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WORKING AND PROGRAMMING OF KUKA ROBOT

A project work report submitted


to

MANIPAL UNIVERSITY
For partial fulfillment of the requirement for the
Award of the Degree
of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
in

MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING


by
SHAHID FAIZEE
SAMRAT SUR

Under the Guidance of

Dr. N. Yagnesh Sharma


Professor, Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND


MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


(A constituent Institute of MANIPAL UNIVERSITY)

MANIPAL - 576 104, KARNATAKA, INDIA

MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


(A constituent Institute of MANIPAL UNIVERSITY )
MANIPAL - 576 104 .

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND


MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that project work titled WORKING AND PROGRAMMING OF
KUKA ROBOT is a bonafied work of

SHAHID FAIZEE

080929282

SAMRAT SUR

080929014

carried out in partial fulfillment of the requirements for awarding the degree of Bachelor
of Engineering in Mechanical discipline in Manipal Institute of Technology under
MANIPAL University, Manipal during the academic year 2008-2009.

Mr. Pravin Y. Koli

Dr. N.Yagnesh Sharma

Manager

Professor & Head

HED- Electronics Cell

Dept. of Mechanical & Manufacturing


Engineering

External Guide

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Written words have an unfortunate tendency to degenerate genuine gratitude into a
formality. However it is the only way to record one's feelings permanently.

I was bestowed with the golden opportunity to undergo my summer training at Larsen &
Toubro Limited, Powai, and hence take this opportunity to express my heartfelt thanks to
all those who have been associated with my training.

I express my special thanks to Mr. Pravin Koli, HED- Electronics Cell, I gained
experience and knowledge about the importance of work culture and planning, which is
one of the best of the establishment; I had the privilege of working in the Electronic Cell,
HED during my summer training. I had exposure to:
Knowledge about computer & various packages, which are used in an
organization for its efficient function.
Achieving goals and targets by proper planning & time management.
The importance of communication skill especially when having a group
discussion.

I express my heartfelt gratitude to Mr. Rishi Shahani. For providing me with endless
support and encouragement in all my endeavors at every moment during my training.
This acknowledgement is really incomplete if I would fail to express my sincere thanks to
Ms. Kirti Uchil, placement department, L&T for giving the opportunity of working in the
Production Engineering. Last but not the least I thank all my fellow Trainees for their Cooperation and support.

SHAHID FAIZEE

SAMRAT SUR

Mentor
iii

TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER

1.0

2.0

3.0

PARTICULARS

PAGE. NOS.

CERTIFICATE
ACKNOLWEDGEMENT
TABLE OF CONTENT
INTRODUCTION
THE ROBOT SYSTEM
ROBOT SYSTEM BASICS
1.1
1.1.1 Components of a complete KUKA robot system
1.1.2 KUKA Control Panel (KCP)
1.1.3 Mechanical construction of a KUKA robot
1.1.4 Axis designation of a KUKA robot
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2
1.2.1 KR C2 control for max. 7 axes
1.2.2 USER GROUPS
ENERGY SUPPLY
1.3
1.3.1 KUKA energy supply systems series 2000 robot
1.3.2 Energy supply systems Adjusting the protectors
1.3.3 KUKA robot controller (KRC)
1.3.4 Performance features of KUKA Robot Controller
(KRC)
COORDINATE SYSTMES
OPERATION OF KUKA ROBOT PANEL (KCP)
2.1
2.1.1 Operator control elements
2.1.2 Mode table
2.1.3 Types of Keys
COORDINATE SYSTEM OF ROBOTS
2.2
JOGGING AXIS SPECIFIC
2.3
WORLD COORDINATE SYSTEM
2.4
2.4.1 Assignment of the angles of rotation in Cartesian
coordinate
2.4.2 Dominant axis activated
2.4.3 Dominant axis not activated
2.4.4 TOOL Coordinate system
2.4.5 BASE Coordinate system
SETUP
MASTERING
3.1
3.1.1 Why is Mastering carried out
3.1.2 Mastering Equipments
3.1.3 Reasons for Re mastering
3.1.4 Mastering with the EMT
3.1.5 Preparation for EMT Mastering
3.1.6 What Happen in during tool calibration
METHODS OF TOOL CALIBRATION
3.2
3.2.1 Methods of measurement of the TCP
3.2.2 Methods of the measurement of the orientation

