .in.
If flanges are not considered, then:
If flanges are included, then Tcr = 390.5 k.ft and Tn = 97.7 k.ft.
Problem 15.6:
Given: b = 40in., bw = 12in., h = 30in. and t = 6in.
Solution:
Confined stirrups, effective flange part = 4t = 24in.
Acp = (1230) + (2416) = 504in.2, Pcp = 2(30+36) = 132 in.
Use equation 15-19
Tcr = 365.12 K .in.

Tn = 91.3K .in.
Problem 15.7:
Given: Equilibrium torque Tu = 220 K.in., Vu = 36 K
d = 19.5in., fc/ = 4 ksi and fy = 60 ksi
Solution:
Vc = 2 f c 'bd = 0.75 2 4000 14 19.5 = 25.9 K f

Vu = 36 >

Vc
2

## Shear reinforcement required.

Acp = xo yo = 1422 = 308 in.2, Pcp = 2(xo+yo) = 2(14+22) = 72 in.

Acp2

(308)2
Ta = f
= 0.75 4000
= 62.5
Pcp
72
/
c

Tu = 220 f Ta
Torsional reinforcement needed.
15-2

## Design for shear:

Vu = Vc + Vs , 36 = 25.9 + Vs Vs = 10.1

## Vs max = 8 f c/ bw d = 8 4000 14 19.5 = 138.13K f Vs L O.K .

Av Vs
13.5
in.2
=
=
= 0.0115
(2legs)
s
f y d 60 19.5
in.

Av 0.0115
in.2
=
= 0.0058
(one leg )
2s
2
in.
Design for torsion: Assume 1.5in. cover concrete cover and #4 stirrups
x1 = 14-3.5 = 10.5 in., y1 = 22-3.5 = 18.5 in., Aoh = 10.518.5 = 194.25 in.2
Ao = 0.85194.25 = 165.11 in.2, Pn = 2(10.5+18.5) = 58 in.
Assume: =45o, cot =1.0
Check the adequacy of the section
2

Vu Tu Pn

+
2

bw d 1.7 Aoh
2

c + 8 f c '

bw d

36000 220000 58 n
LHS =
= 238.66 psi
+
2
5 1.7 (194.25
14 19
)
.34534
RHS = 0.75
+ 8 4000 = 474.35 psi
14 19.5

## RHS>LHS, OK, Section is Adequate

T
220
At Tn cot
,
Tn = u =
= 293.34 k.ft
=
s
2 Ao f yt
0.75

At
293.34
=
= 0.015 in 2
s 2 165.11 60
f
Al = At Ph yt cot 2
f
y
Al =0.001558=0.87 in2
A A f
308
2
Al = 5 f c ' cp t Ph yt = 5 4000
(0.0015) 58 = 0.75 in.
f s f
60000
y
y
2
Al =0.87 in controls
Total area of closed stirrup for one leg,
Avt At Av
= +
= 0.0015 + 0.0058 = 0.0208 in 2 /in
s
s 2s
15-3

Use #4 stirrups, area of one leg = 0.2 in.2, then spacing of stirrups = 0.2/0.0208 =
9.6in, say 10 in., Min.S = Pn/8 = 58/8 = 7.25 in. say 7 in., or 12 in., use 7 in.
Min. Avt/S = (5014)/60000 = 0.017 in.2/in.< 0.0208 O.K.
Distribution of longitudinal bars:
Total Al = 0.87in2, Use one third at top = 0.29 in2 to be added to comp steel. Use one
third at mid depth = 0.29in2
Use one third at bottom = 0.29in2 to be added to tension steel.
Problem 15.8:

f c/ = 5Ksi,

## f y = 60 Ksi, Vc = 28.96 K < Vu , shear reinforcement needed

Acp = 308in 2 , Pcp = 72in., Ta = 69.88 K .in < Tu , torsion reinforcement needed
Design for shear: 36 = 28.96 + Vs Vs = 9.39 K ,

## Vs max = 154.43K > Vs OK

Av
Av 0.008
9.39
in 2
in 2
=
= 0.008
(2legs),
= 0.004
(one leg )
S 60 19.5
in
2S 2
in
Design for torsion, refer to problem #7, Use equation L 15.21
LHS = 238.66 Psi, RHS = 530.34 Psi, OK sec tion is adequate
Tn = 293.34,

At
308
= 0.015in 2 , Al = 0.87in 2 , Al min. = 5 5000
0.015 58 = 0.95in 2
S
60000

So Al = 0.95in 2
Total area of closed stirrups:
For one leg: Avt/S = 0.015+0.004 = 0.019in2 (per one leg)
Use #4 stirrups, area of one leg = 0.2in2
Then spacing of stirrups = 0.2/0.019 = 10.6in; Say10in
Min S = 7.25 Say 7in, or S = 10in, Use S = 7in
Min. Avt/S = 0.0117 in2/in < 0.019 OK, Distribution of Al = Al/3 = 0.32in2
One third at top, one third at bottom and one third at mid span.
Problem 15.9:
bw = 12in, d = 19.5in, h = 22in, Tu = 300ksi, Vu = 60k, Fc/ = 4ksi, fy = 60ksi
Vc = 0.752 4000 1219.5 = 22.2 K < Vu shear reinforcement required.
Acp = 1222 = 264 in2, Pcp = 2(12 = 22) = 68 in, Ta = 0.75 4000 (264)2/68 = 48.6K.in
Ta<Tu torsional reinforcement required.
Design for shear: 60 = 22.2+ Vs; Vs = 50.4K
Vs max = 8 4000 1219.5 = 118.4K;

Vs max>Vs OK
15-4

## Av/S = 50.4 / (6019.5) = 0.043 in2/in (2legs)

Av/2S = 0.043/2 = 0.0215 in2/in (leg)

## Design for torsion: Assume 1.5in cover and use # 4 stirrups.

Assume = 45o , cot = 1.0, x1 = 8.5in, y1 = 18.5in, Aoh = 157.25in2, Ao = 133.66in2
Ph = 2(8.5+18.5) = 54in, Use eq. 15.21 to check the adequacy of the section.
LHS = 463Psi, RHS = 474.3Psi > LHS O.K., Tn = 300/0.75 = 400 K.in
Ar/S = 400 / (2133.660) = 0.025in2, (per one leg), Al = 0.02554 = 1.35in2
Al min. = 5 4000 264/6000-0.02554 = 0.04in2 < Al So Al controls
Total area of closed stirrups
For one leg, Avt/S = 0.025+0.0215in2/in (one leg) = 0.0465, Use #4 stirrups
S = 0.2/0.0465 = 4.3 say 4in
Smin. = 54/8 = 6.75in say 6in or12in
Use S = 4in., Min. Avt/S = (5012)/60000 = 0.01<0.0465in2 O.K.
Distribution of longitudinal bars
Total = 1.35in2, Al/3 = 0.45
Use one third at top, one third at bottom and one third at mid-span.
Total area of top bars = 0.45+3#9bars = 3.45in2, Use 3#9 & 2#4 at corners
Total area of mid depth bars = 0.45 in2, Use 2#4
Total area at bottom, 0.45+2#4bars = 0.87 in2 use 3#5

Problem 15.10:
Given: bw = 12in, h = 22in, t = 6in, confined stirrups, effective flange width = hw= 16in
Solution:
Acp = (1222)+(166) = 360in2, Pcp = 2(28+22) = 100in
Ta = 0.75 4000 (360)2/100 = 61.5K.in torsional reinforcement required.
Vc = 0.752 4000 1219.5 = 22.2 K shear reinforcement required
Design for shear: 60+22.2+ Vs , Vs = 50.4K
Vsmax = 8 4000 1219.5 = 118.4 K, Vsmax>Vs O.K.
Av/S = 50.4/(6019.5) = 0.043in2/in (two legs)
Av/2S = 0.0215 in2/in (one leg)
Design for torsion: x1 = 12-3.5 = 8.5in, y = 18.5in, flange x1 = 16in.
(stirrups extend to the web); y1 = 6-3.5 = 2.5in.
Aoh = 8.518.5 + (6-3.5)16 = 197.3in2 Ao = 167.7 in2
Ph = 2(8.5+18.5) +2(2.5+16) = 91 in.
15-5

## Use eq. 15-21 to check the adequacy of the section

LHS = 485, RHS = 474.3 < LHS , section is not adequate.

Problem 15.11:
Given: b = 14in, h = 20in, t = 6in.,T-section, Vu = 28K, Tu = 300 K.in, Mu = 250 K.ft
fc/ = 4ksi, fy = 60ksi
Solution:
Design for moment: d = 20-2.5 = 17.5in, assume a = t = 6in
(Let flange projection on each side of the web = bw= 14in., then b = 14+14+14 = 42in.)
Cft = 0.85fc/bt = 0.854426 = 856.8 Kips
Muft = Cft(d-t/2) = 0.9856.8(17.5-3) = 11181 Kips.in
Mu = 25012 = 3000Kips.in<Muft, Then rectangular section
Ru = Mu/(bd2) = (25012000)/(4217.52) = 233Psi
From tables = 0.0045
min = 3 f c/ /fy = 3 4000 /60000 = 0.00316, or min = 200/fy = 200/60000 = 0.00333
controls
max = 0.01806 from table, min< < max O.K.
As = bd = 0.00454217.5 = 3.3in2
Use 4#9 bars, bmin = 3+6/8+39/8+49/8 = 11.6in<b, O.K. use one raw of bars

Now:
Vc = 20.751.0 4000 1417.5 = 23.24Kips and Vc = 31Kips
Vu = 28K> Vc/2 shear reinforcement required.
Effective flange part = 14in < 4t = 24 in., Acp = (1420)+2(146) = 448in2
Pcp = 2(42+20) = 124in.
Ta = 0.75 1.0 4000 (448)2/124 = 76.8K.in.
Torsional reinforcement required.
Design for shear: 28 = 23.24+ Vs, Vs = 6.3 K, Vsmax = 8 4000 1417.5 = 124 K
Vsmax > Vs O.K., Av/S = 6.3/(6017.5) = 0.006 in2/in(2 legs)
Av/2S = 0.003 in2/in(one leg)
Design for torsion:
x1 = 14-3.5 = 10.5 in, y1 = 16.5 in,
Flange x1 = 14, (stirrups extend to web), y1 = 6-3.5=2.5in.
Aoh = 10.516.5+214(6-3.5) = 243.25 in2, Ao = 206.8 in2
Ph = 2(10.5+16.5)+4(14+2.5) = 120 in,
Use eq. 15.21 to check the adequacy of the section.
LHS = 375.7, RHS = 474.4>LHS O.K., Tn = 300/0.75 = 400 K.in
At/S = 400 / (2206.860) = 0.016in2 (per one leg), Al = 0.016120 = 1.92in2
Almin = 5 4000 448/60000-0.016120 = 0.44in2<Al O.K.
15-6

## Total area of closed stirrups:

For one leg
Avt/S = 0.016+0.003 = 0.019 in2/in , Use #3stirrups
S = 0.11/0.019 = 5.8in
say 5.5in
Smin = 120/8 = 15in or 12in
Use S = 5.5in
Min. Avt/S = 5014/60000 = 0.011<Avt O.K.
Distribution of longitudinal bars: Total = 1.92in2, Al/3 = 0.64in2
Use one third at top and one third at mid-depth and one third at bottom
Total area of top bars = 0.64+4#9 = 4.64in2 use 5#9 in one row where bmin = 13.85in
O.K.
Total area of bars at mid-depth = 0.64in2 use 2#5
Total area of bars at bottom = 0.64+2#4 = 1.04in2 use 4#5 or 2#7
Problem 15.12:
Given: Vu = 36K, Tu = 360K.in, Mu = 400K.ft, bw = 14in, h = 20 in, t = 6 in.
Solution:
Design for moment:
Let flange projection = bw = 14 in., then b(flange) = 14+14+14=42 in.
d = 16.5in, Cft = 856.8Kips, Muft = 10410 K.in
Mu = 40012 = 4800K.in<Muft then rectangular section
Ru = (40012000) / (4216.52) = 419 psi
From table = 0.0083 < 0.01806, min = 0.0033, min< < max O.K.
As = 0.00834216.5 = 5.75in2, Use 5#9
Now:
Vc = 20.751.0 4000 1416.5 = 21.9K, and Vc = 29.22K
Vu = 36> Vc/2
shear reinforcement is required.
Effective flange part = 14in, Acp = (1420) + 2(146) = 448in2
Pcp = 2(42+20) = 124in, Ta = 0.75 4000 (448)2/124 = 77K.in
Torsional reinforcement is required.
Design for shear:, 36 = 21.9+ Vs, Vs = 18.8K
Vsmax = 8 4000 1416.5 = 116.9K, Vs max>Vs ; O.K.
Av/S = 18.8 / (6016.5) = 0.019in2/in (2 legs), Av/2S = 0.0095in2/in (one leg)
Design for torsion: x1 = 10.5in, y1 = 20.5in, flange x1 = 14 in. (stirrups extend to web),
y1 = 6-3.5 = 2.5 in.
Aoh = 10.516.5+2(142.5) = 243.25in2
Ao = 206.8in2, Ph = 2(10.5+16.5)+4(14+2.5) = 120in
Use eq. 15-21 to check the adequacy of the section
LHS = 348.6, RHS = 474.2 > LHS O.K., Tn = 480K.in
15-7

## At/S = 480 / (2206.860) = 0.019in2 (per one leg)

Longitudinal reinforcement:
Al = 0.019120 = 2.28in2, Almin = 5 4000 448/60000-0.019120 = 0.08in2 < Al O.K.
Total area of closed stirrups: For one leg
Avt/S = 0.019+0.0095 = 0.0285in2/in, Use #4 stirrups
S = 0.2 / 0.0285 = 7.02in.
say 8 in.
Smin = 120/8 = 15in.
or12 in.
Use S = 8in.
Min Avt/S = 5014/60000 = 0.011 < Avt
O.K.
Distribution of longitudinal bars: Total 2.28in2, Al/3 = 0.76in2
Use one third at top, one third at mid-depth and one third at bottom
Total area of top bars = 0.76+5.75 = 6.51in2 use 7#9 in two rows.
Total area of bars at mid-depth = 0.76in2 use 2#5
Total area of bars at bottom = 0.76+2#4 = 1.16in2 use 4#5 or 2#7
Problem 15.13:
Given: fc/ = 3ksi, fy = 60ksi, bw = 14in, h = 20in, t = 6in.
Solution:
Refer to problem 15.11; assume b = 42 in.
Design for moment: d = 17.5in, assume a = t = 6in
Cft = 0.853426 = 642.6Kips, Muft = 0.9642.6(17.5-3) = 8386K.in
Mu = 3000K.in<Muft then rectangular section.
Ru = 233Psi, from table = 0.00456, min = 3 3000 /6000<
or min = 200/60000 < O.K., max = 0.01356 > O.K.
As = 0.004564217.5 = 3.35in2, Use 4#9 bars in one row, bmin = 11.6in
Now:
Vc = 20.75 3000 1417.5 = 20.13K, Vc = 26.8K
Vu = 28K > Vc/2
shear reinforcement is required.
Acp = 448 in2, Pcp = 124in, Ta = 0.75 3000 (448)2/124 = 66.5K.in
Torsional reinforcement is required
Design for shear: 28 = 20.13+ Vs, Vs = 10.5K, Vsmax = 8 3000 1417.5 = 107.35K
Vsmax > Vs
O.K., Av/S = 10.5/(6017.5) = 0.01 in2/in (two legs)
Av/2S = 0.005 in2/in (one leg)
Design for torsion:
Aoh = 243.35in2, Ao = 206.8in2, Pn = 120 in.
Use eq. 15-21 to check the adequacy of the section
15-8

LHS = 375.7, RHS = 410.7 > LHS O.K., Tn = 400 Kin, At/S = 0.016in2 (one leg)
Al = 1.92in2, Almin = 5 3000 448/60000-0.016120 = 0.125 in2 O.K.
Total area of closed stirrups:
For one leg Avt/S = 0.016+0.005 = 0.021 in2/in
Min Avt/S = 5014/60000 = 0.011in2 < Avt/S
S = 0.11/0.021 = 5.24 in.
say 6 in.
S = 15in.
Or 12 in.
Use S = 6 in.

## Distribution of longitudinal bars:

Total = 1.92 in2, Al/3 = 0.64in2
Total area of top bars = 1.04in2 use 4#5 or 2#7
Total area of mid-depth bars = 0.64in2 use 2#5
Total area of bottom bars = 4.64in2 , use 5#9

Problem 15.14:
Given: Tu = 300K (compatibility torsion)
Solution:
Design for moment:
From prob. 15.11; As = 3.3in2 use 4#9
Shear and torsional reinforcement are required.
Design for shear: From prob. 15.11, Av/2S = 0.003 in2/in (one leg)
Design for torsion: From prob. 15.11, Aoh = 243.25in2, Ao = 206.8in2
Pn = 120in, Acp = 448in2, Pcp = 124in
Now:

## Tcr = 4 f c/ Acp2/Pcp = 0.754 4000 (448)2/124 = 307K.in < Tu = 300K.in

use Tn = 300/0.75 = 400K.in, At/S = 0.016 in2(one leg)
Al = 0.016120 = 1.92in2, Almin = 5 4000 448/60000-0.016120 = 0.44 < Al
O.K.
Total area of stirrups:
For one leg
Avt/S = 0.016+0.003 = 0.019in2/in, Min Avt/S = 0.11 < Avt O.K.,Use #3stirrups:
S = 0.11/0.010 = 5.8 in
say 6in
S = 16.5in
Or 12in, Use S = 6in
Distribution of longitudinal bars:
Total = 1.92in2 , Avt/3 = 0.64in2
Use one third at top, one third at mid depth and one third at bottom
Total area of top bars = 0.64+2#4 = 1.04in2, Use 4#5
15-9

## Total area of bars at mid-depth = 0.64in2 use 2#5

Total area of bottom bars = 0.64+4#9 = 4.64in2 use 5#9

Problem 15.15:
Given: bw = 14in, h = 20in, t = 6in, T-section, fc/ = 3ksi, fy = 60ksi
Vu = 28K, Tu = 300K.in (compatibility), Mu = 250K.ft
Solution:
Design for moment: From problem 15.13, As = 3.35in2, Use 4#9 bars
Shear and torsional reinforcement required.
Design for shear: From prob. 15.13, Ao/2S = 0.005in2/in (one leg)
Design for torsion: From prob. 15.13, Aoh = 243.25in2, Ao = 206.8in2, Pn = 120in
Acp = 448in2, Pcp = 124in
Now:
Tcr = 0.754 3000 (448)2/124 = 226K.in < Tu, Use Tu = 266K.in
Use eq. 15-21 to check the adequacy of the section. O.K., Tn = 354.7K.in
At/S = 0.014in2 (one leg)
Al = 0.014120 = 1.7in2
Almin = 5 3000 448/60000-0.014120 = 0.365 in2 < Al
O.K.
Total area of closed stirrupss:
For one leg:
Avt/S = 0.014+0.005 = 0.019 in2/in, Min Avt/S = 5014/60000 = 0.011<Avt
O.K.
use #3 stirrups:
S = 0.11/0.019 = 5.8 say 6 in
Smax. = 120/8 = 15 in, or 12 in < 15, Use S = 6in
Distribution of longitudinal bars:
Total = 1.7 in2, Al/3 = 0.57 in2
Use one third at top, one third at mid-depth, and one third at bottom.
Total area of bottom bars = 0.57+4#9 = 4.57in2 use 5#9
Total area of mid-depth bars = 0.57 in2, Use 2#5
Total area of top bars = 0.57+2#4 = 0.97, Use 4#5 or 2 # 7
Problem 15.16:
Tu = 220K.in (compatibility torsion), Vu = 36K
From prob. 7, shear and torsional reinforcement required
Design for shear: Av/2S = 0.0058in2/in (one leg)
Design for torsion: Aoh = 194.25, Ao = 165.11, Pn = 58, Acp = 308, Pcp = 72
Now:

15-10

## Tcr = 0.754 3000 (308)2/72 = 216.5K.in < Tu

Tu = 216.5K.in then proceed like problem 7 to get
At/S = 0.01451in2(one leg), Al = 0.84in2
Use on third at top, one third at mid-depth, and one third at bottom .
Use #4 stirrups At 7in.
Problem 15.17:
Given: Cantilever beam, b = 16 in., fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi.
Required: a.) Draw the axial, shear, moment and torsion diagrams.
b.) Design the section at support.
Solution:
a) The axial, shear, moment and torsion diagrams are shown below.
b) the section at the support is subjected to:
Pu = 22 k., Mux = 60 k.ft., Muy = 296 k.ft., Vu = 12 k.ft., and Tu = 48 k.ft.
1. Design for moments Mux , Muy , and Pu
assume the section 20 X 16 in., then dx = 20 2.5 = 17.5 in.
dy = 16 2.5 = 13.5 in.
For steel ratio = 1.8% < max = 1.806%, Ru = 818 psi.
Moy = 0.818(16)(17.5)2/12 = 334 k.ft., Mox = 0.818(20)(13.5)2/12 = 248.5
k.ft.
Check that
1.5

1.5

M uy
1.0
+
M
oy

1.5
1.5
60
296

+
= 0.1186 + 0.8343 = 0.9529 1.0
248.5
334
Asx = (0.018)(20)(13.5) = 4.86 in.2 , Asy = (0.018)(16)(17.5) = 5.04 in.2
Note: that Pu is relatively small.
M ux

M ox

## 2. Design for torsion and shear: Tu = 576 k.in., Vu = 12 k.

a.) d = 17.5 in., fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi,

Vc = 2 f c 'bd = 26.6 k .
Vu = 12k. < Vc / 2 shear reinforcement is not required.
b.) Acp = (xo)(yo) = (16)(20) = 320 in.2, Pcp = 2(xo+yo) = 2(16 + 20) = 72 in.
Ta =

