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School Organization and Management

DR. ARBAB KHAN AFRIDI


Ex-Director IER
University of Peshawar

In Collaboration With
MASTER COACHING ACADEMY (MCA)
(IER) UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR

(All Rights are Reserved with the Publisher)

Authors:

Dr. Arbab Khan Afridi

2nd Edition:

April, 2016

Year of Printing:

2016

No. of Copies:

1000

Publisher:

Master Coaching Academy (MCA)

Composed By:

M. Nawaz Khan Abbasi


0345-9100738

Printer:

Ijaz Printers
0332-9066350

Price:

Rs. 150/-

CONTENTS
CONTENTS.............................................................................I
UNIT-1.....................................................................................1
PRINCIPLES OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION.................1
1.1
1.2
1.3

MEANING AND SCOPE OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION:. . .1


IMPORTANCE AND ADVANTAGES OF SCHOOL
ORGANIZATION............................................................7
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF SCHOOL
ORGANIZATION:.........................................................17

UNIT-2...................................................................................22
MODERN CONCEPT OF ADMINISTRATION AND
SUPERVISION.....................................................................22
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9

MEANING, DEFINITION AND NEEDS OF SCHOOL


ADMINISTRATION:......................................................22
TYPES OF ADMINISTRATION......................................26
DEMOCRATIC CONCEPTS OF SCHOOL
ADMINISTRATION.......................................................30
DEMOCRATIC CONCEPT OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION 31
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION.....32
MEANING, DEFINITION AND KINDS OF SUPERVISION 44
COMPONENTS AND PURPOSE OF SUPERVISION..........49
SUPERVISORY ROLE OF HEADMASTER......................50
A DESIGN FOR EFFECTIVE SUPERVISION OF
INSTRUCTION.............................................................51

UNIT-3...................................................................................56
HUMAN RELATIONS AND HUMAN RESOURCES.....56
3.1
3.2
3.3

CONCEPT OF HUMAN RESOURCES.............................56


IMPORTANCE AND ROLE OF HUMAN RELATIONS......58
QUALITIES OF GOOD TEACHER.................................60

3.4 COORDINATION AND UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN.....63


3.4.1 Principal Teacher............................................66
3.4.2 Teacher's Students...........................................70
3.4.3 Teacher - Teacher...............................................73
3.4.4 Teacher - Community.........................................74
UNIT-4...................................................................................78
SCHOOL DISCIPLINE.......................................................78
4.1
4.3
4.4
4.5

MEANING, DEFINITIONS AND PURPOSE OF SCHOOL


DISCIPLINE.................................................................78
OLD AND MODERN CONCEPT OF SCHOOL
DISCIPLINE:................................................................79
MODERN CONCEPT OF DISCIPLINE............................80
REWARD / PUNISHMENT, TYPES AND ITS EFFECTS OF
DISCIPLINE.................................................................91

UNIT-5...................................................................................96
CLASS ROOM AND ITS MANAGEMENT.....................96
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

THE CLASS AND ITS HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT.....96


ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF
CLASSIFICATION.......................................................101
NEEDS AND BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION...................104
MODERN CONCEPTS OF STUDENT CLASSIFICATION. .108
PHYSICAL ASPECT OF CLASSROOM AND ITS EFFECT ON
DISCIPLINE................................................................112

UNIT-6.................................................................................114
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE SCHOOL
SYSTEM..............................................................................114
6.1

ORGANIZATION OF SCHOOL SYSTEM AT DIFFERENT


LEVELS.....................................................................114
6.1.1 FEDERAL LEVEL....................................................117
6.1.2 PROVINCIAL LEVEL (KPK)..................................119

6.1.3
6.2
6.3
6.4

DISTRICT OFFICERS AFTER DEVOLUTION OF POWERS


AND ESTABLISHMENT OF DISTRICT GOVERNMENTS

.............................................................................120
ADMINISTRATIVE EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES............127
TERMS & CONDITIONS FOR TEACHER
EMPLOYMENT.....................................................131
SCHEDULE OF EXAMINATION.........................137

UNIT 7.................................................................................138
ORGANIZATION OF CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
..............................................................................................138
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

DEFINITION OF CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES..........138


SCOPE AND VALUE OF CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 138
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZING CO-CURRICULAR
ACTIVITIES...............................................................143
TYPE OF CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES....................146

UNIT-8.................................................................................150
ORGANIZATION OF PHYSICAL FACILITIES...........150
8.2

TYPES OF PHYSICAL FACILITIES THEIR FUNCTIONS


AND ORGANIZATION................................................150
8.2.1 School Building................................................150
8.2.2 Hostel...............................................................154
8.2.3 Cafeteria:.........................................................155
8.3 LEARNING RESOURCES, THEIR FUNCTIONS AND
MANAGEMENT.........................................................157
8.3.1 Library..............................................................157
8.3.2 Audio-Visual Aids.............................................159
UNIT-9.................................................................................166
SCHOOL RECORDS.........................................................166
9.1
9.2
9.3

NEED FOR SCHOOL RECORDS..................................166


GUIDELINES FOR PROPER MAINTENANCE OF SCHOOL
RECORDS:................................................................169
STUDY OF IMPORTANT SCHOOL RECORDS:.............170

UNIT-10...............................................................................175
TIME TABLE.....................................................................175
10.1 INTRODUCTION AND VALUES OF SCHOOL
TIMETABLE:..............................................................175
10.2 FACTORS AFFECTING THE CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL
TIMETABLE...............................................................177
10.3 QUALITIES OF A GOOD TIMETABLE.........................184
10.4 PREPARATION OF TIMETABLE IN A GIVEN SITUATION
184

UNIT-1
PRINCIPLES OF SCHOOL
ORGANIZATION
1.1

MEANING AND SCOPE OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION:

Organization is vital aspect of human life. The co-ordination of human life


and its activities is due to the organization. Due to lack of organization in
every field of life, there will be dispersion and uncertainty. Our various
problems are solved nations lead to success. Organization is a vast
phenomenon and it is applied on every aspect of life. According to an
educational point of view, we may describe organization as: in past home
and family was considered as a best sourer of education. But with the
development of human needs and requirements it was realized that home
and family alone couldn't fulfill the needs and requirements of education.
Thus this responsibility was transferred to a formal and social institute,
which we recently called the school. The school needs to organize various
duties for satisfaction of various activities organically. Thus the school
needs to organize various duties for satisfaction of various activities. But
here the question arises that:
What is Organization?
Organization is a formal relation, co-ordination between various activities.
When two or more than two individuals struggle for common goals and
objective, it forms an organization. This type of struggle may be temporary
or permanent. Organization usually contains distribution of worm
communication and discipline. The success of organization depends on
achievement of objectives goals and the standard of work.
Modern Concept of School Organization
School is a vital source of formal education. It is an institute, which fulfils
the needs and requirements of the society. In school the students.

In fact, school is a miniature society. It reflects all the problems of society.


Thus school is a center of cultural life of society. Actually organization is
an art with the help of which we co-ordinate various activities.
According to h. G. Stead:
"Organization is an institute through which we reach the goal."
Organization is not a goal itself but it is a source to reach the goal.
According to sears:
"Organization is like a machine, which halos in doing work. It contains
individuals, sources and resources, ideas and beliefs, rules and regulation
as their parts. Thus they are collectively called parts of organization. This
machine is either perceptual or dependent upon the human desires."
For effective administration organization is necessary. It acts as a preface
for any activity and plays a motive role. It helps the teacher in using their
capabilities and consistence in various parts of a school. It is a vital fact
that the basic aim of organization is to organize and distributed as staffs,
distribution of sources and resources, building, furniture, equipments and
timetable act in the organization of school.
In short the basic function of organization is to do useful work lie a
machine.
Factors of Organization:
Organization is a complex process. There are certain factors, which make
the organization easy. They are:
1.

Planning

2.

Staff and its efficiency

3.

Directing

4.

Co-ordination

5.

Communication

6.

Discipline

7.

Budgeting

8.

Reporting

9.

Appraisal

1.

Planning:

It is the first component of organization. Planning in organization mean, to


get ready, to decide or to solve some problems.
It is naturally a mental activity it is related to the functioning of inferences,
beliefs and principles, and to the efficiency in planning. There is no rough
and fatal decisions for a good organization, god planning is necessary e.g.
replanting of text, books of teacher science, contain projects like,
modification in curriculum, preparation of books, printing of books and it
availability. But to satisfy these project, co-ordination is must among
various activities which require organization e.g. modification in
curriculum will be done by curriculum wing, books will be written by
various authors and steps will be taken for flourishing the books
publishing. All these steps should be taken in organizational network. Thus
it is clear that in the light of good planning, various organizational factors
are performed.
2.

Staff and its Efficiency:

It is the 2nd important factor of organization. Efficient individuals can


improve the organizational work. Thus it is necessary that there must be
selection of suitable candidates, which should be trained because trained
individuals bitterly improved the efficiency of an organization.
3.

Directing:

Every planning is futile in the absence of proper directions. It is necessary


that the director know the use of this authority. Directing should be done
by effective manner because ties the will audio their duties.
If a head master gives direction in time, the efficiency of teacher will
increase congestion of directions badly affect the efficiency. The direction
must be clear and in time.

4.

Co-ordination:

If there is co-ordination among verso units of organization, it will reach the


goal easily. There are a lot of problems in school e.g. in the preparation of
time table adaptability should be produced among school sources, for
adaptability. Production, motivation is must. A good administrator knows
every individual through co-ordination.
5.

Communication:

It is a very important factor of an organization. Due to lack of


communication we cannot reach the goal. It is the duty of administrator to
communicate various units. Thus we can say that "Communication is a
dynamic process by which some one who has a purpose to accomplish,
tries to get some one else to do some thing for the achievement of that
purpose."
Communication is an aim full process when an administrator reflected his
ideas, beliefs, wish act. To his fellows, he takes help from various sources
i.e. expression, hand writing, face index etc. the use of these sources are
very important for the progress of on organization. It is very important for
a head-master to communicate with teacher.
6.

Discipline:

It means to analyze all the factors which are active in organization. In


organization every unit has its own importance. Its purpose is to pressurize
the individual for the achievement of better performance. It is a process,
which combine various units for the achievement of objectives.
7.

Budgeting:

It mean to analyze all the factors, which are active in organization, is must
e.g. to overcome or to minimize the expenses to maintain equilibrium
between income and expenditure. Budgeting is as important as
organization is in school.
8.

Reporting:

It means to inform the administrator forms the nature of work. It is the duty
of administrator to inform his fellow with the help of recurs, research and
inspection, the efficiency of organization and it is the responsibility of head

master to present the commutative progress f the school before the teacher.
Thus a successful administrator is that who face all the above process in a
suitable manner.
9.

Appraisal

It means to check the effectiveness of an activity or programme to know


about the validity of a programme. It is the accountability of the activity /
Programme formed inside the school during an academic year. It is the last
step in the internal organization of school.
Principle of School Organization
1.

Protection of social values:

The school organization must be a prevent of general and specific aims of


a society. It is because school is a component of the society. Its duty is to
help the society and fastened the social process. Thus it is the first principle
of school organization out protects social values.
2.

Achievement of specific aims:

The school must monitor his specific aims for example; in Pakistan the aim
of education is to make teaching effective. Thus the school must organize
these activities on the vases of which they can reach their goals and these
activities must suggested according to the organization of the school. Thus
achievement of specific aims is the second principle, is to develop love
with the ideology of Pakistan.
3.

Principle of keeping in Mind.

The interest and individual differences of children students form various


categories take admission in school. They very from one another in ability,
intelligence and interests. Thus the school Administrator must keep in mind
these factors. For this purpose the school perform s various activities due
to which every one goat opportunity to develop their innate potentialities.
Thus it is the quality of school organization.
4.

Co-operation with society:

According to this principle, there must be co-operation with society. A


school can never go through progress until the individuals of the society
develop positive attitude toward the school. The co-operation of society

with school is must because due to the help of society, the students
capabilities can be improved thus the organization must be democratic.
5.

The Organization must be Flexible:

The school organization must be flexible and balanced because changes


appears in human needs and activities with the passage of time, these
changes also effect the school activities. A school, which doesn't paralyze
the social changes, can never achieve the goal. Thus it is necessary that
organization should be based on the principle of stability.
6.

Comprehensiveness:

An organization can be only succeeded, when the planner keep each and
every aspect of an activity. This skill gives a clear picture to organization.
7.

Purposive Ness:

The aim and objectives of an organization must be clear to every one that
he can achieve his goal as soon as possible.
8.

Utility:

The principle shows that utilize each facility, which you have for achieving
you objectives. If you have the skill utilizing you achieving you objectives,
if you have the skill utilizing your resources you must succeed.
Adaptability:
Adaptability can facilitate our activities. The power of adaptability is the
key of a successful organization.
Professional Growth:
Teachers and other workers should provide in-service training facilities for
better performance.
Accountability:
The analysis of the activities of the staff gives a positive result to
organization. This principle will encourage hard worker and a sign of
alertness for the rest.

Simplicity:
Medium, instructing should be given in an easy and simple medium/way
instead of complex or complicated manners.
Reform/Amendments:
There should be a door for reforms and amendments for the betterment of
school and society.
Meanings
Organization means way of arranging. How to arrange the various
materials present inside the school. How these can be used in a better way
for promoting the Educational system inside the educational institute.
It means a pre-planned programme for an institute to run it in a pleasant,
peaceful and educational atmosphere according to the prescribed
curriculum.
To perform all the activities of an educational institute n an organized way
that an individual may be able o achieve the goals of education.
To organize and arrange all the activities of the school in such a way. That
the growth of the individual may take place according to his /her natural
tendency and abilities.
To arrange all the activities of the school with a mutual co-operation and
understanding. This will lead to better training of the individual.
1.2

IMPORTANCE AND ADVANTAGES OF SCHOOL


ORGANIZATION

Advantages of School
The following are the advantage of well organizes school.
A: Awareness of Rights and Duties:
In an organized school each one is aware of his/her duty and right, this has
a positive impact on learning situation.
B: Provision of Trained Environment:

A well-organized educational institute provides training environment to


each individual.
C: Better Efficiency:
If the organization of the school is good, the efficiency of the school will
be up to the standard.
D: Co-operative Attitude:
In internally organized school, there is co-operation between the members
of the school as well as between the students.
E: Close Relationship between Teacher and Students:
In organized school the teacher has close contact with the students and
hence he/she (the teacher) will be able to know more information about the
personality of the individual as well as about the innate potentialities of the
individual.
F: Matching with the Environment:
The child in an internally organized school is able to match him/herself
with the environment. In this way the child tries to adjust him/ herself to
the environment provided inside the school.
G: Guidance:
Those students having leadership qualities should be guided in a proper
way after identifying them
H: Adequate use of Resource:
In a well-organized school there is check and balance system. Therefore all
the resources available inside the school for the betterment of the
educational environment are used adequately.
What are the Needs of School Organisation?
Need for school organization. For efficient and smooth running of the
school, organization is necessary. It is the only means whereby orderly
progressive work van carried out. Organization is not primarily a matter of
arrangements, construction of time-table, scheme of duty, types of

building, maintenance of school records and registers and curricula. It is


primarily a matter of our attitude to our work and to those with whom we
work. The aims of out first considerations. The major fact in the school is
the child and our organization must do nothing to hinder the development.
That is why it is so important that the idea of the school as a co-operative
society should be kept in mind. Each individual must share and each make
his contribution in society. The contributions so some will be naturally
greater then those of others. Slowly and gradually, the child will realize
that he is one of the member of the society. Our school organization should
therefore be so framed that every activity is directed towards this double
object of developing the sprit of cooperating and ability to work with
others and creation of a world in which the individual child shall have
freedom to develop according to his interests and bent. This development
naturally includes all parts of his personality and not simply the mental
side. It will include his physical, society development. For this reason
those who are concerned with school organization must be concerned with
all arrangements which are made to ensure the child's development in all
these spheres.
Organization is necessary. On it depends the clarity of functions and
objectives of the school. The essentials of a good organization are to (1)
create a background against which normal work can proceed (2) enable the
teacher to utilize the educational facilities to the best development of the
child and (3) provide a starting point against which new experiment can be
made.
Objectives of School Organization:
1.