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3.3

4.0

5.0
6.0

7.0

TOOL PAYLOAD

16

3.3.1 Loads on the robot


3.3.2 Playload data
3.3.3 Supplementary load on the robot
BASE CALIBRATION
3.4
3.4.1 Base Calibration
3.4.2 The 3-point method
APPLICATION OF KUKA ROBOT
KUKA.LaserCut
4.1
KUKA.LaserWeld
4.2
KUKA.GlueTech
4.3
KUKA.ArcTech
4.4
KUKA.PalletTech
4.5
KUKA Milling 8 kW
4.6
4.6.1 KUKA Milling 8 kW Scope of Supply
CAN A CAR SEAT WTHSTAND CONDITIONS AT THE
NORTH POLE?
AC SERVO MOTOR
WHAT IS SERVO?
6.1
TYPES OF SERVO MOTORS
6.2
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF A.C. SERVO MOTOR
6.3
WORKING OF A.C. SERVO MOTOR
6.4
APPLICATIONS OF A.C. SERVO MOTOR
6.5
6.5.1 Commercial Application
6.5.2 Industrial Application
PROGRAMMING OF KUKA ROBOT
Motion Programming
7.1
BCO Run
7.2
7.2.1 Part 1
7.2.2 Part 2
7.2.3 Part 3
LIN (Linear) - Motion
7.3
7.3.1 Programming a LIN motion
7.3.2 Orientation Control

CIRC (Circular) - Motion


7.4.1 Programming a CIRC motion
7.4.2 Orientation Control
7.4.3 360 degree full circle
Approximation of a motion
7.5
7.5.1 PTP motion with approximate positioning
7.5.2 LIN & CIRC motion with approximate
positioning
REFERENCES
7.4

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INTRODUCTION
KUKA Robots come with a control panel that has a display resolution of 640 x 480
pixels and an integrated mouse, with which the manipulator is moved, positions are saved
(TouchUp), or where modules, functions, data lists, etc. are created and modified. To
manually control the axles the enabling switch on the back of the control panel (the KCP,
or KUKAControlPanel) must be activated (today only with a panic function). The
connection to the controller is a VGA interface and a CAN-bus.
A rugged computer located in the control cabinet communicates with the robot system
via an MFC card. Control signals between the manipulator and the controls are
transferred using the so-called DSE-RDW connection. The DSE card is in the control
cabinet, the RDW card in the robot socket.
Controls for the old KRC1 types used Windows 95 to run VxWorks-based software.
Peripheral equipment includes a CD-ROM and a disk drive; Ethernet, Profibus, Interbus,
Devicenet and ASI sockets are also available.
Controls for the newer KRC2 type use the Windows XP operating system. Systems
contain a CD-ROM drive and USB ports, Ethernet connection and feature optional
connections for Profibus, Interbus, DeviceNet and Profinet.
Most robots come in the orange or black, the former featuring prominently as a corporate
color.
KUKA's industrial robots product range:[3]

KUKAs industrial robots


Kinematic
Type
articulated robot
articulated robot
articulated robot
articulated robot

Number
of Axis
6 axis
6 axis
6 axis
6 axis

Significance
handling robots
arc welding robots
spot welding robots
shelf-mounted robots, top loader robots
for machine loading and unloading
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Payload Range
5 to 1000 kg
5 to 16 kg
100 to 240 kg
6 to 210 kg

articulated robot

6 axis

articulated robot
articulated robot
articulated robot

6 axis
6 axis
6 axis

articulated robot
articulated robot

6 axis
4 axis

SCARA robot

4 axis

gantry robot

6 axis

stainless steel robot for food processing,


IP67
cleanroom robots
heat resistant robots for foundry industry
painting robots, ATEX-compliant robots
for operating in explosive atmospheres
heat resistant robots for foundry industry
palletizers for bag and box palletizing
and depalletizing
handling robots for pick and place,
handling and packaging operations
portal robot for machine tending and
material handling tasks for distances of
up to 20 m

15 kg
16 to 500 kg
16 to 500 kg
16 kg
16 to 500 kg
40 to 1300 kg[4]
5 to 10 kg
30 to 60 kg

KUKA Robot application examples


KUKA industrial robots are used in material handling, loading and unloading of
machines, palletizing, spot and arc welding. KUKA Robots have also appeared in various
Hollywood Films. In the James Bond film Die Another Day, in a scene depicting an ice
palace in Iceland, the NSA agent Jinx (Halle Berry) is threatened by laser-wielding
robots. In the Ron Howard directed film The Da Vinci Code, a KUKA robot hands Tom
Hanks character Robert Langdon a container containing a cryptex. In 2001 KUKA
developed the Robocoaster, which is the worlds first passenger-carrying industrial robot.
The ride uses roller-coaster-style seats attached to robotic arms and provides a roller
coaster-like motion sequence to its two passengers through a series of programmable
maneuvers. There is also the possibility that riders themselves can program the motions
of their ride. In 2007 KUKA introduced a simulator, based on the Robocoaster.[5]