A 2
f c ' cp
P
cp

3202
= 0.75 4000
= 67.5 k.in.
72

## Tu = 576 > Ta torsional reinforcement is needed.

3. Design for torsion: Assume 1.5 in. cover concrete cover and #4 stirrups.
x1 = 16 3.5 = 12.5 in., y1 = 20 3.5 = 16.5 in.
Aoh = 206.25 in.2, Ph = 2(12.5 + 16.5) = 58 in.2, Ao = 175.3 in.2
Assume = 45, cot = 1.0
15-11

## b.) check the adequacy of the section.

2

T P
Vu

+ u n 2 c + 8 f c '
b
d
b
d
. Aoh
w
17
w

LHS = 464.psi., RHS = 474.5 psi, RHS > LHS o.k. section is adequate.
c.)
At Tn cot
T
576
=
, Tn = u =
= 768k .in.
S
2 A0 f yt

0.75

At
768
=
= 0.0365 in.2 per one leg
S
2 175.3 60

fy

Al = At Ph
cot 2 = 2.12 in.2
f

yt

## Al (min.) = is not critical

d.) Total area of closed stirrups: for one-leg
(Avt/S) = (At/S) + (Av/2S) = 0.0365 , use #4 stirrups, area of one leg = 0.2 in.2
Then spacing of stirrups = 0.2/0.0365 = 5.5 in. say 6.0 in.
Min.S = Ph/8 = 58/8 = 7.25 in. , say 7 in. or 12 in., use S = 6 in.
Min.( Avt/S) = (5016)/60000 = 0.013 in.2/in., O.K.
Use #4 stirrups @ 6 in.
e.) Longitudinal bars: Al (min.) = 2.12 in.2
Use Al/4 = on all sides of beam = 2.12/4 = 0.53 in.2
f.) Choice of steel bars: Total Asy steel 5.04 + 0.53 = 5.57 in.2
Use 6 #9 bars (As = 9 in.2)
Asx = 4.86 + 0.53 = 5.39 in.2, use 6 # 9 bars.
On other sides of beams, use 3 #5 bars (As = 0.91 in.2)

15-12

15-13

Problem 15.18:
Given: A cantilever slab supported by fixed ends beam. Own weight = 100 psf.,
live load = 80 psf., fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi., bw = 14 in. and slab thickness = 5 in.
Required: Design the critical section at the support.
Solution:
1. Assume own weight of beam = 0.3 k/ft.
Uniform dead load on beam = 0.1(8) + 0.3 = 1.1 k./ft.
U = 1.2D + 1.6L = (1.2)(1.1) + (1.6)(8x0.08) = 2.34 k./ft.
2. Force at A :
Bending moment at A, Mu = UL2/12 = 2.34(16)2/12 = 49.9 k.ft.(1)
Uniform ultimate torsional moment on AB:
= (1.2)(0.1x8)(4) + (1.6)(0.08x8)(4) = 7.94 k./ft.
Tu (at A) = 16(7.94)/2 = 63.52 k.ft., Vu (at A) = 2.34(8) = 18.7 k.
Assume h = 24 in., d = 21.5 in.
Tu (at d distance) = 63.52(6.20)/8 = 49.23 k.ft. = 591 k.in .(2)
Vu (at d distance) = 6.20(18.7)/8 = 14.4 k..(3)
3. Design due to Mu = 49.9 k.ft., Ru = Mu /(bd2) = (49.9x12000)/(14x(21.5)2) =
92.5 psi
The section is L-section, but since Mu is small, a rectangular section is assumed to
obtain min. steel.
= 0.02 , min = 200/ fy = 0.0033, As = (0.0033)(14)(21.5) = 1.0 in.2
4. Determine thickness of slab
U = 1.2(0.1) + 1.6(0.08) = 0.25 k./ft., Mu = UL2/2 = 8.0 k.ft.
For = 0.01, Ru = 492 psi.
d = (8.0 12) /(0.492 12) = 4.03in.
Let t = 4.03 + 0.75 = 5.0 in. slab.
5. Design for shear and torsion:
a) Equilibrium torque Tu = 591 k.in., Vu = 14.4 k., d = 21.5 in.
Vc = 2

f c 'bd = 28.6 k

## Vu = 14 < Vc /2 shear reinforcement is not required.

b.) Acp = (xo)(yo) = (14)(24) = 336 in.2, Pcp = 2(xo+yo) = 2(14 + 24) = 76 in.
Ta =

A 2
f c ' cp
P
cp

3362
= 0.75 4000
= 70.5 k.in.
76

## 6. Design for torsion:

a) Assume 1.5 in. concrete cover and #4 stirrups.
x1 = 14 3.5 = 10.5 in., y1 = 24 3.5 = 20.5 in.
Aoh = 10.5x20.5 = 215.3 in.2, Ao = 183 in.2, Ph = 2(10.5 + 20.5) = 62 in.2
15-14

## Assume = 45, cot = 1.0

b.) check the adequacy of the section.
2

Vu Tu Pn

+
2
bw d 1.7 Aoh

V
c
bw d

+ 8 fc '

LHS = 467.4 psi, RHS = 474.5 psi., RHS > LHS o.k. section is adequate.
c.)
At Tn cot
T
591
=
, Tn = u =
= 788 k.in.
S
2 A0 f yt

0.75

At
788
=
= 0.0359 in.2 per one leg
S
2 183 60

fy

Al = At Ph
cot 2 = 2.22 in.2
f

yt

## Al (min.) = is not critical

d.) Total area of closed stirrups: for one-leg
(Avt/S) = (At/S) + (Av/2S) = 0.0359 , use #4 stirrups, area of one leg = 0.2 in.2
Then spacing of stirrups = 0.2/0.0359 = 5.6 in. say 5 in.
Min.S = Ph/8 = 62/8 = 7.75 in. , say 7 in. or 12 in., use S = 5 in.
Min.( Avt/S) = (5014)/60000 = 0.017 in.2/in. , O.K.
e.) Longitudinal bars:
Use Al/3 = 2.22/3 = 0.74 in.2 at bottom (2 #6 , As = 0.88)
2
Use 0.85 in. at mid span (2 #6)
As (top) = 1.0 + 0.74 = 1.74 in.2, use 4 # 6 bars. (As = 1.77 in.2)

15-15

15-16

CHAPTER 16
CONTINUOUS BEAMS AND FRAMES
Problem 16.1:
Given: D.L. = 40 psf, L.L. = 100 psf, f c' = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi
beam width = 12 in., slab thickness = 4 in., columns 14 x 14 in.
Required: Design Beam ABCD
Solution:
1. slab long side / slab short side = 20 / 10 = 2, one way slab
Loads on slab: D.L. = 40 + (4/12) (150) = 90 psf, L.L. = 100 psf
Wu = 1.2 (40) + 1.6 (100) = 268 psf
2. Loads on beam: from Table (A6), fy = 60 ksi,
min. depth = L / 23 = 20(12)/23 = 10.4 in
Assume a total depth of 15 in., d = 15 - 2.5 = 12.5 in.
Wu = (1.2)(12/12)(11/12)(150) + 10(268) = 2845 lb/ft, Say 2.9 kip.ft
3. Design of moment:
Mu = Wu x l2n x Coeff. =2.9(20 1 4 / 1 2 ) 2 x Coef. = 1029 x Coeff.
Section
Coeff.
Mu (k.ft)

A
1/16
-64.31

F
1/14
+73.5

B
1/10
-102.9

F
1/16
+64.31

(k.ft)
C
1/11
-93.55

## a) Support sections are rectangular sections analysis:

Ru = Mu / (bd2); (psi)
AS = bd; (in.2)
max = 1.806%;
Support
Mu (k.ft)
Ru (psi)
(%)
As (in.2)
Steel
Min. ld

min = 0.5%;

A
-64.31
412
0.83
1.25
3#7 (1.8 in.2)
32 or 41 in.

## AS(min) = 0.75 in.2

B
-102.9
659
1.39
2.1
4#7 (2.41 in.2)
Min. b = 11.8 in.
41 in.

16-1

C
-93.55
599
1.25
1.9
4#7 (2.41 in.2)
41 in.

D
1/16
+64.31

b) Mid-span sections have T sections shape but rectangular analysis, a < 4 in.
be =
0.25 L = 0.25 (20 x 12) = 60 in., Controls, be = 60 in.
bw + 16t = 12 + 16 x 4 = 76 in.
beam C.L. to beam C.L. = 10 (12) = 120 in.
AS = Mu / [fy(d - a/2)]
a = As fy / (0.85fc be)
AS(min) = 0.005 bwd = 0.005x12x12.5 = 0.75 in.2
Section
Assume, a
A (in2)
check, a
As in2
Steel

mid-span, E
0.5 in
1.34
0.4in.
1.34
3#7

mid-span, F,D
0.4 in.
1.16
0.34 in.
1.16
2#7

## 4. Design for shear: Wu = 2.9 kip/ft

a) For AB, MA = -64.31 kip.ft, MB = -102.9 kip.ft
RA = 2.9 (20/2) (1/20) (102.9 64.31) = 30.93 kip. = VA
RB(left) = 2.9 (20/2) + (1/20) (102.9 64.31) = 30.93 kip. = VBL
For BC, MB =-102.9kip.ft, Mc=-93.55kip.ft
RB(right) = 2.9 (20/2) + (1/20) (102.9 93.55) = 29.5 kip. = VBR
Rc(left) = 2.9 (20/2) - (1/20) (102.9 93.55) = 28.5 kip. = VCL
Total RB = 30.93 + 29.5 = 60.43 kip.
Total RC = 2 x 28.5 = 57, say 57 kip.
b)VA = 27.1 kip,
VBL = 30.93 kip.,
VC = 28.5 kip.
Critical section for shear is at left of support B, VBL = 30.93 kip.
Vu at d distance (12.5 + 7 in. = 19.5 in from center of column)
Vu= 30.93 2.9 (19.5/12) = 26.22 kip, say 27 kip.
V c = 0.75 (2 x 4000 )(12 x 12.5 x 10-3 ) = 14.23 kip.
V s = (27 14.23) / 0.75 = 17.03 kip.
Max.V s = 8/ 4000 (12 x 12.5 x 10-3 ) = 75.9 > Vs
Choose #3 stirrups, A v = 2(0.11) =0.22 in. 2
s = 0.22 (60)(12.5) / 17.03 = 9.7 in.
(4 4000 )(12 x 12.5 x 10-3 ) = 37.95 kip > V s , therefore use max. s = d / 2
Max.S = 0.5 x 12.5 = 6.25 say 6 in, or max. S = 0.22(60000) / (50 x 12) = 22 in.
Therefore use #3 stirrups spaced at 6 in.

16-2

16-3

5. Deflection
Service load on slab = (90 + 100) 10-3 = 0.19 kip/ft 2
Self-weight of beam = (12/12)(11/12) x 0.15 = 0.14 kip/ft
Service load on beam W = 0.14 + 10 x 0.19 = 2.04 kip/ft
Approximate I b = 2 x (12/12) (15)3 = 6750 in. 4
E c = 57400 4000 = 3.63 x 106 psi
Deflection atmid-span of an interior beam C C; M c = M c
= [2.04 x 103 (20 x 12)4 ] / [384 x 3.63 x 106 x 6750 x 12] = 0.06 in.
/ L = (0.06)/ (20 x 12) = 1/3990 which is very small.
Problem 16.2:
Given: D.L. = 40 psf, L.L. = 100 psf, f c ' = 4 ksi, f y = 60 ksi,
beam width = 12 in., slab thickness = 4 in., columns 14 x 14 in.
L l = 20 ft, L 2 = 24 ft, L 3 = 20 ft, L 4 = l0ft
Required: Design an internal beam ABCD, (similar to p #16.1)
Solution:
All slabs act as one-way slabs.
load W u = 1.2 [40 + (4/12) x 150] + 1.6 (100) = 268 psf.
Assume total beam depth, h = 20 in., d = 17.5 in.
Web depth = 20 4 = 16 in., weight of web =16 x 12 x150 / 144 = 0.2kip/ft
Load on beam = 10 (0.268) + 1.2 (0.2) = 2.92 kip/ft
L 2/L 1 = 24/20 = 1.2, ACI coefficients may be used.
2. Design for moments:
Clear span AB = 20 - 14/12 = 18.83 ft, BC = 24 - 14/12 = 22.83 ft
Mu = 2.92 ln2 x ACI Coefficient.
For sections at supports, b = 12 in., d = 17.5 in.
For sections at positive moments within AB and BC, be = 60 in., bw = 12 in., d = 17.5 in.
Section
Coefficient
Mu (k.ft)
Ru (psi)
(%)
As (in.2)
Bars

Support A

Support B

1/16
-64.71
211
0.41
1.05
2#7

1/10
-126.7
414
0.83
1.75
3#7

Support C
1/11
-115.2
376
0.75
1.6
3#7

Midspan
AB
1/14
74
1.05
2#7

## For MBC = 95 kip.ft, Let a = 0.6 in.

As = 1.25 in2, use 3#7 bars (As = 1.8 in.2)
Check a = As fy/0.85 fc'be = (1.25 x 60) / (0,85 x 4 x 60) = 0.4 in.
As(min) = 0.005 (12 x 17.5) = 1.05 in.2, less than 1.25 in.2
For MAB = 74 kip.ft, As = 0.98 in2, use 2#7 bars, (As = 1.2 in.2)

16-4

Midspan
BC or D
1/16
95
1.25
3#7

## 3. Design for shear: Wu = 2.92 kip/ft

a) For AB: MA = 64.71 kip.ft, MB = 126.7 kip.ft, Ll = 20 ft
RA = 2.92 (10) (1/20) (126.7 - 64.71) = 26.1 kip = VA
RB (left) = 29.2 + (1/20) (126.7 - 64.71) = 32.3 kip = VBL
b) For BC, MB_ = 126.7 kip.ft, Mc = 115.2 kip.ft, L2 = 24 ft
RB(right) = 2.92 x 12 + (1/24) (126.7 115.2) = 35.5 kip. = VBR
RC (left) = 2.92 x 12 (1/24) (126.7 115.2) = 34.6 kip. = V CL
c) For c - c', Mc = Mc' ,
L3 = 20 ft
Rc (right) = 2.92 x 10 = 29.2 kip. = VCR
d) R A = 26.1 kip., RB = 67.8 kip., Rc = 63.8 kip
e) Critical section for shear is at VBR = 35.5 kip
Vu(at distance d) = 35.5 - 2.92 (17.5+7)/12 = 29.54 kip
Vc = 0.75 x 2 4000 (12 x 17.5) = 19.92 kip
Vs = (1/0.75) (29.54 - 19.92) = 12.83 kip
Max. Vs = 8 4000 x (12 x 17.5) = 106.3 kip >Vs
Choose #3 stirrups, Av = 0.22 in.2
S = [0.22 (60)(17.5)] / 12.83 = 18 in.
S(max) = d / 2 = 17.5 / 2 = 8.75 in. or s(max) = [0.22 (60,000)] / [50 x 12] = 22 in.
Therefore, use #3 stirrups spaced at 8.5 in.
Vs = 0.75 x 0.22 x 60 x 17.5 / 8.5 = 20.4 kip.
V (with min. stirrups) = Vc + Vs = 19.92 + 20.4 = 40.32 kip.
Problem 16.3:
Given: Beam in figure (16.35), b = 14 in, h = 25 in., fc= 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi,
EI = Constant and a load factor = 1.6
Required: Draw bending moment and shear diagrams and design all critical sections.
Solution: Using three moment equation:
1.) M1L1 + 2M2 (L1 + L2) + M3 L2 = -(W1 L13 / 4 + W2 L23 / 4)
MA=MC= 0
2MB (Ll + L2) = -(1/4)( W1 L13 + W2 L23 )
2MB (24 + 16) = -(1/4)( 6 x 243 + 10 x 163 )
MB = -387.2 kip.ft
2.) RA = (6 x 24)/2 387.2/24 = 55.87 kip
RB (left) = (6 x 24)/2 + 387.2/24 = 88.13 kip
RB (right) = (10 x 16)/2 + 387.2/16 = 104.2 kip
RB = 88.13 + 104.2 =192.33 kip
RC = (10 x 16)/2 - 387.2/16 = 55.8 kip

16-5

## 3. Distance of zero shear from A =55.87 / 6 = 9.31 ft

Distance of zero shear from C =55.87 / 10 = 5.58 ft
Max. positive M in span AB = 55.87 x 9.31 (6/2) x (9.31)2 = 260.12 kip.ft
Max. positive M in span BC = 55.8 x 5.58 (10/2) x (5,58)2 = 155.68 kip.ft
4. Factored design moments: MB = -1.6(387.2) = -619.5 kip.ft
M AB = 1.6(260.12) = 416.2 kip.ft, MBC = 1.6(155.68) = 249.1 kip.ft
b = 14 in., d = 25 - 3.5 = 21.5 in., Ru = Mu/bd2
Ru(max) = 820 psi,

(max) =1.81%,

Section
Mu (kip.ft)
Ru psi
%
As in?
AS in?
Total A
Bars

AB
+416.2
771
1.68
5.06
5.06
5#9

B
-619.5
1149
l=1.81
Asl=5.5
1.34
6.84
4#9+3#8(top)
2#9(bottom)

BC
+249.1
462
0.94
2.83
2.83
3#9

## 5. a) Design for shear: Wu1=1.6x6 = 9.6 kip/ft, Wu2=1.6x10 = 16 kip/ft

RA = 9.6 x 12 - 619.5/24 = 89.4 kip = VA
RB(left) =9.6 x 12 + 619.5/24=141.0 kip=VBL
RB (right) = 16 x 8 +619.5/16 = 166.7 kip = VBR
RC= 16 x 8 619.5/16 = 89.3 kip= VCL
b) Critical section at right of support B, VBR = 166.7 kip
Vu(at distance d) = 166.7 - (21.5/12)16 = 138 kip
Vc = 0.75 x 2 4000 (14 x 21.5) = 28.6 kip
Vs = (1/0.75) (138 - 28.6) = 145.9 kip
Maximum VS = 8 4000 (14 x 21.5) = 152.3 kip > Vs
Choose #4 stirrups, Av = 0.4 in2
S = 0.4 (60)(21.5) / 145.9 = 3.54 in.
Vs (for Smax ) = 4 4000 (14 x 21.5) = 76.15 kip < Vs
Therefore, Smax = d/4 = 21.5/4 = 5.35 in.
or Smax = 0.4 (60000) / (50 x 14) = 34 in., use #4 stirrups spaced at 3.5 in.
c) Similarly, check shear at other sections and increase stirrups spacing accordingly.

16-6

16-7

Problem 16.4:
Given: similar to problem (16.3). LAB = 20 ft, LBC = 16 ft
Required: Design critical sections.
Solution: Using three-moment equation:
1.) M1L1 + 2M2 (L1 + L2) + M3 L2 = -(W1 L13 / 4 + W2 L23 / 4)
2MB (20 + 16) = - () (6 x 203 + 10 x 163), MB = -308.9 kip.ft
2.) RA = 6 x 10 - 308.9/20 = 45.6 kip
RB (left) = 6 x 10 + 308.9/20 = 75.45 kip
RB(right) = 10 x 8 + 308.9/16 = 99.3 kip
Rc = 10 x 8 - 308.9/16 = 60.7 kip
3.) Distance of zero shear from A = 45.6/6 = 7.6 ft
Distance of zero shear from C = 60.7/10 = 6.07 ft
Max. positive M within AB = 45.6 (7.6) (6/2) (7.6) 2 = 173.3 kip.ft
Max. positive M within BC = 60.7 (6.07) (10/2) (6.07) 2 = 184.2 kip.ft
4.) Factored design moments: MB = -1.6 (308.9) = -494.2 kip.ft
MAB = 1.6 (173.3) = 277.3 kip.ft,
MBC = 1.6 (184.2) = 294.7 kip.ft
b = 14 in., d = 25 - 2.5 = 22.5 in., Ru = Mu/b.d2
Ru(max) = 820 psi, (max) = 1.81%, Mu(max) = 484.3 kip.ft
Section
Mu (kip.ft)
Ru (psi)
%
As (in2)
Bars

AB
+277.3
470
0:95
2.99
3#9

B
-494.2
838
1.81
5.7
6#9

BC
+294.7
500
1.02
3.21
2#9+2#8

## 5. a) Design for shear: Wul = 1.6 x 6 = 9.6 kip.ft, Wu2 = 16 kip.ft

RA = 9.6 x 10 - 494.2/20 = 71.3 kip = VA
RB(left) = 9.6 x 10 + 494.2/20 = 120.7 kip = V BL
RB(right) = 16 x 8 + 494.2/16 = 158.9 kip = VBR
Rc = 16 x 8 - 494.2/16 = 97.1 kip = V CL
b) Critical section at right of support B, VBR = 158.9 kip,
d = 25 - 3.5 = 21.5 in.
Vc = 0.75 x 2 4000 (14 x 21.5) = 28.6 kip
Vu(at distance d from support) = 158.9 - (21.5/12)16 = 130.2 kip
Vs = (1/0.75) (130.2 28.6) = 135.5 kip
Max. VS = 8 4000 (14 x 21.5) = 152.3 kip > Vs
Choose #4 stirrups, As = 0.4 in2
S = 0.4 (60)(21.5) / 135.5 = 3.8 in.

16-8

## Vs (for Smax) = 4 4000 (14 x 21.5) = 76.15 kip < Vs

Thus S max = 21.5/4 = 5.35 in.
or Smax= 0.4(60000)/(50 x 14) = 34 in., use #4 stirrups at 3.5 in.
c) Check shear at other sections in beams AB and BC and increase spacing accordingly.

