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International Journal of Agricultural

Science and Research (IJASR)


ISSN(P): 2250-0057; ISSN(E): 2321-0087
Vol. 6, Issue 3, Jun 2016, 83-86
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

AVAILABILITY OF SULPHUR AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH BASIC SOIL


PROPERTIES UNDER VARIOUS CROP SEQUENCES
IN SOILS OF RAJKOT DISTRICT (GUJARAT)
GS SUTARIA, VD VORA, KD RAKHOLIYA, JT PATEL & KN AKBARI
Main Dry Farming Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Targhadia, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
ABSTRACT
An investigation was carried out to studies on availability of sulphur and its relationship with basic soil
properties under various crop sequences in soils of Rajkot district. For study, 280 soil surface (0-15 cm) soil samples
from 14 talukas of Rajkot district. Based crop sequence, the collected soil samples were grouped into three groups viz,
groundnut base, cotton base and cereals/sesame. Out of the total surveyed soil samples, 62.5 per cent soil samples were
grouped under groundnut base crop sequence while, 25.4 and 12.1 per cent soil samples were grouped under cotton base
and cereals/sesame, respectively. These soil samples were analysed for chemical properties and available status of
sulphur. Maximum average status of sulphur (25.14 mg/100g) with ranged from 5.43 to 140.28 mg/100g and standard

category for sulphur availability under cotton, groundnut and cereal/sesame base crop sequences. The EC and organic
carbon of the soil were significantly and positively correlated with availability of sulphur under various cropping
sequence. Significantly negative relationship between CaCO3 content of the soil with available sulphur was observed
under groundnut and cereals/sesame base cropping sequences.
KEYWORDS: Available Sulphur, Crop Sequence, Soil Properties, Correlation

Original Article

deviation of 29.33 was recorded under cotton base cropping sequence. The 25.4, 34.3 and 35.8 per cent soils falls in low

Received: Mar 11, 2016; Accepted: Apr 11, 2016; Published: Apr 19, 2016; Paper Id.: IJASRJUN2016011

INTRODUCTION
At present, importance of secondary nutrients particularly sulphur (S) and micronutrient is being
increasingly recognized with increase in their deficiencies in several crops leading to losses in terms of quantity
and quality. Sulphur is recognized, as fourth important plant nutrient after N, P and K and is gaining considerable
importance in quality crop production. Sulphur deficiency in crops is gradually becoming widespread in different
soils of the country due to high analysis sulphur-free fertilizers coupled with intensive cropping, higher crop yields
and higher sulphur removals. The deficiency of sulphur in soils and plants are being reported by several parts of
the country and also from Gujarat state. The extent of S deficiency was 37 per cent in Gujarat soils (Meisheri and
Patel 1996). Because of its involvement in vital function in the plant metabolism, sulphur deficiency would lead to
adverse effect on growth and yield of many crops. Availability of sulphur is influenced by various soil factors and
hence the status of different forms of sulphur in soil varies widely with the soil type (Balanagoudar and
Satyanarayana 1990). Under intensive cropping, soil gets exhausted more with reserve S rather than with available
S. Cultivation of high yielding hybrids crop cultivars and hybrids and diversification towards P and S demanding
crops will place even more strain on S budget of the soil. Ultimately, diminishing soil fertility and decreasing
fertilizer use efficiency, which increases cost of production whereas restricts water use efficiency. Different forms
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GS Sutaria, VD Vora, KD Rakholiya, JT Patel & KN Akbari

of sulphur and their relationship with some important soil characteristics decide the sulphur supplying power of soil by
influencing its release and dynamics in soil. Since no work has been done regarding different sulphur fractions in Rajkot
district, Keeping these various issues, study is planned on the availability of sulphur and its relationship with basic soil
properties under various crop sequences in soils of Rajkot district (Gujarat).