KUKAs Robocoaster is an amusement ride based on industrial robotics technology.


vii

CHAPTER 1
THE ROBOT SYSTEM
1.1

ROBOT SYSTEM BASICS


1.1.1. Components of a complete KUKA robot system :
KUKA robot (e.g. KR 180)
KUKA control panel (KCP)
KR C2 robot controller
1.1.2. KUKA Control Panel (KCP) :
Following are the various parts of KCP and their functions:
Keyswitch for mode selection
Drives on/off switch
Emergency stop button
6D mouse
Numeric keypad
Alphabetic keypad
Cursor block with Enter key
Large color graphic display
Softkeys around the display
Hardkeys for program and display control
1.1.3. Mechanical construction of a KUKA robot :
Arm
Wrist
Counterbalancing system
1

Link arm
Rotating column
Base frame
NOTE: The modular design means that the number of robot assemblies,
and thus the overall number of components, can be restricted.
1.1.4. Axis designation of a KUKA robot :
It consists of following axis:
Axis 1
Axis 2
Axis 3
Axis 4
Axis 5
Axis 6
NOTE: Axis 1, 2 and 3 are the main axis
Axis 4, 5 and 6 are the wrist axis

1.2 SYSTEM OVERVIEW


1.2.1 KR C2 control for max. 8 axes

Control of the 6
robot axis

KUKA CONTROL PANEL


&
KUKA ROBOT
3

1.2.2 USER GROUPS

Configuration of the robot controller (external axes, technology


packages)
Configuration of the robot system (field buses, vision system, etc.)
User defined technology commands with UserTECH

Start up task (mastering, tool calibration)


Simple application programs (programming using incline forms,
motion commands, technology commands, limit value checking, no
syntax errors)
Advanced programming using the KRL programming language
Complete application programs (subprograms, interrupt programming,
loops, program branches)
Numeric motion programming

1.3

ENERGY SUPPLY
1.3.1 KUKA energy supply systems series 2000 robot

Interface A1
6

Integrate section of dress


package A1-A3

Outlet on A2

External section
rotating column
dress package A1-A3

3
1

Interface A3

Dress package A3A6

1.3.2 Energy supply systems Adjusting the protectors


There are protectors placed on the robot for protection.
These protectors cannot be adjusted.
If the protector has worn down to red inner, the protector must be exchanged.

1.3.3 KUKA Robot Controller (KR C)


The KR C robot controller makes programming easier with its Microsoft
Windows interface. It is expandable, can be integrated into networks via a bus,
and contains ready-made software packages all factors which point the way to
the industrial automation of the future.

1.3.4 Performance features of KUKA Robot Controller (KR C)

Open, network-capable PC technology


2 free slots for external axes
DeviceNet and Ethernet slots for common bus systems (e.g. INTERBUS,
ROFIBUS, DeviceNet) provided as standard
Motion profile function for optimal interaction between the individual robot
motors and their velocity
Floppy disk and CD-ROM drives for data backup
Facilities such as remote diagnosis via the Internet
Simple operation and programming via KUKA Control Panel (KCP) with
Windows user interface
Compact control cabinet
Ergonomic KUKA Control Panel (KCP)
.

CHAPTER 2
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
2.1 OPERATION OF KUKA ROBOT PANEL (KCP)
2.1.1 Operator control elements
Mode selector
Drives ON
Drives OFF
E-STOP

2.1.2 Mode table

Mode selector
switch
Jogging
using
keys
or
Space Mouse

T1

T2

250 mm/s

250 mm/s

Enabling switch
(dead man
function)

Enabling switch
(dead man
function)

250 mm/s

Prog.
Velocity

AUTOMATIC AUTOMATIC
EXTERNAL

Jogging
not active

Jogging
not active

Prog. Velocity

Prog. Velocity

Drives ON START
key
pulse

Drives ON
External start

HOV

Program
execution
POV

Enabling switch
(dead man
function) START
key pressed

Enabling switch
(dead man
function)
START key
pressed

2.1.3 Types of Keys

STOP key
Program start forward key
Program start backward
Escape key
Window selection key
Softkeys
ASCII alphabetic keypad
NUM key
SYM key
SHIFT key
ALT key
RETURN key
CURSOR key
Menu keys
Status keys

2.2 Coordinate systems of the robots


Axis-specific motion
Each robot axis can be moved individually in a positive or negative direction.
WORLD coordinate system
Fixed rectangular coordinate system whose origin is located at the base of the
robot.
TOOL coordinate system
Rectangular coordinate system, whose origin is located in the tool.
BASE coordinate system
Rectangular coordinate system which has its origin in the workpiece that is to
be processed.
2.3 Jogging axis specific
Each robot can be moved individually in a positive or negative direction.
2.4 WORLD Coordinate system
Fixed rectangular coordinate system whose origin is located at the base of the robot.
2.4.1

Assignment of the angles of rotation in Cartesian coordinate


Angle A

Rotation about the Z axis

Angle B

Rotation about the Y axis

Angle C

Rotation about the X axis

+Z
A

B
C

+Y
+X
2.4.2

Dominant axis activated


When this function is switched on, the coordinate axis with the greatest
deflection of the mouse is moved. In this example only the Y axis is
moved.