Problem 16.5:
Given: Portal frame shown in figure (16.36), f c' = 4 ksi and f y = 60 ksi
Required: Design the frame ABCD.
Solution:
1.) Assume beam 16 x 34 in., and column 16 x 30 in.
Self -weight of beam = (16/12) (34/12) x 0.15 = 0.57 kip.ft
Self-weight of column = (16/12) (30/12) 0.15 x 20 = 10.0 kip
Load on beam: Wu = 1.2 (2.6 + 0.57)+ 1.6 x 1.8 = 6.7 kip/ft
Ib h
343 2
K = 3 + 2 = 3 + 2 3 = 4.16
30 5
Ic L

Wu L2 (6.7)(50) 2
=
= 1006.6 K . ft.
4K
4(4.16)
Midspan ME = -1006.6 + (6.7)(50)2/ 8= 1087.15 kip.ft
HA = HD = MB /h = (-1006.6)/20 = -50.33 kip
VB = VC = (Wu L)/2 = (6.7 x 50)/2 = 167.5 kip
VA = VD = VB + column weight = 167.5 + 1.2 x 10 = 179.5 kip
MB = Mc =

## 2. Beam BC: Critical moments occur when BC is loaded.

a) Design for moments:
d = 34 - 3.5 = 30.5" (2 layers of steel)
Design Support Moment = -1006.6 kip.ft
Design mid-span Moment = +1087.15 kip.ft
Design shear = 167.5 - 6.7 x (15+30.5) /12 =142 kip
Section
Mu (kip.ft)
R u (psi)
%
As (in2)
Bars

Supports B,C ,
-1006.6
811.6
1.78
8.69
2#10 + 6#9(8.53 in2)

Midspan E
+1087.15
876.5
1.81
8.83
(5#10 + 3#9)(As=9.33 in2)

16-9

## b) Design for shear:

V c = 0.75 ( 2 4000 ) 10-3 x 16 x 30.5 = 46.3 kip
V u = 142 > V C, shear reinforcement is required
Vs = (1/0.75)(142 - 46.3) = 127.6 kip
Max. Vs = 8 x
4000 x 10 - 3 x 16 x 30.5 = 247 kip > Vs
Choose #4 stirrups, A v = 0.4 in 2 ,
S=A v f y d / V s =0.4x60x30.5 / 127.6=5.74in., say 5 in.
4 4000 bd = 124 kip < V s , Max.S = 0.5d = 15.25 say 15 in.
or max S = A v f y / (50b) = 30 in., Max. S = 15.0 in. controls.
Use #4 stirrups at 4 in., max spacing = 15 in.
Vs ' (for S m a x = 15 in) = 0.4 x 40 x 30.5/15 = 32.53 kip
V s ' = 0.75 x 32.53 = 24.4 kip
From shearing force diagram, use S = 5 in. up to 13 ft from each support, then use
S = 15 in. for the middle portion.
3. Design of columns AB, DC;
a) Section B: M u = -1006.6 kip.ft, P u = 167.5 kip
Column can be designed as short column if:
KLu / r <(34 12M1/M2), M1 = 0; M2 = -1006.6
Frame is considered braced against sidesway.
K = 0.8, r = 0.3h = 0.3(30) = 9in.
KLu / r = 0.8 (20 x 12)/9 = 21.3 < 34. Thus use short column analysis.
e = M u / P u = (1006.6 x 12)/167.5 = 72.1 in.
Eccentricity is large enough to assume that tension controls.
t = 0.005; = 0.9
M n = 1006.6/0.9 = 1118.5 kip.ft, P n = 167.5 /0.9= 186.1kip
Let d = 30 - 3.5 = 26.5 in. (two layers of tension steel),
d' = 2.5 in.
e'=e+d-h/2=72.1+26.5-30/2=83.6in.
M n ' = P n . e' = 186.1 x 83.6 = 15558 kip.in,
R = M n / bd 2 = 15558 x 10 3 /(16 x 26.5 2 )= 1384.7 Psi
For singly reinforced section, max.R =R u (max)/0.9 =820/0.9 = 911 psi
R > max R, compression reinforcement is needed.
d' = 2.5 in. (one layer of compression steel)
M nl = max R.bd 2 = 911 x 16 x 26.5 2 = 10236 kip.in.
As = (Mn - Mn1 )/ [f y (d-d)] = (15558 10236)/[60(26.5-2.5)] = 3.7 in. 2
Use outside tension steel 2#10 + 3#9 (A s = 5.53 in. 2 )
For comp. steel, use 2#10 + 3l/9 (A s = 5.53 in. 2 )
Check capacity: m = f y / (0.85f c ) = 17.65, m' = m - 1 = 16.65
= As / bd = 0.024835, ' = As / bd = 0.013042
e'
d'
P n = 0.85 f c ' bd ['m'-m+(1- e/d)+ (1 + e '/ d )2 + 2[ ( m ' m ') + ' m '(1 )]]
d
d
Provided P n = 230.9 kip > 186.1 required

16-10

## b) Section at mid-height of column:

Mu = 0.5 x 1006.6 = 503.3 kip.ft, P u = 167,5 + 7(1/2 weight of column) = 174.5 kip
e = 503.3/174.5 = 35 in., tension controls, try A s = 2#10 + 3#9 (A s =5.53 in.2)
A s ' = 2#10 + 1 #9 (A s ' = 3.53 in 2 ), d = 27.5 in., d' = 2.5 in.
c b = 87d/(87+ f y ) = (87 x 27.5)/(87+60) = 16.27 in., a b = 0.85 c b = 13.8 in.
P b = 0.85 f c ' a b b + A s 'f y - A s f y = 0.85 x 4 x 13.8 x 16 + 60(3.53 - 5.53) = 632.4 kip
= 0.9
P n = 172.5 / 0.9 = 192 < P b , thus tension controls.
check capacity: e' = 35.01 + 27.5 - 15 = 47.5 in.
= 5.53/(16 x 27.5) = 0.012568, ' = 3.53/(16x27.5) = 0.008023
Provided P n = 332.1 kip > 192 kip required.
c) Ties: choose #4 ties spaced at the least of: b = 16 in.,
or 16 x 10/8 = 20 in. or 48 x 4/8 = 24 in.
Use S = 16 in.
4. Design of hinges (Mesnager Hinge)
P u = 179.5,
H = 50.33 kip, assume = 30
R 2 = (1/2) (P u / cos + / sin ) = 53.3kip
R 1 = R 2 + / sin = 154 kip
A sl = R 1 /(0.55 f y ) = 4.7 in. 2 , use 5#9 (A s = 5 in. 2 )
A s2 = R 2 /(0.55 f y ) = 1.62 in. 2 , use 4#7 (A s = 2.4 in. 2 )
Use crossing bars 5#9 and 4#7, a = 8 bar dia. = 8 x 9/8 = 9 in.
F = (Pu /2) tan + H a / (0.85d) = (179.5/2) tan 30 + 50.33 x 9/(0.85 x 27.5) = 71.2 kip
Ties: A st = F/(f y )=71.2/(0.85 x 60) = 1.40 in. 2
Choose #4 ties, area of one tie = 2 x 0.2 = 0.4 in. 2
No. of ties = 1.4/0.4 = 3.51, say 4 ties, A st = 4 x 0.4 = 1.6 in. 2
Spacing 9/3 = 3.0 in.
Use 4#4 ties within a length = a = 9 in.
Use width of concrete section at hinge = 10 in., gap = 3 in.
Check stresses in ties: f s = F/[0.005.a.b+A st ] = 71.2 / [0.005x9x16 + 1.6] = 30.7 ksi
f s = 30.7 ksi < 0.85 f y = 0.85 x 60 = 51 ksi, o.k.
5.
Design of a rectangular footing:
P u = 179.5, H u = 50.5 kip
Unfactored load on beam = 4.97 kip/ft
Unfactored load on footings = P
P = 4.97 x 50/2 + 10 = 134.25 kip
Allowable soil pressure = q a = 5 ksi
Base of footing lies at 5 ft below final grade.
M = H.h = 50.5 x 5 = 252.5 kip.ft
e = Mu / P = 252.5 (12) / 179.5 = 16.9 in. or 17 in.
a) The center of footing will be shifted 16.9 in, away from center of column. Assume depth of
footing = 2 ft and weight of soil = 100 pcf
q net = 5-2x0.15-3x0.1=4.4 ksf

16-11

16-12

## required A = P / q net = 119.3 / 4.4 = 27.1 sq. ft, use 7.5 x 4 ft

footing area = 30 ft2
b) One way shear; Vu = 5.99 x 4 x (3.92 21.5/12) = 51.4 kip
Vc = 2 x 0.75 x 4000 x 4 x 12 x 21.5 x 10-3 = 97.9 kip > Vu
c) Two way shear: bo = 2 (30 + 21.5) + 2 (16 + 21.5) = 178 in.
A0 = (20 + 21.5) x (16 + 21.5) = 1931.3 in. 2
V = 179.5 5.59 x 1931.3/144 = 99.2 kip
Vc = 4 x 0.75 x 4000 x 10-3 x 178 x 21.5 = 726.12 kip > Vu
d) Longitudinal steel: Mu=5.99 x 4 x (1/2) x (3.92) 2 = 184.1 kip.ft,
Ru =184.1 x 12000/(4 x 12 x 21.52) = 99.6 psi,
= 0.002, Min = 0.0018
As= 0.0020 x 4 x 12 x 21.5 = 2.06 in2
Use 5#6 bars in the longitudinal direction (As = 2.21 in.2)
e) Transverse steel:
Mu = 5.99 x 7.5 x (1/2) x (1.33) 2 = 39.74 kip.ft
Ru = 39.74 x 12000 / (7.5 x 12 x 21.52) = 11.5 psi
Use min of 0.002
As = 0.0020 x 7.5 x 12 x 21.5 = 3.87 in.2,
Use 7#7 bars in the short direction.
Problem 16.7:
Given: Beam of figure (16.35)
Required: The collapse moments
Solution: See example (16.6) in text
Mp = 0.0858 WnL2 = 0.0858 (10)(24)2 = 494.2 kip.ft
Problem 16.8:
Given: Beam of figure ( 1 6 . 3 6 )
Required: the collapse moment
Solution:
We = Wn.L.L/4 = Wn L2 /4
Wi = Mp x 4
We = Wi, Mp = Wn L2/16
Mp = 12 (20)2/16 = 300 kip.ft

16-13

Problem 16.9:
Given: Beam of figure (16.36); fc' = 4 ksi, fV = 60 ksi
Required: Design the beam using the Limit State Procedure
Solution:
1. Wu = 1.2D + 1.6L = 1.2 x 2.5 + 1.6 x 2.4 = 6.84 kip/ft
Plastic hinges will develop at fixed ends and mid-span.
Mu = Wu.L2/16 = 6.84 (20)2/16 = 171 kip.ft
2. Design critical sections. Using = 1.3%, Ru = 620, (table A2 in Appendix A).
Mu = Ru bd2 or 171 x 12 = 0.62 (14) d2, d = 15.4 in.
As = 0.013 (14) (15.4) = 2.8 in.2, use 3#9 bars (As = 3.0 in.2)
Let h = 19 in., d = 19 - 2.5 = 16.5 in.
3. Required rotation of plastic hinges:
a) a = As.fy/0.85 fc' b = 3 x 60/(0.85 x 4 x 14) = 3.78 in.
a = c = 0.85c, therefore c = 4.45 in.
= c/d = 4.45/16.5 = 0.27
Ec = 57400 4000 = 3.63 x 106 psi, Es = 29 x 106 psi, n = 8
b) Determine fixed end moments at fixed ends using ultimate loads.
M FA = MFB = 6.84(20) 2/12 = -228 kip.ft
MA = 171 kip.ft
c) Determine I: (bX2/2)- n As(d - X) = 0
14 X2 / 2 (8)(3)(16.5-X) = 0, X = 6 in.
I = bX3 /3 + n As (d-X)2
I = (14/3) (6)3 + 8 (3)(16.5-6)2 = 3654 in.4
Required A = L [2(MA-MFA) + (MB MFB)] / (6EcI)
=(20 x 12)[2(-171 + 228)+(-171 + 228)] x 12000 / [6(3.63 x 10 6)(3654)] = 0.0062
4. Rotation capacity provided:
A = 0.0035/ fy / [Es(1-)] = 0.0035/0.27 60/[29000(1-0.27)] = 0.0101
This value is greater than the required of 0.0062.
5. Check ratio of ultimate to elastic moment.
Elastic moment = WL2/12 = (2.5 + 2.4)(20)2/12 = 163.34 kip.ft
Ultimate moment capacity of the section:
Mu = As fy (d a/2) = 0.9(3x60)(16.5 - 3.78/2 )= 2366.8 kip.in.=197.24 kip.ft
Ratio Mu /M = 197.24/ 163.34 = 1.21
If a higher ratio is required increase d to 17.5 in., h = 20 in. and repeat steps 3 to 5.
For d = 17.5 in.,
a = 3.78 in.,
As = 3 in.2
Mu = 0.9 (3 x 60)(17.5 - 3.78/2) = 2528.8 kip.in. = 210.74 kip.ft
Ratio = 210.74/163.34 = 1.3 which is adequate.

16-14

6. Check deflection:
= WL4 / [384 Ec I] = [4900 (20 x 12)4] / [12 (384)(3.63 x 106)(3654)] = 0.266 in.
/L = 0.266/ (20 x 12) = 1/902 which very small.
7. Check shear: Vu = 6.84 x 10 = 68.4 kip
V u (at distance d) = 68.4 (16.5)(6.84)/12 = 59 kip
Vc = 0.75 x 2 4000 (14 x 16.5) = 21.92 kip
Vs = (1/0.75) (59 - 21.92) = 49.44 kip
Max Vs = 8 4000 (14 x 16.5) = 116.84 kip > Vs
Vs (for S =d / 4) = 4 4000 bd = 58.44 kip > Vs
MaxS = d / 2 = 16.5 / 2 = 8.25 in.
For #4 stirrups, max S = 0.4(60000)/(50 x 14) = 34 in.
S = A v.f y.d/V s = 0.4 (60)(16.5)/49.44 = 8 in.
Therefore, use #4 stirrups spaced at 8 in.
Problem 16.10:
Given: 3-span continuous beam, D.L. = 6 kip/ft, L.L. = 5 kip/ft and L=24ft
Required: Calculate maximum moments using 10% moment redistribution
Solution:
1. Case 1: D.L. applies on beam ABCD. Using three-moment equations:
4 MB + MC = -(24) 2 (6 + 6) / 4 = -1728 kip.ft
MB+ 4 MC = -1728 kip.ft, MB = MC = -345.6 kip.ft
MB = MC = 0.9 (-345.6) = -311 kip.ft
Midspan moments:
AB =WDL 2 /8+ (1/2) MB = 432 311 / 2 = 276.5 kip.ft
BC = 432 - 311 = 121 kip.ft,
CD = 276.5 kip.ft
2. Case 2: L.L. on AB and BC (negative moment case)
4 MB + MC = - 242(5 + 5) / 4 = -1440 kip.ft
MB + 4 MC = - 242(5) / 4 = -720
kip.ft
MB = -336 kip.ft, MC = -96 kip.ft
MB' = - 0.9 (336) = -302.40 kip.ft
MC' = - 0.9 (96) = -86.4 kip.ft
Midspan moments:
AB = 5 (24)2/8 (1/2) (302.4) = 360 - 151.2 = 208.8 kip.ft
BC = 360 (1/2) (302.4 + 86.4) = 165.6 kip.ft
Case 3: L.L. on BCD (similar to case 2)

16-15

## Case 4: L.L, on AB and CD (positive moment case 2)

4MB + MC = - 242(5) / 4 = -720 kip.ft
MB + 4M C = -720, MB = MC = - 144 kip.ft
Increase moments by 10%, MB' = MC' = -1.1 (144) = -158.4 kip.ft
AB = CD' =5 (24)2 / 8 (1/2) (158.4) =280.8kip.ft
5. Case 5: L.L, on BC (positive moment case) :2
4 MB + MC = - 242(5)/4 = -720 kip.ft
MB + 4MC = -720, MB = MC = -144 kip.ft
Increase MB, and MC by 10%, MB' = Mc' = -158.4 kip.ft
BC' = 5 (24)2 / 8 - 158.4 = 201.6 kip.ft
Note: max. positive MB occurs when AB only is loaded,
MB = +48 x 1.1 = 52.8 kip.ft
6. Final moments:
(1)
D.L.
moments

Section
Support
B
C
Midspan
AB
BC
CD

-311
-311

(2)
L.L.
max (-)
-302.4
-302.4

276.6
121.0
276.6

-79.2
-158.4
-79.2

(3)
L.L.
max (+)

(4)
(5)
D.L.+L.L D.L.+L.L.
(1)+(2)
(1)+(3)
max (-)
max (+)

52.8
52.8

-613.4*
-613.4*

-258.2
-258.2

280.8
201.6
280.8

197.4
-37.4
197.4

557.4*
322.6*
557.4

*= Design Moments
7. For comparison: Elastic maximum and minimum moments before redistributions

Section
Support
B
C
Midspan
AB
BC
CD

(1)
D.L.
moments

(2)
L.L.
max (-)

(3)
L.L.
max (+)

(4)
D.L+L.L.
(1)+(2)

-345.6
-345.6

-336
-336

48
48

-681.6*
-681.6*

-297.6
-297.6

259.2
86.4
259.2

-72
-144
-72

288
216
288

187.2
-57.6
187.2

547.2*
302.4*
547.2*

16-16

(5)
D.L.+L.L
(1)+(3)

16-17

Problem 16.11:
Given: 4 -equal span beam,
L = 24 ft,
D.L. = 6 kip/ft, L.L. = 5 kip/ft
Required: Maximum design elastic moments using 10% moment redistribution
Solution:
MA = ME= 0, 4 MB + MC = -L2 / 4(W1 + W2)

## (using three-moment equations)

1. Case #1:
MB + MC = -242(6 + 6) / 4 = -1728 kip.ft
MB + 4MC + MD = -1728 kip.ft
MC + 4M D = -1728 kip.ft
MB' = MD' = 0.9 MB = -333.3 kip.ft,

MB = -370.3 kip.ft
MC = -246.9 kip.ft
MD = -370.3 kip.ft
MC' = 0.9 MC = -222.2 kip.ft
2
2
2
Midspan moments: AB, DE, M = WDL /8 + (1/2) MB= 6(24) /8 (1/2) x 333.3 2 = +265.4 kip.ft
BC, CD, M = WDL 2/8 + (1/2) (MB + MC ) = 6 x242/8 () (333.3 + 222.2) = +154.3 kip.ft
2. Case #2:
4 MB + MC = -242(5)/4 = -720 k. ft
MB + 4 MC + MD = -720 kip.ft
MC + 4 MD = -720 kip.ft
MB' = MD' = 1.1 MB = -169.7 kip.ft,

MB = -154.3 kip.ft
MC = -102.9 kip.ft
MD = -154.3 kip.ft
MC' = 1.1 MC = -113.2 kip.ft

## Midspan moments AB, M =WLL2 / 8 + (1/2)MB= (5)242 / 8 (1/2)(169.7) = +275.2 kip.ft

BC, M = (1/2) (MB' + Mc ') = - (1/2) (169.7 + 113.2) = -141.5 kip.ft
CD, M = WLL2 / 8 + (1/2)(MB+MC') = +218.6 kip.ft
DE, M = (1/2) MD' = -84.9 kip.ft
3. Case #3: similar to case #2 due to symmetry.
4. Case #4:
4 MB + MC = -242(5+5)/4 = -1440 k.ft
MB + 4MC + MD = -242(5)/4 = -720 k.ft
MC + 4 MD = -242(5)/4 = -720 k.ft
MB' = 0.9 MB = -312.5 k.ft

MB = -347.2 kip.ft
MC = -51.4 kip.ft
MD = -167.2 kip.ft

## Midspan moments: AB, M = WL2 / 8 + (1/2)MB= 203.8 kip.ft

BC, M = WL2 / 8 + (1/2)(MB+MC' ) = 178.1 kip.ft
CD, M = (1/2) (MC + MD) = -109.3 kip.ft
DE, M = WL2 / 8 + (1/2)(MD) = 276.4 kip.ft
5. Case #5: Similar to case #4

16-18

16-19

6. Case #6:
4 MB + MC = -242(5)/4 = -720 k.ft
MB + 4MC + MD = -242(5+5)/4 = - 1440 k.ft
MC + 4 MD = -242(5)/4 = -720 k.ft
MB' = MD' = 0.9 MB = -92,6 kip.ft,

MB = -102.9 kip.ft
MC = -308.6 kip.ft
MD = -102.9 kip.ft
MC' = 0.9 MC = -277.7 kip.ft

## Midspan moments: AB, DE, M = (1/2) MB = -46.3 kip.ft

BC, CD, M= WL2 / 8 + (1/2)(MB+MC' ) = +174.9 kip.ft
7. Final moments:
Moment due to
Section

DL

L.L.
L.L.
max ve max +ve

Support A
B
C
D
E

0
-333.3
-222.2
-333.3
0

0
-312.5
-277.7
-312.5
0

0
0

Midspan AB
BC
CD
DE

+265.4
+154.3
+154.3
+265.4

-84.9
-141.5
-141.5
-84.9

+276.4
+218.6
+218.6
+276.4

## 8. Values of Moments from coefficient tables:

Supports B,D = -634.2 kip.ft,
Support C = -497.7 kip.ft
Spans AB, DE = +559.3 kip.ft,
Spans BC, CD = +374.4 kip.ft

16-20

Col.1+Co1.2
max -ve
0
-645.8*
-499.9*
-645.8*
0
+180.5
+12.8
+12.8
+180.5

Col. 1+Co1. 3
max +ve
0
-333.3
-222.2
-333.3
0
+541.8*
+372.9*
+372.9*
+541.8*

CHAPTER 17
DESIGN OF TWO-WAY SLABS
Problem 17.1:
Flat plate with no edge beams. Calculate minimum slab thickness.
General: For exterior panels 1, 2, and 3, h = ln/30
For interior panel 4,
h = ln/33
a) ln1 = ln2 = 20-2 = 18 ft, h = (1812)/30 = 7.2 in., 7.5 in.
For panel 4, h = (1812)/33 = 6.54 in., 7 in., use 7.5 in. all over.
b) ln1 = ln2 = 22 ft, h = 8.8 in. 9 in. (ext., panel 2), h = 8.0 in. (panel 4).
Use 9 in. all over.
Problem

ln1

ln2

h = ln/30

h = ln/33

## h (in.) Total floor

18

18

7.27.5

6.547.0

7.5

22

22

8.89.0

8.0

9.0

24

24

9.610

8.739.0

10.0

18

14

7.27.5

6.547.0

7.5

22

18

8.89.0

8.0

9.0

24

20

9.610

8.739.0

10.0

28

22

11.211.5

10.1810.5

11.5

28

28

11.211.5

10.1810.5

11.5

Problem 17.2(a):
Given: Panel 20 20 ft, column 24 24 in., fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi,
D.L. = 55 psf, L.L. = 120 psf
Design an interior flat plate panel.
Solution:
1) Slab thickness: ln1 = ln2 = 20-2 = 18 ft, h = (18)(12)/30 = 7.2 in.,
Assume a slab thickness h = 8 in., d = 8-1.5 = 6.5 in. as an average depth.
2) Wu = (1.2)(55 + 8150/12) + (1.6)(120) = 378 psf = 0.38 ksf.
a) Punching shear: bo = 4(24 + 6.5) = 4(30.5) = 122 in.
Ao = (30.5)2 = 930 in.2 = 6.46 ft2
Vu = 0.38(2020 - 6.46) = 149.5 kip
Vc = 0.75 4 4000 122 6.5 = 150.5 k. > Vu
b) One-way shear: x = 0.5(20 - 2) - (6.5/12) = 8.46 ft
Vu = 0.38(18.46) = 3.21 kip
Vc = 0.75 2 4000 12 6.5 = 7.40 k. > Vu
17-1

## 3) Moments: Mol = Mos = (Wu l2)(ln1 )2/8 = (0.38)(20)(18)2/8 = 307.8 kip.ft

Details are in table.
Direction

Mo

307.8 kip.ft

- Mn (in panel)

+ Mp (in panel)

## Mp = 0.35 Mo = 107.7 kip.ft

Strip

Column strip

Middle Strip

Moment sign

Neg.