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Geographically, Rajkot district is situated at 20 5856 to 23 0813 N latitude and 72 20 05 to 714053 E
longitude in Saurashtra peninsula of Gujarat. The area has three distinct physiographic regions: Eastern hilly region,
Alluvial plain of Bhadar valley in the west and south west parts and Northern plains. Basalt is the dominant rock in the
region but have sedimentary beds of fossiliferous and calcareous rock types in the northern plains and alluvium in Morbi
and Maliya talukas. The climate is hot semiarid with Ustic soil moisture and hyperthermic soil temperature regime
(Sharma & Bhaskar, 2003). The soils of this area are repotted in general terms by Sharma and Roychoudhary (1988) and
classified in orders Entisols, Inceptisols and Vertisols. Rajkot district falls under three agro climatic zone as South
Saurashtra (Jetpur, Dhoraji and Upleta talukas), North Saurashtra (Padadhari, Lodhika, Jasdan, Rajkot, Gondal, Wankaner,
Morbi, Tankara Jamkandorna and KotdaSangani talukas) and North West agro climatic zone of Gujarat (Maliya-Miyana
taluka). The district has 14 talukas with 856 villages and per centage of various crop sequences adopted in Rajkot district is
depicted in Figure 1.
Total 280 surface soil samples (20 soil samples from each talukas) were collected from different villages of
Rajkot district. The collected soil samples were grouped into three groups viz, groundnut base, cotton base and
cereals/sesame. The soils were analyzed for the pH EC CaCO3 and organic carbon (Jackson, 1973), and available S
(Williams and Steinbergs, 1959). Correlation of coefficient and regression analysis was worked out using standard
procedure. The soils of district were neutral to moderately alkaline in reaction (7.15-8.79) and non saline (EC 0.11 to 2.40
dS/m) in nature. The CaCO3 and organic carbon content of soils varied from 15-240 and 1.15-7.62 mg kg-1, respectively.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Crop Sequences Adopted in Rajkot District
Out of the total surveyed soil samples, 62.5 per cent soil samples were grouped under groundnut base crop
sequence while, 25.4 and 12.1 per cent soil samples were grouped under cotton base and cereals/sesame, respectively
(Figure 1).
Availability of Sulphur
Maximum average status of sulphur (25.14 mg/100g) with ranged from 5.43 to 140.28 mg/100g and standard
deviation of 29.33 was recorded under cotton base cropping sequence followed by groundnut base cropping sequence with
mean of 17.66 mg/100g) ranged from 3.57 to 131.83 mg/100g and standard deviation of 17.72 and that of minimum (16.42
mg/100g) with ranged from 5.89 to 113.46 mg/100g and standard deviation of 18.56 mg/100g under cereals and sesame
base cropping sequence (Table 1).
The 25.4, 34.3 and 35.8 per cent soils falls in low category for sulphur availability under cotton, groundnut and
cereal/sesame base crop sequence, respectively (Figure 2). Lower deficiency of sulphur under cotton base cropping
sequence may due to crop irrigated with irrigation water which contains sulphate sulphur. While, in case of cereals/sesame
base cropping sequence, cereals are exhaustive crops which absorbed more sulphur ultimately value of per cent deficiency
Impact Factor (JCC): 4.7987

NAAS Rating: 3.53

Availability of Sulphur and its Relationship with Basic Soil Properties under
Various Crop Sequences in Soils of Rajkot District (Gujarat)

85

was recorded higher under this crop sequence. Comparatively higher deficiency of available sulphur under groundnut crop
might be due to its sown on light soils which having poor soil fertility under dryland condition.
Relationship with Basic Soil Properties
Availability of sulphur was positive but non significant correlated with pH of the soil under various cropping
sequences (Table 2). The data further indicated that the EC of the soil was significantly and positively correlated with
availability of sulphur under various cropping sequence and maximum value (0.261*) was recorded with cotton base
cropping sequence. Significantly negative relationship between CaCO3 content of the soil with available sulphur was
observed under groundnut and cereals/sesame base cropping sequences. Available sulphur showed a significant positive
correlation with organic carbon under various cropping sequences and maximum value 0.538* was recorded under cotton
base cropping sequence. Marsonia et. al. (1986) studied the fractions of sulphur in seven soils profiles from dry farming
regions of Saurashtra and reported the significant positive relationship between heat soluble sulphur with organic carbon
content of soil.
Regression Analysis
Availability of sulphur was controlled dominantly due to organic carbon content of the soil under groundnut base
cropping sequence. In case of cotton base cropping sequence, the availability of sulphur was controlled dominantly due to
organic carbon content and EC of the soil. While, the pH of the soil was found effective for controlling sulphur availability
under cereals/sesame base cropping sequence (Table 3).