2.4.3

Dominant axis not activated


The function allows a superposed motion. Depending on the setting of the
degree of freedom, either 3 or 6 axes can be moved simultaneously. In this
example, motion is possible in the X, Y and Z directions (the velocity
depends on the deflection).

2.4.4

TOOL Coordinate system


Rectangular coordinate system, whose origin is located in the tool.

2.4.5

BASE Coordinate system


Rectangular Coordinate system which has its origin on the workpiece that
is to be processed.

10

+Z

+X
+Y

11

CHAPTER 3
SETUP
3.1

MASTERING
3.1.1

Why is Mastering carried out?

When the robot is measured, the axes are moved into a defined mechanical
position, the so called mechanical zero position.

Once the robot in this mechanical zero position, the absolute encoder value
for each axis is saved.

NOTE : Only a mastered robot can move to programmed position and be moved
using Cartesian coordinates; a mastered robot also knows the position of
the software limit switches.
3.1.2 Mastering Equipments
In order to move the robot to the mechanical zero position, a dial gauge or
electronics or electronic measuring tool (EMT) is used. In EMT mastering, the
axis is automatically moved by the robot controller to the mechanical zero
position. If a dial gauge is being used, this must be carried out manually in axisspecific mode.
3.1.3 Reasons for Remastering
The robot is to be mastered...
...after repairs (e.g. replacement of a drive
motor or RDC)
...after exchanging a gear unit

Mastering is cancelled...
...automatically on booting the system 1

...when the robot has been moved without


the controller (e.g. hand crank)

...automatically on booting the system 1

...after an impact with a mechanical end


stop at more than jog velocity (25 cm/s)

...manually by the operator

...after a collision involving tool or robot

...manually by the operator

...manually by the operator

1) If dispensaries are detected between the resolver data saved when shutting down the
controller and the current position, all mastering data are deleted for safety reasons.

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`3.1.4 Mastering with the EMT

Mastering with the EMT

SET - UP

Set mastering

First mastering

Teach offset

Mastering Loss

Check
mastering

Master load
with offset

Master load without


offset

1) Only possible if the mastering is still valid (i.e. no change to the drive train e.g.
replacement of a motor or parts, or following a collision, etc.)

3.1.5

Preparation for EMT mastering


Move axes to pre-mastering position (frontsight and rearsight aligned)
Move axes manually in axis-specific mode
Each axis is mastered individually
Start with axis 1 and move upward
Always move axis from + to
Only in T1!
Remove protective cap from gauge cartridge

13

Attach EMT and connect signal cable (connection X32 on the junction
box on the rotating column )
Three LEDs on the EMT

- Error
-

Falling edge

- Rising edge

3.1.6 What happens in during tool calibration?


The tool receives a user-defined Cartesian coordinate system with its
origin at a reference point specified by the user.
3.2

Methods of tool calibration


1. Calculation of the TCP relative to the flange coordinate system
2. Definition of the rotation of the tool coordinate system from the flange
coordinate system
3.2.1 Methods of measurement of the TCP
1. XYZ-4 point method
In this method the TCP of the tool is moved to a reference point from
four different directions The TCP of the tool is then calculated from
the different flange positions and orientations

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2.

XYZ reference method


In the X Y Z reference method the TCP data are determined by
means of a comparison with a known point on the wrist flange. The
unknown TCP can be calculated on the basis of the various positions
and orientations of the robot flange and the dimensions of the known
point.

3.2.2 Methods of the measurement of the orientation


1. The A B C World 5D method
In this method, the tool must be oriented parallel to the Z axis of the
world coordinate system in the working direction. This calibration
method is used if only the working direction (tool direction) of the tool
is required for its positioning and manipulation (e.g. MIG/MAG
welding laser or waterjet cutting).
2. The A B C World 6D method
In this method, the tool must be oriented in alignment with the world
coordinate system. The axes of the tool coordinate system must be
parallel to the axes of the world coordinate system. This method is
used if the orientation of all three tool axes is required for positioning
and manipulation (welding gun, gripper)
3. The A B C 2-point method
This method is used if an exact orientation of the three tool axes is
required for positioning and manipulation, e.g. in case of vacuum
grippers.
Steps Involved:

First of all, the TCP (which has been calibrated beforehand) is moved
to a known reference point

The TCP is now moved to a point on the negative X axis of the tool to
be calibrated. The working direction of the tool is defined in this way.