Pos.

Neg.

Pos.

Moment Distribution

0.75 Mn

0.60 Mp

0.25 Mn

0.40 Mp

Mu (kip.ft)

- 150.1

64.6

- 50.0

43.1

120

120

120

120

6.5

6.5

6.5

6.5

355

153

118

102

Steel Ratio,

0.007

0.0033*

0.0033*

0.0033*

As = bd (in.2)

5.46

2.6

2.6

2.6

## Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)

1.73

1.73

1.73

1.73

Straight bars

18#5

9#5

9#5

9#5

13

13

13

Ru =

Mu
(psi)
bd 2

6.7
Spacing = b/No.2hs
18 in.
* Min. As = 1.73 in.2 may be used.

## 4) Unbalanced moment: For equal spans:

a) Mu = 0.07(0.5 Wl l2 ln 2), Wu = 1.6(120) = 192 psf (L.L.)
Mu = 0.07(0.50.1922018 2) = 43.55 kip.ft
b) Mf = 0.6(43.55) = 26.13 kip.ft, Mv = 0.4(43.55) = 17.42 kip.ft,
Vu = 0.38(2020 - 6.46) = 149.5 kip (step 2a above)
Ac = 4(c + d)d = (4)(30.5)(6.5) = 793 in.2

Jc =

d x3
xd 3
2
+
x
y
+

2 3
6

Jc =

, x = y = 30.5 in. = (c + d)

30.5 6.53
6.5 30.5
2
+
30.5

30.5
= 124341 in.4

+
2 3
6

17-2

d = 6.5 in.

vmax

30.5
17.42 12000

149500
2
=
+
793
124341

## Allowable vc = 4 f c ' = 0.75 4 4000 = 189.74 psi. Slab is adequate

Problem 17.2(b):
Given: panel 2424 ft, column 2424 in., fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi,
D.L. = 55 psf, L.L. = 120 psf
Design an interior flat plate panel.
Solution: procedure is similar to 17.2(a):
1) Min. slab thickness = (22)(12)/30 = 8.8 in.9 in.
Increase thickness h to 12 in. to account for shear.
2) Wu = 1.2(55 + 12150/12) +1.6(120) = 438 psf
a) Punching shear: assuming #5 bars, average d = 12 - 0.75 - 0.625 = 10.625 in.
bo = 4(24 + 10.625) = 138.5 in.
Ao = 34.6252 = 1199 in.2 = 8.326 ft2
Vu = 0.438(2424 - 8.326) = 248.6 kip
Vc = 0.75 4 4000 138.5 10.625 = 279 k Vu
b) One-way shear: x = 12 - 1 - (10.6/12) = 10.11 ft
Vu = 0.438(10.11) = 4.43 kip

## Vc = 0.75 2 4000 12 10.625 = 12.1 k > Vu

3) Moments:
Let Wu = 0.45 kip.ft,
Mol = Mos = (0.45)(24)(22)2 /8 = 652 kip.ft
Details are in table.

17-3

Direction
Mo
- Mn (in panel)
+ Mp (in panel)
Strip
Moment sign
Moment Distribution
Mu (kip.ft)
Width of Strip, b, (in.)
Effective depth, d, (in.)

Ru =

Mu
bd 2

(psi)

Steel Ratio,
As = bd (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)
Straight bars

## Long or short direction

652 kip.ft
Mn = -0.65 Mo = -423.8 kip.ft
Mp = 0.35 Mo = 228.2kip.ft
Column strip
Middle Strip
Neg.
Pos.
Neg.
Pos.
0.75 Mn
0.60 Mp
0.25 Mn
0.40 Mp
- 317.8
136.9
- 105.9
91.3
144
144
144
144
10.6
10.6
10.6
10.6
234

101

78

67

0.0046
7.02
3.11
12#7
12

0.0033*
5.05
3.11
12#6
12

0.0033*
5.05
3.11
12#6
12

0.0033*
5.05
3.11
12#6
12

Spacing = b/No.2hs
18 in.
* Min. As = 3.11 in.2 may be used.

## 4) Unbalanced moment: For equal spans:

a) Mu = 0.07(0.5 Wl l2 ln 2), Wu = 1.6(120) = 192 psf
Mu = 0.07(0.50.1922422 2) = 78.1 kip.ft
b) Mf = 0.6(78.1) = 46.9 kip.ft,
Mv = 0.4(78.1) = 31.24 kip.ft,
Vu = 0.45(2424 - 8.326) = 255 kip (step 2a above)
Ac = 4(c + d)d = (4)(34.6)(10.6) = 1471 in.2

d x3 2 xd 3
+ x y+
2 3
6
x = y = 34.625 in. = (c + d)

Jc =

Jc =

vmax

34.6 10.63
10.6 34.63
2
+
34.6

34.6
= 300955 in.4

+
2 3
6

255000
=
+
1471

34.6
31.24 12000

2
300955

## vmin = 173.3 21.5 = 151.8 psi.

Allowable
vc = 4 fc ' = 0.75 4 4000 = 189.7 psi. Slab is adequate.
17-4

d = 6.5 in.

Problem 17.2(c):
Given: panel 26 26 ft, column 2424 in., fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi,
D.L. = 55 psf, L.L. = 120 psf
Design an interior flat plate panel.
Solution: procedure is similar to 17.2(a):
1) Min. slab thickness = 8.5 in. (interior) and 10 in. (exterior)
Increase thickness h to 12.5 in. to account for shear.
2) Wu = 1.2(55 + 12.5150/12) +1.6(120) = 445.5 psf
a) Punching shear: assuming #6 bars, average d = 12.5 - 0.75 - 0.75 = 11 in.
bo = 4(24 + 11) = 140 in.
Ao = 352 = 1225 in.2 = 8.51 ft2
Vu = 0.445(2626 - 8.51) = 297 kip
Vc = 0.75 4 4000 140 11 = 293 k Vu
b) One-way shear: x = 12 - 1 - (11/12) = 10.08 ft
Vu = 0.445(10.08) = 4.48 kip
Vc = 0.75 2 4000 12 11 = 12.5 k > Vu

3) Moments:
Let Wu = 0.45 kip.ft,
Mol = Mos = (0.45)(26)(24)2 /8 = 842.4 kip.ft
Details are in shown in the table below:
Direction
Long or short direction
Mo
842.4 kip.ft
- Mn (in panel)
Mn = -0.65 Mo = -547.6 kip.ft
+ Mp (in panel)
Mp = 0.35 Mo = 294.8 kip.ft
Strip
Column strip
Middle Strip
Moment sign
Neg.
Pos.
Neg.
Pos.
Moment Distribution
0.75 Mn
0.60 Mp
0.25 Mn
0.40 Mp
Mu (kip.ft)
- 411
177
- 137
118
Width of Strip, b, (in.)
156
156
156
156
Effective depth, d, (in.)
11
11
11
11

Ru =

Mu
bd 2

(psi)

261

Steel Ratio,
As = bd (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)
Straight bars

0.0051
8.49
3.51
14#7
11
Spacing = b/No.2hs18 in.
2
* Min. As = 3.51 in. may be used.
17-5

113

87

75

0.0033*
5.66
3.51
13#6
12

0.0033*
5.66
3.51
13#6
12

0.0033*
5.66
3.51
13#6
12

## 4) Unbalanced moment: For equal spans:

a) Mu = 0.07(0.5 Wl l2 ln 2), Wu = 1.6(120) = 192 psf (L.L.)
Mu = 0.07(0.50.1922624 2) = 100.6 kip.ft
b) Mf = 0.6(100.6) = 60.4 kip.ft,
Mv = 0.4(100.6) = 40.24 kip.ft,
Vu = 0.45(2626 - 8.51) = 305.7 kip
Ac = 4(c + d)d = (4)(35)(11) = 1540 in.2

d x3 2 xd 3
,
+ x y+
2 3
6
x = y = 35 in. = (c + d)

Jc =

Jc =

11 353
35 113
3
+
35
+
= 322102 in.4

2 3
6

35
40.24 12000
305700
2
vmax =
+
1540
322102
vmax = 198.5 + 26.2 = 224.7 psi.,
vmin = 172.3 psi.

## v = 4 fc ' = 0.75 4 4000 = 189.7 psi. < 224.7

Allowable c
Increase slab thickness to 13 in. or use shear reinforcement.
5) Shear reinforcement:

## Vn = 6 f c 'bo d = 1.5Vc = 1.5 293 = 440 k.

a) Maximum
Vn > Vu =305.7 kip, shear reinforcement can be used.
Refer to Fig. 17.31 in text, page 611:
b) Determine a:

bo ' = 4 c + a 2

and Vc = 2 f c 'bo d

## 0.75 2 4000 4 24 + a 2 11 = 305700 lb.

a = 34.8 in. and (a + d) = 45.8 in., say 46 in.
c) Vs = Vn - Vc = 305.7 293 = 12.7 kip
Vs (for one face of critical section) = Vs/4 = 16.93/4 = 4.23 kip
use #3 U-stirrups, Av = 0.22 in.2
s=

Av f y d
Vs

0.22 60 11
= 34.3 in., Max s = d/2 = 11/2 = 5.5 in.
4.23

## Use #3 stirrups @ 5.5 in. placed as in Fig. 17.31 in text.

17-6

d = 11 in.

Problem 17.2(e):
Given: panel 2420 ft, column 2424 in., fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi,
D.L. = 55 psf, L.L. = 120 psf
Design an interior flat plate panel in long direction.
Solution:
1) Min. slab thickness = 8.0 in. (interior) and 9 in. (exterior)
Assume a slab thickness = 10 in. to account for shear.
2) Wu = 1.2(55 + 10150/12) +1.6(120) = 408 psf
a) Punching shear: assuming #6 bars, average d = 10 - 0.75 - 0.75 = 8.5 in.
bo = 4(24 + 8.5) = 130 in.
Ao = 32.52 = 1056.25 in.2 = 7.335 ft2
Vu = 0.408(2420 - 7.335) = 192.8 kip

## Vc = 0.75 4 4000 130 8.5 = 210 k > Vu

b) One-way shear: x = 12 - 1 - (8.5/12) = 10.29 ft
Vu = 0.408(10.29) = 4.20 kip

## Vc = 0.75 2 4000 12 8.5 = 9.7 k > Vu

3) Moments:
Let Wu = 0.41 kip.ft,
Mol = (0.41)(20)(22)2 /8 = 496.1 kip.ft
Mos = (0.41)(24)(18)2 /8 = 398.5 kip.ft
Details are in table.
4) Unbalanced moment: For equal spans:
a) Mu = 0.07(0.5 Wl l2 ln 2), Wu = 1.6(120) = 192 psf (L.L.)
Mu = 0.07(0.50.1922022 2) = 65 kip.ft
b) Mf = 0.6(65) = 39 kip.ft, Mv = 0.4(65) = 26 kip.ft, d = 8.5 in.
Vu = 0.41(2420 - 7.335) = 193.8 kip
Ac = 4(c + d)d = (4)(32.5)(8.5) = 1105 in.2

d x3
xd 3
2
Jc = + x y +
2 3
6
x = y = 32.5 in. = (c + d)
Jc =

3
8.5 32.53
3 32.5 8.5
+
32.5
+
= 197803 in.4

2 3
6

32.5
26 12000

197800
2
vmax =
+
1105
197803
vmax = 175.4+ 25.6 = 201 psi.,
vmin = 150 psi.

Allowable
vc = 4 f c ' = 0.75 4 4000 = 190 psi. 201 psi. Slab section is adequate.
17-7

Long direction

## Moment Distribution (%)

Mu (kip.ft)
Width of strip, b (in.)
Effective depth, d (in.)

Ru =

Mu
(psi)
bd 2

Mo = 496.1 kip.ft
Mn = 0.65Mo = - 322.5 kip.ft
Mp = 0.35Mo = 173.6 kip.ft
Column strip
Middle strip
Neg.
Pos.
Neg.
Pos.
75
60
25
40
- 241.9
104.2
-80.6
69.4
120
120
120
120
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
335

0.66
Steel ratio, (%)
2
2
6.73
As = bd (in. )
2
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in. )
2.16
Straight bars
11#7
11
Spacing = b/No.2hs = 18 in.
2
* Min. As = 0.0033bd = 3.37 in. may be used.

Long direction

## Moment Distribution (%)

Mu (kip.ft)
Width of strip, b (in.)
Effective depth, d (in.)

Ru =

Mu
(psi)
bd 2

144

112

96

0.33*
3.37
2.16
11#5
11

0.33*
3.37
2.16
11#5
11

0.33*
3.37
2.16
11#5
11

Mo = 398.5 kip.ft
Mn = 0.65Mo = - 259 kip.ft
Mp = 0.35Mo = 139.5 kip.ft
Column strip
Middle strip
Neg.
Pos.
Neg.
Pos.
75
60
25
40
194.25
83.7
-64.75
55.8
120
120
168
168
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
269

0.52
Steel ratio, (%)
2
5.3
As = bd (in. )
2
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in. )
2.16
Straight bars
10#7
12
Spacing = b/No.2hs = 18 in.
* Min As = 0.0033bd may be used.

17-8

116

64

55

0.33*
3.37
2.16
8#6
15

0.33*
4.71
3.02
10#7
12

0.33*
4.71
3.02
10#7
12

Problem 17.3(a):
Similar to problem 17.2(a) except an exterior panel #3:
Solution: Refer to steps of problem 17.2(a):
1) Assume a slab thickness = 8 in.
2) Wu = 0.38 ksf, d = 6.5 in.
a) Punching shear: on 3 sides only.
bo = 2(c1 + d/2) + (c2 + d) = 2(24 + 3.25) + (24 + 6.5) = 85 in.
Vu = 0.38[20(10 + 1) - (27.2530.5/144)] = 81.4 kip
Vc = 0.75 4 4000 85 6.5 = 104.8 k > Vu
b) One-way shear: x = 12 - 1 - (6.5/12) = 10.46 ft
Vu = 0.38(10.46) = 4.0 kip
Vc = 0.75 2 4000 12 6.5 = 7.4 k > Vu
3) Moments: Mol = Mos = 307.8 kip.ft (same as 17.2(a))
Column Strip:
a) Exterior Neg. Moment = - 0.26Mol = - 80 kip.ft
b) Pos. Moment within span = 0.312Mol = 96 kip.ft
c) Interior Neg. Moment = - 0.525Mol = - 161.6 kip.ft
Middle Strip:
a) Exterior Moment = 0 kip.ft
b) Pos. Moment within span = 0.208Mol = 64 kip.ft
c) Interior Neg. Moment = - 0.175Mol = - 53.9 kip.ft
4) Check unbalanced moment and shear stresses.
Unbalanced moment = 118.2 kip.ft
Mf = 71 kip.ft, Mv = 47.2 kip.ft
Vmax = 258 psi. > Vc = 189.74 psi, use shear reinforcement.
Use #3 stirrups @ d/2 = 3 in. on 3 sides of the column.
(Refer to Prob. # 17.2a for detailed calculations
Long Direction
Column strip
Middle strip
Ext.(a) Pos.(b)
Int.(c)
Ext.(a) Pos.(b)
Int.(c)
Mu (kip.ft)
- 80
96
161.6
0
64
- 53.9
Width of strip, b (in.)
120
120
120
120
120
120
Effective depth, d (in.)
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5

Ru =

Mu
bd 2

(psi)

189

## Steel ratio, (%)

0.0036
2
2
As = bd (in. )
2.80
2
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in. )
1.73
Straight bars
9#5
13
Spacing = b/No.2hs = 18 in.
2
* Min. As = 1.73 in. may be used.

227.2

83

152

128

0.0043
3.35
1.73
12#5
12

0.0076
5.90
1.73
10#7
12

0
0
1.73
8#5
15

0.0033
2.57*
1.73
9#5
13

0.0033
2.57*
1.73
9#5
13

17-9

Problem 17.3(b):
Similar to problem 17.2(b), except this is an exterior panel #3:
Solution: Refer to the steps of 17.2(b)
1) Assume a slab thickness = 12 in. to account for shear.
2) Wu = 0.45 ksf., d = 10.63 in.
a) Punching shear:
bo = 2(c1 + d/2) + (c2 + d) = 2(24 + 5.3) + (24 + 10.63) = 93.25 in.
Vu = 0.45[24(12 + 1) - (29.334.6/144)] = 137.2 kip
Vc = 0.75 4 4000 93.25 10.63 = 188.1 k > Vu
b) One-way shear: x = 12 - 1 - (10.63/12) = 10.11 ft
Vu = 0.45(10.11) = 4.5 kip
Vc = 0.75 2 4000 12 10.63 = 12.1 k > Vu
3) Moments: Mol = Mos = 652 kip.ft (same as 17.2(b))
Column Strip:
a) Exterior Neg. Moment = - 0.26Mol = - 169.5 kip.ft
b) Pos. Moment within span = 0.312Mol = 203.4 kip.ft
c) Interior Neg. Moment = - 0.525Mol = - 342.3 kip.ft
Middle Strip:
a) Exterior Moment = 0 kip.ft
b) Pos. Moment within span = 0.208Mol = 135.61 kip.ft
c) Interior Neg. Moment = - 0.175Mol = - 114.09 kip.ft
4) Check unbalanced moment and shear stresses.
Unbalanced moment = 245.5 kip.ft
Mf = 147.3 kip.ft,
Mv = 98.2 kip.ft
Vmax = 165 psi. < Vc = 189 psi. (Refer to Prob. # 17.2b for detailed calculations)
Long Direction
Mu (kip.ft)
Width of strip, b (in.)
Effective depth, d (in.)

Ru =

Mu
bd 2

(psi)

## Steel ratio, (%)

As = bd2 (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)
Straight bars
Spacing = b/No.2hs = 18 in.

Column strip
Ext.(a) Pos.(b)
Int.(c)
169.51 203.41 342.27
144
144
144
10.63
10.63
10.63

Middle strip
Ext.(a) Pos.(b)
0
135.61
144
144
10.63
10.63

Int.(c)
114.09
144
10.63

118.09

141.71

238.45

94.47

79.49

0.0033
5.2
3.11
12#6
12

0.0033
5.2
3.11
12#6
12

0.00465
7.33
3.11
10#8
14.4

0
0
3.11
10#6
14.4

0.0033
5.2
3.11
12#6
12

0.0033
5.2
3.11
12#6
12

17-10

17-11

Problem 17.4:
Flat slab with drop panels, no edge beams.
Calculate slab thickness.
General: For exterior panels 1, 2, and 3, hs = ln/33
For interior panel 4, h = ln/36
Drop panel projection at least hs /4
Length of drop panel in each direction = L /3
Solution:
a) ln1 = ln2 = 20-2 = 18 ft, h = (1812)/33 = 6.54 in., 7 in.
For panel 4, h = (1812)/36 = 6.0 in., use 7 in. all over.
drop = hs /4 = 7/4 = 1.75 in., say 2 in., length = 20/3 = 6.67 ft = 8080 in.(square)
b) ln1 = ln2 = 24 - 2 = 22 ft, h = (2212)/33 = 8 in.
For panel 4, h = (2212)/36 = 7.33 in., use 8in. all over.
Drop = hs /4 = 8/4 = 2 in., length = 24/3 = 8 ft = 88 ft(square)
Pro
b.#

ln1
(ft)

ln2
(ft)

h (in.)
Exterior

h (in.)
Interior

h (in.)
Totol
floor

drop panel
(in.)