Organization of school life:

A school should first and foremost be a co-operative society. Cooperation


between headmaster and staff, among member of the staff, between
headmaster and pupils, between teacher and pupils and between school and
parents, should be emphasized. Our organization is a mean to secure the
smooth and efficient running of this cooperative society. L.P. Jaks says that
the most precious art in the world is that by which crowds can be turned
into communities and the school is undoubtedly the first and the foremost

agency which can perform this duty most efficiently the school with a
community life of its own, is an excellent training ground for children.
When the child cannot live in this small organization on a co-operative
basis, how can we expect that he will be able to pull on well in a very
complex world where co-operation is a necessity?
2.

Relationship of the school and the community:

The school bears the most intimate relationship with community. The
modern idea is to consider the school as a community center. Education is
not to be regarded as an isolated activity, but it is related to life at all
points. According to K.G. Saiydain the school is an "idealized epitome" of
school life reflecting within it the elements of all the worthful major
activities that make up the work of society. It is wrong to thing that
education in a school is the exclusive responsibility and privilege of
teacher. It is the business of the whole society. Teachers should find ways
and means in attracting the society to the school.
1. The school can become a social centre for the adults in the evening.
They can therefore feel that he school belongs to them as much as to
the younger people.
2. The co-operation of the adult members can be secured by associating
them with the governing body of the school.
3. The co-operation of the parents should be secured in school activities.
They may be encouraged to visit the school during school hours and
may not only observe but also participate in its activities whenever
there is an opportunity.
4.

Invitation to the school social functions should be sent to parents.


Besides this the parent teacher associations should be encouraged. In
short the school authorities should try to have a constant flow of ideas
from the society to the school and from school to society.

3. Co-Curricular Activities:
One of the important activities of the school organization is training its
pupils in the gracious art of living. That the art of living is a much more
comprehensive concept than the organization of knowledge. It includes

training in the habit and graces of social life and the capacity for cooperative work, it calls for patience, and temper sincerity, fellow-feeling
and discipline. These can only be cultivated in the context of social life and
the many curricular and co-curricular activities that must find a recognized
place in every good school.
4. The School Curriculum:
Our most important object of school organization is achieved through
roper curriculum, the primary objective of which is the transmission of
tradition and preparation of social ideals. It is a sad commentary on the
education of Pakistan that the ideology. Culture, myth and religion, and
arts have found no prominent place in our schools. School should not be
mere mirrors of society but should be critics of society as well. In the
interests of proper education, therefore, it is imperative that the curriculum
be modified in terms of Indian culture. In all curriculum development
programme should indude much emphasis on the class-room environment,
the nature of Eichide much emphasis on the class-room environment, the
nature of pupil-teacher relationship, and teaching procedures.
While describing the educational needs of democratic Islamic Republic of
Pakistan, the secondary Education Commission report sys, "Pakistan has
recently achieved its political freedom and has, after careful consideration,
decided to transform itself into a democratic republic, this means that the
educational system must make its contribution to the development of
habits, attitudes and qualities of character which will enable its citizens to
bear the responsibilities of democratic citizenship and to counteract all
those fissiparous tendencies which hinder the emergences of a broad,
national and an Islamic outlook. We must educate our masters it we mean
to make our democracy successful. But at the same time, we shall have to
democracies the whole educational system if we wish to make education
effective in democratizing the ideals of the millions. Democracy does not
lie in its political institutions alone. It is a way of life and it can be learnt
by living democratically. Here lies the need to democratizing education.
For this purpose we shall have to overhaul the educational administration.

The following, principles should be kept in view in connection with the


problem of democracy.
1.

Change in the outlook of the administration:

During bureaucratic set up there was -a great distance between the teacher
and the administrators. Teacher, the real field workers, looked to their
high ups for every kind of detail. They waited for orders in connection with
the curricula, the time tables the prescription of book. The rules of
classification and all the other details of internal administration. The
teacher worked slavishly for the administrators and not for the children. the
inspectors came to visit the schools as terrible officers to find faults of the
teacher and to take them to task. All these thing do not fit in the democratic
way of life. The administrators and should work as guides and helpers. The
man in the field has always some difficulties to face. He should be anxious
to welcome the administrators and to seek help and guidance from them.
2.

Change in the outlook of the teachers:

If the administrators were dreadful officers for the teacher, the teacher were
just like jailers for the tender children. small children did not love them as
much as they were afraid of them. Similarity, the calls-room was a sin and
to put questions was considered to be an act of sheer insolence.
Maladjusted children, especially aggressive ones, were treated as criminal
and outlaws. Perfect obedience was the rule of the school. In the world of
slavish obedience and stern discipline there was no democratic living in
any quarter of the educational life of the children. The teachers must
change their outlook to be useful in the present social set up.
3.

Change in the outlook of the headmaster:

The headmaster was considered to be a small monarch in his limited state.


In most of the cases he received orders from above to convey the same
downwards and in some eases he had his own orders, which must be
obeyed by his subordinates. It was considered to be a weakness to consult
and discuss educational problems with the subordinate members of the
staff. The teachers obeyed and dreaded the headmaster just as he obeyed
and dreaded the administrators. The headmaster was not one of the
teachers, to help them and to guide them, but he was there to get work

from them sternly and mechanically. The headmaster in a democratic


country is something else. He is the leader of a group of workers. He seeks
co-operation of the members of the group instead of issuing commands to
them. He appreciates the suggestions of his companions.
4.

Establishment of Democratic Institutions in the Schools:

We have got freedom in 1947, therefore our masses need training in


democratic living. Various democratic institution in a school can serve this
purpose well. Various elected bodies for the management of various phases
of school life and the system of self-government will help the children in
understanding what vote means and they will learn how to elect their
leaders. If these bodies work efficiently under the guidance of such
teachers who are earnestly interested in democracy, the children will learn
to give full weight to the opinions of their opponents even although they
may still be differing with them.
5.

Democratic way of life:

As already explained, democracy is a way of life. Various democratic


bodies in the school may help the children in many ways but they may not
be able to give them democratic ideals and true democratic life. We find
many political leaders around us fully conversant with democratic
principles and far away from democratic spirit. It is the democratic attitude
which counts and not only training in running democratic bodies.
Therefore, children should be taught to show full regard to the opinions of
others although they differ with the same basically. Democratic living is
co-operative living, co-operating extended to every sphere of life. A man
with democratic ideals cannot be happy if his neighbours are unhappy.
6.

Creative Discipline:

Stern discipline of the old pattern suffocates democracy. Democratic way


of life is not possible if the discipline of a school is not creative. The old
disciplinarian appreciated the silence of grave-yard in his whole school,
but today creative activity has taken place of the passive learning and there
can be no activity in a grave yard. Therefore some noise, although
controlled, is considered to be natural and healthy in a school. Pupils in a

progressive school manage their affairs themselves. Therefore,


administration is no more a heavy burden for the teachers and high-ups.
There is the least friction in the routine affairs of the school.
Close relation between school organization and objectives of education in
a community. Organization of education in every country reflects the ideals
of the State and objectives of education in a community. Educational
practices must confirm to educational ideals. This conformity is achieved
through organization. This is perhaps more marked in those countries in
which there has been, in recent years, some radical change in the
conception of State and its function. In Russia, Germany and Italy, national
system of education has been completely reorganized and has been made
an effective weapon for the propagation of the state ideal. Organization has
been made rigid and uniform. In England and France the purpose of the
organization of education is to maintain the principles upon which the state
is based. The basic truth is that there are two essential rights in all citizens
of a democratic state:
i.

That to adequate nutriment and

ii.

That to adequate education. It is useless to take about freedom of


speech if the people are not nourished and educated properly.

Universal suffrage is a mockery without food and education.


All this illustrates close connection between school organization and the
ideals of the community of which the school is a part. Before the
organization of the whole system of education is planned, the objectives of
the community must be clearly visualized.
Another point which needs special attention is that as social ideals change,
so do change those of education. The first aim of elementary education in
this country was to produce a literate people. This aim determined the
curriculum. Since the aim was to make people literate only, so the
curriculum was confined to 3 R's. It fixed the technique that of large
classes taught in the mass. It determined the whole of organization of the
school. They type of the building, the size of class-rooms and every detail
of class management was determined by this aim of making people literate

only, but now the new purpose of education is to make people cultured,
educated, fit and efficient citizens of a modern Islamic democratic State.
Only those who have witnessed the working of education under both the
ideas can realize the change in organization brought about by this change
in the objective. The whole planning of the school has changed; the rooms
required have changed both in number and type; the technique of teaching
has to be revised. The parts played by the teacher and the taught have been
changed. The curriculum has changed, the type of building has changed,
the methods of teaching have changed and with those changes has come an
entirely new type of organization both of the educational system and of the
individual school.
It is inevitable that ideals must always be a head of organization and
therefore organization should always be flexible enough to allow the
experiment and progress.
Should Organization by Rigid or Flexible?
We have seen that organization is necessary. But the history of mankind is
full of examples of wars and struggles and controversies waged round the
maintenance or destruction of some effective organization. "There are
those who detest organization and there are those who worship it".
Organization is necessary but it has to be carefully watched and reviewed.
Sometimes the danger is that organization is regarded as more important
than the idea or ideas which it is set up to serve, thought is free and
unconfined, it is living, it grows and is dynamic. Organization limits and
confines; it may be deadly and static. Sometimes the danger goes further
than this. After some time the organization may become so important that
the original reason for which organization was instituted is forgotten. The
reason for which organization is necessary is sound and smooth running of
the school, this reason is forgotten, no heed is paid to good education or
smooth running of the school or efficient standard of learning but the
whole time is devoted to make organization perfect and elaborate.
Organization, therefore, like fire, is a good servant but a bad master.

The bureaucratic mind loves organization above all things. Such


organization may result in a deadly uniformity and in efficiency which may
be mechanically perfect but which is not education. H. G. Stead has told a
story about a Director of Education who was in the habit of pushing a bell
in his office and demanding from the subordinate who answered his
summons information such as how many children in the city under his
control were doing multiplication of money sums at that moment. And so
answer had to be forth coming. There is no doubt that the organization of
both the Education office and the school was perfect. But it is doubtful if
this organization was for the purpose of Education. The same author gives
another story to illustrate the danger inherent in all organization. At the
invitation of some of his discipline an administrator once visited Europe.
He mat his followers at a conference held at the Hague and at the last of
the meetings to be held it was proposed that an organization be set up to
propagate the ideas of the master. Where upon the Pakistani took the first
boat back to his country. Why'? Because he knew that if organization is set
up, the whole of the energy and attention of his followers will be spent on
organization rather in the propagation of his ideas.
But while saying so, we do not mean that organization is undesirable, nor
do we maintain that it is possible to proceed without sound organization. It
must always be remembered that organization is a means and not an end in
itself. It is the instrument by which the desired aim may be achieved. It
should not be allowed to become the end in itself but must be subordinated
to the purpose for which it has been set up. This indicates the need for a
critical attitude towards all organization. As ideas change, as the purpose
changes so must the organization change if the new ideal is to be achieved.
And since ideas and ideals is dynamic and not static, it is necessary that
organization be fluid and not rigid.
Both the headmaster and the staff should be constantly on the look out for
ways and means of simplification of organization. It is not always a mark
of well-organized school for it to have a great deal of organization
machinery. The machinery may or may not be harmoniously towards the
aim and purpose for which the school stands.

1.3

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF SCHOOL


ORGANIZATION:

Modern Education Effected the School Organization:


The new education is a revolt against the mechanical bookishness of the
past. Education has been psychologist. The child is placed on the pedestal
of glory; the teacher's position has altogether changed, the methods of
instruction have altogether changed. The following characteristics of
modern education have affected the school organization.
1.

Contents and methods of Education:

The former 3 R's Reading. Writing and Arithmetic are not enough. The
fourth R- recreation is being given enough importance. Extra curricular
activities have become co-curricular activities. The whole educator
addresses the whole of the child about the whole of the subject.
The content of education is related life. Life is not divorced from
education. The child is to become "fit to live" and "fit to live with"
2.

Discipline

The old sense of discipline of the army type order has gone out of fashion.
Punishment has also gone out of date. Modern educator lays emphasis on
self-discipline, creative discipline, inner discipline. He attaches greater
value to the freedom of the child. He tries to work with pupils rather than
for them.
3.

The Teacher:

Old education was entirely teacher centered. He was a dictator. expected to


fill the pupils with knowledge just as one might fill bottles from a running
tap. But the new education has become child-centered. Education is not to
pour in ready-made knowledge but it is drawing out of the best in a child.
The teacher is a guide, a friend, a philosopher. His functions have become
numerous more comprehensive and more important than ever. He must be
a psychologist, a psychoanalyst, a doctor-all in one.
4.

The Child:

The essential principle of new education is "teach the child rather than the
subject". He was now become the monarch in the education world" "The

school exists for the pupil; the pupil does not exist for the school". All
aspects of his personality physical, mental intellectual, spiritual are to be
developed.
5.

Activity centered:

Education has become activity centered. The pupil activity has become the
goal, the subject matter is learned as a means to that end. Experience is
more important than mere instruction. A child must be active during the
period of his education. If there is no activity, there is no development. The
two slogans of new education are "Learning by doing and learning by
living". Adams says, "The new teaching recognizes the right of the pupil to
do things in his own way, within reasonable limits".
6.

Integration and Correlation:

The modern tendency is to bring into learning situation subject matter from
various fields. The curriculum should be craft centered i.e., teaching every
subject annually and through a craft.
7.

Socialization:

Pupils are encouraged to work in groups and to accept group responsibility


for the welfare of the school and its programme. The school programme is
to be similar to life situations. Teachers and the taught are work together on
common problems. The child is to become a socially efficient citizen.
8.

Examination:

The system of examinations has changed tremendously. Now the stress is


on objective tests and cumulative records and not on essay type
examinations. Mental tests, intelligence tests, practical tests supplement the
examination system.
9.

Individual Development:

The modern education emphasizes the development of the individuality of


the child. His individuality must be allowed free play. Sir Perey Nuon says,
"Individual is the basis of everything". Dalton plan and Montessori method
emphasize the individual study. Some modern educationists go to the
extreme while they say that the new education has rung the death-knell of

class teaching. But it should be remembered that the class as a unit of


teaching may or may not stay but class as a unit of organization must stay.
10.

School Records and Report Cards:

The records of the school are becoming more inclusive. The cumulative
folder should contain the health record, mental, achievement test, ratings,
descriptions of particularly noteworthy achievement and participation in
co-curricular activities.
5.

ORGANISTION AND STRUCTURE:

The word organization may also be used to refer to the relationship of


people as they work to achieve a common goal; and it is explained in terms
of organization, administration, organization are channels for
communication.
Meaning of formal organization:
A formal organization is an organization which is official, presentment
adequately perceived by people out of the organization and has been
assigned status hierarchy. The examples of such formal organization are;
business corporation, welfare organization and school system.
The people in a school district are definitely members of formal
organization. The school system or educational organization came into
being by official governmental etc, the organization will go beyond the
lives of the present members. The task of the school is clear to those out
side organization. In almost all the school there is a recognized hierarchy,
in which position of the work, of administrations, of teachers custodians
and of workers is clearly differentiated.
Administrative Organization:
Appropriate administrative organization can facilitate the achievement of
the goals of a school system. Several organizations' concepts are worked
out by administrative and educational authorities such as: 1.
2.
3.

Centralise versus democratic


Live and staff organization
Horizontal and vertical organization

After examining these concepts the guidelines for administrative staffing


were formulated as follow:
1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

The purpose of organization is to clarify and to distribute


responsibility and authority among individuals and groups in an
orderly manner consistent with the purpose of the
enterprise/institution.
The administrative function should be organized in order to
provide the ordinary facilities for democratic operation.
The role of the administrative staff should be one of leadership,
which should stimulate co-ordination service appraised instead of
merely issuing commands.
The administrative staff should be organized to provide individual
persons in a staff and individual suits in a initiative as is
consistent with efficient operation and prudential controls.
The organization should be under unit control and all major
education administrative officers should be trained by
professional educational institution.