The tool is now moved so that the reference point is located with a
positive Y value on the future XY plane of the tool.

15

3.3.

Tool Payload
3.3.1

Loads on the robot


Each robot is designed for:
A rated payload on the robot wrist with a specified load center
distance
a specified principal moment of inertia of the load
a supplementary load on the robot (arm) With this rated payload,
the robot executes motions in its entire work envelope with standard
accelerations and velocities

Note- the maximum robot payload must not be exceeded!!


Max payload-1 6 kg
Total load= Payload + Supplementary load = 46 kg max

If the robot is overload, the wear of the robot is increased.


This causes premature failures and reduces the service life of the robot.
Overloading the robot may even mean that the robot can no longer be
operated safely.
If the static holding torque is exceeded, the robot can no longer be
operated safely as the axes may slag!
Use of incorrect load data nullifies all warranty obligations on the part of
KUKA

Roboter GmbH.
3.3.2

Payload Data
In order to optimize use of the available maximum moments of
acceleration of the robot axes, it is necessary to enter the load data of the
tool that is being used.
CAUTION: The load data must be entered for every geometrically
calibrated tool.

3.3.3

Supplementary load on the robot


In addition to the load on the robot wrist, the robot can also move a load
mounted on the arm, link arm or rotating column, using standard dynamic
values.
16

This can be a welding transformer or a terminal box with value modified,


for example
A value for the permissible supplementary load is specified by KUKA for
each robot
NOTE: The supplementary load must not be exceeded, as there is
otherwise a risk of the axes sagging, as in the case of
exceeding the permissible load on the wrist. Exceeding the
permissible supplementary load generally increases wear and
reduces the service life of the robot.

3.4

Base Calibration
The work surface (pallet, clamping table, workpiece...) receives a user-defined
Cartesian coordinate system with its origin at a reference point specified by the
user.
3.4.1

Purpose of base calibration


Jogging along the edges of the work surface or workpiece.
Teaching Point- The taught point coordinate refers to the BASE
coordinate origin
Program Mode- If the BASE coordinate system is offset, the taught
point move with it.
Program Mode- It is possible to create several BASE coordinate
systems.

3.4.2

The 3-point method


1. In the first step, the TCP of the reference tool is moved to the origin of
the new BASE coordinate system.
2. In the second step, the TCP of the reference tool is moved to a point on
the positive X axis of the new BASE coordinate system
3. In the third step, the TCP of the reference tool is moved to a point with
a positive Y value on the XY plane of the new BASE coordinate
system.

17

CHAPTER 4
APPLICATIONS OF KUKA ROBOT
4.1

KUKA.LaserCut
Technologies for laser cutting: once KUKA.Laser Cut has been set up, additional
commands are available. These commands support the programmer in the
creation of robot programs which use

laser functions. Commands for switching the laser on and off, control of a
distance sensor system, the setting of the gas pressure and the programming of
simple geometric figures are

4.2

KUKA.LaserWeld
KUKA.LaserWeld is a time-saving and easy-to-operate programming support
package with a modular structure for laser welding with KUKA robots. Userfriendly inline forms and parameter lists make for easy inputting, setting and
modification of parameters. In addition to the functions for laser welding
applications, KUKA.LaserWeld also contains an independent configuration
program and various modules help you create applications. The integration of
laser welding systems into the KUKA KR C2 robot controllers allows the
programming of all important functions.

18

4.3

KUKA.GlueTech
KUKA.GlueTech packages are used for controlling a range of different
dispensing controllers. Depending on the capabilities of the dispensing controller
used, a range of ready-made functions is available, from simple opening and
closing of the adhesive gun to checking the quantity of adhesive dispensed. To
simplify operator control, these functions are offered to the programmer in dialog
form. A configuration tool is provided for fast commissioning. This tool provides
input masks, for example, for the configuration of any input/outputs or seamspecific parameters that may be required.

4.4

KUKA.ArcTech
KUKA.ArcTech is a welding technology package for controlling power sources
with program number control. This package has been specially developed for use
with cooperating robots and enables the simultaneous operation of up to three
robots that are in communication with one another. The package is further
characterized by its high degree of operating convenience. The setup procedures
are simplified by means of a configuration tool. Safe operation with the Shared
Pendant is supported by the wide range of available operating and simulation
modes for convenient teaching, and detailed, cause-specific messages including
indication of the originator.
The technology package is also available, with all its user-friendly features, to
users of single applications.