Total
depth
drop
panel(in.)

Length of
drop panel
(ft)

18

18

6.547

6.0

7.0

6.676.67

22

22

8.0

7.338

8.0

10

88

24

24

8.29

7.278

9.0

2.25

11.5

8.678.67

18

14

6.547

5.455.5

7.0

1.75

6.675.33

22

18

8.0

6.677

8.0

10

86.67

24

20

8.729

8.0

9.0

2.25

11

8.667.33

28

22

10.1810
.5

8.5

10.5

2.6

13

108

28

28

10.1811
.5

10.5

10.5

2.6

13

1010

17-12

Problem 17.5(b):
Interior flat slab with drop panel: Typical solution
Given: panel 24 24 ft, column 24 24 in., fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi,
D.L. = 60 psf, L.L. = 120 psf, Design the panel.
Solution:
1) Min. slab thickness = ln /33 = (22)(12)/33 = 8.0 in. (exterior)
or ln /36 = 7.33 in. (interior), Use hs = 8.0 in.
Drop panel, h = 8 + 8/4 = 10 in., size drop panel = 88 ft
2) Wu = 1.2(60 + 8150/12) +1.6(120) = 384 psf (slab)
Drop panel load = 1.2(60 + 10150/12) +1.6(120) = 414 psf
The drop panel length is L/3 in each direction,
Then the average Wu = 2/3(384) +1/3(414) = 394 psf
3) Punching shear: at d/2 from the face of column
a) In drop panel: d = 10 - 0.75 - 0.5 = 8.75 in.
bo = 4(24 + 8.75) = 131 in.
Vu = 0.394[2424 - (32.75)2 /122] = 224 kip
Vc = 0.75 4 4000 bo d = 217.5 k Vu
b) In slab: d = 8 - 0.75 - 0.5 = 6.75 in.
bo = 4(812 + 6.75) = 411 in.
Vu = 0.394[2424 - (102.75)2 /122] = 198 kip
Vc = 0.75 4 4000 bo d = 526 k > Vu
4) One-way shear:
In drop panel: Vu = 4 kip < Vc = 10 kip
In slab: Vu = 2.9 kip < Vc = 7.7 kip
5) Mol =Mos = (0.394)(24)(22)2 /8 = 572 kip.ft
Let average d in drop panel = 8.5 in. and in slab, d = 6.5 in.
Long & Short Direction
Mo = 572 kip.ft
Column strip
Middle strip
Neg.
Pos.
Neg.
Pos.
Moment Factor
- 0.49 Mo
0.21 Mo
- 0.16 Mo
0.14 Mo
280.3
120.1
91.5
80.1
Mu (kip.ft)
Width of strip, b (in.)
144
144
144
144
Effective depth, d (in.)
8.5
8.5
6.5
6.5

Ru =

Mu
(psi)
bd 2

As = bd2 (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)
Straight bars

323.3

138.5

105.5

92.4

7.76
3.11
14#7

3.1
3.11
11#5

3.1
3.11
11#5

3.1
3.11
11#5

17-13

## 6) Unbalanced moment = 78.1 kip.ft, Mf = 46.9 kip.ft, Mv = 31.2 kip.ft

Vmax = 224 psi. > Vc = 189.7 psi. , use #3 U-stirrups @ d/2 = 4 in.
7) Concentration of reinforcement in column strip:
Problem 17.6(b):
Exterior flat slab with drop panel: Typical Solution:
Given: Same as 17.5(b).
Design the panel.
Solution: Refer to solution of 17.5(b):
1) Min. slab thickness, hs = 8.0 in., h (drop panel) = 10 in., size drop panel = 88 ft
2) Wu = 394 psf
3) Punching shear:3 sides around column.
a) In drop panel: d = 10 - 0.75 - 0.5 = 8.75 in.
x = 24 + d/2 = 2.36 ft, Y = 24 + d = 2.73 ft
bo = 2x + y = 89.4 in.
Vu = 0.394[24(12 + 1) - (2.362.73)] = 120.4 kip

## Vc = 0.75 4 4000 89.4 8.75 = 148.4 k > Vu

b) In slab: d = 8 - 0.75 - 0.5 = 6.75 in.
x = (4 + 1) + d/2 = (512) + 6.75/2 = 63.375 in. = 5.28 ft
y = 8 + d = (812) + 6.75 = 102.75 n. = 8.56 ft
bo = 2x + y = 2(63.375) + 102.75 = 229.5 in.
Vu = 0.394[(12 + 1)(24) - (5.288.56)] = 105.1 kip

## Vc = 0.75 4 4000 229.5 6.75 = 294 k > Vu

4) One-way shear: Vu < Vc
5) Moments:
Mol =Mos = (0.394)(24)(22)2 /8 = 572 kip.ft
Average d in drop panel = 8.5 in. and in slab, d = 6.5 in.
Moment details are shown in table.
6) Unbalanced moment = 217.4 kip.ft, Mf = 130.4 kip.ft, Mv = 87 kip.ft
Vmax = 277 psi. > Vc = 189.7 psi., use #3 U-stirrups @ d/2 = 4 in.
7) Concentration of reinforcement in column strip:
Additional steel requirement = 2.16 in.2, use 7#5 bars placed within 54 in. width.

17-14

Mo = 572 kip.ft
Moment Factor
Mu (kip.ft)
Width of strip, b (in.)
Effective depth, d (in.)

Ru =

Mu

## Long & Short Direction

Column strip
Middle strip
Ext.
Pos.
Int.
Ext.
Pos.
Int.
- 0.26Mo 0.312Mo - 0.525Mo
0
0.208Mo - 0.175Mo
149
178.5
300
119
100
144
144
144
144
144
144
8.5
8.5
8.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
172

206

346

235

197

As = bd2 (in.2)
4.04
2
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in. )
2.59
Straight bars
12#7
* Min. As = 0.0033 x b x d

4.89
2.59
16#5

8.3
2.59
14#7

3.1*
2.07
8#6

4.2
2.07
16#5

3.6
2.07
8#6

bd 2

(psi)

Problem 17.7(a):
Slabs on beams:
Given: fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, D.L. = 55 psf + self-weight, L.L. = 120 psf
Beams: width = 14 in. Projection = 18 in. (below slab)
Columns: 24 24 in., l1 = l2 = 20 ft
Design an interior panel with beams.
Solution:
1) Assume hs = 6.0 in., x = y = 18 in. < 47 = 28 in.
be = 14 + (2 18) = 50 in.
Flange area = 300 in.2, web area = 252 in.2, total area = 552 in.2
300(0.56) + 252(6 + 0.518) = 552( ) ,
= 8.48 in.
Ib =

50 3
14
2
3
2
( 6) + 300 (8.48 3) + (18) + 252 (9 2.48) = 27425 in.4
12
12

20 12 63
= 4320 in.4
12
l1 = l2 = 20 ft, ln1 = ln2 = 20 - 2 = 18 ft
Is =

l = s =

Min. h =

EI b
= 6.35 = m
EI s

, = 1.0
18 12 ( 0.8 + 0.005 60 )

= 3.57 in.
36 + (5 1)[6.35 0.12(1 + 1)]
237.6
Min. h =
= 5.3 in. (controls)
36 + 9
Max. h = 237.6/36 = 6.6 in. (or min. h = 3.5 in.)
Therefore, hs = 6.0 in. is adequate.

17-15

## 2) D.L. = 55 + (6150)/12 = 130 psf

Wu = 1.2(130) +1.6(120) = 348 psf
d = 6 -0.75 - 0.5/2 = 5 in., short direction d = 4.5 in., average d = 4.75 in.
Vu = 0.348[10 - 0.514/12 - 4.75/12] = 3.14 kip
Vc = 0.75 4 4000 103 12 4.75 = 10.8 k > Vu
3) Mo = Mol =Mos = (0.348)(20)(18)2 /8 = 281.9 kip.ft
Since the spans are equal in both directions, the long and short moments are equal and
they have the same transverse distribution.
Mo = 281.9 kip.ft, Mn = 0.65Mo = 183.2 kip.ft, Mp = 0.35Mo = 98.7 kip.ft
From table (17.2); for l2 /l1 = 1.0, 1 = l = 6.35 , 1(l2 /l1) = 6.35 > 1.0, percentage of
Mn and Mp which goes to column strip is 75%.
Since 1(l2 /l1) > 1.0, then 85% of column strip moment goes to the beam.
Col. strip -M = 0.75Mo = - 137.4 kip.ft
Beam -M = (0.85)(-137.4) = -116.8 kip.ft
Col. strip -M = (0.15)(-137.4) = -20.6 kip.ft
Middle strip -M = 0.25Mn = (0.25)(183.2) = - 45.8 kip.ft
Column strip +M = 0.75Mp = (0.75)(98.7) = 74.03 kip.ft
Beam +M = (0.85)(74.03) = 62.9 kip.ft
Col. strip +M = (0.15)(74.03) = 11.1 kip.ft
Middle strip +M = 0.25Mp = (0.25)(98.7) = 24.7 kip.ft
The final design and reinforcement details are given below.
Long & Short Direction
Column strip
Neg.
Pos.
-20.6
11.1

Middle strip
Neg.
Pos.
-45.8
24.7

120

120

120

120

4.75

4.75

4.75

4.75

Mu
(psi)
bd 2

91

49

203

110

As = bd (in.2)

low
low

low
low

0.0039
2.34

0.002
1.20

## Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)

As ( min. = 0.0033)
Steel bars

1.30
1.90
10#4

1.30
1.90
10#4

1.30
1.90
12#4

1.30
1.90
10#4

## Spacing (in.)2hs 14 in.

12

12

10

12

Mu (kip.ft)
Width of strip, b (in.)
Effective depth, d (in.)

Ru =

17-16

Problem 17.8(a):
Given: Same data as Problem 17.7: Typical Solution:
Design an exterior panel with beams.
Solution:
1) Assume h = 6 in., x = y = 18 in. < 46 = 24 in.
be1 (interior) = 14 + (218) = 50 in.
be2 (exterior) = 14 + 18 = 32 in.

## ( 50 6 ) 3 + (14 18 )( 6 + 9 ) = 8.48 in. (Interior beam)

( 50 6 ) + (14 18)
(32 6 ) 3 + (14 18)( 6 + 9 ) = 9.81 in. (Exterior beam)
y2 =
(32 6 ) + (14 18)

y1 =

50 3
14
2
3
2
( 6 ) + 300 (8.48 3) + (18) + (14 18)(9 2.48) = 27425 in.4
12
12
32 3
2 14
3
2
Ib 2 = ( 6 ) + (32 6 )(9.81 3) + (18) + (14 18)(15 9.81) = 23072 in.4
12
12

I b1 =

20 12 63
= 4320 in.4 (interior)
12
(10 12 + 12 ) 63 = 2376 in.4
Is2 =
12
I s1 =

I b1 27425
=
= 6.35 = s , and b = 23072 / 2376 = 9.7
I s1 4320
m = [3(6.35) + 9.7]/4 = 7.2 , = 1.0, ln = 18 ft
18 12 ( 0.8 + 0.005 60 )
Min. h =
= 3.36 in.
36 + (5 1)[7.2 0.12(1 + 1)]
237.6
Min. h =
= 5.28 in. or h (min) = 3.5in.
36 + 9
Max. h = 237.6/36 = 6.6 in. Therefore, hs = 6.0 in.

l =

## 2) Wu = 1.2(55 + (6150/12)) +1.6(120) = 348 psf

Shear is adequate. Average d = 4.75 in.
3) Mo = Mol =Mos = (0.348)(20)(18)2 /8 = 282 kip.ft
a) Panel moments:
Ext.-M = - 0.16Mo = - 45.12 kip.ft
Int.-M = - 0.70Mo = - 197.4 kip.ft
+M = 0.57Mo = 160.74 kip.ft
b) Distribution of panel moment:
C
14908
t =
=
= 1.73
2 I s 2 4320

C = 1 0.63
= 1
+ 1
= 14908

y 3
24 3
18 3

17-17

## For l2 /ll = 1.0, (l2 /ll) > 1.0.

By interpolation, column strip moment percentage = 83%.
Also, 85% of column strip moment is assigned to the beam.
Therefore, for EXTERIOR moment:
Beam -M = (0.85)(0.8345.12) = -31.8 kip.ft
Col. strip -M = (0.15)(0.8345.12) = -5.62 kip.ft
Middle strip -M = (0.17)(45.12) = - 7.7 kip.ft
INTERIOR moment: column strip percentage = 75%
Beam -M = (0.85)(0.75197.4) = -125.8 kip.ft
Col. strip -M = (0.15)(0.75197.4) = -22.2 kip.ft
Middle strip -M = (0.25)(197.4) = - 49.4 kip.ft
POSITIVE moment Mp: column strip percentage = 75%
Beam +M = (0.85)(0.75160.74) = 102.47 kip.ft
Col. strip +M = (0.15)(0.75160.74) = 18.08 kip.ft
Middle strip +M = 0.25Mp = (0.25)(160.74) = 40.19 kip.ft
Design of slab is shown below.
Strip
Mu (kip.ft)
Width of strip, b (in.)
Effective depth, d (in.)

Ru =

Mu
(psi)
bd 2

As = bd2 (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)
As ( min.=0.0033)
Bars selected
Spacing 15 in.

Ext.(-)
-5.62
120
4.75

Column strip
Pos.
Int.(-)
18.1
-22.2
120
120
4.75
4.75

Middle strip
Ext.(-)
Pos.
Int.(-)
-7.7
40.2
49.4
120
120
120
4.75
4.75
4.75

25

80

98

34

178

219

low
low
1.3
1.9
10#4
12

low
low
1.3
1.9
10#4
12

low
low
1.3
1.9
10#4
12

low
low
1.3
1.9
10#4
12

0.36
2.10
1.3
1.9
14#4
8.5

0.41
2.40
1.3
1.9
14#4
8.5

17-18

Problem 17.9:
Waffle slab (Interior panel)
Problem 17.10:
Waffle slab (Exterior panel)
Given: span 3636 ft, rib width = 6 in. on 3 ft on centers, rib depth = 16 in., slab = 4 in.,
total depth = 20 in., fc = 5 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, D.L. = 50 psf, L.L. = 100 psf
Design an interior and exterior panel.
Solution:
1) Loads; on solid part = 1.2(20150/12) = 300 psf
Total weight of 9 ft area(33 ft) = 1.2150(920/12 - 7.44) = 1361 lb.
Weight per sq.ft = 1361/9 = 151 psf
Wu (solid area) = 300 + 220= 520 psf
Wu (ribbed area) = 151 + 220 = 371 psf
on solid head = 0.5212 + 0.37124 = 15.14 k/ft
on ribbed area = 0.37136 = 13.40 k/ft
2) Shear: Vu = (15.14)(5) + 24x(13.40)(2) = 236.5 kip
a) punching shear: h = 20 in., d = 18.75 in., bo = 171 in.
Vu = 497 kip, Vc = 680 kip > Vu
b) at d/2 from solid head: bo = 4(150 + 3.5) = 614 in.
Vu = 421.5 kip, Vc = 456 kip > Vu
3) Moments: Mo = (236.5)(17) - (15.14)(5)(14.5) - (13.4)(12)2/2 = 1958.1 kip.ft
For moments in exterior and interior panels reinforcement, see attached next page.
Exterior Slab:
Mni = 1370.74 K.ft
Mne = 509.12 K.ft
Mp= 1018.3 K.ft

17-19

Strip
Moment distribution
Mu (kip.ft)
Width of strip, b (in.)
Effective depth, d (in.)

Ru =

Mu
(psi)
bd 2

As = bd2 (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0035bh (in.2)
Bars selected #8
Straight
Bars per rib #8
* Min. As (min)

Ext.(-)
1
509.12
144
18.5
124

Column strip
Int.(-)
Pos.
0.75
0.6
1028.1
610.98
144
144
18.5
18.5
250

0.0023
0.0048
9.3* 12.8
9.3
9.3
12
18
12
18
2
3

Middle strip
Ext.(-)
Int.(-)
Pos.
0
0.25
0.4
0
342.64
407.32
144
144
144
18.5
18.5
18.5

149

83

99

0.0028
9.3*
9.3
12
12
2

0
9.3*
9.3
12
12
0

Low
9.3*
9.3
12
12
1

Low
9.3*
9.3
12
12
2

Interior Slab:
Mn = -1272.83 K.ft
Mp= 685.37 K.ft
Strip
Moment distribution
Mu (kip.ft)
Width of strip, b (in.)
Effective depth, d (in.)

Ru =

Mu
(psi)
bd 2

As = bd2 (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0035bh (in.2)
Bars selected #8
Straight
Spacing
* Min. As (min)

Column strip
negative
0.75
-954.6
144
18.5

Middle strip
Positive Negative
0.6
0.25
411.22 -318.23
144
144
18.5
18.5

Positive
0.4
274.15
144
18.5

232

100

77.5

67

0.0045
12
9.3
16
16
3

Low
9.3*
9.3
12
12
2

Low
9.3*
9.3
12
12
1

Low
9.3*
9.3
12
12
1

17-20

CHAPTER 18
STAIRS
Problem 18.1:
Design the staircase shown in Fig. 18.22.
fc = 3 ksi. and fy = 60 ksi. Assume weight of step cover = 2 psf.
Solution:
Assume the thickness of the slab (waist) = 8 in.
For one foot width of steps:
weight of 8 in. slab (waist) on the horizontal projection
=

8.94 1150
= 112 lb./ft.
12

1 6 12 150
= 37.5 lb./ft.
2 144

## Assume weight of step cover = 12 lb./ft.

Total D.L. on stairs = 112 + 37.5 + 12 = 161.5 lb./ft. 162 lb./ft.
Total D.L. on landing = 100 + 12 = 112 lb./ft.
Wu (on stairs) = (1.2)(162) + (1.6)(120) = 386 lb./ft.
Wu (on landing) = (1.2)(112) + (1.6)(120) = 326 lb./ft.
Since the load on the landing is carried into two directions, half the load only will be
considered in each direction.
2.) Calculate the maximum bending moment and steel reinforcement
Reaction at supports = 2.47 k.
a) Mu = (2.47)(18)/2 - (0.1634.56.75) - (0.3864.52/2) = 13.37 k.ft.
Let d = 8 - 0.75 (concrete cover) - 0.25 ( bar diameter) = 7.0 in.
a

## b) M u = As f y d assume a = 0.9 in.

2

13.37 12
As =
= 0.45 in.2
a

0.9 f y d
2

0.45 60
= 0.88 in. 0.9 in. O.K.
0.85 3 12
Minimum As = (0.0033)(12)(8) = 0.32 in.2 < 0.45 in.2
Use #5 bars @ 7 in. (As provided = 0.53 in.2)
For 5.5 in. width stairs, use 10#5 bars
c) Transverse reinforcement must be provided to account for shrinkage.
As = (0.0018)(12)(8) = 0.18 in.2 /ft. , use #4 bars @ 12 in. (As = 0.2 in.2)
d) If the slab will be cast monolithically with its supporting beams, additional
reinforcement must be provided at the top of the upper and lower loading.
Check a =

3.) Minimum slab thickness for deflection = L/25 = (18)(12)/25 = 8.64 in. (for simply
18-1

supported slab). In the case presented here where the slab ends are cast with the supporting
beams and additional negative reinforcement is provided, minimum thickness can be assumed,
as equal to: L/30 = (18)(12)/30 = 7.2 in. < 8 in. used. O.K.
5.) Design of landing
Considering one foot depth of the landing, the load on the landing is 163 lb/ft.
The middle 2 ft. will carry a full load of 386 lb./ft. while the two 5 ft. and 5 in. length on each
side will carry half the ultimate load of 163 lb./ft..
Reaction at support = 1.27 k.
5.42 2
1
Max. bending moment = (1.27 6.42 ) ( 0.163 5.42 )
+ 0.386 = 4.7 k.ft.
2
2
2

Since the bars in the landing will be placed on top of the main stair reinforcement,
therefore d = 8 - 0.75 - 5/8 - 0.25 = 6.375 in. 6.4 in. Assume a = 0.4 in.
Mu
4.7 12
=
= 0.17 in.2 , use A s(min) = 0.19 in.2
a
0.4

f y d 0.9 60 6.4

2
2

0.19 60
Check a =
= 0.373 in. 0.4 in. O.K.
0.85 3 12

As =

## Use #4 bars @ 12 in. (As = 0.2 in.2)

6.) The transverse beams at the landing levels AA and BB must be designed to carry
loads from stairs (2.47 k.ft.) in addition to its own weight and the weight of the wall above.
7.) Check shear (stairs)
Check flexual shear at a distance d from the face of the support.
Vu = 2.47 - 0.163(7/12) = 2.4 k.

## Vc = 0.75 2 3000 12 7 = 6.9 k.

Since Vu < Vc/2 = 3.45 k., no shear reinforcement is required and the section is
Vud = 1.27 - (0.1636.4/12) = 1.2 k.
Allowable shear Vc = 0.75 2 3000 12 6.4 = 6.31 k.
Vud < Vc/2 O.K.
Problem 18.4:
Design the stairs shown in Fig. 18.24.
Solution:
Assume the thickness of the slab (waist) = 4 in.
4.6 1150
weight of 4 in. slab (waist) =
= 57.5 lb./ft.
12

18-2

1 6.5 12 150
= 40.63b./ft.=41 lb./ft.
2 144
Assume weight of step cover = 5 lb./ft.
Total D.L. on stairs = 57.5 + 41 + 5 = 103.5 lb./ft.
weight of 4 in. landing = (4)(150)/12 = 50 lb./ft.
Total D.L. on landing = 50 + 5 = 55 lb./ft.
weight of triangular step =

## Wu (on stairs) = (1.2)(103.5) + (1.6)(80) = 252.2 lb./ft.

Wu (on landing) = (1.2)(55) + (1.6)(80) = 194 lb./ft.
2.) Calculate the maximum bending moment and steel reinforcement
a) Mu = (0.2522.52/2) = 0.80 k.ft.
Let d = 4 - 0.75 (concrete cover) - 0.25 ( bar diameter) = 3.0 in.
a

## b) M u = As f y d , assume a = 0.25 in.

2

0.8 12
= 0.06 in.2
0.25
0.9 60 3

0.06 60
Check a =
= 0.12 in. , close to 0.125 in.
0.85 3 12
As =

## Minimum As = (0.0018)(12)(4) = 0.087 in.2

Use #3 bars @ 12 in. (As = 0.11 in.2)
3.) Check flexual shear at a distance d from the face of the support.
Vu = 0.252(2.5 - 3/12) = 0.567 k.