The administrative organization by its very structure should work the


continues co-operation, evaluation and redirection of the organization to
bring in adequacy and efficiency.
Finance:
In our country the government schools are totally supported by the
government while private schools and other educational institutions are
financed by the owners privately. In the government schools the
administrator is mostly concerned with the management out of
expenditures and not with securing revenue where in the private
institutions do have consensus with raising funds and securing revenues.
However, the management of expenditure made by the school
administration includes purchasing, supply, management of accounting and
reporting and keeping of property inventory. The adequate performances of
each of these tasks require considerable knowledge and skill. One
important part of the accounting procedures of a school is the budget
record. The budget must be formulated in considerable detail, so as to meet
the educational programme for which the money were to be spent and the

amount of money provided by the government. Also a full record of funds


received by the school through different sources such as Medical funds,
sports funds, scout funds, poor funds, examination funds and student's
welfare funds are to be maintained.

UNIT-2
MODERN CONCEPT OF
ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION
2.1

MEANING, DEFINITION AND NEEDS OF SCHOOL


ADMINISTRATION:

Meaning and Definition:


The word administration is derived from the Latin word ministiare which
means to serve. In its common use administrations to manage the affair of
or to look after people.
Administration refers to the performance or management of affairs. In
common parlance the word 'administration' appears to bear at least four
different meanings.
1.
2.
3.
4.

A synonym of the word 'cabinet' or some other body of persons in


supreme charge of affairs.
The name of a branch of learning or intellectual discipline.
The sum total of the activities undertaken to implement public
policy or policies, or to produce some service or goods.
The art of management.

These four meanings differ from one another so widely that difficult to
combine them into a single definition of administration. Administration is a
study or branch of learning and also an activity which constitutes the
subject matter or content of that study. We, however, enquire as to what
activity or activities are comprised administration. It is sum total or the
whole complex of activities; manual, clerical, technical and managerial
which is undertaken to realize the objective in view that is the
implementation of the policy or policies in a given field.
Administration would also differ in one field to another one according to
the subject matter. Administration itself would mean only the management
techniques and methods such as planning organization, direction, financial

control etc. which are the common core of all co-operative endeavour and
do not differ according to subject matter fields.
Administration is not doing things but getting them done. An
administration is a functionary who gets things done by others, by directing
and supervising their work.
Professor Richard A. Johnson Ferment E. Kast and Jamces E.
Rosenzweig, define a system as;
"An organized or complex whole; an assemblage or combination or things
or parts forming a complex or unitary whole".
R.L. Ackoff, define system as;
Any entity, conceptual or physical, which consists of interdependent'.

A set of elements.
Relationship among the elements and a whole integrated from of
the elements and their relationships.

Administrative system become quite complex because they have both


physical and human elements. In a production plant one of the most
important factor is efficient operation, parts i.e. machines, materials and
processing equipment.
Each part that contributes to the manufacture of the each item must be
combined with other parts in a closely coordinated and integrated way if
the plan or system is to be effective.
An efficient administrative system should have the means of finding out
quickly, 'where the shoe pinches' the particular section of the people it
serves.
Not that they should be asked to throw away the shoe and go barefoot. The
administrator should undertake common sense minor adjustment.

"The concept of administration is as old as man. Man is a social


human being, and he needs to live together with other men in the
society. For this purpose he prepares a structure, and divides the
social work to fulfill the objectives of society. So a programme

even for an institution or for a family or for a state is called


administration." (Dick Carlson).
According. to Dauen port: "People get together for a special

purpose. They do team struggles and their struggles help they to


fulfill their objectives. Man makes progress gradually and get
guidance. This is called administration.
"The term school administration has emerged basically from
public administration. It has dealt with mobilizing the efforts of a
number of people towards the achievement of common goals."

"School administration has a key place in educational field. It means to run


the school according to some special rules regulations or structure for the
achievement of pre-determined natural objectives. Different kinds of
movements and activities give it practical form." (Prof. Alvi)
The political chief may formulate ground plans, but if the execution of
these plans are not carried out in the right spirit and earnestly, all the labour
of the political chiefs will turn to a naught and that is one of the reasons of
dissatisfaction in Pakistan. The corruption of civil service turns the virtues
of political chiefs into rumoured evils. It is the administration ultimately
upon whom depends to a great extent the welfare of the people.
An administration area is a portion of the earth's surface that has been
officially delimited for the administration of one or more government
functions. Administrative areas comes into being in two ways:

First, the total area of each government whether national state or

local is automatically an administrative area.


Second, any such government may subdivide its area into smaller
area for administrative purposes.

Five different kinds of activity were noted as characteristics of the


administrative system.

Planning
Organization.
Directing
Controlling and
Co-ordination.

Need or Necessity of Administration in School:


Professor word-g-Reeder describes the need of administration in the
following words. "The school must be properly organized and
administrated, if the public or people are not to be cheated. Its purpose is to
see that one hundred cent's worth of education is secured form each dollar
expanded. It must always be the slave of pupils' welfare. It must considered
both financial and pedagogical efficiencies."
School administration became a field of study in twentieth century. In
nineteenth century, when the size of school population grew large, the need
of effective school administration was felt. So many great scholars and
administrators conducted researches in this field and provided a structure
for school administration. Among these, Frederick, W. Tagler, Herry Fayol,
mavk Parker, follell. Elton and Mayo and Chester Barnerd are some of the
important names. School administration is defined as a process concerned
with crating, mentioning, stimulating and to utilize these energies within an
educational institution.
Administration consists of two groups. The 1st group which is responsible
for running administration, and the second, on which the administration is
applied. Administration is also a profession. As every profession requires a
specific temperament, so administration also requires a special
temperament. For effective administration, all those factors should be
evaluated which exerts effects on administration programme.
Administrator should be aware of his responsibilities and the philosophy of
administration.
In the present age of democracy, both groups have the sound
understanding. Both the groups should be reliable and they must consider
their work as a sacred duty and they should be ready for aimful
productivity. Administrations have also an ISLAMIC aspect.
Administration provides opportunities to utilize the human abilities.
According to Islamic point of view, all Muslims are brothers and nobody
has preference over other so for the achievements of target, the two groups
should co-operate and should create such environment in school, that the

achievement of mental, spiritual and material progress can be made


possible.
2.2

TYPES OF ADMINISTRATION

1.
2.
3.

Democratic Administration
Autocratic
Lassies faire

1.

Democratic Administration has the following merits and


demetits

Merits
1.

In democratic type of administration individual's talents are


recognized and opportunities are provided to the individuals for
the assortment of their talents.

2.

As it provides chance to the individuals for the assortment of their


talent, a healthy atmosphere for competition among the
individuals is created.

3.

In democratic administration Opinion are asked, and hence


everybody feels responsible. This sense of responsibility brings
about unity in thinking as well as working.

4.

Under democratic administration an individual feels responsible,


enthusiastic, and zealous, therefore team work is observed.

5.

In demo Administration policy making is usually influenced by


popular or established opinions

6.

There are more public contacts in demo type of administration,


for democracy means, of the people, for the people & by the
people.

7.

Democratic Administration Provides conducive environment for


listening to opinions of the others. Thus tolerance & patience are
created among the individuals.

8.

This kind of Administration Provides occasions for interactions


and thus brings about mutual co-operation, respect and
confidence.

9.

Democratic Administration Provides occasions for the individuals


to share their knowledge with each other. Moreover, courageous
attitude & self-esteem are developed among the individuals.

10.

Democratic Administration is very close to human nature &


temperament.

11.

In demo. Administration healthy criticism is always welcomed,


and thus the deficiencies, shortcomings and defects are easily
removed.

12.

It gives liberty of thinking, expression and choice.

Demerits
1.

Demo. Administration is time consuming, as opinion of each


individual has to be asked, and considered. Thus, no speedy &
quick decisions take place.

2.

As it gives liberty of thinking & speech, hence, there are chances


of individuality & disunity.

3.

This type of admin. Reject harshness & strict attitude on the part
of the administrator. Thus provides occasions for group activities,
and in group activities, maintaining of discipline becomes
difficult.

4.

This kind of administration gives place to uncertainty in running


the matters of the institutes. The reasons are lack of the speedy &
timely decisions.

5.

In this kind of administration an individuals some times, exploits


the role of majority for their individual interests rather than
institutional interests.

6.

As stated ,earlier, a kind of leniency prevails in demo. admn.


There fore, some of the individuals may deviate from their
responsibilities.

7.

In this type of administration accountability is there, but chances


of embezzlement always exits, because of lack of strict checks on
the part of administrator.

8.

In this kind of administration there is danger of neglecting the


decorum and mutual respect.

2.

Autocratic administration has the following merits and


demerits

Merits
1.

In autocratic type of administration. the institutions work


properly, with consistency and smoothness. For, there exists no
such thing as uncertainty in the matters of the institute.

2.

In this kind of administration, everybody remains busy in doing


the assigned task.

3.

In autocratic administration there are no two opinions, as a result


no controversies. Therefore, it provides very little chances for
grouping or group activities.

4.

In this kind of Administration there are constant checks.


Consequently, discipline prevails in every corner of the institute.

5.

In autocratic administration the administrator keeps vigilant eyes


on the activities of his subordinates. Hence there is always steady
and constant work and no place for making excuses or
pretensions.

6.

In autocratic administration no body is above the law and law


reigns supreme.

7.

There are little chances of embezzlement because of the fear of


accountability.

8.

Autocratic administration is not time-consuming. In other words


making of speedy & timely decisions are easy.

Demerits
1.

While working under autocratic administration one feels


compelled rather than willing.

2.

In this kind of administration we have no place for healthy and


positive criticism; rather domineering attitude on part of
administrator rules supreme.

3.

In autocratic administration there is no acceptance of human


being as a human being but is rather considered as a part of
working machinery.

4.

This kind of administration gives birth t lack of confidence and


mutual co-operation. Moreover, individuality replaces the unity of
thinking & working.

5.

In autocratic administration unilateral decisions take place. This


produces feelings of helplessness among the sub-ordinates.

6.

In kind of administration there is lack of enthusiasm, zeal interest


and sincerity.

7.

In this kind of administration the head is almost exempted from


accountability. Hence there are more chances of nepotism and
favouritism on the part of the administration.

8.

Autocratic administration provides little place for flexibility. In


other words, perhaps, rigidity is the soul of this type of
administration.

3.

Laisses Faire

It is a French expression, which means to allow the individual to do alone.


I.

Non interference in one's action

II.

In this type of administration, the administrators avoid contact


with the subordinate. He allows making their decision
independently.

Such administration after result in disorganization, it permits different


individual to proceed indifferent direction.

2.3

DEMOCRATIC CONCEPTS OF SCHOOL


ADMINISTRATION

Objectives of Administration
Following should be the aims and objectives of the School Administration:
1.

To encourage the participants/staff in activities.

2.

To maintain positive relationship among students and teachers.

3.

To explore the hidden creative abilities of the individuals.

4.

To fulfill the needs of school and society.

5.

Constant and regular evaluation of the performance of school.

At elementary level, the administration has the following objectives.


1.

To give central position to the individual in an educational


process.

2.

To develop interest for education and spirit of sacrifice for the


country.

3.

The school provides such activities to the children that they bear
love for Islamic values and become true Muslim.

4.

The administration should provide necessary appliances for


curriculum and co-curriculum activities.

5.

The activities should manage in such a way that the children may
develop the habit of co-operation and team work.

6.

So, the main objective of school administration is to develop the


abilities in such manner, that the individual could become an
effective citizen of the state.

In the school programme the individual is the most important figure.


Therefore, the environment of the school must be favourable for the child,
that he could use his abilities properly and try to find out the solution of his
problems by himself. According to `Swizer' you can not help the individual

in adaptation of new things only by sermon, but you can help them only
when he himself thing for adopting a new thing too."
2.4

DEMOCRATIC CONCEPT OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION

School Administration
School administration neither evaluated a field of practice until the late part
of the nineteenth Century, nor has become as field of study in twentieth
Century. Before nineteen century school administration had been a
function of layman and not of professional administrators. In the
nineteenth century, which the size of school population grew large, heed
for effective school administration was felt. So many great Scholars and
administrators conducted researches in this field and provided a structure
for school administrative programme. Among these; Frederick, W-Tagler,
Henri Fayol, Mark Paker, Follell, Elton Mayo and Chester Barnerd are
quite important names.
School administration is defined as a process concerned with creating,
maintaining, stimulating and to utilize the energies within an educational
institution. Such demands can be fulfilled by executing policies related to
organizing, allocating and coordinating human and material resources
within the organization. Even mindful of the purposes of education through
administration that often contradictory social energies with in an
organization are systemized to produce a unity of operation. Simply
speaking, we may say that an administrator should have capabilities to
cope with various situation. Administration is concerned with human
energy-whether or not it is supplemented by the energy of mechanical or
electronic devices. The administration is important for activating and
converting human energy within an organization to produce desired
outputs. The basic objectives of school administration are that of the
educational institution and amplification of the policies which are related
to goals. The definition views, administration as an executive activity. It is
borrowed from Alexander Hamilton, idea that policy making and executive
activity are separated and distinct areas within an administration being
concerned with the latter. Although a precise separation between policy

formulation and policy execution is seldom possible, the degree of overlap


should not confuse the fundamental issue.
Hamilton stated, "The administration of government, in its largest sense
comprehends all the operation of the body politic whether legislative,
executive or judicial, but in its most usual and perhaps its most precise
significant, it is limited in an executive detail and falls peculiarly within
the province of the executive department."
Administration in an educational institution and its central purpose is the
enhancement of teaching and learning. All activities of the administrator
whether working with public board of education or with the professional
staff should ultimately contribute to this end i.e. to enhance teaching and
learning. Administration is required to perform the following major kinds
of activities for enhancing teaching and learning.
1.
2.
3.

To observe and to influence the development of goals and policies


basic to teaching and learning.
To stimulate and to facilitate the planning and operation of
appropriate programme for teaching and learning.
To produce and to manage personnel and material to implement
the programmes of teaching and learning.

This was a brief account of school administrative activities.


2.5

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION

School administration is related with human being having feelings,


emotions, attitudes and behaviour, therefore it becomes more complex
more delicate and more important than other Principles as good and
general rules in the organization of school administration are listed in the
following lines:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Priority of objectives over mechanics


considerations.
Co-ordination of authority and responsibility.
Adaptation of responsibility to a person.
Recognition of the human psychological factors.
Relativity of values.

and

personal

Now we should discuss each of these principles in detail to produce the


clear-cut picture of how these principles could be implied in school
administration.
1.

Priority of objective over mechanics and personal


consideration.

"One who having lost sights of his objective edibles his efforts." told
Bernard Shaw many years ago, but it is a fact that any effort which is not a
means to an end, is only a wastage of time and energy, rather to say that
they have a negative effects. There has always been a general tendency for
human beings to concentrate on immediate tasks and concerns,
consequently lose sight of the ultimate objectives and functions of an
organization or an institution. Such a tendency has also been observable in
educational activities for example, teachers tend to consider the details of
subject matter as an end in themselves rather than as the means of
accomplishing pupil's growth. Likewise administrators have become
deeply engaged in the detail of administration and thus lost the sight of the
purposed, for which the administration process and procedures is being
developed. Dealing school administration, it should be kept in mind
clearly, that organization and administration powers are developed in order
to achieve educational objectives. They must be so set up, operated and
changed from time to time as to make major contribution to the educational
objectives.
Likewise the general characteristic of organization and administration
should be in harmony with the nature of the prevailing educational
philosophy for the all round development of High school children. The
planning and administration should be considered on the basis of particular
philosophy. Shortly, we may say that the basic principle for formation of a
procedure in any activity of life is to determine the objectives of that
organization and procedure. Observance of this principle of objectives
makes administration effective and takes the institution close to its
objectives which facilitate their achievement.