4.5

KUKA.PalletTech
Shortening the distance from application to program. The KUKA.PalletTech
intelligent palletizing software and the KUKA robot controller KR C2 ensure easy
and efficient implementation of your application. As the second generation of the
PC-based robot controller, the KR C2 offers you even more flexibility and power.
It can be used to control an entire line, and can be integrated into higher-level
structures via a field bus. Moreover, all of the standard interfaces for gripper,
vision, and sensor systems are also provided. Programming is easy with the
Windows user interface and with the new "Icon Editor" program, which allows
programming and operator control using an intuitive set of symbols.

19

4.6

KUKA Milling 8 kW
With the milling 8 kW application module, KUKA offers application-specific
components and tools for deployment of a robot as a machine tool for milling
tasks. Milling 8 kW is specially designed for machining tasks using an
electrically-driven spindle with a rated power of 8 kW. It

is used particularly with lightweight materials such as plastic, wood or rigid


foamed material. From the HsC spindle and its controller to the special milling
software, the application module has everything you need for the quick and easy
setup of a robot as a powerful milling unit.

4.6.1 KUKA Milling 8 kW Scope of Supply


Technology cabinet with integrated spindle controller frequency
inverter), pneumatic air supply and safety PLC
Air and water supply for the spindle
HSC electrically-driven spindle, high-speed cutting spindle with
rated power 8 kW
Mounting kit for the spindle on the robot flange
HMI milling Robot software

20

CHAPTER 5
CAN A CAR SEAT WITHSTAND CONDITIONS AT THE
NORTH POLE?
Starting point / Task definition

Can a car seat withstand conditions at


the North Pole?

Car seats have to withstand a lot. The weight of


the driver, for example, his movement while
waiting impatiently at a red light, or extracting a
wallet from his back trouser pocket....
Furthermore, cars are being driven all over the
world. Some are parked in the blazing sun of
Arizona, while others are stationed in the frozen
conditions of Siberia. What materials can
withstand such conditions? To find out the
answer, car manufacturers must subject their
seats to rigorous load testing at all conceivable
temperatures. Yet there is indeed a prime
candidate for this job: the KUKA KR 210-2
robot. This robot has already taken up its first
position at Volvo in Sweden.
Volvo has been testing the durability of car seats
for a long time now. Car seats were previously
tested using a pneumatic seat tester. This system,
however, could only place a two-dimensional
load on the seats. It merely carried out either
horizontal
or
vertical
motions.
Volvo went looking for a flexible system in
which all conceivable climatic conditions and
the full range of motions of a vehicle occupant
could be simulated.

Implementation / Solution
The manufacturers high quality standards led to the company investing in a state-of-theart system that allowed it not only to subject the seats to extreme climatic conditions, but
also to provide authentic simulation of the motions of a wide range of different vehicle
occupants.
A KUKA robot fitted with a special protective suit and located in a climatic chamber
imitates the motions of a human driver, thereby testing the durability of the seats. The KR
210-2 works day and night at varying temperatures. Five seats are set up around the
robot in the climatic chamber. The robot executes the preprogrammed motions in
sequence, holding a padded dummy shaped to mimic the human from.
21

System components / Scope of supply


Force/torque sensors enable it to reproduce human movements. It can be flexibly
programmed and has a high degree of repeatability. The measuring system provides six
measurement dimensions for forces and torques and ensures absolute accuracy. This
provides the user with data about the actual forces being exerted on the contact surface
between the dummy and the seat. The robot motions are also regularly adjusted in
relation to the wear on the test object. To adapt the overall system to a new seat, it is
merely necessary to redefine the base coordinate system. The robot and climatic chamber
are controlled externally from a main computer. The robot is contained in its own
climatic unit, being clothed in a fabric suit. Cool air is blown in at three points. The
temperature around the robot is thus maintained at a constant 20 C.

Results / Success
The robot treats all seats equally. It is also flexibly programmable. It is therefore possible
to subject all test objects to the same loading. A standard program is generally executed.
If, however, a new seat is introduced part way through a test series, the robot notes the
arrival of this newcomer and knows exactly which test cycles are still required for this
seat.
A test phase can last up to ten weeks. This yields results for five seat types. With the old
test system, it took four weeks to test just a single seat.