## Allowable ultimate shear force = 2 f c 'bd

Vc = 0.75 2 3000 12 3 = 2.96 k.
Since Vu < Vc/2, no shear reinforcement is required. But it is recommended to
use to use stirrups #3 @ 4 in. to hold the main reinforcement.
4.) Design of supporting beam:
a) assume h = 12 in.
12 12 150
Weight of web =
= 150 lb./ft. , cover weight = 5 lb./ft
144
Total D.L. = D.L. of flange + D.L. of web + cover load
= 150 + 5(103.5) + 5 = 775 lb./ft.
L.L = (80)(6) = 480 lb./ft.
Wu = (1.2)(0.775) + (1.6)(0.48) = 1.7 lb./ft.
Mu = (1.7)(16)2/8 = 54.4 k.ft.
Check the effective width of the flange
a) 16t + bw = (16)(4) + 12 = 76 in.
b) span/4 = (16)(12)/4 = 48 in. (controls)
Check the position of N.A., d = 12 -2.5 = 9.5 in.
Mu (flange) = 0.85 fcbt (d - t/2)
Mu (flange) = (0.9)(0.85)(3)(48)(4)(9.5 - 2) = 3305 k.in. = 275.4 k.ft.
Muf > Mu, a < t = 4 in. The section is considered as a rectangular section.

18-3

M u 54.4 12000
=
= 151 psi. , = 0.003 < min = 0.0033
bd 2
48 9.52
As = (0.0033)(48)(9.5) = 1.5 in.2, use 3#7 (As = 1.8 in.2)
5.) Use the same section for beam B.
6.) Check beam A for torsion when L.L. acts on one side of stairs.
a) Wu (L.L.) = (1.6)(80) = 128 psf.
Tu = (0.128)(2.5)2/2 = 0.4 k.ft. per foot length of beam.
Design Tu = (0.4)(16)/2 = 3.2 k.ft near the supports.
Vu = WuL/2 = (1.7)(16)/2 = 13.6 k.ft. = 163.2 k.in.
Vu (at d) = 13.6 -(9.5)(1.7)/12 = 12.3 k.
b) Calculate Tcr and Ta (see example 15.2, chapter15)
Acp = (12)(12) = 144 in.2, Pcp = 2(12 + 12) = 48 in.
Ru

Tcr =

0.75 4 30001442
= 70.98 k.in.
48

## Ta = 70.98/4 = 17.75 k.in. < Tu = 3.212 = 38.4 k.in.

Torsional reinforcement is needed and section is not adequate.
Vc = 12.5 k., Vs = 5.6, At /s = 0.007 in.2/in., Av /s = 0.01
total Av /2s + At /s = 0.012
S (max) = 4 in., S = 4.3 in., use #3 closed stirrups @ 4 in.
Longitudinal steel, Al = 0.22 in.2,
use top steel = 0.22/3 = 0.07 in.2 (2#3 bars)
middepth steel = 0.07 in.2 (2#3 bars)
bottom steel = 1.6 + 0.07 = 1.67 in.2 (3#7 bars)

18-4

CHAPTER 19
INTRODUCTION TO PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
Problem 19.1:
Given: I-section, shown in figure (19.12) span = 60 ft., Fi = 395 K,
F = 320 K,
fci '= 4 Ksi,
f c'= 6 Ksi.
Required: Compute the extreme fiber stresses and the allowable uniform live load on the beam.
Solution:
1. a) For the given section: Area = 408 in2, yt =19.94 in., yb = 22.06 in.,
I = 81119 in4
Dead load = weight of beam = 408 x 150 / 144 = 425 lb/ft
Self-weight moment = (0.425/8) (60)2 = 191.25 K.ft.
top= (191.25 x 12)(19.94) / 81119 = 564 psi (Compression)
bottom= (191.25 x 12)(22.06) / 81119 = +624 psi (tension)
b) Allowable stresses based on the ACI Code:
At transfer: fc = 0.6 fci' = 0.6 (4000) = -2400 psi
ft=3 f 'c =3 4000 = +190 psi
After all losses: fc = 0.45 fc' = 0.45 (6000) = -2700 psi
ft= 6 f 'c = 6 4000 = +465 psi
c) Stresses in beam at transfer: e = 22.06 - 6.5 = 15.56 in.
F ( Fe) y
top = i + i t + f D ( self .weight )
A
I
395 (395 15.56)19.94
top =
+
0.564 = 0.021Ksi. = 21 psi.
408
81119
395 (395 15.56)22.06
bottom =

## + 0.624 = 2.016 Ksi. = 2016 psi.

408
81119
Both stresses are less than the ACI allowable stresses at transfer.
d) Stresses in beam after all losses:
F ( F e) yt
t (top ) = +
+ f D ( self .weight )
A
I
320 (320 15.56)19.94
t (top ) =
+
0.564 = 0.124 Ksi. = 124 psi.
408
81119
320 (320 15.56)22.06
b (bottom ) =

## + 0.624 = 1.514 Ksi. = 1514 psi.

408
81119
Both stresses are less than the allowable stresses.

19-1

## 2. Allowable uniform live load after all losses:

a) based on top fibers stress: fca =-2700 psi
M y
F ( F e) yt
2700 = [
+ f D ( self .weight )] L t
A
I
I
-2700 = -0.0124 ML(19.94)/81119 , ML = 10480 K.in. = 873.33 K.ft.
ML = WLL2/8, WL = 1.94 K/ft.
b) based on bottom fibers stress, fta = +465 psi
M y
F ( F e) yb
0.465 = [ +
+ f D ( self .weight )] + L b
A
I
I
0.465 = -1.514 + ML(22.06)/81119 , ML = 7277 K.in. = 606.43 K.ft.
WL = 8ML / L2 = 1.35 K/ft., controls.
Allowable live load = 1.35 K/ft based on tensile stress controls.
Problem 19.2:
Given: I-Beam of problem 19.1, Fi = 405 K., Aps = 2.39 in.2
Required: compute all losses.
Solution:
1. Elastic loss: stress due to Fi = Fi / Aps = 405 / 2.39 = 169.46 Ksi
fci' = 4 Ks i, Eci = 3640 Ksi, n = 28000 / 3640 = 7.7 say 8.
a) Approximate elastic loss = n Fi / Ac = 8(405)/408 = 7.94 Ksi
percentage = (7.94 / 169.46) x 100 = 4.7%
b) Considering variation in eccentricity along the beam:
Strain at end of section = Fi / (Ac.Eci)= 405/[408(3640)] = 2.73 x 10-4
Strain at midspan = Fi / (Ac.Eci) + (Fi.e2) / (I.Eci) , e = 15.56 in,
= 2.73 x 10-4 + 405 (15.56)2/ [(81119)(3640)] = 6.05 x 10-4
Average strain = (1/2) (2.73 + 6.05) x 10-4 = 4.39 x 10-4
Elastic loss = .Es = 4.39 x 10-4 (28000) = 12.3 Ksi
percentage =12.3 / 169.46 = 7.26%.
2. Loss due to shrinkage = Sh.Es = 0.0003 x 28000 = 8,4 Ksi
percentage = 8.4/169.46 = 4.96%.
3. Loss due to creep of concrete: Assume C. = 2.0
loss = Cc . cr . Es ; = Fi / (Ac.Eci) = 2.73 x 10-4
Loss = 2(2.73 x 10-4)(28000) = 15.29 Ksi
percentage = 15.29/169.46 = 9.02%
Or creep loss = 1.67 elastic loss = 1.67 x 7.94 = 13.26 Ksi
percentage = 13.26/169.46 = 7.82%.
4. Loss due to relaxation of steel = 2.5%
Loss = 0.025 (169.46) = 4.24 Ksi

19-2

.4

5. Assume losses due to bending, friction of cable spacers and other factors = 2% = 3.39 Ksi.
6. Total losses:
Loss from
Elastic shortening
Shrinkage
Creep of concrete
Relaxation of steel
Total losses =
Total =

stress ksi
12.3
8.4
15.29
4.24
40.23
3.39
43.62

percentage
7.26
4.96
9.02
2.50
23.74
2.00
25.74

## Effective prestressing force F = 169.46 - 43.62 = 125.84 Ksi

Total F = 125.84 (2.39) = 300.76 K.
F = Fi; = 125.84 / 169.46 = 0.7426
Problem 19.3:
Given: 56 ft. span post-tensioned beam, Aps = 30 (0.1089) in2, e = 9.6 in., fci' = 4 Ksi, fc' = 6 Ksi,
Es = 28000 Ksi, Fo = 175 Ksi, fpu = 250 Ksi,
D.L. = 1.0 K/ft (excluding self-weight), L.L. = 1.6 K/ft.
Required : Compute all losses.
Solution:
For 7-wire stress relieved strands with an area of 0.1089 in2
Fpu = 250 Ksi. Let Fo = 175 Ksi.
1) properties of the section: area = 784 in.2
yb = (1/784)[(320 x 8) + (8 x 28 x 30) + (240 x 49)] = 26.84 in.
yt = 54 - 26.84 = 27.16 in.
Ig = [(24/12) (10)3 + 240 (22.16)2] + [(8/12) (28)3 + 224 (3.16)2] + [(20/12) (16)3 + 320 (18.84)2]
Ig = 257136 in.4
weight of section = (784/144) x 150 = 817 lb/ft.
Md(self weight) = 0.817(56)2/8 = 320.26 K.ft. = 3843.2 K.in.
e = yb - 9.6 = 17.24 in.
Stress at steel level at midspan fd = (3843.2)(17.24) /257136 = 0.258 Ksi
2) Compute Fi
n = Es / Eci = 28000/3640 = 7.7; say 8.
Aps = 30 (0.1089) = 3.267 in.2, Fo = 3.267 x 175 = 571.725 K
Fi = (Fo + n Aps fd) / [1 + n Aps(1/A + e2 / I)]=578.5/1.06355 = 543.9 K. (say 544 Ksi)
Elastic loss = 571.725 - 54.3.9 = 27.825 K.
percentage =27.825/571.725 = 0.0487 = 4.87 %
Elastic loss per unit area of steel = 27.825/3.267 = 8.52 Ksi
Fi per unit area of steel = 543.9/3.267 = 166.5 Ksi.

19-3

## 3) Loss due to shrinkage = . Es = 0.0002 (28000) = 5.6 Ksi

percent = 5.6/166.5 = 0.0336 = 3.36%
4) Loss due to creep: Elastic strain = Fi / (Ac.Eci) = 544/[3640(784)] = 1.91 x 10-4
Loss = Cc . cr . E; let Cc = 1.5
Loss = 1.5 (1.91x 10-4)(28000) = 8.02 Ksi
percentage = 8.02 /166.5 = 4.8%
5) Loss due to relaxation = 2.5%
Loss = 0.025 x 166.5 = 4.2 Ksi
6) Slip in anchorage: Approximate length of cable = 56 x 12 in.
Assume a slippage of 0.15 in,
Loss = ( / L) Es = 0.15(28000)/(56 x 12) = 6.25 Ksi
To allow for anchorage slip set tensioned force to 166.5 + 6.25 = 172.75 Ksi
7) Loss due to friction:
Equation of parabolic profile eX = 4e (L.X - X2) / L2
d (eX ) 4e
= 2 ( L 2 X ) = slope of tendon at any point.
dx
L
Slope at midspan = 0
Slope at support (at x = 0)= 4e/L = 4 (17.24) / (56 x 12) = 0.1026
Using flexible metalic sheath, p = 0.5 and k =0.001
Check if (ppx + k.lx) 0.3, at midspan, x = 28 ft
(ppx + k.lx) = 0.5 (0.1026) + (0.001)(28) = 0.0793 < 0.3
Ppx = Px (1 + ppx + k.lx) = 1.0793 Px
Ppx = 1.0793 x 166.5=179.7 K (force at jacking end)
Loss = 179.7-166.5 =13.2 Ksi
percentage =13.2 / 166.5 = 7.93 %
8) Total losses:
Loss from
Elastic shortening
Shrinkage
Creep of Concrete
Relaxation of steel
friction
Total losses =

Stress Ksi
8.52
5.60
8.02
4.20
13.2
39.54

## Effective prestress =166.5-39.54 = 127.0 Ksi

F = Fi; = 127 / 166.5 = 0.763
Total F = 415 K.

19-4

Percentage
4.87
3.36
4.80
2.50
7.93
23.46

Problem 19.4:
Given: Girder of problem
19.3
Required: Determine location of upper and lower limits of tendon and check if the parabolic
Solution:
1. Calculate the allowable stresses
At transfer: fci' = 4 Ksi, fci = 0.6(4000) = 2400 psi
f ti = 3 f ci ' = 190 psi
At service load: f c' = 6 Ksi, fc = 0.45 fc' = 2700 psi
f t = 6 f ci ' = 465 psi
2. Calculate moments: self-weight = 817 lb/ft (see problem 19.3)
M(self-weight) =320.26 K.ft. =3843.2 K.in.
ML(live load) = (1.6/8) (56)2 = 627.2 K.ft.
Total moment, MT = 1339.5 K.ft.
I
257136
Kb =
=
= 12.08in.
Ayt 784(27.16)

Kt =

I
257136
=
= 12.22in.
Ayb 784(26.84)

## 3. Calculation of upper and lower limits: Fi = 544 K, F = 415 K.

Use MD = 320.26 k.ft, and MT = 1339.5 k.ft to get critical e's.
f AK
M
Top : e K b + D + ti b
Fi
Fi

M D f ci AK t
+
Fi
Fi
f AK
M
Top : e K b + T + c b
F
F
Bottom : e Kt +

M T f t AK t

F
F
a) Section at midspan:
e 12.08 + (320.26)(12)/544 + 0.19(784)(12.08)/544 22.45 in.
e -12.22 + (320.26)(12)/544 + 2.4 (784)(12.22)/544 37.11 in.
Bottom : e K t +

## e 12.08 + 1339.5 (12)/415 - 2.7(784)(12.08)/415 -10.80 in.

e -12.22 + 1339.5 (12)/415 0.465(784)(12.22)/415 15.78 in.
emax= 22.45 in. and emin = 15.78 in. e (used) = 17.24 in.

19-5

19-6

## b) Section at 12 ft. from midspan, (16 ft. from support) :

MD = 261.44 K.ft., ML = 512 K.ft., MT = 1093. 44 k.ft
e 12.08 + (261.44)(12)/544 + 0.19(784)(12.08)/544 21.15 in.
e -12.22 + (261.44)(12)/544 + 2.4 (784)(12.22)/544 35.81 in.
e 12.08 + 1093.44 (12)/415 - 2.7(784)(12.08)/415 -17.92 in.
e -12.22 + 1093.44 (12)/415 0.465(784)(12.22)/415 8.66 in.
e max = 21.15 in. , e min = 8.66 in. , e(used) = 14.1 in.
c) Section at 10 ft. from the support (18 ft. from midspan):
MD = 187.91K.ft., ML = 368 K.ft., MT =785.9 K.ft.
e 12.08 + 4.16 +3.31 19.55 in. (max. e)
e -12.22 + 22.73 - 10.33 -0.25 i n . (min. e)
e(used) = 10.12 in.
d) Section at 3 ft. from the support (25 ft. from midspan):
MD = 64.95 K.ft., ML = 127.2 K.ft., MT = 271.65 K.ft.
e 12.08 +1.43 + 3.31 16.82 in,
e -12.22 + 7.86 - 10.73 -15.09in.
e) Cable profile is parabolic, its equation is:
eX = 4e (L.X - X2) / L2; where eX = eccentricity at any section
e = eccentricity at midspan. At midspan e = 17.24 in.
eX = 4 (17.24) [56X - X2] / (56)2
At X = 16 ft. from support, eX = 14.1 in.
At X = 10 ft. from support, eX = 10.12 in.
At X = 3 ft. from support, eX = 3.5 in.
At X = 0, e = 0. Thus profile is adequate.

19-7

Problem 19.5:
Given: problem 19.3
Required: check max. and min. Fi
Solution:
Use M D = 712.3 k.ft (total D.L.) and ML= 627.2 k.ft.
1)

Min.Fi =

M L ft . A.K t
1

( fti . A.K b )
1 M D +

( K b + K t )

Min.Fi =

1
1
627.2 12 0.465 784 12.22

1 712.3 12 +

## (0.19 784 12.08)

0.763
0.763
(12.08 + 12.22 ) 0.763

Min.Fi = 200.9 K .
Max.Fi =

M L f c . A.K b
1
+
+ ( f ci . A.K t )
1 M D

( K b + K t )

Max.Fi =

1
627.2 12 2.7 784 12.08

+
+ (2.4 784 12.22)
1
712.3 12

0.763
0.763
(12.08 + 12.22 ) 0.763

Max.Fi = 1810.2 K .
Fi used = 544 K which is adequate.
If MD =320.26 k.ft (self-weight) is used, then ML = MT - MD = 1019.24 K.ft.
(moment that occurs at a later stage). In this case:
Fi (min.) = 349.5 k and Fi (max.) = 1616.6 k.
Problem 19.6:
Given: Pretensioned girder: L = 64 ft., D.L. = 1.2 K/f t, L.L. = 0.6 K/ft., fci' = 4 Ksi, fc' = 5 Ksi,
Fo = 175 Ksi, fpu = 250 Ksi, strands = 24 cables, 1/2 in diameter (area of one cable = 0.144 in2) .
Required: Determine the upper and lower limits of tendon profile.
Solution:
1. Determine section properties:
Area A = 656 in2
yb = (1/656) [(20x12x6) + (4x6x13.3) + (8x31x27.5) + (8x3x42) + (5x24x455) = 22.94 in.
yt = 48 - 22.94 = 25.06 in.
Ig = [(24/12) (5)3 + 12 (22.56)2] + 2[(8/36) (3)3 + 12 (19.06)2] + [(8/12)(31)3 + 248(4.56)2] +
2[(6/36) (4) 3 + 12 (9.61)2] + [(20/12) (12)3 + 240 (16.94)2] = 169062 in.4
Kb = I / (A.yt) = 169062 / (656 x 25.06) = 10.28 in.
Kt = I / (A.yb) = 169062 / (656 x 22.94) = 11.23 in.
Self-weight = (656 /144) x 150 = 683 lb/f t.
MD (self-weight) = 0.683(64)2/8 = 349.7 K.ft. = 4196 K.in.

19-8

## 2. Estimate prestress losses: Fo = 175 Ksi

Assume elastic loss = 4% = 0.04 x 175 = 7 Ksi
Loss due to shrinkage = 0.0003 Es = 0.0003 (28000) = 8.4 Ksi
Approx. loss due to creep of concrete = 1.67 (elastic loss) = 1.67 (7) = 11.7 Ksi
Loss due to relaxation of steel = 4% = 7 Ksi
Time dependent losses = 8.4 + 11.7 + 7 = 27.1 Ksi
Fi = 175 - 7 = 168 Ksi, percentage of time-dependent losses = 27.1 / 168 = 16.1%
F = 168 - 27.1 = 140.9 Ksi, = F / F i = 140.9/ 168 = 0.839
3. Allowable stresses:
At transfer: fci = 0.6 fci' = 0.6 (4000) = 2400 psi
fti = 3 f ci ' =190psi
At service load: fc = 0.45 fc' = 0.45 (5000) = 2250 psi
ft = 6 f ci ' = 424 psi
4. Limits of eccentricity at midspan:
MD (self-weight) = 349.7 K.ft. = 4196 K.in.
After load = 1.2 + 0.6 = 1.8 K/ft
Ma = 1.8 (64)2 / 8 = 921.6 K.ft. = 11059.2 K.in.
Total MT = 1271.3 K.ft. = 15255 K.in.
Area of 24 cables = 24 (0.144) = 3.456 in2
Fi = 3456 (168) = 580.6 K.
F = 3.456 (140.9) = 487 K.
f AK
M
Top : e K b + D + ti b
Fi
Fi

M D f ci AK t
+
Fi
Fi
f AK
M
Top : e K b + T + c b
F
F
Bottom : e Kt +

Bottom : e K t +

M T f t AK t

F
F

From Equations:
(1): e 10.28 + (4196)/580.6 + 0.19(656)(10.28)/580.6 19.7 in.
(2): e -11.23 + (4196)/580.6 + 2.4(656)(11.23)/580.6 26.4 in.
(3): e 10.28 + (15255)/487 2.25(656)(10.28)/487 -10.4 in.
(4): e -11.23 + (15255)/487 0.424(656)(11.23)/487 13.7 in.
e max = 19.7 in. , e min = 13.7 in.