2.

Coordination of authority and responsibility:

This principle gives appropriate authority to a person to whom the


responsibility of certain types of result is assigned. This principle has been
quite generally observed in different types of management like business
and in industrial personal management. In school administration, this
principle is applied and is quite important for the good relationship
between the principle and his department heads. If the department head in
given school, he is to be held responsible for improving the quality of
instruction in his department he should have opportunities and working
condition appropriate to the degree of his responsibility. He should be
supported by the principal and the higher authorities in maintaining his
prestige.
The authority should stand ready to deal with unprofitable subordination
by teachers or even passive failure to respond to the leadership of the
competent department head. He should have favourable opportunity to
hold a reasonable number of meetings in light of instruction given by his
department. Hence, a competent person who is assigned some kind of
responsibility in school he should be given such opportunities and powers
as well to enable him to discharge his responsibility to the complete
satisfaction of his supervision with credit to himself/ herself.
3.

Adaptation of responsibility to the character of the personnel:

The place of any individual in the scheme of organization for


administration must be determined in parts and according to his individual
natural talents, training and experience. This principle has two aspects: one
relates to the degree of the individuals fitness for responsibility; the other
has to do with his peculiar types of talent which should be utilized. Let us
consider the first aspect, school boards and authorities often promote
teachers who are senior to positions involving administrative
responsibilities. Such teachers have widely varying degrees of capacity for
discharging such responsibility, although such teachers have a lot of
experience but it is not necessary that they possess administrative abilities.
So in the allotment of responsibilities to high school teacher by the
principal, this principle must be taken into consideration. Members of the

staff who are not qualified should not be urged to become teachers of core
programmes or to do technical counselling or any other activity which is
not according to their professional qualification or which do not match
their interest. Such activities must be allotted to personnel who are well
qualified and trained in the concerned areas. Dependence should be made
properly on trained personal. The dependence which may be safely placed
on such assistants who are untrained in modern methods of teaching,
course of study making and measurement is not the same, as it would be
rightly placed on properly trained teachers. The privilege is to make
decision, and make its implementation sure.
The second phase of the principle applies to teachers or administrative
assistants who posses peculiar natural talents of organization, and direction
in some particular student activities for educational and vocational
counselling; work with accounting problems or in some other such
specialized work. It should be a privilege on the part of a teacher and a
student or any other persons to carry out their responsibilities, and it should
be considered the right of the responsible person. This principle should
govern the continuance of delegation of privilege, authority or
responsibility to principal or other officers, teachers and the pupil even if
discharge of teacher or expulsion of the pupil or called for an external case.
4.

Recognition of psychological factors:

As administration is directly related to human behaviour, therefore in all


dealt with individual where co-operation is necessary or desirable, the
wishes, desires, prejudices, ambitions, and tastes of all coworkers must be
taken into account. Especially, it is true of situations in which the success
of the plan depends upon whole heartedness and energetic co-operation on
the part of co-worker or subordinate.
The administrator, who ignore these psychological factors is not successful
and is always be in serious trouble.
Therefore in formulating an administrative policy or procedure not only its
direct effects must be considered but also its effect upon the attitudes of
those concerned in its execution. When all members of the staff concerned
in administration are admitted to participation in the formulation of

policies and procedures the attitude of teachers towards administration


plans and devices should be considered. Favourably teachers are much
more likely to understand the reasons and theory of administrative
measures if they have had a share in determining the policies. The feelings
that the procedures are to some extent of their own choice and formulation
operates to give them a general concern for the success of the procedure.
Such concern can hardly be expected when the plans are handed down by
authority of their professional supervision, not only is their attitude toward
administration favourably affected by their participation but also the
activities of participation constitute training which is in itself valuable. It is
true, however that the greater the leaders the greater the extent in which he
may stimulate, guide and employ participation to advantage. It is also true
that the fruits of participation may lead to final conclusions, to controversy
and disagreement making the extent to which these things may be avoided
depends largely upon the skill and wisdom of the leader. In general
however a policy of participation directed with a reasonable degree of
ability is likely to produce results quite superior to these typical of a
completely autocratic policy.
5.

Principle of relativity of values:

In actual life quite often a situation will arise in which two principles may
seem to apply, but they too be in conflict. In such an unnatural and
conflicting situation the decision become difficult. Frequently occasions
will arise when it will be desirable to abandon apparently, the principle of
co-ordination of authority and responsibility in order that the principle of
psychological factor may be observed or vice versa. Occasionally, a
principal may have to step in and assume responsibility ordinarily
belonging to a department head, teacher or student officer in order to
prevent thing from "going to pot." Unfortunately, many principals
constantly over estimate the necessity for such interference. At intervals, a
principal may have to issue orders or instruction about matters which under
ordinary condition might have been better if it is left to co-operative
committee. It is desirable often dispatch small administrative matters in a
manner, which may imply a charge or exception to general policies without
inviting participation or co-operation. Here I must say that the principle of

priority of objective applies universally that is the compromise of one


principle with another is only temporary or apparent. The true list of any
policy or procedure-whether not in the long run-contributes more
effectively to then other alternative procedure in which the aims and
functions of education expressed in terms
Scope of School Administration:
It is suggested that the universal tasks of the administrator are defined in
seeking solution to the following questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

What is to be done?
How will the work be divided?
How will the work be done?
Who will do the work?
What will the work be done with?
When will the work be done?
How should the work be done well?
How well is the work being done?

These questions are very important and common in almost al types of


administration.
After discussing the principles of administration new we shall discuss the
scope of administration in the following lines. In order to concentrate on
educational administration we can divide the operational areas into
following categories.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

School community relationship


Pupil personnel
Staff personnel
Physical facilities
Organization and structure
Finance

The principal of a school has many tasks to perform and to minimize the
load, usually other staff members are given different tasks for the sake of
assisting the administrator. Also other people are always involved. These
people include members of teaching or non teaching staff of a school and
parents of the students. In some cases the task is achieved with the assistant
and advice of other people, regarding the tasks. However the responsibility

for seeing that jobs are done rests with the administrator. The nature of
each of the major operational areas mentioned above is needed to be
discussed in detail.
1.

School community relationship:

Education from very early is directly related with the welfare of public and
of the state, and its aim is to provide services to the community. This
purpose can be achieved only when there is a deep relation between the
school and the community, feeling of cooperation understanding demands
and limitation on both sides and a continuous strive to improve the existing
conditions. Keeping in view that good relationship between school and
community is very important for administration; we shall discuss how such
relationship could be established, and for this we have to take a look of the
following points.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Nature and character of community.


Information.
Information about the School.
Role of the School.

1.

Character a nd Nature of Community:

In our country, school community may be characterized as urban and rural,


primarily, further divisions could be: industrial or agricultural, literate or
illiterate, and high class or middle class or lower class. Such common
categorization may provide the school administrator with some clues as to
how he is to work with his community. In actual practice we cannot
categorize school community as such. Robert p. Bullock considers it very
important for an administrator to have knowledge about the community.
Pupils' personnel:
Activities within the operational area of pupil personnel embrace those
services to pupil that supplement regular class room instruction, the chief
task of the administrator in the pupil personnel area is one of integrating
personnel functions with instruction, coordinating and various kind of
personnel services:
Few of the major tasks in pupil personnel is follows:

1.
2.
3.

Pupil inventory and organization.


Pupil personnel services.
Control of pupil behaviour.

1.

Pupil inventory and organization:

Information about the number of students rolled in a school and a number


of school under consideration of an administration is of much important for
effective administration. This is done by mean of school census by keeping
enrolment and attendance data with other information in hand of the
administrator. This enables the administrator to determine to what extent
school rooms in the existing buildings will house the pupils of the
population under consideration. In light of this information, planning for
construction of new building is done. Enrolment data also furnish the
administrator with the best single index of teaching personnel needs
regarding grades, subjects area and school or attendance area. Not only the
gross enumeration of pupils is important but it is also necessary that much
be known about the characteristics of the pupils, funds within a school.
How many are gifted; how many are slow learners; how many are hard
learners; how many are orthopedic cases. Ordinary causes will not provide
the required information but it is only possible to gain information about
the pupils with special problems by the co-operation of teachers, parents
and specially trained personnel. This information helps to plan a
programme of service for all including its deviate pupils.
2.

Pupil Personnel Services:

A very important aspect of the pupil personnel area is the provision of


appropriate pupil personnel services, usually pupil personnel services
include the following:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Child study.
Guidance and Counselling
Testing.
Visiting Teacher and Social Work.
Medical and Nursing.
Special Education.

Some of the above services such as tests and measurement would be


helpful in any programme of evaluation, the school social worker might get

information about output and input of pupils. Some school systems


consider special education as a part of the curriculum programme but even
the workers in special education need to have a close affiliation with the
worker in the pupil personnel area, for really effective pupil personnel
services some specialized personnel will be necessary; the specialized staff
for each of the following is useful:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Director of pupil personnel services.


Health services.
Secondary school counsel service.
Speech and learning therapy.
Child study services.
Psychological and psychiatric consultant.

School is Social Work Service:


Surely small schools and community which lack resources to employ these
specialists. Such school might restricts with one guidance counsellor and
by determining where the other services could be obtained on a part time
basis. For instance, a high school or an Intermediate school located
centrally and having most of the above facilities could provide such
services to small schools on cooperative basis. The job of an administrator
is to see that these services are made available and should co-ordinate with
other workers.
3.

Control of Pupil Behaviour:

A part from intellectual responsibility, school must help youngsters


towards the ultimate the causes of misbehaviour of pupils and to treat the
cause and the symptom of such reactions. This is the time, for making the
student disciplined. Policies governing these matters should be clear and
the responsibilities of teachers and other staff members in this area should
be understood. In school some times teacher guides, or in place of teachers
some other non teaching staff members consider the role of discipline area.
But usually it is considered more appropriate that guidance other than pupil
personnel workers should have no disciplinary function. That function
should be carry out by the principal or some other administrative officers.
The logic behind such an argument is that the guidance counsellor should
be individual and not group oriented or perhaps bites stated pupil in place

of school centred. However when it is necessary, a principal has to take


part in a problem of discipline he should get the best picture possible of the
surrounding circumstance, the misbehaviour prior to arriving at a plan of
action.
Staff Personnel
Implementation of any programme suggested for the welfare of students of
the community by the school, appropriate staff must be provided, therefore
staff personnel become one of the major operational areas in
administration. Staff personnel is divided in two main groups, number, one
is certificate personnel such as teachers, guidance worker and
administrator, the second group is the non-certificate personnel such as
custodian lunch room workers and the bus drivers. Now, we shall discuss
some major areas of personnel administration. Following are the 'major
aspects of personnel administration.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Personnel policies.
Securing personnel.
Supervising personnel.
Appraising teaching effectiveness.

1.

Personnel policies:

In personnel administration the development of personnel policies is a very


important aspect. Let us first define the term policy. Policies refer to a set
of guiding principles which establish a frame work to give consistency to a
school boards actions. This means that a policy represents the frame work
in term of law and of the philosophy of the community upon which the
action is to be based. Policy making is a very important and a basic task for
any organization. It should meet the expectations which every school must
have for teachers. The pupils in the early years of school seem less able
than the elder pupils to make a judgement almost about the quality of
teaching Performance. Both of the above mentioned approaches have
limitations, and than what approach must be used for appraising of the
teaching performance. In my opinion the education approach seems to be
the most faithful one. It includes the following steps.
1.

The characteristic or criteria of good teaching will be determined.

2.
3.
4.

These characteristics will be defined in behavioural terms.


A method of observing these behaviours will be evolved.
The evidence clutched will be appraised.

We may summarize the major administrative task in the areas of staff


personnel include developing personnel policies; summarization of
personnel main programme of instruction; pupil services providing
appropriate stimulation and encouragement to staff members as they work
at the jobs; appraising the performance of staff members; the terms for the
assigned responsibilities in the school.
4.

Physical Aspect of School:

Most programmes of instruction and of pupil services requires some


physical facilities. School building, school ground equipment and
transportation are the general term of physical facilities.
1.

School Plant:

We would like to emphasis the point that school plants exist to facilitate the
instructional programme. The relation between programme and the plant is
that if the programme calls for self contained class rooms. Its rooms must
be large enough to permit a variety of activities, if the programme includes
gardening or
camping, the plant must provide all the requirements for these activities.
Predication of the educational programme but it seems clear that education
is under-growth. Hence modern designees should strive to make school
plants highly flexible.
Plant development Programme, determine, the structure of school plant are
needed in administration, must have data of four kinds.
1.
2.
3.
4.

A picture of the educational programme to be housed.


A projection of the school population to be served.
A plan for the use of the existing plant.
An indication of many supervision for plant expression.

Student population:
The following questions in this regard are quite important.
I.

What changes are anticipated in the school population?

II.
III.

How do these changes affect each grade level?


How do these changes in district boundaries are going to affect
students' population?

Existing plant of the school:


Third basic data necessary in planning for the school plant has to use the
existing plant leads to a key questions and which must be answered.
Are the present buildings safe? Are they located where they are needed?
Can they be adapted to fulfill the educational needs? What capacity do the
existing building have in term of the educational programme and pupil
population of the future?
Financial resources available:
For the development of the school plants, financial resources are very
important because all developmental activities require funds and the
amount of these funds determine the range of all developmental activities.
Operation and maintenance of school plant:
The administration is responsible for the smooth operation and
maintenance of the school plant. Operation has to do with the day-to-day
running of the plant. The major objectives of operation are to kept the plant
safe in connection with sanitary, attraction and in readiness for teaching
and learning. School plants like other physical facilities require a constant
programme of maintenance. Equipment out of use must be replaced, and
roofs eventually leak and require repairs. These maintenance activities is
the responsibility of the administrator to deal with.
School transportation:
School transportation is also one of the school physical facilities. The
transportation service is carried on with rather high capital investment in
equipment for which the problem of procurement and maintenance are
some what similar to the procurement and maintenance of other facilities.
The transportation programme is auxiliary to the instructional programme
in some what the same manner as are building facilities.

2.6

MEANING, DEFINITION AND KINDS OF SUPERVISION

The Meaning of Supervision


Supervision has many different meaning. Each person who reads or hears
the word, interprets it in terms of his past experiences, and according to his
needs, and his purposes.
A supervisor may consider it a positive force for programme
improvements; a teacher may see it as a threat to his individuality; another
teacher may think of it as a source of assistance and support.(p.3)
Supervision is a directing and a judging activity. In the 1910's and 1020's
the writing in the field of supervision recommended tallying and checking
to see whether or not people had done as they were directed. (p.5)
Supervision cannot properly be defined in terms of techniques alone; rather
it must be defined in terms of the purposes for which it is used. (p.1)
The term of supervision is used to describe 'those activities which are
primarily and directly concerned with studying and improving the
conditions which surrounds the learning and growth of pupils the teachers'.
It is a term used to describe a wide variety of behaviours carried out by a
diverse group of people within the context of specific school systems. (p.3,
1824-5)
Different Definitions of Supervision:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Supervision is the process of bringing about improvement in


instruction by working with people who are working with pupils.
Good supervision is a process of releasing energies of people in
creative ways, and to solve individual and group problems.
Supervision is the service provided for the purpose of improving
teaching and learning. (R. Smith et al, p. 403)
It refers to the variety of means used by supervisors, to improve
the teaching and learning process. (p. 781 Modern encyclopedia
of education).
It has also been defined as support services to teachers and
educational organizations for improvement of teaching practices
in order that their students learn more, fast and with better

convenience. They should feel happy while learning and make


effective use of what they have learnt. In other words supervision
is a function which encourages the creative and constructive
potential of the teacher and the taught. (M. Iqbal)
Supervision has been defined as a four point programme:
The appraisal of specific learning situations to ascertain the needs of
children and the efficiency of instructions.
Technical service to teachers in the form of instructional aids, specific
suggestions for the improvement of instruction and assistance I
pupil diagnosis and measurement.
Research for the purpose of curriculum construction and revision, and for
the improvement of materials, techniques and methods of
instruction.
Professional leadership should cooperate with teachers through stimulation
to further professional study, and through cooperative
development of some programme of in-service education. (p. 1517)
In general, supervision means to co-ordinate, stimulate, and direct the
growth of teachers and the power to stimulate and direct the growth of
every pupil through the exercise of his talents towards the richest and most
intelligent participation in the society and the world in which he lives. (p.321)
Definition of Modern Supervision
According to modern concept, supervision has been defined as:
1.
2.
3.