22

CHAPTER 6
A.C. SERVO MOTOR
6.1

WHAT IS A SERVO?
This is not easily defined nor self-explanatory since a servomechanism, or servo
drive, does not apply to any particular device. It is a term which applies to a
function or a task.
The function, or task, of a servo can be described as follows. A command signal
which is issued from the user's interface panel comes into the servo's "positioning
controller". The positioning controllers the device which stores information about
various jobs or tasks. It has been programmed to activate the motor/load, i.e.
change speed/position.
The signal then passes into the servo control or "amplifier" section. The servo
control takes this low power level signal and increases, or amplifies the power up
to appropriate levels to actually result in movement of the servo motor/load.
These low power level signals must be amplified: Higher voltage levels are
needed to rotate the servo motor at appropriate higher speeds and higher current
levels are required to provide torque to move heavier loads.
This power is supplied to the servo control (amplifier) from the "power supply"
which simply converts sac power into the required DC level. It also supplies any
low level voltage required for operation of integrated circuits.
As power is applied onto the servo motor, the load begins to move . . . speed and
position changes. As the load moves, so does some other "device" move. This
other "device" is a tachometer, resolver or encoder (providing a signal which is
"sent back" to the controller). This "feedback" signal is informing the positioning
controller whether the motor is doing the proper job.
The positioning controller looks at this feedback signal and determines if the load
is being moved properly by the servo motor; and, if not, then the controller makes
appropriate corrections. For example, assume the command signal was to drive
the load at 1000 rpm. For some reason it is actually rotating at 900 rpm. The
feedback signal will inform the controller that the speed is 900rpm. The controller
then compares the command signal (desired speed) of 1000 rpm and the feedback
signal (actual speed) of 900 rpm and notes an error. The controller then outputs a
signal to apply more voltage onto the servo motor to increase speed until the
feedback signal equals the command signal, i.e. there is no error.
Therefore, a servo involves several devices. It is a system of devices for
controlling some item (load). The item (load) which is controlled (regulated) can
23

be controlled in any manner, i.e. position, direction, speed. The speed or position
is controlled in relation to reference (command signal), as long as the proper
feedback device (error detection device) is used. The feedback and command
signals are compared, and the corrections made. Thus, the definition of a servo
system is, that it consists of several devices which control or regulate
speed/position of a load.

6.2

Types of Servo Motors


There are two types of servo motors--AC and DC. AC servos can handle higher
current surges and tend to be used in industrial machinery. DC servos are not
designed for high current surges. Generally speaking, DC motors are less
expensive than their AC counterparts.

6.3

Principle of operation of A.C. Servo Motor


AC Motors are the first choice for constant speed applications and where large
starting torque is not required. They are available in three or single phase. The
smaller motors are for household applications and they are made for single phase
operation. For industrial application, AC motors are available from a fraction to a
hundred horse power output. The principle of operation is that the rotor is made of
laminated steel. And bars of conducting material such as aluminum and copper
are buried in the motor which are short circuited at both ends.

The stator is made of laminated steel with properly designed slots. In the slots a
well designed number of windings is located which is connected to the power
supply. The power supply generates a rotating magnetic field. When the motor is
connected to the power supply, a voltage is induced in the bars located in the rotor
which causes a current flow through them. As a result of the current, an
electromotive torque is developed which accelerates the motor. As the speed
increases the induced voltage reduces because the rotor approaches the
synchronous speed. At the synchronous speed, the torque becomes zero.
Therefore, AC motors always rotate at a speed lower than the synchronous speed.
The synchronous speed is determined by the frequency of the power supply and
number of poles in the stator.

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6.4

Working of A.C. Servo Motor

A servo motor operates on the principal of


"proportional control." This means the motor
will only run as hard as necessary to
accomplish the task at hand. If the shaft
needs to turn a great deal, the motor will run at full speed. If the movement is
small, the motor will run more slowly.
A control wire sends coded signals to the shaft using "pulse coded modulation."
With pulse-coded modulation, the shaft knows to move to achieve a certain angle,
based on the duration of the pulse sent via the control wire. A 1.5 millisecond
pulse will make the motor turn to the 90-degree position. Shorter than 1.5 moves
it to 0 degrees, and longer will turn it to 180 degrees.

6.5

Applications of A.C. Servo Motor


6.5.1 Commercial Application

A.C. Servo Motors for Toy Enthusiasts

A.C. Servo motors can be found in radio-controlled toy cars. Servos are
used in radio-controlled airplanes to position the rudders, in radiocontrolled cars to move the wheels and in other remote-controlled toys
like puppets.
6.5.2

Industrial Application
In food services and pharmaceuticals, the tools are designed to be used in
harsher environments, where the potential for corrosion is high due to
being washed at high pressures and temperatures repeatedly to maintain
strict hygiene standards.
25

CHAPTER 7
PROGRAMMING OF KUKA ROBOT
7.1

Motion Programming
1) Axis-specific motions
* PTP (point-to-point): The tool is moved along the quickest path to an end
point.
2) Path-related motions
*
*

LIN (Linear): The tool is guided at a defined velocity along a straight line.
CIRC (Circular): The tool is guided at a defined velocity along a circular
path.