CONCLUSIONS
The higher and lower values of various sulphur fractions were recorded with groundnut-groundnut mono
sequence and cotton/groundnut-rabi crops sequences, respectively. Availability of sulphur was controlled dominantly due
to organic carbon content of the soil under groundnut base cropping sequence and while in case of cotton base cropping
sequence, the availability of sulphur was controlled dominantly due to organic carbon content and EC of the soil.
REFERENCES
1.

Jackson M.L.1973.Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi

2.

Marsonia PJ, Patel MS, Koria PJ (1986). Status and distribution of different forms of sulphur in some profiles of calcareous
soils of Saurashtra. Gujarat Agric. Univ. Res. J. 11(2):45-51.

3.

Meisheri M.B. and Patel V.R. (1996) Sulphur Research in Gujarat. A Compendium on Soil Research in Gujarat, B.A. College
of Agriculture, GAU, Anand pp:53:64

4.

Pasricha, N..S.2000. Balanced nutrition of groundnut and other field crops grown in calcareous soils of India. Proceeding of
National Symposium, PRII, IPI and GAU, Junagadh.

5.

Patel, M.S., Hadvani, G.J. and Yadav, B.S. 1989. Fixation of potassium in important soil groups of Western Gujarat. J.
Potassium Res. 5:134.

6.

Patel, M.S., Gundalia, J.D. Golakiya, B.A. and Hadvani, G.J. 1993. Dynamics of potassium in medium black soils of semi-arid
Saurashtra region. Bulletin Potassium in Gujarat Agriculture, Sardar Krushinagar pp.32.

7.

Sharma, J.P. and Bhaskar, B.P.2003. Variability and similarity of soils in Rajkot district, Gujarat.

8.

Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science, 51, 279-287.

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editor@tjprcorg

86

GS Sutaria, VD Vora, KD Rakholiya, JT Patel & KN Akbari


9.

Sharma, J. P. and Roychoudhary, C. 1988. Soil-land forms relationship in a basaltic terrain. Journal of Indian Society of Soil
Science, 36, 755-760.

10. Williams, C.H. and Stein bergs, A. (1959). Soil sulphur fractions as cherrLical indices of available sulphur in some Australian
soils. Australian Journal of Agriculture Research 10, 340-352.

APPENDICES

Figure 1: Per Centage of Various Crop Sequences Adopted in Rajkot District


Table 1: Availability of Sulphur (mg /100g) under Different Cropping Sequence
Crop Sequence
G.nut base(175)
Cotton base(71)
Cereals/Sesame base(34)

Range
3.57-131.83
5.43-140.28
5.89-113.46

Mean
17.66
25.14
16.42

Standard Deviation
17.72
29.33
18.56

Figure 2: Per Cent Deficiency of Heat Soluble Sulphur under Various Crop Sequence
Table 2: Relationship between Available Sulphur and Basic Soil Properties
Crop Sequence
PH
EC
CaCO3
G.nut base(175)
0.045 0.187* -0.175*
Cotton base(71)
0.122 0.261*
-0.116
Cereals/Sesame base(34)
0.108 0.237* -0.182*
*Significant at 5 % level ** Significant at 1 % level

OC
0.525**
0.538**
0.214*

Table 3: Regression Equation


Crop Sequence
G.nut base (175)
Cotton base(71)
Cereal/sesame(34)

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.7987

Equation
= 2.19+63.44(OC)
= 1.81+23.67(OC)+9.55(EC)
= -119.30+17.03(pH)

R2
0.232
0.223
0.330

NAAS Rating: 3.53