It is the evaluation and improvement of the factors affecting


learning (p. 1)
It is a co-operative service designed to aid teachers rather than to
report about them. (p. 403)
It is the procedure of giving direction, providing critical
evaluations, and the instructional process. Modern supervision
goes beyond the class-room and attempts to direct the education
forces that influence students regardless of where those influences

are found. It is designed to help, not merely to rate, those who


influence the educational process. (p. 1)
Definitions of Educational Supervision
Educational supervision means to bring a given task in a right direction,
view it critically, so that education may be given enough growth.
It is not limited only to the level of teaching in classroom, but to supervise
all the activities related to teaching and learning. Keeping in view all these
factors that effect the education equally.
It also means to 'help the teachers in assessing his weaknesses and
drawbacks of the students. To confer proposals, to reform the process of
teaching, and to help the teachers in maintaining and predicting the audio
visual aids. (p. 107-20)
According to educational dictionary the educational supervision means 'to
provide a right direction to the educational process and to critically view it,
that the students are able to obtain the best educational help on every
aspect'. (p. 52)
It is defined as a 'type of educational service rendered by a variety of
school official's superintendent, principals, head masters, directors, heads
of departments and general or special supervisors. (p. 1191)
What is Supervisor:
The term supervisor is referred to any person who has been delegated a
specific responsibility for some phase of supervision. (p. 153)
Any official leader, superintendent of schools, principals, department's
heads, or staff officer is a supervisor. All of them spent a portion of their
time seeking improvement of the instructional programme. (p. 26)
Kinds of Supervision:
The supervision has the following kinds.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Corrective supervision.
Preventive supervision.
Creative supervision.
Lassies-faire.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1.

Democrative supervision.
Scientific supervision.
Authoritative supervision.
Co-operative supervision.
Inspection supervision.
Corrective Supervision:

This is the old concept of supervision. Its main aim is to detect the
weaknesses and drawbacks of the sub-ordinates. This kind of supervision is
subjected to create fear in sub-ordinates. This supervision is also called
autocratic, because the behaviour of a supervisor in this kind of supervision
is like a dictator.
2.

Preventive Supervision:

It is partly better as compared to the mentioned above. In this supervision


the supervisor detects the problems of the teachers and tries to find out
solutions.
3.

Creative Supervision:

In this supervision, the behaviour of supervisor is constructive, dedicated


and cooperative.
4.

Laissez Faire:

In this supervision, the supervisor is mainly depended on other. He has no


interests in the affairs of others, due to which the activity of the school is
highly damaged.
5.

Democrative Supervision:

In the whole process is based on the consultation of the teachers. It is


based, even in some cases, on consultation of the students. The staff is
encouraged, due to which the institutional atmosphere remains pleasant.
6.

Scientific Supervision:

In this type of supervision, the supervisor views critically and scientifically


supervised everything.
7.

Authoritative Supervision:

In this, the supervisor acts like a authoritative person. He imposed his


dictatorship on the teachers, due to which a lot of fear is created among the
teachers.
8.

Cooperative Supervision:

In this type of supervision, the supervisor co-operates with the staff of the
school. He solves the problems of the teachers and also gives useful
proposals to them.
10.

Inspection Supervision:

In this, first, the problems are searched out, and then their solutions are
also taken out. (p. 107-29)
In general, the supervision can be divided into two main types:

Administrative supervision
Teaching supervision

Administrative Supervision:
It is related to organizational and administrative issues. The purpose is to
run the school administration effectively with the help of limited resources
and to achieve maximum benefits.
1.

Teaching Supervision:

It is concerned with evaluation and providing feed back to teachers in


teaching and professional skills.
It helps individual in class-room, teachers in improvement of their day-today class room teaching practices, professional skill and their potentials to
perform their teaching duties to the best of their knowledge and ability.(M.
Iqbal, Frontier Post) (p.2)
2.7

COMPONENTS AND PURPOSE OF SUPERVISION

The Purposes of Supervision


It is difficult to state all of the purposes which educational supervision may
serve. The following list, however, may at least prove suggestive to the

supervisor who is preparing his task or who wishes to make supervisory


programme in which he is engaged.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.

To help teachers in recognizing more clearly the real ends (goals)


of education and the special role of the school in working towards
these ends (goals)
To help teachers in realizing more clearly the problems and needs
of young people, and to provide them help, as far as possible, for
these ends.
To provide effective leadership in a democratic way, in promoting
the professional improvement of the school and its activities; in
fostering harmonious and co-operative staff relations; in
stimulating professional in-service growths of teachers; and in
bringing the school closer to the community.
To build strong group morale, and to unify teachers into an
effective team, working with intelligence and appreciative cooperation to achieve the same general ends.
To ascertain the work for which each teacher is most suited,
assign him to such work, and to encourage him to develop his
capabilities further in any promising directions.
To help teachers to develop greater competence in teaching
proficiency, and to help him in teaching as an art which is
achieved through long and carefully directed practice.
To induct beginning teachers into the school and into the
profession.
To evaluate the results of each teacher's efforts in terms of pupil
growth toward approved ideals.
To assist teachers in diagnosing the learning difficulties of pupils
and to help him in planning effective remedial instruction.
To help the teachers in interpreting the school programme to the
community so that the public may understand and may add in the
school's efforts.
To share with the public the problems of the school so as to get
suggestions for their solutions.
To protect teachers from unreasonable demands of the public
regarding time and energies, and form unwanted criticism. (p. 321)

13.
14.

To give direction to the teachers who are directly responsible for


the educational process.
To evaluate all aspects of the educational process. (p. 50-51)

2.8

SUPERVISORY ROLE OF HEADMASTER

Components of Supervision:
T following are the components of supervision:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Supervision of teaching work.


Supervision of Co-curricular activities.
Supervision of educational atmosphere.
Checking of school's registers.
Supervision of developmental programmes.
Supervision of public relations with regards to the school. 107-20)

Qualities of a Supervisor:
The supervisor must have the following qualities:
1.

Experienced

The supervisor should be required to demonstrate his proficiency as a


teacher before being appointed to a supervisory position. The extent of
required teaching should not be less than six successive school years.
2.

Trained

Besides, teacher training, he should have special training in the areas of


sociology, forensics, human growth and developmental evaluation and
administration.
3.

Impartial

An impartial supervisor will be able to direct effectively the group process,


because he will try to bring out all points of view and thus promoting
objective discussion.
4.

Courteous

The supervisor must set an example in all his relationship with his teachers
that will cause them to respect the rights of their fellow teachers,
supervisor, administrator and pupils.
5.

Courageous

Supervisor must be courageous, when conducting group meetings.


6.

Patience

He should also be patient in conducting instructions because teachers grow


at their own rates.
7.

Democratic

He should act in a democratic manner. He must be able to maintain social


equality among his teachers. He must be able to conduct his group
meetings so that each member has an opportunity to participate. (p. 89-90)
2.9

A DESIGN FOR EFFECTIVE SUPERVISION OF


INSTRUCTION

Responsibilities/Functions of A Supervisor
The primary function of the supervisors of all types is leadership, plus the
encouragement and recognition of leadership in any other person either in
the professional staffs or among the community participants. (p. 5)
The supervisor is also responsible for:
1.

To Raise the Standard of School Life

The first and foremost responsibility of a supervisor is to make the


environment of the school clean and agreeable, so that the students may be
able to work heartily and satisfactorily.
2.

To Create a High Standard of Ethics

The supervisor should inculcate good moral in the students.


3.

Supervisor as a well Wisher of the Students

The supervisor ought to be well-wisher of the students in every aspect of


life.
4.

To Provide All Fair Facilities

To keep in view the troubles of the students while allotting them rooms. He
should keep in view the number of the students each room and also the
difficulties they are facing.

5.
The supervisor is also responsible for the arrangement of common
rooms.
6.

Sanitary system of the schools and hostels.

7.

Punctuality of the study.

8.

Supervision of the organization.

9.

Management of games and recreations.

10.

To provide balance diet.

11.

Supervision of servants.

12.

To create a balance in students life.

In general, the supervisor's role should be supporting, assisting and sharing


rather than direction. (p. 107-20)
Supervisor can improve instructions in school situations as below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Each member values himself and others.


A deep concern for the welfare and feelings of each individual
exists.
Each member of the staff feels that he belongs to the same group.
People trust each other. Trust is the foundation stone of
communication.
The administration shares the decisions within its authority.
All who will be vitally affected by a policy, who will participate
in its formation.
Each person can maintain his integrity.
Increased self direction by each member is sought.
Individuals gain a sense of direction by participating in
establishing group goals.
Information is available to all.
Ideas are considered the property of the group.
Loyalty is to ideals and values and not to persons.
Teachers speak out and administration capitalizes on their ideas.
Decision by consensus is sought.
Teachers and administrators have the opportunity to tell each
other and the help they would like to receive from each other.
The staff accepts responsibility of decisions made, and is willing
to live with the consequences. (p. 337)

Evaluation of the Work of Supervisor:


In the opinion of the writer, (Kimball, Wiles) the specific criteria by which
a programme and the official leader are judged fall into four categories:
1.
2.
3.
4.

More responsible participation of students, teachers and


community members in the improvement of the programme.
Enrichment of the school programme through an increase in
opportunities and activities for all.
More efficient learning situations that result in more rapid pupil
growth.
Greater contribution of the school to the improvement of
community living. (p. 327)

Problems of Supervision:
There are some important problems of supervision, due to which a
particular aim cannot be achieved, or the process of supervision remain
ineffective. Some important problems in the way of supervision are as
under:
1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

No planning is made before supervision, so the supervision


remains ineffective.
Sometimes, the supervisory staff is not serious in their task. They
considered the supervision merely a formal activity. The
educational efficiency is not supervised, but the whole time is
spent in checking the time-table, complementation of syllabus,
and cash book checking etc.
The process of supervision is not continuously taking place, and
sometimes, certain schools remains for a long time without
supervision. For effective supervision, it is necessary, to be
supervised continuously, so that the efficiency of the school
remains better or may be improved.
It is also a great hindrance in the way of supervision that the
teachers are bitterly criticized on the basis of their teaching and
efficiency, and are not guided and reformed.
Sometimes, the attitude of the supervisory staff is based on
favouritism, due to which the teachers develop an attitude of mis-

6.

7.

8.

9.

confidence, disheartedness and isolation. Subsequently they say


goodbye to their occupation.
During the supervision, the drawbacks are marked, but no remedy
is reached out for their solutions, so the problems remain
untouched.
The fear of supervisor always remain in the mind of the teachers,
so the teachers start flattering the supervisory team. This is the
only cause of the downfall of the creative power in the teacher
community.
It is noticed frequently, that the supervisory staff lacks the moral
values, they are deplored of sympathy and co-operation, due to
which no development takes place in the creative power of the
teacher community.
One of the problems of supervising is to develop human relations
with each other, but they do not perform any great role in bringing
close school and community to each other.

It is necessary for supervisor to inspect as a whole and that is contrast to


the fact.

UNIT-3
HUMAN RELATIONS AND HUMAN
RESOURCES
3.1

CONCEPT OF HUMAN RESOURCES

Definition
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.

Human relation means the action of every individual.


Human relation is the relation of a person in a society with the
other person.
According to the nature of human beings they like to live together
in society. The combination of economic, social and psychological
relation among the human beings are known as human relations.
To study the action of every individual is called human relation.
The way from which we know about the action of people is
known as human relation.
According to Robert Rizzo: Human relation is the process of
dealing with people in such a way as to accomplish the goals of
both the motivator and those being motivated.
Actions and reactions of the individuals are known as human
relations.

The term human relation is the combination of two words 'Human and
'Relation' which means the relation among various individuals on the
surface of the earth. But now, the question arises that why this sort of
relations exist among the individuals. Answers to this question are given by
different thinkers i.e.
1.

Aristotle

Man lived social and political life not by choice but because of their
inherent nature, their needs, desires and their strength and weaknesses
make them do so.

2.

Imam Ghazali

Man is created in such a manner that he cannot live all by himself but is in
constant need of others. And man needs this company for two reasons.
1.
2.
3.

For the sack of procreation (produce off spring),


For food, clothing and proper education.
Ibni Khaldun

The nature and necessities of life compelled a man to live with others. In
order to defend and feed himself man must cooperate with man.
But one thing should he kept in mind, if people work together with team
spirit, and co-operation, It will also put positive affects on social life,
economic, and psychological objectives of an organization.
Concepts
1.

Human Dignity:

Respect for the personality of each and every individual, irrespective of the
position, he occupies in the official hierarchy, is the most cardinal principle
in human relation. This does not mean that there has to be no consideration
of superior and subordinate. What in principle it means, is only this, that
the superiors have to recognize the fact that every individual has a dignity
as a human being and that allowances have to be made for his sense of self
respect even when he subordinates himself in an organization.
2.

Individual Differences:

The second principle is that as every individual has a separate and


independent personality of his own, he cannot be treated as a cog in the
organizational structure, nor is it possible to make him an object of
experiment under any standardized condition. Management can best handle
its labour or employees problems by recognizing the fact of individual
differences and by making allowances for them in their personnel policy.
3.

Mutual Interest:

Human beings are by nature gregarious, that is they want to cooperate and
work together, or that when they work together they develop a common
interest which is different, though not divergent from the individual interest
of each human.

4.

Motivation:

When a man has a tendency to develop a community of interest while


working in combination with others, then the management of an
organization should motivate the workers to work together and develop a
spirit of co-operation. This is the only way to achieve the planned goals of
the organization. In other words, the management should rely in dealing
with the employees, upon the leadership rather than authority. The art of
human relations is primarily an art of developing leadership in an
organization.
In school organization "human relations" means creating conducive
environment for teamwork of the administrator, teacher, the taught and the
parents, so that the institute runs
Smoothly and properly flourished. Nowadays it is a recognized fact, that
without the community participation, any predetermined goal is not only
difficult to achieve but impossible too., That Is why, the educationists
stress upon the need of close relation among the members of any
organization. The school administration can easily achieve their objectives
through close relation among their members, teachers, taught and other
allied members.
In this connection, there is a dire need to discuss in detail the responsibility
and quality of a head master, teacher, and role of society besides the duties
and rights of the taught.
3.2

IMPORTANCE AND ROLE OF HUMAN RELATIONS

Principles of human relations consists of the following steps.


1.

Gaining knowledge of the self

To know one's own self is one of the most difficult, it is nonetheless


essential for good human relationships.
Knowing oneself implies proper assessment of one's own shortcomings,
strong points, emotional conflicts, frustration, and if possible, one's
subconscious.

2.

Seeing on self through the eyes of others

It is extremely helpful to have a look at one's own self through the eyes of
the others. We are not only blind to our own image with in ourselves but
also one's own self can be immensely helped by knowing what other's say
about ourselves.
3.

Self realizations

A really satisfied and self-secured person is seldom aggressive on petty


things in life. A person who knows that the cause of aggression come from
within is much less aggressive because of his conscious control of himself.
It is the blind person who is all the time blaming others and creating ill will
all around. He can never be an effective administrator. He can't create a
sense o1 loyalty and motivation in others.
4.

Counseling Helpful

Counseling is a specialized technique. Since the situations are changing


fast, and the training, given to an executive, to run a particular organization
today may not be helpful tomorrow. It is desirable for them to acquaint
themselves with the fundamental principles of counseling.
5.

Knowing Others Values

One of the most important qualities of a leader for motivating his


colleagues and subordinates is that he must know their goals in life, their
standards, their values and cultural background, their image of themselves,
their expectations from others, their frustrations, their hopes and fears. He
should also know the political and occupational groups to which they
belong.
6.