7.1.1 PTP Motion

PTP

7.2

CONT

Vel =

100

PDAT2

BCO Run
7.2.1

Part 1
For the purpose of ensuring that the robot position corresponds to the
coordinates of the current program point, a so called BCO run (Block
Coincidence) is executed.
This is carried out at reduced velocity. The robot is moved to the
coordinates of the motion block in which the block pointer is situated.

7.2.2

Part 2
This is done :
After a program reset by means of a BCO run to the home position
After block selection to the coordinates of the point at which the block
pointer is situated
26

After selection of the CELL program before the Automatic External


Mode can be started.
After a new program has been selected
After jogging in programming mode
After modifying a command
NOTE: A HOME run is recommended for both the first and final motions
as this represents an unambiguously defined uncritical position.
7.2.3

Part 3
1. This is done by holding down the Start key after selecting the program.
2. The robot moves automatically at reduced velocity
3. Once the robot has reached the programmed path, the program can be
continued by pressing the Start key again.
NOTE: A BCO run always take place by the direct route from the
current position to the destination position. It is therefore important to
make sure that there are no obstacles on this path in order to avoid
damage to components, tools or the robot!
CAUTION: No BCO run is carried out in Automatic External Mode!

7.3

LIN (Linear) Motion


The TCP is moved along a straight line to the end point.
7.3.1

LIN

P1

Programming a LIN motion

CONT

Vel =

27

m/s

PDAT2

7.3.2

Orientation Control
Standard During the path motion, the orientation of the tool
changes continuously from the start position to the end position. This
is achieved by rotating and pivoting the tool direction.
Wrist PTP During the path motion, the orientation of the tool
changes continuously from the start position to the end position. This
is done by linear transformation (axis- specific motion) of the wrist
angles. The problem of the wrist singularities can be avoided using
thisoption as there is no orientation control by rotating and pivoting he
tool direction.
Constant The orientation remains constant during the CP motion. he
programmed orientation is disregarded for the end point and that of the
start point is used.

7.4

CIRC (Circular) Motion


The TCP is moved along an arc to the end point. Here, the TCP or workpiece
reference point moves to the end point along an arc. The path is defined using
start, auxiliary and end points. The end point of a motion instruction serves as the
start point for the subsequent motion.
NOTE: The orientation of the TCP is not taken into consideration at the auxiliary
point and is not relevant for the teaching of coordinates.
7.4.1

CIRC

Programming a CIRC motion

P1

CONT

Vel. =

28

m/s

CPDAT1

7.4.2

Orientation Control
Standard During the path motion, the orientation of the tool changes
continuously from the start position to the end position. This is
achieved by rotating and pivoting the tool direction.
Wrist PTP During the path motion, the orientation of the tool
changes continuously from the start position to the end position. This is
done by linear transformation (axis- specific motion) of the wrist
angles. The problem of the wrist singularities can be avoided using this
option as there is no orientation control by rotating and pivoting the
tool direction.
Constant The orientation remains constant during the CP motion.
The programmed orientation is disregarded for the end point and that of
the start point is used.

7.4.3

360 degree full circle


The full circle should be made of at least two segments.

INI
PTP HOME
....
LINE P1
LINE P2
CIRC P3 P4;

P3 is AUX; P4 is END

CIRC P3 P2;

P5 is AUX; P2 is END

LIN P1
....
PTP HOME
END
29

7.5

Approximation of a motion
During approximate positioning, the robot does not move exactly to each
programmed position, nor is it broken completely.
ADVANTAGE:
Reduce wear
Improved cycle times
7.5.1

PTP motion with approximate positioning


The value of Approximation distance specifies the size of the
approximate positioning range. The page cannot be set, nor is it
predictable.

7.5.2

LIN & CIRC motion with approximate positioning


The value entered for Approximation distance specifies the distance
from the end point and the point at which the approximation motion
commences. The result path is note an arc. The same applies to the
following CIRC command.

30

REFERENCES
1. SEMINAR WORKBOOK OF BASIC ROBOT PROGRAMMING for
KUKA System Software V5.x PROGRAMMER
2. SEMINAR WORKBOOK OF ADVANCED ROBOT
PROGRAMMING for KUKA System Software V5.x
PROGRAMMER
3. www.wikipedia.com
4. www.kuka.com
5. www.kuka-robotics.com

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