19-9

## 5. Limits of eccentricity at 22 ft. from support:

MD = 3787 K.in., Ma = 9979 K.in., MT = 13766 K.in.
Min. e 10.28 + 3787/580.6 + 0.19(656)(10.28)/580.6 19.0 in.
Max. e -11.23 + 13,766/487 - 0.424(656)(11.23)/487 10.6 in.
6. Limits of e at 11 ft. from support.
MD = 2389 K.in., Ma = 6296 K.in., MT = 8685 K.in.
Min. e 10.28 + 2389/580.6 + 2.21 16.6 in.
Max. e -11.23 + 8685/487- 6.41 0.2 in.
7. Limits of e at 3 ft. from support:
MD = 750 K.in., Ma = 1976 K . i n . , M T = 2726 K.in.
Min. e 10.28 + 750/580.6 + 2.21 13.8 in.
Max. e -11.23 + 2726/487 - 6.41 -12.1 in.
Section at support: Min. e 10.28 + 2.21 12.5 in.
Max. e -11.23 - 6.41 -17.64 in.
8. Let e = 18.5 in. at midspan for a distance = 10 ft. from midspan,
then bent the cables to e = 0 at support.
Slope = (18.5-0)/22 = 0.84 in/ft.
At 22 ft. from support e = 18.5 in.
At 11 ft. from support e = 9.26 in., (18.5 - 11 x 0.84)
At 3 ft. from support e = 2.54 in.,(18.5 - 19 x 0.84)
Actual e and full details are shown on next page.
Actual e at midspan = 22.94 (1/24) (21x4 + 3x8) = 18.44. in., close to 18.5 in.
Actual e at support = (1/24)[12 (22.94-4) - 12(25.06 - 6.5)] = 0.19 in.
very small.
9. Limiting values of Fi at midspan:
Let ML = Ma (occurs at a later stage):
Min.Fi =

M L ft . A.K t
1

( f ti . A.K b )
1 M D +

( K b + K t )

Min.Fi = 417.6 K .
Max.Fi =

M L f c . A.K b
1
+
+ ( f ci . A.K t )
1 M D

( K b + K t )

Max.Fi = 1012.5 K .

## Fi used = 580.6 Ksi is adequate.

19-10

19-11

Problem 19.7:
Given: problem no. 19.6
Required: Harp some of the tendons and check losses.
Solution:
a) Harp 12 tendons as shown in figures of problem 19.6
b) Check assumed prestress losses:
1. Fo = 175 Ksi, Total Fo = 175 (3.456) = 604.8 K.
Ec= 3605 Ksi,
n = Es / Ec = 28000 / 3605 = 7.77, say 8
Average e2 = (1/32) [(3/3) (6.5) + (6.5x8x(8/3)x79.2) + (11x79.2+(11/3)x256.6) + (10x342.3)]
e2 = 172 in2 and e = 13.12 in.
2. Stresses at level of tendon due to D.L.
fD = 4196 (13.12)/ 169062 = 0.33 Ksi
Fi = 570.8 K.
Elastic loss = 604.8 - 570.8 = 34 K.
Elastic loss per unit area = 34/3.456 = 9.84 Ksi
Elastic loss percentage = 9.84/175 = 5.6 %
Fi = 175 - 9.84 = 165.16 Ksi
3. Loss due to shrinkage = 8.4 Ksi (as before).
4. Loss due to creep = Cc.cr.Es. Let Cc = 1.5
Elastic strain = 570.8/(656)(3605) = 0.002414
Creep loss = 1.5 (0.002414)(28000) = 10.14 Ksi
percentage = 10.14/165.16 = 6.14%.
5. Loss due to relaxation of steel = 7 Ksi (as before)
Time dependent losses = 8.4 + 10.14 + 7 = 25.54 Ksi
Percentage = 25.54/165.16 = 15.5%; F = 165.16 - 25.54 = 139.62 Ksi
= F / F i = 139.62/ 165.16 = 0.845 and F = 139.62(3.456) = 482.5 K.
c) Compute ultimate moment at midspan.
1. Self-weight = 0.683 K/ft., Additional D.L. = 1.2 K/ft., L.L. = 0.6 K/ft.
W = 1.2D + 1.6L = 1.2(1.2 + 0.683) + 1.6(0.6) = 3.22 K/ft.
Mu = 1.2 MD + 1.6 ML = 3.22(64)2 / 8 = 1649 K.ft.
d = 48 - 4.5 = 43.5 in.
2. Check if section is flanged with a 5 in.
p = Aps / bd = 3.456 / (24 x 43.5) = 0.00331
fps=fpu (1-(/1)p . fpu / fc)
For fpy = 0.85 fpu, = 0.4, 1 = 0.80 for fc' = 5 Ksi
fps = 250 [1 (0.4/0.8) (0.00331) (250/5)] = 229.3 Ksi
a = (Aps.fps)/(0.85f c'b) = 3.456(229.3)/(0.85 x 5 x24) = 7.77in.2
Treat section as flanged.

19-12

## 3. Apf = (1/fps)[0.85 fc' x area of projected flange]

Apf =[0.85(5)/229.3][(24-8)x 5 + 2(8x3)x (1/2)] = 1.928 in.2
Apw= 3.456 - 1.928 = 1.528 in.2
a = (Apw.fps)/(0.85f c'bw) = 1.528(229.3)/(0.85 x 5 x8) = 10.3 in.
Mn (web) = Apw.fps (d - 2) = (1.528/12)(229.3)(43.5 10.3/2) = 1119.7 K.ft.
Mn (flanges) = 0.85 fc' (5x16)(43.5-2.5) + 0.85 fc' ((2/2)x8x3)(43.5-5-2)
= 17663 K.in. = 1471.9K.ft.
Total Mn = 2591.6 K.ft., Mu = 0.9 Mn = 2332.5 K.f t.
This Mu is greater than the external ultimate moment.
4.
a) Check reinforcement index:
pw = Apw / bwd = 1.528 / (8 x 43.5) = 0.0044
wp (web) = pw.fpu / fc 0.36; 1 0.36 x 0.8 = 0.288
wp (web) = 0.0044 (229.3/5) = 0.202 < 0.288
d) Compute the cracking moment: F = 482.5 K., e = 18.5in. at midspan.
M cr =

y
I
F
7.5 f 'c + + F .e. b

A
I
( yb )

M cr =

169062
482.5
22.94
7.5 5000 103 +
+ 482.5 18.5

656
169062
( 22.94 )

## 1.2 Mcr = 1825.5 K.f t. < Mn.

Problem 19.8:
Given: data from problems 19. 6 and 19.7
Required: Calculate the camber at transfer and deflection at service load.
Solution:
a) camber at transfer:
1. Downward deflection due to self-weight =

5WD .L4
384 Eci I

## Self-weight = 0.683 K/ft., L = 64 ft, Eci = 57000 4000 = 3605 Ksi

4
0.683
5
( 64 12 )
12
1 =
= 0.424in. (downward)
384 ( 3605 )(169062 )
2. Upward camber for simply supported beam harped at (1/3) span =
where e = 18.5 in. and Fi = 570.8 K.
In this problem, the cables are harped at approximately span/3.

19-13

23( Fi .e) L2
216 Eci I

23 ( 570.8 18.5)( 64 12 )
2 =
= 1.089in. (upward)
216 ( 3605)(169062)
Camber at transfer = -1.089 + 0.424 = -0.665 in. (upward).
2

## b) Deflection at service load:

Total load = 0.683 + 1.2 + 0.6 = 2.483 K/ft.
Ec= 57000 5000 = 4030 Ksi,F = 482.5 K
4
2.483
5
( 64 12 )
12
Downward deflection =
= 1.376in.
384 ( 4030 )(169062 )

23 ( 482.5 18.5)( 64 12 )
= 0.823in.
216 ( 4030 )(169062 )
2

Upward deflection =

## Total deflection = 1.376 - 0.823 = 0.553 in. (downward)

Problem 19.9:
Given: data of problems 19.6 and 19.7
Required: Design the necessary web reinforcement.

Use fy = 60 Ksi

Solution:
Check shear requirements at sections h/2 and 12 ft. from the support.
a) Section at h/2 from support: h = 48 in., h/2 = 24 in. = 2 ft.
1. Self-weight 0.683 K/f t., D.L. = 1.2 K/ft., L.L. = 0.6 K/ft.
Wu = 1.2D + 1.6L =1.2(1.2+ 0.683) + 1.6 (0.6) = 3.22 K/ft.
Vu (at h/2 from support) = 3.22 (32 - 2) = 96.6 K
Mu (at h/2 from support) = (3.22 x 32) (2) (3.22 /2)(2)2 = 199.64
e at midspan = 18.5 in., d = 43.5 in.
e at 2 ft. from the support = 18.5 - 0.84 x 20 = 1.7 in (see solution of problem 19.6)
d = e + yt = 1.7 + 25.0 = 26.7 in.
Vu .d 96.6 26.7
=
= 1.076 , approximately = 1.0
M u 199.64 12
V .d
Vc = (0.6 f 'c + 700 u )bw d
Mu
Vc = (0.6 5000 + 700 x 1.0)(8)(26.7) = 158.6 K.
Minimum Vc = (2 f 'c ) bw.d = (2 5000 ) (8)(26.7) = 30.2 K
Maximum Vc = (5
Use VC = 75.5 K.

19-14

## 2. Calculate maximum spacing S:

s1 = 3h/4 = 3 x 48/4 = 36 in., s2 = 24 in.
Aps f pu s d
Min. Av =
.
. .
80 f y d bw

3.456 250 s3
26.7
.
.
.
80 60 26.7
8
s3 = 17.9 in.
0.22 =

## s4 = (Av.fy) / (50bw) = 0.22(60000)/(50x8) = 33 in.

Thus s max = 17.9 in.,say 16 in.
3.
a) Shear strength Vcw = (3.5 f 'c + 0.3 fpc) bw.d + Vp
fpc = F / A =482.5 / 656 = 0.736 Ksi
d = 26.7 in. or 0.8h = 0.8 x 48 = 38.4 in., use 38.4 in.
Vp = F sin (where = slope of tendon = 0.84 in/ft) = 482.5 (0.84/12.03) = 33.7 K.
Vcw = [3.5 5000 + 0.3 (736)] x 10-3 (8 x 38.4) + 33.7 = 177.6 K.
VcW controls at h/2 distance from support.
Vcw > Vu, thus use #3 stirrups spaced at S = 16 in.
b) Section at span/4 = 64/4 = 16 ft. from support.
1.
Vu = 3.22 (32 - 16) = 51.52 K.
Mu = (3.22 x 32)(16) 3.22 (16) 2/2 = 1236.48 K.ft.
e = 18.5 - 0.84 (6) = 13.46 in., d = e + yt = 13.46 + 25.06 = 38.5 in.

Vu .d 51.52 38.5
=
= 0.134 < 1.0
M u 1236.48 12
VC = (0.6 5000 + 0.134 x 700)(8 x 38.5) = 42 K.
Minimum VC = ( 2 5000 ) (8) (38.5) = 43.6 K (controls)
Max. VC = (5 5000 ) (8) (38.5) = 108.9 K.
VC = 43.6 K controls
2. Vs = (1/)( Vu - Vc) = (1/0.75)(58.5-0.75x43.6) =34.4K
Use #3 stirrups, Av = 0.22 in2
Spacing S = Av.fY.d/Vs = 0.22 (60) (38.5) / 34.4 = 14.8 in.
Smax = 17 in.
Therefore use #3 stirrups spaced at 14.5 in. all over.

19-15

Problem 19.10:
Given: T-section shown in figure 19.15 , f c' = 5 Ksi, fpu = 270 Ksi,
f se = 160 Ksi and Aps = 2.88 in.2
Required:
Calculate Mn
Solution :
1. Compute fps: p = 2.88 / (40 x 34) = 0.00212, 1 = 0.8
Let = 0.4 (when fpy = 0.85 fpu)
fps = fPu [1- (/ 1). p. fPu/fc']
= 270 [1 ( 0 . 4 / 0 . 8 ) (0.00212) (270/5)] = 254.5 K.
2. Check if sections act as a flanged section:
a = (Aps.fps)/(0.85f c'b) = 2.88(254.5)/(0.85 x 5 x 40) = 4.31 in. > 4.0 in.
Beam acts as a T-section.
3. Apf = (1/fps)[0.85fc hs (b-bw)] = (4/254.5)(0.85 x 5 x 30) = 2.0 in.2
Apw = 2.88 2.0 = 0.88 in.2
a = (Apw.fps)/(0.85f c'bw) = 0.88(254.5)/(0.85 x 5 x 12) = 4.4 in.
Mn = Apw . fps (d a/2 ) + Apf . fps (d hs/2 )
= 0.88 (254.5)(34 - 4.4/2) + 2.0 (254.5) (34 4/2 )
= 23410 K.in. = 1950.8 K.ft.
Mn = 1755.7 K.ft.

19-16

CHAPTER 20
SEISMIC DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Problem 20.1:
According to the Table 20.1 - 5-story building is in Occupancy category III.
For North California SS = 2.05 g and S1 = 0.62 g. (It varies)
According to Table 20.4 (ASCE 7-10 Section 20.4) site class is A.
For site class A and SS >1.25 g, Fa =0.8 according to the Table 20.2
For site class A and S1 >0.5 g, Fv =0.8 according to the Table 20.3
SMS = (0.8)(2.05) = 1.64 g
SM1 = (0.8)(0.62) = 0.496 g

Eq 20.2 (a)
Eq 20.2 (b)

## SDS = 2/3(1.64) = 1.09 g

SD1 = 2/3(0.496) = 0.33 g

Eq 20.1 (a)
Eq 20.1 (b)

For SDS > 0.5 g, Occupancy category III and S1 < 0.75 g, SDC = D according to the Table 20.5
For SD1 > 0.2 g, Occupancy category III and S1 < 0.75 g, SDC = D according to the Table 20.6
Seismic design category is D.

20-1

Problem 20.2:
Given: SS = 1.3 g; S1 = 0.6 g
Soil class B
W1 = 50 k; W2 = 60 k
Solution:
Building is in Occupancy category II.
For soil class B, Fa = 1.0 and Fv = 1.0
SMS = (1.3)(1.0) = 1.3 g
SM1 = (0.6)(1.0) = 0.6 g
SDS = 2/3(1.3) =0.87 g
SD1 = 2/3(0.6) = 0.40 g
For SDS > 0.5 g, Occupancy category II and S1< 0.75, SDC = D
For SD1 > 0.2 g, Occupancy category II and S1 < 0.75, SDC = D
SDC = D
For structure that is in Occupancy category II, SDC D and 2-story in height the simplified
analysis can be applied.
V = F SDSW/R
R = 8 (special moment resisting frame)
W = 50 + 60 = 110 kip
V = 1.1 (0.87)(110)/8 = 13.16 kip
Lateral seismic forces are:
F1 = 1.1(0.87)(50)/8 = 5.98 kip
F2 = 1.1(0.87)(60)/8 = 7.18 kip

20-2

Problem 20.3:
Given: SS = 0.75 g; S1 = 0.20 g
Building category III
Soil class C
Solution:
Occupancy category III Fa = 1.1 and Fv = 1.6
SMS = (1.1)(0.75) = 0.825 g
SM1 = (1.6)(0.20) = 0.32 g
SDS = 2/3(0.825) = 0.55 g
SD1 = 2/3(0.32) = 0.21 g
For Occupancy category III, SDS > 0.5 g and S1<0.75, SDC = D
For Occupancy category III, SD1 > 0.2 g and S1<0.75, SDC = D
SDC = D
CS = SDS/(R/IE)
R = 8 (special moment resisting frame)
IE = 1.25
T = 0.1N = 0.1(5) = 0.5 s
CS = 0.55/(8/1.25) = 0.086
CS max = 0.21/(.5(8/1.25)) = 0.066< CS
(Not OK)
CS min = 0.01 (As per 20.3.1) < CS (OK)
CS = 0.066
V = CSW
W = 0.066(1000) = 66 kip
V = 0.066 (5000) = 330 kip
k=1
N
5
4
3
2
1

Wi [kip]
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

hi (ft)
50
40
30
20
10

Wi hi
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
150000

20-3

Cvx
0.333
0.267
0.2
0.133
0.067

Fx [kip]
110
88
66
44
22
330

Vx [kip]
110
198
264
308
330

Problem 20.4:
Given: special moment frame
4-story building
Clear span of beam is 24 feet
Story height is 12ft
Beam dimension: 20 x 24 in.
Column dimension: 24 x 24 in.
Solution:
1.4D
1.2D + 1.6L
1.4D + 0.5L + QE
D + 0.5L + QE
1.1D + QE
0.7D + QE
Location
Support
Mid-span

Mu (kip.ft)
-265.5
131
82.8

Support
-98
-44
-265.5 / 94.5
-237.5 / 122.5
-257 / 103
-229 / 131

As (in.2)
3.6
1.8
1.2

Reinforcement
6No.7
3No.7
2No.7

General requirements:
1.
2.
3.
4.

## 24 > 4(21.5)/12 = 7.2 (OK)

20/24 = 0.83 > 0.3 (OK)
20 in. > 10 in. (OK)
20 in. < = 24 in. (OK)
20 in. < = 24 in. + (1.5 24 in.) = 60 in.

Reinforcement requirements:
3(4000)1/2 (20)(21.5)/60000 = 1.36 in.2
200(20)(21.5)/60000 = 1.43 in.2
As+ or As- > 1.43 in.2 (OK)
For 2 No.7 bars at mid-span As+ = 1.2 in.2 < 1.43 (NOT OK)
Use 3 No. 7 bars at mid-span As+ = 1.8 in.2 > 1.43 (OK)
Max As = 0.025(20)(21.5) = 10.8 in.2 (OK)
Mn+ = 131 kip.ft > Mn-/2 = -133 (NOT OK)
20-4

Mid-span
63
82.8
72
54
49.5
31.5
Mn (kip.ft)
322.6
168
113

Also,
Mn = 82.8 > Mn/4 = 80.65

(OK)

Anchorage:
For No. 7 bars
60000(0.875)/(65(4000)1/2) = 12.8 in.
8(0.875) = 7 in.
6 in.
ldh = 12.8 in.

20-5

Problem 20.5:
Solution:
For 5 No.8 bars
As = 5(0.79) = 3.95 in.2
a = 3.95(1.25)(60)/((0.85)(4)(24)) = 3.63 in.
Mpr = 3.95(1.25)(60)(27.5-3.63/2) = 634 kip-ft
Wu = 1.2WD + 0.5 WL = 1.2 (3.0) + 0.5(1.5) = 4.35 kip/ft
VL = (634 +634)/24 + 4.35(24)/2 = 105 kip
VD = (634 +634)/24 - 4.35(24)/2 = 0.63 kip
Design for shear = 105 kip
Earthquake induced force = 52.8 kip
52.8>105/2 = 52.5 kip
Vc = 0
Vs = 105/0.75 0 =140 kip
Vs max = 8(4000)1/2(24)(27.5) = 334 kip > 140 kip (OK)
Also,
Vs < 4(4000)1/2(24)(27.5) = 167 (OK)
Use No. 3 hoops
s = (4)(0.11)(60)(27.5)/140 = 5.2 in.
Maximum allowable spacing within a distance 2h = 2(30) = 60 in. from the face of the support
shall not exceed the smallest of:
27.5/4 = 6.9 in.
8(1.0) = 8 in.
24(0.375) = 9 in.
12 in.
Therefore, 12 no. 3 hoops must be spaced at 5 in. on center with the first hoop located at 2 in.
from the face of the support.
At a distance of 60 in. from the face of the support
Vu = 105 4.35 (60/12)= 83.25 kip
Vc = 2 x (4000)1/2 x 24 x 27.5 = 83.5 kip > 79.7 kip
Spacing of stirrups should not be taken greater than
s = d/2 = 27.5/2 = 13.75 (s <= d/2)
or
s = AvFy/50b = 2 0.11 6000/(50 24) = 11 in. (s <= AvFy/50b)
use 11 in. spacing starting at 62 in. from the face of support
20-6

Problem 20.6:
Solution:
Given:
Pu = 1920 kip (maximum force at the second floor)
Pu = 2000 kip (maximum force at the first floor)
Pu min = 1010 kip
Mn beam = 650 kip-ft
Vu = 120 kip
Column size = 30 x 30 in.
Column height = 12 ft
Determine:
The reinforcement for the column on the first floor of the four-story building. Draw the detail of
the reinforcement.
Assume the reinforcement ratio 0.02
Determine the appropriate interaction diagram:
d = 30 in. 2.5 in. = 27.5 in.
h = 30 in. 5 in. = 25 in.
= 25 in./ 30 in. = 0.833
Use interaction diagram for rectangular column = 0.8 and = 0.9 and interpolate for
=0.8333
Kn 1st floor = Pn 1st floor / fcAg = 2000 kip/(4x30x30) = 0.56
Kn 2nd floor = 1920 / (4 x 30 x 30) = 0.53
For =0.8:
1st floor moment: 0.194303030/12 = 1710 kip.ft
2nd floor moment: 0.224303030/12 = 1980 kip.ft
For =0.9:
1st floor moment: 0.22 4303030 /12= 1980 kip.ft
2nd floor moment: 0.24 4303030/12= 2160 kip.ft
By interpolation for =0.833:
1st floor moment: 1800 kip.ft
2nd floor moment: 2040 kip.ft
As = 0.02 30 30 = 18 in.2
Use 8 # 8 bars, As = 18 in.2

20-7

Using the interaction diagrams the values of nominal flexural strength that corresponds to the
axial force acting at the 2nd floor column and 1st floor column are found as Mn = 1800 k ft and
and is Mn = 2040 k ft.
Check if the strong column weak beam concept is satisfied.
1800 + 2040 = 3840 kip.ft
6/5(650) = 780 kip.ft
3840 > 780 (OK)
General requirements:
Pu= 2000 kip > Ag fc/10 = (30 30) 4 /10 = 360 kip
a) Shortest cross-section dimension = 30 in. > = 12in.
(OK)
b) Ratio of shortest cross-sectional dimension to the perpendicular dimension,
30/30 = 1 >= 0.04 (OK)
Transverse reinforcement:
Determine lo as a maximum of the following
30 in.
(12)(12)/6 = 24 in.
18 in.
lo = 30 in.
Assume No. 4 hoops
Determine s max as minimum value of the following:
(0.25)(30) = 7.5 in.
(6)(1.0) = 6 in.
4 + ((14 14)/3) = 4 <= 6 in. (OK)
smax = 4 in.
Remaining spacing of spiral or hoop reinforcement below Lo
Minimum of: 6 1in. = 6 and 6 in.
Therefore use 6 in.
Ag = 900 in.2
Ach = 729 in.2
hc = 30 2(1.5 + 0.25) = 26.5 in.
Ash = 0.3(4)(26.5)(4){(900/729)-1} /60 = 0.50 in.2
Ash = 0.09(4)(4/60)(26.5) = 0.636 in.2 (governs)