Participation in Planning

Participation of the colleagues and follows in the implementation of certain


programmed is necessary in the organization. What is important to note is
that the followers should not be made to feel that they are being ignored?
7.

Kindness

Kindness is a principle, which may not be accepted and practiced by an


authoritarian personality, but researches reveal that kindness, where it is

really needed, always leads to happy results, Some times just apart on the
shoulder saves the individual from many pitfalls in life. Punishment
wrongly awarded may lose the individual forever.
8.

Evaluation

Times are gone for the administrator to rely on his rational considerations
alone or mere impressions gathered through unreliable sources. Social
sciences can provide scientific methods to avoid waste of time, money and
energy and help the organizations in making their policies successful in
modifying them, through a process of evaluation.
3.3

QUALITIES OF GOOD TEACHER

Sometimes people wonder why some managers, administrators and


executives succeed so remarkably well, while others, almost equally
qualified in terms of professional training and intellectual capacity, fail in
similar circumstances. The answer perhaps may be attributed to the type of
personality they possess. Personality is one of the most important factors in
managers, leaders, commanders in creating a favorable and unfavorable
atmosphere of human relationship in any organization. Personality factor in
human relation is discussed under the following five headings.
1.

The Authoritarian Personality

An authoritarian personality is one, which demands unquestioning


obedience and submission; it is rigid and intolerant of the shortcomings of
others. Such an executive is usually strict in getting work out of his
subordinates and becomes extremely autocratic; he makes all decisions
himself and keeps interpersonal relationship with the members of the group
to a minimum. The leaders of this type ultimately create, an authoritarian
atmosphere in the organization; and in the very process of maintaining
discipline, sows the seeds of misunderstandings and consequently tension
and indiscipline. Change of assignment suitable to their personality
structure can also help. In fact the problem of placement right person in the
right job is highly desirable based on the attitude of the employees
concerned. Job satisfaction is one of the biggest factors in morale and
efficiency in work.

2.

The Frustration --- Aggressive Types

There are some individuals who are all the time grumbling or "cribbing
irrespective of the objective situation in which they are placed with out
realizing that the sources of their trouble lies within. They are all the time
critical of individuals, situations around and always out with a number of
grievances and demands even if you meet their demands they will never
feel satisfied. Such individuals become a problem for their subordinates.
3.

Chronic Critic or alarmist Type

An offshoot of the above type is a person who is all the time criticizing,
grumbling and magnifying only the negative aspects of things around.
Unconsciously such people spread alarming news about such happening
and have a knack of misinterpreting things to their way of thinking which
always converges to ultimate destruction. Such are the people who are
called alarmists or destructionists not with any bad intentions but by the
compulsions of their personality set-up. These people affect the social
atmosphere around. It is possible that by owing them and by providing
them guidance and counseling you may be able to change them.
4.

Anti Authority Type

These people slander the superiors for their shortcomings, real or


imaginary. The subordinates contemptuously look down upon their
supervisors as inefficient or incompetent. They develop an inflated view of
their own importance and show scanty regard to the lawful authority. If the
boss happens to be human, he will be criticized for not being a good
administrator, if he is firm, he will be criticized as cruel.
5.

Mixed type

A case can be mentioned of peculiar combination of anti authority and


authoritarian types. Such a person is aggressively possessive, tyrant for the
sub-ordinates and problem for the seniors. He may be extremely efficient,
well read and intelligent. Neither his education nor efficiency nor
intelligence is of any avail in view of his personality factor. Self-realization
can help the situation.
Limitations of Human Relations

Although the study of human relations approach helps in identifying some


general and broad types of rules and considerations which help us in
establishing a rapport with other employees of the organizations, but it has
certain limitations. Ghulam Jilani conceives these limitations as follows.
a.

Vastness of Hunan Nature

Each individual and each situation is unique. Therefore, a knowledge of


general principles of psychology cannot be blindly applied to every
situation equally well. Man is a dynamic, purposive being with ever
changing moods and emotions, desires and aspirations, frustrations and
aggressions. Every administrator; therefore will have to use his insight,
experience, discretion in dealing with other human beings instead of
handling them mechanically on the basis of principles alone.
b.

Personal Prejudice

During the course of life, every individual acquires certain attitudes,


motives and forms of behaviour, which make him rigid in his relationship
with others. Awareness of this trait does help a person to become less rigid
and to meet situations of life better. To what extent one is capable of
adjusting the advantages and disadvantages of experience depends upon
the individual himself and differs from individual to individual and
situation to situation.
c.

Resistance to Change

When we learn more about how to motivate others it usually calls for some
change in us. Unlike a physician or a scientist, here the senior himself is
involved emotionally in the situation which makes his task all the more
difficult.
d.

Expecting Too Much from Others

The anxiety on the part of some superiors to make people work hard to get
the maximum without being sincere, defeats all efforts of motivation.
e.

Perfect Human Relationship: An Ideal

A leader, should not Strain him to achieve such an ideal. It is not only
impossible but behavior from others.

We can conclude from all this discussion that a good


manager/administrator trusts workers and given them freedom to plan out
their own mechanism of doing things. Praising before other workers,
giving increased responsibility, writing letters of recommendations,
praising before the higher authorities are some of the mechanisms that can
be used for good human relationships. Such a recognition and public
acknowledgement helps workers to value work, derive a sense of
satisfaction and feeling of importance, which go a long way in motivating
them for better work.
3.4

COORDINATION AND UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN

The school has an opportunity not only to make use of but also to serve its
community. The school can be of especial use to community dealing with
the problems of intercultural relations. The school community relation
dealing with human relations a significant one in our society. The school
community relation offers and excellent opportunity for harmonizing
cultural differences. In this way we not only have equality of opportunity
and freedom from a political stand point but we are also gradually
eliminating racial and ethnic discrimination in employment and in other
community activities.
The school is not alone in providing educational experiences for the child:
It is assisted by the community through which the child has a variety of
worthwhile and significant experiences. It is important, therefore, that you
should be informed about the community and the cultural, educational and
recreational opportunities, which it provides for school youth.
The community is a social laboratory in which pupils can gain valuable
suggestions in to local civic social and economic problems the community
serves not only as a laboratory but also as a focus of many school
activities. A close interaction is possible between community and the
school. The community is the source of the child's education during the
remaining 70 or 80% of his day. People who think about education in
broad terms as a process of teaching children the concepts of their society
and of teaching them how to behave in their social, civic and economic

relations, tend to think of the whole community as an educative agent.


From this point of view the school alone cannot do the job of education,
nor can the school and family together. Education is the result of living and
growing up in a community.
We should also remember that the citizens of the community support the
schools and that it is their children who attend. Therefore, it is the parents
and citizens who ultimately decide the type of schools that the community
should have. This means that it is important for the administration and the
teachers to keep closely in touch with the thinking of the citizens in the
community.
The activities of the school frequently are a center of cultural and
recreational activities for the community e.g. the athletic contests; speech
programs and dramatic productions provide splendid cultural and
recreational opportunities. In ways such as these, the school may serve as a
recreational and cultural center for both youth and adult groups in the
community.
The democratic problem in education is not primarily a problem of training
children, it is the problem of making a community with in which children
cannot help growing upto be democratic, intelligent, disciplined to
freedom, reverent of the goods of life and eager to share in tasks of the age.
A school cannot produce this result; nothing but a community can do so.
Because the community is so important in the education of children,
educators are interested in finding the best combination of school and
community experience for educational purposes.
Close relationship with community groups is essential for good
understanding. It is therefore; important that you as a teacher do everything
you can do strengthen the programmed of school by developing a close
relationship with community. The teacher will be happier and more
successful of the community in which he teachers become his home.

Head Master's Divided Work

"Billet" evaluated the different schools of America and prepared a


timetable for headmaster's activities. We can follow this timetable in
Pakistani schools with some ordinary changes:

Distribution Daily Work

1. Official Work 21%

7. Faulty meeting 5.9%

2. School inspection 11.7%


8. Attendance in local function 6.5%
3. Teaching work 7%

9. Look after of school building 3.5%

4. Counseling with teachers 9%


10. Checking of school records 6.1%

5. Counseling with students 6.5%11. School planning 6.4%


6. Meeting with parents 6.2%
12. Evaluation of students activities 7.2%

13. Other Activities 3%

3.4.1

Principal Teacher

Position of a Head Master in a School


The Head Master holds the key position in a school just like the captain of
a ship holds the key position on a ship. The Head Master is the cocoordinating agency that keeps the balance and ensures the harmonious
development of the whole institution. He sets the tone of the school and is
the chief force in molding the traditions. He occupies a central position in
the school and has -a multi dimensional role to play. Often it is Head
Master who is praised or blamed for earning a good or bad name and
reputation for a school. Hence it is sometime said," As is the Head Master
so is the school". The old and new idea about Head Master/Principal The
old idea of Head Master was that an ogre, who used to confine himself to
the office and around with a cane, ready to inflect corporal punishment
with slightest provocation is that the whole school would have filled with
an atmosphere of fear on his appearance. But time and again this idea has
been exploded and now a days an ideal Head Master is considered as one
who though retains a dignified superiority over the whole school is to be
approached by the youngest boys in the school. With impurity and readily
listens to the complaints of all those who are in and outside the school. He
generally takes a deep interest in the problems of the school. Specially
those, which are faced by the students.
Steps to be followed by the Head master for maintenance of good human
relations with the teaching staff
Following are the steps, which if followed by a Head Master in a school
will create a good relationship between him and his staff with the
maximum benefit to the school.
1.

Basic attitude

Pre-requisite to the administrator's (Head Master) skill in Human Relations


is his basic attitude. He must have a strong and overwhelming belief in the
sure worth of all individuals. He should think that even the least
experienced teacher in his staff is to some extent possible for the well
being and betterment of the whole institution. This attitude will naturally

lead to the cultivation of self-respect and sense of responsibility among the


teachers with the favorable result of maximum contribution to the
institution.
2.

Good will

Actually for from being an occult science, a human relation is nothing


more than good will and applied common sense. Hence for a Head Master
the basic imperative of good human relations is good will. A successful
school system must be perambulated with a spirit of good will. All the
techniques of Human relations that are employed by a Head Master will be
wasted, impact dangerous if a feeling of mutual good will is lacking. This
feeling should be evident in his behavior and is not needed to be mentioned
by him in the staff meetings.
The Head Master whose behavior patterns believe his statements will
invariably find it difficult to maintain good Human Relations with his staff.
3.

Familiarity with Teachers

The first task for a head Master is to get to know his staff. He must try to
understand their social back ground, their educational background and their
personal history, so that he may be able sympathetically to understand their
difficulties and their relation to life and its various situations. This
understanding and familiarity is not some thing to happen over might but
will be a result of this, teachers will start realizing the interest taken by the
Head Master in their well being and the natural outcome will be the
concentration of teachers efforts for the progress and uplift of the school.
4.

Democratic Attitude in Dealings with Staff

As time goes on, the conditions, daily life and behavior of the people have
been changed; the autocratic attitude is becoming less important. There is a
global demand for democratic attitude to be adopted in every institution.
Definitely school is not an exception.
A Head Master is a leader of a group and a leader is one who secures cooperation of his followers and this is possible only when he adopts a
democratic attitude in his dealings with his staff members. But his
leadership becomes all the more difficult because often he has under him

persons who are equal to him in qualification. In army a person in


command is usually out and out superior to the common soldiers. In such a
case leadership is easy but in school, the situation is different as a Head
Master leads people who use to be equally intelligent and well qualified. In
such a situation, the only way, which can facilitate the job of a Head
Master, is the democratic attitude. For running the school affairs with a
smooth face, cooperation of the staff members is a must but co-operation
and autocracy can not go hand in hand with each other. Another short
coming of the autocratic environment in the school is that teachers will
never open their lips from the fear of taking the risk of annoying their boss
or that the suggestion if put forward by them will not be entertained by the
Head Master.
5.

Friendly Attitude towards the Staff

The relationship between the Head Master and staff should be based upon
sound and warm friendship. This will lead to the flow of creative and
beneficial ideas from the teachers towards the Head Master.
Naturally, he will not have equal friendly attitude with every member of
the staff, some will attract him more than others but he can maintain a
friendly attitude towards all members of the staff so that they may feel that
he is sympathetic with them and honestly tries to understand their point of
view and their difficulties.
It is most important that in cultivating the friendship, initiative must be
taken by the Head Master. Specially this friendly attitude if already exists,
will turn the supervisory visit of head Master to a teacher's class from a
fearful affair to a pleasant experience. It will have a direct favorable effect
upon both the Head Master and teacher definitely an indirect one upon the
students.
But one thing must be remembered that friendly attitude does not mean
becoming easy, going or letting things slide. Whenever a Head Master
finds any slackness or carelessness on part of the teacher, he should act
sharply and to the point. But this can be done in a sympathetic way n
understanding of the teacher, environment and conditions of one at fault.

The friendly attitude will make the rebuke more keenly felt and far more
effective.
6.

Praise your Teacher Openly and admonish him Privately

This is the most cardinal principle in the maintenance of good relationship


with the teacher by the Head Master. The principle is based up on the
saying of "Syrus" who states that "Admonish your friend privately and
praise him openly.
If there are good qualities in your teacher, mention them frequently so that
the other staff members can take an example.
Some times at the time of a Head Master's visit to a class of a teacher, he
finds him teaching some thing wrong or in a wrong way and he likes to set
the thing right there. But it should be done either carefully or the teacher
might be corrected privately after the class is over. But never ever the
discussion and suggestions be made in front of the students or teachers, as
the students always hold their teacher in a high esteem and any careless act
on such occasion on part of the head Master will shatter down the trust of
the students which they put in their teacher and also the self confidence of
the teacher. The result will be the loss of interest in the school affairs.
7.

Sharing the Staff in Important Matters

Education is a group work or teamwork or co-operative enterprise and the


fruitful results could be reaped when combined efforts are exercised.
Whenever a head Master thinks of brining a change or launching a new
plan, he should consult all of his staff members by arranging staff meetings
with them. But these meetings should not be a routine matter but in the real
sense of giving the staff maximum opportunity to share their ideas and
proposals concerned to the plan because group mind is more fertile than
individual and group action is more fruitful than individual. In this way
they will feel that the school belongs not only to the Head Master but to all
of them as they are given full opportunities to participate in the school
problems. Hence they will consider the problem of the school as their own
and well utilize all of their energies for the progress of school.

When a head Master is desirous for brining some innovations, the first
thing for him is to use a language that fully conveys his meanings to the
teachers. But at times he will face opposition. In such a case he should be
open minded and welcome suggestions from the staff and if possible
reconsider and present the plan or scheme in a modified form or if it is not
possible and the plan beans a real importance for the school according to
him. He can ask the staff to give their idea or scheme a trail for certain
length of time promising that if it is found in effective will be given up.
One last thing which is worthy to mention here is whenever a head Master
goes first to a school, he should not rush for changes and embarking upon
extensive programmers of reforms, let him give the staff, the pupils and
their parent's time to know him. Hence he will get much quicker progress
in the long run if he starts slowly and gradually.
3.4.2

Teacher's Students

The modern approach is child oriented i.e. the student occupies the central
position in teaching learning process. In other words it means that learning
by the student is more important than teaching by the teacher therefore
advocates of modern education stress that teacher should gradually make
himself less, important but actually he can not make himself invisible as
students will always look up to him as a guide and facilitator and friend. So
he must be careful about his precept as proverbially "example is better than
precept". But both are equally important for a teacher. As if a teacher says
one thing and does another, pupil will lose interest in him.
A teacher should be a dignified man, which of course does not mean unnecessary strictness or rigidity on his part. If he is calm and judicious in his
dealings and. clean in personal habits, will tend to cultivate the same in
those around him.
Importance feather-Student Relationship
The major function of a teacher is to guide leaner in acquiring knowledge
and ways of behaving and this can be done effectively when there is
shrinkage of the distance between the teacher and the taught. In other

words when there is an establishment of warm, friendly and sympathetic


relationship between the two. Following are some of its benefits.
1.