20-8

## Use 2 No. 4 cross-ties and No. 4 hoops

As = 2(0.2) + 0.2 = 0.6 in.2 < 0.636 in.2 (not OK)
Use 2 No.5 crossties and No. 4 hoops
As = 2(0.2) + 0.31 = 0.71 in.2>0.636in.2 (OK)
Shear strength
Vu =120 kip
Vc = 2(4)1/2(30)(23.7)(1+ 2000/(2000 x 302)) = 90 kip
Vs = ((2x0.2)+0.31)(60)(23.7)/4 = 252 kip
0.75(90 + 252) = 234 kip > 120 kip (OK)

20-9

Problem 20.7:
Given: Pu = 5200 kip; Mu = 50000 kip.ft; V = 1000 kip
Boundary element 25 x 25 in.
Wall thickness 20 in.
Wall length 35 ft
Height 28 ft
Solution:
Acv = 20(35 x 12) = 8400 in.2
8400(4000)1/2 = 531 kip < V = 1000 kip
so, min l = n = 0.0025
Acv = 20 (12) = 240 in.2 per foot
Asn = 0.0025(240) = 0.6 in.2/ft
Check if two curtains of reinforcement are needed
2(531) = 1062 kip > 1000 kip
Use one curtain of reinforcement
Use No. 5 bars
As1 = 0.31 in.2
s = 0.31(12)/0.6 = 6.2 in. < 18 in.
Use s = 6 in.
Shear strength requirements:
hw/lw = 28 / 35 = 0.8 < 1.5 , so c = 3.0
t = 0.31/(20 x 6) = 0.0026
Vn = 0.75 x 8400 x (3 x (4000)1/2 + 0.0026 x 60000) = 2178 kip > 1000 kip
One curtain of no. 5 bars spaced 6 in. center-to-center can sustain applied shear force at the base.
Design for flexure and axial force:
e = Mu/Pu = 50000(12) /5200 = 115 in.
Mn = 50000/0.65 = 76923 kip.ft
Pn = 5200/0.65 = 8000 kip
Total reinforcement:
50 No.11 + 62 (((35 12) - 50)/6)) No 5 = 98.15 in.2
Per ACI 10.9.1, 0.01<= <=0.08
=As Ag = (50 1.56 in.2) / (24 in. 24 in.) = .14 > 0.08 (NOT OK)
Assume = 0.08 and recalculate As using # 11 bars
As = Ag = (0.08 (25 in. 25 in.))/1.56 = 32.05, use 32 # 11 bars

20-10

## As = (32 1.56) + (62 0.31) = 69.14 in.2

Ag = ((35 12) - 50) 20 + (2 25 25) = 8650 in.2
= As/Ag= 69/ 8650= 0.008 < 0.01 and < 0.06 (NOT OK)
Increase end member size to 30 in. x 30 in. and recalculate
As = Ag = (0.08 (30 in. 30 in.))/1.56 = 46, use 46 # 11 bars

## As = (46 1.56) + (62 0.31) = 90.98 in.2

Ag = ((35 12) - 60) 20 + (2 30 30) = 9000 in.2
= As/Ag= 90.98 / 9000 = 0.01011 > 0.01 and < 0.06

(OK)

## From interaction diagram for Kn = Pn/(fc x Ag) = 80001000/4000 9000 = 0.222,

Rn = Mn /(fc x Ag x h) = 0.132
Mn = (0.132)(4000)(9000)(35)(12) = 1995840 kip.ft > 76923 kip.ft (OK)
Special boundary elements:
Ag = (351220) = 8400 in.2
Ig = 20(3512)3/12= 123480000 in.4
c = 35 x 12/2 = 210 in.
fc = 5200000/8400 + 50000000 x 12 x 210/ 123480000 = 1639.5 psi
0.2 fc = 0.2 (4000) = 800 psi < 1639.5 psi,
Special boundary elements are needed
Transverse reinforcement of the boundary element:
Use no.4 hoops and crossties
Smax:
0.25(30) = 7.5 in. ~~ 8 in.
6(1.56) = 9.36 in.
4 + (14 - 6.81)/3 = 6.4 > 6,
Smax = 6 in.
Ash = 0.09(6)(30-(21.5)-0.5))(4)/60 = 0.954 in.2 (governs)
Ash = 0.3(6)(26.5)(900 / 702.25-1)4/60 = 0.895 in.2
Use 5 No.4 crossties
As = 6(0.2) = 1.2in.2 > 0.954

(OK)

20-11

## Development length of No. 5 bars

Ldh is the larger of the following
Ldh = fy db / (65 fc 0.5) = (60000 0.625) / (65 40000.5) = 9 in.
Ldh = 8 db = 8 x 0.625 = 5 in.
Ldh = 6 in.
Therefore Ldh = 9 in., Ld = 3.5Ldh = 3.5 9 = 32 in. > dimension of boundary element. Use the
hooks to anchor reinforcement.

20-12

CHAPTER 21
BEAMS CURVED IN PLAN
Problem 21.1:

Given: Circular beam supported on six columns. Diameter = 20 ft., D.L. = 9.8
k/ft., L.L. = 5 k/ft., fc' = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi And b = 14 in.

Solution:
1.) Assume a beam size 14 20 in., own weight = (14)(20)(0.15)/144 = 0.292 kip/ft.
Wu = (1.2)(9.8+0.292) + (1.6)(5) = 20.11 kip/ft.
2.) Since the beam is symmetrically supported on six columns, the moment can be
calculated by using equations (19.7) through (19.9) and Table (21.1)
Negative moment at any support
= k1 Wu r2 = (0.093)(20.11)(10)2 = 187 kip.ft
Positive moment at mid span
= k2 Wu r2 = (0.047)(20.11)(10)2 = 94.52 kip.ft
Maximum torsional moment at mid span
= k3 Wu r2 = (0.094)(20.11)(10)2 = 18.90 kip.ft
P W r 2

Maximum Shear; Vu = u = u
, Vu = 20.11 10 = 105.3 kip
2
2 n
6
3.) For the section at support, Mu = 187 k-ft.
M
187 12000
Let d = 17.5 in., then Ru = u2 =
= 523 psi
bd
14 17.5 2
For fc' = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, = 0.0107 < max = 0.016
As = 0.0107 14 17.5 = 2.62 in 2
4.) For the section at midspan, M u = 94.52 k - ft.

Ru =

min

M u 94.52 12000
=
= 265 psi. , = 0.00513
bd 2
14 17.5 2
= 0.003 < = 0.005134 < max = 0.006, As = 0.005134 14 17.5 = 1.26 in 2

## 5.) Maximum torsional moment; Tu = 18.90 k - ft. It occurs at an angle = 12.75

from the support, Table 21.1
Shear at the point of maximum torsional Moment
= Vu (at support) - Wu r = 105.3 (20.11)(10)(12.75 / 180) = 60.55 k.
The calculation of the shear and torsional reinforcement for

## Tu = 18.90 k. - ft = 226.8k.in. and Vu = 60.55 k. are as follows :

a) Shear reinforcement is needed when Vu > Vu / 2

## Vc = 2 f cbd = 0.75 2 4000 14 17.5 = 23.24 k., Vc / 2 = 11.6 k.

Vu = 60.55 > Vc / 2, shear reinforcement is required.
21-1

Acp 2
b) Torsional Reinforcement is needed when: Tu = f c
Pcp

=T
c

2
Acp = xo yo = (14)(20) = 280 in , Pcp = 2( xo + yo ) = 2(14 + 20) = 68 in 2 (15.20)

## 0.75 4000 280 2

= 54.68 k.in.
68
Tu = 226.8 k.in. > 54.68 k.in.

Ta =

Torsional Reinforcement is needed. Note that if Tu is less than 53.68 kipin., torsional
reinforcement is not required, but shear reinforcement may be required.
6.) Design for shear:
a) Vu = (Vc + Vs )

## 60.55 = 23.24 + 0.75 Vs , Vs = 49.74 k.

b) Maximum Vs = 8 f cbd = 8 4000 14 17.5 = 123.8 k. > Vs
c) As / s = Vs / f y d = (49.74) /(60 17.5) = 0.0473 in2 /in (2 legs)

## As / 2 s = 0.0473 / 2 = 0.024 in 2 /in (1 legs)

7.) Design for Torsion:
a) Design Tu = 226.8 k.in. Determine sectional properties, assuming 1.5 in. concrete
cover and #4 stirrups:
xl = width of center of stirrups = 14 - 3.5 = 10.5 in.

## yl = width of center of stirrups = 20 - 3.5 = 16.5 in.

Practically, xl can be assumed to be b -3.5 in. and yl = h 3.5 in.
Aoh = xl yl = (10.5)(16.5) = 173.25 in 2 , Ao = 0.85 Aoh = 147.3 in 2
Ph = 2( xl + yl ) = 2(10.5 + 16.5) = 54 in
For = 45 o , cot = 1.0.
b) Check the adequacy of the size of the section using equation (15.21), Ch. 15:
2

Vu

Vu Tu Ph

+
8
f
c
1.7 A 2
b d
b
d
w
oh
w

## Vc = 23.24 / 0.75 = 30.98 k

2

60550 226800 54
Left - hand side =
+
= 345 psi.
2
14 17.5 1.7 173
30987

## Right - hand side = 0.75

+ 8 4000 = 474.3 ksi. > 345 psi.
14 17.5

21-2

c) Determine the required closed stirrups due to torsion from equation (15.25):
At
Tn
=
, Tn = Tu / = 226.8 / 0.75 = 266.8 k.in.
s 2 Ao f yv cot
Cot = 1.0 and Ao = 147 .3 in.2

At
266.8
=
= 0.015 in 2 /in (per one leg)
s 2 147.3 60

## d) Determine the additional longitudinal reinforcement from equation (15.27)

A f
Al = t Ph yv cot 2
s f yt
At / s = 0.015, Ph = 54 in,
f yv = f yt = 60 ksi.,
cot = 1.0

Al = 0.015(54) = 0.81 in 2

5 f c Acp A f yv
l P
, Acp = 280 in 2 ,
Min. Al =
f yt s h f yt

f yv = f yt = 60 ksi.

At /s = 0.015

5 4000 280
(0.015 54 1) = 0.47 in 2 , Al = 0.81 in 2 controls
Min. Al =

60000

## 8.) Determine total area of closed stirrups:

Avt
A
A
= l + v
s
s
2s
Required Avt = (0.0474 / 2) + 0.015 = 0.0387 in. 2 / in (per one leg)
Use # 4 stirrups, area of one leg is 0.02 in.2
Spacing of stirrups =0.2/0.0387 = 5.12 in., or 5 in.
b) Maximum s = Ph / 8 = 54 / 8 = 6.75 in. or 12 in., whichever is smaller. The value
of s used is 5 in. < 6.75 in.
c) Minimum Avt / s = 50bw / f yt = (50)(14) / 60000 = 0.0117 in.2 / in. This is less than
a) For one leg of strirrups,

## 0.0036 in.2 / in. provided.

9.) To find the distribution of longitudinal bars, note that total Al = 0.81 in. 2 Use one
third at the top =0.27 in 2 , to be added to the compression steel, As . Use onethird, or 0.27 in. 2 at the bottome , to be added to the tension steel, and one-third,
0.27 in. 2 , at middepth
a) The total area of top bars is 3.11 + 0.27 = 3.38 in.2, use 4 # 9 bars (negative
moment)
b) The total are of bottom bars is 1.47 + 0.27 = 1.74 in. 2 , use 2 # 9 bars at the
corner
c) At middepth, use 2 # 4 bars (0.4 in.2)
21-3

Problem 21.2:

## A semi-circular beam of 12 ft. diameter carries a DL = 4.9 k/ft., LL = 3 k/ft.

from slab, fc' = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, Design for M u ,Vu , and Tu .

Solution:
1.) Wu = (1.2)(4) + (1.6)(3) = 10.7 kip/ft
2.) Calculate M u ,Vu , and Tu . , at the fixed end A.: refer to the Fig. 21.6 in text.
V A = 1.57 Wu r = (1.57)(10.7)(6) = 100.8 kip
2
2
M A = -Wu r = -(10.7)(36) = -385.2 kip.ft
T A = -0.3 Wu r2 = -0.3(10.7)(36)2 = 115.56 kip.ft
3.) Calculate M u ,Vu , and Tu . , at mid-span, Section C, equation 21.29 and 21.30
Mc = 0.273 Wu r2 = (0.273)(10.7)(36)2 = 105.2 kip.ft
TC = VC = 0
4.) Design for M A = -385.2 k-ft., let section dimension 20 30 in. As design will be
controlled by Torsion T A
Mu
B = 20 in., d = 30-2.5 = 27.5 in., then Ru =
= 0.306 psi
bd 2
= 0.006 < min = 0.00333, As = 0.006 20 27.5 = 3.3 in 2 (Top Steel)
5.) Design for shear and torsion:
For Detailed procedure , see solution of problem 21.1.

## Shear reinforcement is needed

Vu = (Vc + Vs ) , Vs = 64.83 k., Vcl = 2Vc = 139.14 k. > Vu , s max = d/2 can be used
Maximum Vs = 8 f cbd = 8 1.0 4000 14 17.5 = 108 k. > Vs

## As / 2s = 0.0393 / 2 = 0.0196 in 2 /in

6.) Design for torsion: Check size dimensions:
a) LHS stress equation = 410.2 psi., RHS stress equation = 474 psi. > 410.2 psi.
b) At s = 0.0365 in 2 /in , total Al s + Av 2s = 0.0561 in 2 /in
c) Choose # 4 Stirrups, 2 braches, Av = 0.2 in 2 per leg.
Spacing; s = 0.2/0.0561 = 3.57 in., use #4 @ 3.5 in.
7.) Distribution bars:
Bottom bars = 3.15/3 = 1.05 in. 2 , use 2 # 7 (1.21 in. 2 )
Middepth bars , use 2 # 7 bars
Top bars = 3.3 + 1.05 = 4.35 in.2, use 6 # 8 bars in one row (4.71 in. 2 )
21-4

Problem 21.3:

## Determine the ultimate bending and torsional moments at section C and D of

the fixed end beam shown in Fig.21.5. if the diameter of circle is 30 ft. The
beam is part of floor slab that carries a uniform DL of 126 psf. and a LL of
120 psf.

## Solution: The moment at any section N is calculated by using equation 21.32.

The torsional moment at any section N is calculated b using equation 13.33
1.) Ultimate Load Wu = 1.2 D.L. + 1.6 L.L. = (1.2)(126) + (1.6)(120) = 344 psf.
2.) For the Section at C, = /2, Wu r 3 = (0.344 )(15) 3 = 1611 k - ft

2
3

sin

1
+
cos

0
.
11
sin

=
W
r
MC
u
2 6
2
2
8
1

## M C = 1611 8 sin 2 6 (1) 0.11 1 =134.11 k-ft

cos

1
+
+
sin

0
.
11
sin

= T C = Wu r 8
2
2
2
8 24

TC = 1611 8 + 8 + 0 0 =0
3

## 3.) For the Section at D, = /4, Wu r 3 = (0.344 )(15) 3 = 1611 k - ft

2
3
M D = Wu r 8 sin 4 6 1 + cos 4 0.11 sin 4
1

## M D = 1611 8 0.707 6 (1 + 0.5) 0.11 0.707 =-58.20 k-ft

3
TD = Wu r 8 cos 4 1 + 16 + 24 sin 4 0.11 sin 4

21-5

Problem 21.4:

## Given A quarter circle cantilever beam, radius = 12 ft carries a uniform DL =

6.4 k/ft., PL = 4.25 k/ft. from slab, fc' = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, b = 24 in.

Solution:
1.) Wu = (1.2)(6.4) = 7.7 k/ft.,
Length of quarter circle =

2r
= 12.566 ft.
4

## Total Wu = 7.7(12.566) = 96.76 kip Located at C mid length of AB

Section C from A: x = 8 8 cos 45o = 2.343 ft.
y = 8 sin 45o = 5.657 ft.
2.) M A = -Pu r -Wu y = -(6.8)(8)-(96.76)(5.657) = -601.77 kip.ft
T A = Pu r + Wu y = (6.8)(8)-(96.76)(2.343) = 281.1 kip.ft
V A = Pu + Wu = (6.8)-(96.76) = 103.6 kip
3.) Design for M A = -601.77 k-ft.
Let section dimension 24 36 in. as design will be controlled by Torsion T A =
281.1 kipft. Let d = 33.5 in.
M
601.77 12
Ru = u2 =
= 0.268 ksi, = 0.0052
bd
24 33.5 2
As = 0.0052 24 33.5 = 4.2 in 2
4.) Design for shear and torsion: Vu = 103.6 k.ft., Tu = 281.1 k.ft
a) Vc = 2 fcbd = 2 4000 24 33.5 = 101.7 k.

## Vc = 76.3 k., Vc / 2 = 38.2 k.

Vu < Vc , Shear reinforcement is needed
Vu = (Vc + Vs ) , Vs = 36.43 k,
b) Torsional Reinforcement: (procedure is similar to example 21.1):
Torsional Reinforcement is needed
5.) Design for Shear; Vs = 36.43 k.

## Vcl = 2Vc = 203.4 k., s max = d/2

Av
V
36.43
= s =
= 0.0136 in 2 /in , for one leg As / 2s = 0.0068 in. 2 /in.
s
f y d 60 33.5
6.) Design for torsion: Check size adequacy:
a) LHS stress = 454 psi. < RHS stress = 474.3 psi
Al s = 0.0584 in 2 /in , total Al s + Av 2s = 0.0652 in 2 /in
b) Choose # 4 Stirrups, 4 braches, Av = 2(0.2) = 0.4 in 2
Spacing; s = 0.4/0.0652 = 6.14 in., use #4 @ 6 in.
c) Longitudinal reinforcement : Al = 6.19 in.2
21-6

## Maximum spacing = Ph / 8 = 108 / 8 = 13.5 in.

7.) Distribution of bars:
Bottom bars = 6.31/3 = 2.1 in. 2 , use 4 # 7 ( As = 2.41 in. 2 )
Mid-depth bars , use 2 # 9 bars
Top bars = 4.2 + 2.1 = 6.3 in.2, use 5 # 10 bars in one row ( As = 6.33 in. 2 )

Problem 21.5

Design a V-beam in Fig. 19/11 if a = 8 ft carries a D.L. of 3.8 k/ft. and a L.L
of 4 k/ft.

## Solution: The moment at any section N is calculated by using equation 21.32.

The torsional moment at any section N is calculated b using equation 13.33
1.) Ultimate Load Wu = 1.2 D.L. + 1.6 L.L. = (1.2)(3.8) + (1.6)(4) = 11 k/ft
2.) Assume a rectangular section with the long to short sides ratio y/x, the value of
= 3.39 (from Table 21.2)
For = 60 =

## , and from equation 19.41 through 19.44

3

2
2

11 8 sin

Wu a 2 sin 2
3

= 55.09 k - ft.
M C = 6 sin 2 + cos 2 =

2
2

6 sin + cos
3
3

## M A = = M C Wu (a 2 / 2) = 55.09 (11 8 2 / 2) = 296 .91 k-ft.

TA = M C . cot = 55.09 cot = 31.81 k - ft. (at support)
3
TC = M C . cot = 31.81 k - ft. (at midspan section)
3.) a) Design for M u = -296.91 k-ft. at support
Choose a section 12 24 and d = 21.5 in.

M u 296.91 12
=
= 0.642 ksi, = 0.0150
bd 2 12 21.5 2
As = 0.0150 12 21.5 = 4.2 in 2
b) Design for M u = 55.09 kipft. at C;
M
Ru = u2 is small, Use minimum = 0.0033
bd
As = 0.0033 12 21.5 = 0.86 in. 2
Ru =

21-7

## Vu (at d - distance) from A = 11(8) 21.5(11 / 12) = 68.3 k.

a) Design for Shear
Vc = 2 f cbd = 32.63 k. , Vc = 24.48 k. < Vu

## Vu > Vc , Shear reinforcement is required.

Vu = (Vc + Vs ) , Vs = 58.44 k.
As / s = 0.0453 in 2 /in , As / 2s = 0.023 in 2 /in
b) Torsional reinforcement
LHS stress = 425 psi. < RHS stress = 474 psi, O.K.
At s = 0.0253 in. 2 /in. , At s + Av 2s = 0.0483 in 2 /in
Use # 4 Closed Stirrups, Av = 0.2 in 2 , smax = 7.25 in > s
s = 0.2/0.0483 = 4.14 in., use #4 @ 4 in.
For detailed procedure, see problem 21.1 or chapter 15.
c) Longitudinal reinforcement: Al = 1.47 in.2 , Al / 3 = 0.50 in.2
For section at support;
Bottom bars, As = 0.5 in. 2 , use 2 # 5 bars ( As = 0.61 in. 2 )
Mid-depth bars, As = 0.5 in. 2 , use 2 # 5 bars
Top bars = 3.87 + 0.5 = 4.37 in.2, use 6 #8 bars in two row ( As = 4.71 in. 2 )
For section at mid-span
Bottom bars, = 0.86 + 0.5 = 1.36 in.2, use 2 #8 bars ( As = 1.57 in. 2 )
Mid-depth bars, use 2 # 5 bars
Top bars, use 2 # 5 bars

21-8