Maximum learning can take place when the classroom situation


and environment is favorable and conducive. Besides so many
other factors which together lead to the production of such type of
environment good relationship between teacher and the taught is
the chief one.

2.

Maximum understanding of the subject taught in the classroom is


possible only when the traditional fearful and antagonistic
relationship between teacher and the taught is replaced by
pleasant relationship between the two, as it will lead to the
cultivation of self-confidence among the students. There will be
maximum contribution from their side in the learning process.
They will not hesitate or afraid of raising questions which will
lead to better understanding of ideas or concepts, which a teacher
want them to receive.

3.

In a way, job of teacher also becomes easy when on the spot


learning takes places through students involvement hence there
will be a better and quick understanding of the subsequent
difficult parts of the subject to come as students will be already
having concrete basis to conceive the advance ideas and concepts.

4.

Education is over all growth and development of the whole


personality of a student and a student in his school life is
confronted by variety of problems. If a good relationship exists
between him and his teacher, he can be proved as a good
substitute for his parents. He will bring all of his problems and
will share frankly with his teacher. Now his teacher is in better
position than his parents to get a proper relation to his problems
and in this way over all growth and development is ensured only
because of good relationship.

5.

The success of the guidance service if there are any in a school is


mainly dependent upon the favorable relationship between the
teacher administering or extending guidance services and the

students who seek proper guidance. Above all through the


establishment of good relationship with students, a teacher could
be of a help specifically to background students as only he knows
better that some of them are 'late bloomers" and he can encourage
them by words and actions.
Improvement of Teacher-Student Relationship
Teachers want to be admired and respected by their pupils. In order to
achieve pupils acceptance, the teacher needs to display those
characteristics, which have been briefly taken in to account in the very start
of this topic i.e.
1.

He should be on cordial and friendly relationship with his


students.

2.

He should be very much careful about his example as well as


precept i.e. there should be no contradiction between his words
and deeds. He should act upon what ever he says i.e. not applying
the formula "do as what I say but don't do what I myself do ". As
in this case pupil will lose their interest in him.

3.

He must possess dignity, poise and self-assurance. But dignity


does not mean un-necessary strictness or seriousness on the other
hand he must be easily accessible to his students.

4.

He should be calm and judicious in trying situations and avoid


favoritism but should equally treat all of his students without any
bias.

5.

He should readily join with the students in co-curricular activities,


as it will keep him young, enthusiast and optimist. But
unfortunately most of the teachers feel reluctant to participate in
co-curricular activities and think their duties are over, after class
work is finished. This is wrong as in modern progressive type of
schools what happens on the playground is considered as
important as that which happens with in the class room. As former

leads to their physical and social development while the latter one
is concerned with their intellectual development.
6.

One last but not the least thing is that a teacher impresses his
students in many ways. His every action is keenly observed by his
students and is of course imitated sometimes he is a hero at other
time he is taskmaster and still in other time he is a philosopher.
Therefore he should be very cautious and careful about his
conduct and character as whatever he does will invariably affect
those around him. His pupils will respect him if he himself
respects rules of the school. In short, in order to exert a desirable
influence upon learners, a teacher should give time and attention
to improve his own personal asset to the end that they would exert
positive rather than negative effect upon the young people.

Many of the problems that are experienced by teachers in their


relationships with their pupils are rooted in the many factors of influence
that have been discussed throughout this topic. In summary the ways in
which teacher-pupil relationships can be improved included.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

3.4.3

Smaller classes
Improved teaching procedures.
More homogeneous grouping of pupils.
Greater teacher's insight into young'pupils abilities, interests and
attitude.
More effective counseling services.
Greater administrative, parents and community co-operation.
These conditions constitute ideal school situations. Budgetary
allowances and other practical considerations often make it
impossible to realize all of these ideals.
Teacher - Teacher

Head Master and Teacher VS Parents


School is nothing else but an organized and systematic extension of
services previously provided at home. These services include imparting
knowledge of culture, traditions, and heritage, religious and moral values.
But increasing complexity of life style and social environment also scarcity

of time and educational facilities at home led to the creation of a new


institution called as school. Despite the fact schools are now-a-days doing
a great deal in administering/ imparting these services from parents side
these efforts cannot be fruitful in bringing a desirable degree of perfection
in child's whole some personality development. Therefore it is need of the
day that there should be a close harmony in the efforts from both sides i.e.
Head Master and teacher v/s parents in order to achieve the desirable goals.
Hence the usefulness of a school largely depends upon its closeness of
contact with home.
Who will bring them closer to each other?
Well, all the Head Masters, teachers and the parents should play their roles
in the establishment of this relationship among themselves. But
unfortunately owing probably to the fact that many of the parents of the
present generation of schoolboys are either un-educated or only semieducated, the difficulty of securing parental co-operation is very great. Of
course each year this difficulty decreases and in proportion to the decrease
the effectiveness of the schools will increase. At present in the best of
government schools, not talking of high standard Private schools, we find
the Head Master, the staff and the boys pulling in one direction and a large
number of parents? Pulling in the other. Unless all four are pulling in the
same direction, the work of the school is hampered severely and its
effectiveness is impaired.
Scotland is probably one out of the advanced countries of the world where
this parental co-operation is found to a highest degree while our's probably
is the reverse case.
Now, owing to the above facts, principal of a school is the person who with
the sincere contribution and participation of his staff members is supposed
to take the initiative for this purpose he must retain cordial relationship
with parents and guardians of his students. He should endeavor by every
means to secure their good will and confidence as for as possible without
weakening discipline or sacrificing what he believes to be for his pupils.

3.4.4

Teacher - Community

How to Establish this Relationship?


1.

2.

3.

4.

First of all there should be the development of a basic attitude


among the principal and his staff members regarding this
relationship owing to the tremendous importance, which it has
both for students as well as for the school. They should chalk out
a comprehensive programmed for it and then slowly and gradually
work according to it.
Probably the surest way if not the only way for establishing this
relationship, students can be used as effective and easily available
medium among the three parties head Master, teachers and the
parents. But for the purpose again the first thing to do which I
have already mentioned in the previous pages, is to take the
students first in to confidence and earn their co operation by
teachers through their personal qualities of justice, firmness,
accessibility, courtesy, sympathy and dignity. If a master fails in
any of these qualities on any occasion, he has taken a step back
and ground lost is difficult to recover.
Favoritism or loss of any qualities mentioned above on part of any
staff member will get them out of touch from their students and
through them from their parents.
Students are reasonable beings. They like to have things
explained to them. For example a new order is issued in a school
that "all students are to be weighed". A bad master merely tells his
class to go and get weighted. They go like a flock of sheep. The
good master explains exactly, why they have to be weighted? The
students report the master at home and give the reasons and the
parents are interested and begin to believe that there may be
something in the case of the body after all. No amount of letters to
parents will produce the same effect.

As long as masters know that the co-operation and contact with parents is
essential and do everything in their power to secure it and as long as
parents recognize that they must help their children, the master and the

school as for as they can, if they wish their children education to be


thorough and useful, all will come out right in the end.
Means of establishing H.M. Teachers.v/s Parents relationship
Following are in brief various methods by which this relationship can be
developed.
1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

6.
7.
8.

9.

By regularly sending them casual reports and progress reports of


the students.
Through personal contact of the Head Master and teachers with
the parents of their pupils.
To encourage students sending letters to their parents by
themselves mentioning their improvement, comments about
school and teachers.
To send parents sufficient notice about their children weaknesses
and remedial measured to be taken rather than mere detention
cards.
By inviting them to school for an interview and hold with them
meetings in special cases when student is weak and detailed
discussions are needed for arriving at a proper solution to the
problem.
By inviting parents to witness any special skill or capability
which their child possess and needs to be given proper attention.
By inviting them to career conferences, where experts in special
fields be arranged to deliver lectures.
Now-a-days one occasion, which is specially observed in private
schools, is the parent's day where parents of the students are
invited and they are familiarized with different facilities and
equipment's utilized by the school for their children.
Parents can also be invited to the celebration ceremony of some
other important national event like, Defense Day, Pakistan Day
etc.

Mental Health of a Teacher


Definition:
Mental health includes the ability of management oneself and ones
environment in the effective and growth proceeding way.

Mental health effects the mental organization and performance of an


individual.
A mentally sound individual has the ability to adjust himself to his
environment and situation. He does not permit the cares and worries to
affect his personality and remains mentally and emotionally balanced.
Contrary to this, a mentally un-sound person is he, who cannot adjust
himself to new situations. Such a person always remains mentally and
emotionally perplexed.
If a teacher is not mentally sound, he will be un-able to inspire his students
that much. He will be incapable of transmitting of his ideas and store of
knowledge to the students.
The students of such a teacher are far from developing a positive attitude
towards teaching. So, resultantly the teaching learning process will not be
satisfactory and encouraging.

UNIT-4
SCHOOL DISCIPLINE
4.1

MEANING, DEFINITIONS AND PURPOSE OF SCHOOL


DISCIPLINE

The word discipline has been derived from the Latin word "Disciple",
"Disciples" which means followers, and pupil. According to dictionary,
discipline means mental and moral training, bringing under control.
Webster's dictionary gives three basic meanings to the world discipline.
It states that it is training that correct mould or perfects.
It states that it is control gained by enforcing obedience.
It states punishment.
If we combine meanings first and second we can say that discipline
involves the conditioning or molding of behavior, by applying rewards or
penalties. The third meaning is narrower. It pertains only to the act of
punishing wrongdoers.
Discipline in the broad sense means orderliness the opposite of confusion.
It simply means working, co-operating and behavior in normal and orderly
way.
Discipline in a school usually means order and system in doing things,
regularity and obedience to commands. Discipline means regularity,
punctuality, co-ordination and systematic performance of curricular and cocurricular activities in school.
Discipline does not mean mere the name of rules, and regulation, but a
system, procedure and line of action to achieve pre-determined goal. From
the narrow point of view, discipline means subjection to authority,
obedience to law and order and bringing the child under control. From a
broader or modern point of view, by discipline we mean the training of
mind, manners and attitudes, sublimation of instincts bringing the lower

impulses of the child under control, formation of right habits and in fact the
development of character.

According to Dr. Spiegel "Discipline is the force that prompts an

individual or a group to observe the rules, regulation and


procedures which are deemed to be necessary to the attainment of
an objective. It is also the exercise of restrained or the
enforcement of penalties for the violation of group regulation".
According to Ordway, Discipline is the orderly conduct of affairs

by the members of an organization who adhere to its necessary


regulation because they desire to co-operate harmoniously in
forwarding the end which the group has in view, and willingly
recognize that to do this, wishes must be brought into a reasonable
unison, with the requirements of the group in actions.
According to some educationists discipline term refers to a
condition in the organization where staff member conduct
themselves in accordance with the organization rules and standard
of acceptable behaviour.

According to all these statements the simple definition is that, "It is a


process of training a work so that he/she can develop self-control and can
become more effective in his work. It is an attitude of mind, a product of
culture and a particular environment, which applies an individual to
willingly co-operate in the observance of the rules and regulation in
organization.
4.3

OLD AND MODERN CONCEPT OF SCHOOL


DISCIPLINE:

The older conception of discipline was concerned with maintaining order.


The school discipline was confined to rod, (pure and simple). Sultan
Mayodan writes that the birth and the book were the two installments with
which the teacher worked and they were often employed in such close
cooperation that an ingenious teacher is said to have drilled the idea of an
active verb into the head of one of the helpless pupils by the sentence, "I
chastise thee" giving simultaneously a practical demonstration of the action

signified by the verb by bringing the cane down forcibly upon the poor
pupil head."
Fear atmosphere prevailed in the school the student had to abide by certain
rigid rules and regulations and any breach of these meant penalties. The
rod and instruction were deemed inseparable. Discipline was enforced
from above and known as 'external discipline'.
But this form of discipline does not ensure permanent results because it
seeks to treat symptoms but no cure the disease that produces them. The
teacher may be able to impose his will upon his pupils, he may be able to
insist upon and enforce obedience, but he does not touch the inner strings
of conduct; he does not command love and respect. If pupils obey him it
because of fear not because of respect and love. This sort of discipline
touches only external conduct and makes the pupil a successful hypocrite.
The personality of the pupil is psychologically split up into two: the outer
one orderly obedient under the teacher's eye and the inner and real one
positively dangerous, asserting itself when the teacher is away.
4.4

MODERN CONCEPT OF DISCIPLINE

According to modern conception school discipline cannot be conceived in


terms of military discipline, which is based on:

There is not to reason why


There is not to make reply
There is not to do and die.

Today the rod is no longer the symbol of pedagogical authority. The


teacher is no more an Army Officer or Policeman. He is now an Engineer.
The modern conception of discipline is therefore, of freedom. It is positive
rather than negative. It must be self-discipline or creative discipline.
In the words of Reborn, "True discipline should be mainly positive and
constructive rather than negative and restrictive. It must be creative. It
should build up rather than tear down. The goal of emotional control is
character building is a constructive process. The desirable requisites are not
repression but expression and wise sublimation.

Discipline should be maintained through positive measures and not


through negative measures of it is to be creative. Punishment is not
creative. It is negative. It can stop anything but it cannot create anything.
By punishment a boy may, for example, stop telling lies but he will not
love truth.
Types of Discipline
1.
2.
3.

Internal Discipline.
External Discipline.
Social Discipline.

1.

Internal Discipline

We can have the discipline, which is the result of the gradual building up
of habits, of self control and of co-operation accepted by the pupil and
carried out not because imposed from above, but because of its recognition
of its necessary and value.
This type of discipline refers to rewards appreciations and behavior,
constructive, supports, reinforcement of approved personal action and
behavior, incentive payments and promotion to motivate employees to
extend their co-operation, to management and work willingly conform to
rules and regulation. This discipline is achieved when the school
management applies principles or positive motivation.
2.

External Discipline

This type of discipline Js founded on fear and is imposed from outside and
from above the use of authority.
This discipline is referred to the people who forced or constrained to obey
orders and to perform their tasks in accordance with the rules and
regulations that have been laid down, failing which they would have to
suffer penalties.
However this kind of discipline ensures only the minimum standards of the
students so that they avoid indiscipline like a famous proverb. "Spare the
rod spoil the child".
3.

Social Discipline

Social discipline means to create such conducive environment, where an


individual obeys the rules and regulation willingly i.e., like in civilized
nations, people wait for their term instead of breaking the queue. This can
be made by internal persuasion and where needed external measure also be
made.
Importance of Discipline
An opinion may be formed about a school by observing the discipline
among its students. It is necessary for every school to enforce certain rules
of conduct to ensure discipline. Conversely, discipline is essential if rules
are to be implemented. If the students and the teachers of a school are not
disciplined, it will be difficult for the school to realize the goals of
education namely all round development. To inculcate the virtues,
desirable in a good citizen, discipline is absolutely essential.
Forms of Indiscipline School
1.

Reaching the School Late: There can be many reasons for

unpunctuality. It is possible that due to some domestic circumstances a


student gets late or other students might be teasing him while he is on the
way to school. Hence, before punishing the student on this score the
principal or the teacher should find out the course.
2.
Talking in the Class: The reason for this may either be an
uninteresting method of teaching or the large number of students in the
class. In order to make teaching interesting the teacher should try to get the
co-operation of the students along with other useful methods. Students who
are found talking may be seated separately.
3.
Destroying the School Property: The students should be punished
for this and some fines should be realized from them as far as possible. If
the student can repair the articles he should be required to do so.
4.
Neglecting Homework: There may be several reason for not
doing the homework. It is possible that the amount of homework in the

various subjects becomes so much that the student cannot do it, or due to
family circumstances he is unable to complete it or his negligence may be
responsible for it. In fact, the real cause should be found out before giving
any punishment.
5.
Bullying the Younger Students: It will be in this case to make the
offender apologize.
6.
Telling Lies: The students often tell lies for fear of punishment.
Hence, they should be treated with love and sympathy.
7.
Disrespectful Behavior towards the Teacher: First of all the
cause for this should be found out. The headmaster may make the student
apologize for his offense is repeated the offender may be given corporal
punishment.
8.
Truancy: Some students run away from the school. This may be
due to disinterestedness in studies. Hence, the individual difficulties of the
student should be attended to. It should also be found out how the student
passes his time after running away from the school.
9.
Stealing Things: Some students steal pencils, books, pens and
other articles from their classmates. The reason for this habit may be an
excessive fondness for that particular article, self-conceit, exhibition
complex or the feeling of revenge. Hence, the real cause should first be
found out. If excessive fondness is responsible for this, those articles
should be provided to the student. If exhibition complex is responsible
other means should be provided for the expression of this complex. The
student be treated with love in order to cure him of the feeling of revenge.
10.
Copying of Examinations: Some students have the habit of
copying at examinations. For this the school should raise its moral standard
and instill .in the students the spirit of morality. The students should be
strictly warned when caught for the first time, but one who does this
repeatedly should be turned out from the examination hall.
Principles of Discipline

In a democratic society discipline should be self-imposed, otherwise it will


assume the form of an external imposition. For the inculcation of the habit
of self-discipline we may keep the following in mind:
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

The basis of discipline should be mutual love between the teacher


and the student. There should be no element of fear, because
discipline based on fear does not serve its ends. The students
should obey the teacher out of a feeling of reverence and not out
of fear. On the basis of respect alone mutual confidence may be
created between the teachers and the students. This spirit of
mutual confidence is the true and permanent foundation of selfdiscipline.
The student remains in the school for about 6 or 7 hours and the
remaining time is spent either at home or in society. Evidently, the
responsibility of inculcating discipline in the students does not fall
only on the school. The guardians and the society also have a
responsibility in this respect. Hence, the co-operation of the
guardians should be elicited for the establishment of discipline.
Through discussions with guardians, the problems and difficulties
of the students should be found out. If the cooperation of those
persons, who are closely related with the students, is available, it
will not be difficult to discipline the students.
Discipline should not be enforced on the basis of punishment.
Punishment should be give only when it is unavoidable.
It is one of the demands of a democratic set-up that each
individual should have control over himself. Only he, who can
influence others, knows how to exercise control over himself. The
students should be made responsible for the establishment of
discipline amongst themselves, because in this way they will
exercise control over themselves and will exert a good influence
over the others. Hence, the headmaster should give an opportunity
to the students to control themselves.
Discipline should be regarded as indispensable for the collective
life of the school. Its significance should be well explained to the
students. This means that breach of discipline should not be
regarded as a revolt against the teacher but an attack on the

6.

collective life of the school. If a regard for the collective life in


the school is created in the students, they will themselves
understand the significance of maintaining discipline.
In the interest of discipline it is necessary to provide in the school
the necessary facilities for study and teaching. In this connection
the following things should be taken into account:

Classroom:
There should be sufficient and comfortable chairs and desks for the
students.
The School:
The necessary means for the physical, mental and moral development of
the students should be available in the school. The standard of teaching in
the school should be of a high order.
The Headmaster/Principal and the Teachers:
The headmaster/principal and teachers should be efficient when
discharging their various responsibilities.
The Home:
The environment of the home should be peaceful. The people at home
should take an interest in the education of the student and should not place
any hindrance in his studies.
7.

8.

It is necessary in the interest of discipline to make the student


understand that discipline does not consist only of observing the
rules and regulations of the school, but it also includes the
observance of the laws of society, that is, discipline is not
confined to the school only but is related to the whole-life.
Since discipline is related to the whole-life, attention should
necessarily be paid to the following:

Observing rules to maintain one's health and to avoid evil habits.

To make constant efforts towards mental development.


Inculcation in the student of the democratic virtues of dutifulness,
and co-operation and the ability to discharge obligations and
responsibilities.

To become liberal minded.


To avoid ill will against anybody and to be always imbued with
the spirit of tolerance, love and justice towards others.

Such an atmosphere should be built up in the school that the abovementioned virtues may be automatically developed in the students. The
above discussion indicates the basis on which discipline should be built
into a democratic society. In a totalitarian set-up discipline is enforced
between the master and the dependent. In a democracy, free individuals
have to learn to discipline themselves. There is no room for any misgiving
in this sphere. The essential elements of discipline in a democracy are
enumerated below:

A compromise between individual rights and those of others.


A regard for others personalities.
Tolerance, love and justice for others.
Devotion to the nation and society.
Sacrifice of self-interest for social good.

If we place before the students the above ideals from the very beginning
and inspire them to live up to the same, they will become disciplined and
contribute towards the strengthening of the democratic set-up in our
country.
Means for the Inculcation of Discipline
We have indicated that in order to make the students discipline. We should
create the suitable atmosphere in the school. Mere theoretical discussions
and speeches will not suffice. Hence the organization of school, its ideals
and all its activities and programs should be based on democratic
principles. It is obvious that the best means of discipline is the maintenance
of the necessary atmosphere and for this we have to give our attention to
positive measures. Under the special circumstances some measure may be
necessary.
Positive Measures

Pupil's self-government.
Parent teacher co-operation.
Moral Instruction.

Desirable tone and tradition of the school.


Provision of necessary facilities for studies in the school.
Organized games and sports.
Co-curricular activities in the school.
Due recognition of the merits of the various students.
Corporate life of the school.

Negative Measures
The negative measures include various types of punishment, which we
shall discuss in a coming page.
Causes of Indiscipline in our Schools
At present indiscipline in our educational institutions is a serious problem.
It extends from the secondary schools, to the universities. In society itself
we find several manifestations of indiscipline and it is the wonder that
these have serious repercussions on the educational institutions as well.
The following may be some of the important causes of indiscipline in our
schools:
1.

2.

Lack of Leadership in Teachers: Today teachers do not enjoy that


respect in society, which they did in the past. Consequently,
students also do not show due respect to their teachers. Some
teachers get involved in the cesspool of politics and self-interest
in the development of the students. Very often these teachers
excite the students and use them as tools for the realization of
their selfish ends. Due to the practice of private tuition's the
prestige of the teacher in society has gone down. Their miserable
economic conditions add to this. Due to all these reasons, the
teachers have lost originality in thinking. As a result, they are
incapable of giving guidance to students in the various situations
of life. So it is no wonder to find indiscipline among the students.
The Current Education System: The current system of education
is being criticized at all times. Hence, the students have begun to
feel that the education, which is being given to them, is not good.
As a result they have no regard for this education. They consider
it merely as a means of getting some employment. The prime aim

3.

4.

of the present day educational system has become the securing of


a good division at annual examinations and the students do not
desist from adopting any means to achieve this objective. This is
also a cause of indiscipline.
Lack of a sustaining Ideal in the Students: At present the
condition of our society is pitiable. Many people, because their
self-interest, have started attaching greater importance to the ends
rather that to the means to achieve them. The social values are
undergoing rapid changes; as such the individual errs in fixing his
moral standard. This has shaken the very foundation of our
society. Today the individual is not sure about the security of his
life and property. Therefore, there is a lack of healthy ideal among
the students. Hence indiscipline is increasing among them.
Economic Difficulties: Our economic conditions have
deteriorated to a deplorable degree. The population has increased,
unemployment is a national problems. The students are always
haunted by the fear that their future is dark. So they cannot chalk
out their path of duty and on occasions they behave in an
undisciplined manner.

From the above discussions we may conclude that the responsibility for
indiscipline does not ret only with the school, but also with the home, the
society and the government. Hence for its eradication the co-operation of
all the concerned is necessary. On the basis of the causes mentioned above,
some suggestions are given below to solve the problem of indiscipline.
Suggestions for Rooting out Indiscipline

In order to create in the teachers a spirit of leadership, their living


standard should be raised. Their emoluments will have to be
sufficiently increased. The will have to be provided with the
required facilities so that they are not compelled to undertake
private tuition's. This will afford opportunities to them for selfdevelopment and their moral strength will be increased. It will
develop in them the power of leadership and they will be able to
give correct guidance to the students.

1)
2)

3)
4)

5)

6)

7)

In order act between the teachers and the taught the number of
students in a class should be within reasonable limits.
Vocational e included in the educational set-up so that the students
may bet education according to their particular tastes and
aptitudes.
Lack of funds should not cause any hindrance in the path of the
higher education of any student.
Each individual should be given an equitable opportunity in the
scheme of education according to his individual merits and
demands.
Efforts should be made to minimize the defects of the current
educational system through constructive suggestions and mere
theorizing should be avoided. Merely theoretical criticism creates
distrust in the students.
Such ideals should be inculcated in the students as may create in
them the spirit of tolerance, love, fairing and self-sacrifice for the
good society.
Such conditions should be created that the students may get full
opportunities for their physical, mental and moral development.

Motivation of School Discipline


Discipline has been given a very significant place in modern educational
thought. To run a school in a satisfactory manner, disciplined students are
essential. The importance of rewards and punishment has been recognized
to maintain discipline in schools. We shall understand both these factors in
below pages.
Rewards
There are different ways of giving rewards I our schools today. On
securing a high position in some field, a student is rewarded with some
plaything or a trophy, a medal, books or certificates. To appreciate the
students for the good work done and to encourage them in this habit,
rewards are given. Rewarding students is important due to the following
factors.
The spirit of competition is awakened in the students and they get an
incentive to work satisfactorily and systematically.

The tendency to discharge duties readily and to imbibe good habits is


created in the students.
There has been some criticism of the system of giving rewards; the basis of
their argument is that nature has not gifted everyone with equal or similar
intelligence and physical powers. He who has a sharp intelligence and
good physical power will get the reward. Hence, a reward does not attach
importance to the labor of an individual. It is also said that students who do
not get rewards become lazy and their progress is checked. Keeping this
criticism in view we may now think about the aims and occasions for
rewards. Some people are of the view that rewards should be given
collectively and only in particular circumstances should these be given
individually. The moral aspect of the child should be given greater.
Consideration in the award of rewards. The rewards, which are based on
the day-to-day work and on the conduct of the student, have a special
importance. Rewards given on the basis of some particular performance
(standing first in the class, securing good position in games and sports or
participation in Scout and Red Cross activities, etc.) are indicative of the
achievement of the student only in one particular field. Hence, these cannot
be regarded as very significant. The hardworking and painstaking students
must be rewarded. While rewarding them it should be clearly pointed out
to them that they have been given the reward for their good qualities. This
will inspire other students to become hard working.

4.5

REWARD / PUNISHMENT, TYPES AND ITS EFFECTS OF


DISCIPLINE

Punishment
An institution, society or association is influenced by contemporary
thought. Our country has adopted a democratic setup. Hence the influence
of democratic thought is evident in the political, cultural, educational and
other fields of our life. In the past, corporal punishment was regarded as
very effective and it was considered necessary for maintaining discipline.
In a democracy great importance is attached to the personality of the
individual, who is given due freedom and opportunity to develop himself.
This aim cannot be achieved if punishment is given in order to get a thing
done by the student. Punishment destroys in the children the spirit of love,
courage and also the power of discussion. Their health is impaired, several
mental complexes arise and their physical, mental and spiritual
development is stemmed. Thus punishment defeats the purpose of
education.
To abolish the system of punishment from our schools, society has to
become perfect. But this is not possible. There are sure to be some
undesirable elements in us. Hence punishment cannot be totally banned. In
some situations punishment may create a conductive atmosphere to fulfill
the purposes of education. There are several types of punishments. We are
mentioning some of these below:
1.
Corporal Punishment: At present corporal punishment is given
to student in schools. Boxing the ear mildly, slapping or caning are some of
the forms of punishment given in schools. Corporal punishment should be
avoided. When all other forms of punishment have failed, only then should
corporal punishment be given. While giving corporal punishment the
following things may be kept in mind.
Corporal punishment should be given only for a very serious misconduct
or offence, viz., disrespectful behavior towards the teachers, disobedience,
agitation, serious charges relating to character etc.

The headmaster of the school alone should give corporal punishment. The
assistant teachers should not be given this right. Hen any serious charge
against any student is proved only then should corporal punishment be
given. It should not be given when there is any doubt regarding the
offence.
Small children should be given corporal punishment.
While inflicting corporal punishment, the health of the child should be
taken into consideration.
2.

Scolding: It proves very effective when employed properly. One

has to be very careful while scolding. Abusive language should not be


used.
3.
Insult: Insulting the student is a very bad punishment. If a teacher
makes a student in the class stand on the chair or makes a few unsavory
remarks against him, this will have greater and more lasting effect on him
than corporal punishment. Hence, great care should be taken in this
respect; the success of the scolding given depends on the personality of the
teacher.
4.
Fines: If the student has committed such an offence, which has
caused economic loss to the school or his class-fellows, fines may be
imposed in order to compensate the loss. However, the imposing of fines is
not very good.
1.

Detaining the Students after School Hours: This is not good

from the psychological point of view: The student begins to feel tired after
4 or 5 hours of work in the school and he is not inclined to read after that.
Sometimes the evil effect of this go so far that the student have not done
his homework, or has left out a portion of it, he should be systematic. A

psychological approach should be made so that the student may do his


work the next day and may become regular in his work.
2.
Social Boycott: If the students condemn any offence of a student
collectively, he is likely to give bad habit.
3.
Apologizing: If any student has committed a serious offence, he
may be asked to tender all apology. It will be better if he apologizes to the
teacher and headmaster.
4.
Removal from a Post of Personality: If a student does not
discharge his responsibilities or if he has done something wrong while
holding a responsible post, he should be removed from that office (viz.,
president ship, monitor ship or secretary ship of the class or some
association).
5.
Reducing Marks: It is seen in some schools that some marks are
awarded for good work and some marks are deducted when the student
misbehaves. If marks have been fixed for some work the awards should be
made separately for the work concerned. It is not desirable to deduct marks
from answer-books for any other wrong committed by the student
elsewhere.
Some Rules for Punishment
Punishment maintains discipline in schools. Hence, punishment should not
be given out of a feeling of revenge or retaliation. The following principles
should be borne in mind while awarding punishment.
1.

2.

3.

The main job of the school is to give education. Hence


punishment should be restored to under very special
circumstances.
Punishment should be given only, when sufficient proof is
available. There should be no feeling of revenge when punishing a
student.
If the offending student is tackled independently on a
psychological basis, it will be far better. In this way the students
will not commit the offence a second time.

4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.

10.

11.

Polite language should be used while warning the student.


Rousseau has accepted the principle of the punishment of natural
consequence, but if is not proper to use it everywhere, nor can it
be implemented everywhere.
The personality of the student should not be insulted, but only his
bad habits should be discouraged.
Expulsion from the school should be restored to only under very
special circumstances and for serious offences.
Only common punishments should be employed and while
awarding the punishment nothing should be said against the
student's family, his background or his parents.
Before awarding the punishment the parents of the, student should
also be informed for it is possible that the student may be brought
round through a warning.
Such a punishment should be given as may be acceptable to
society. It should not be that heavy punishment is given for minor
offences or light punishment for serious ones.
Corporal punishment should be resorted to for very serious
offences. It should not hurt the student unduly. It should not be
resorted to out of a feeling of revenge. No punishment should be
against the rules of the Education Department.

Punishment has been introduced with a view to maintaining discipline in


the school. In order that the students may be completely disciplined and
there may be no increase in indiscipline, many remedial measures may b
adopted. We mention below some of the main methods:
1)

2)
3)
4)

A complete meaningful contact should be maintained with the


student parents or guardians and they should be regularly
informed about the conduct, work and behavior of the students.
A close contact should be established with the students and they
should be treated sympathetically.
Each moment of student's life should be considered as useful and
he should be kept busy all the time.
A study of the student's nature, proclivity and work should be
made and he should be entrusted with responsible work suited to
his ability.

5)

Attention should be directed towards the individual behavior of


each student and the cause behind each breach of conduct should
be explored.

Punishment has been regarded as means for maintaining discipline in


schools. We should not consider it as an end in itself. If in our school it is
employed as a means and other remedial measures are also adopted, we
shall surely be successful in achieving the ideals of education.

UNIT- 5
CLASS ROOM AND ITS MANAGEMENT
5.1

THE CLASS AND ITS HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

What is Class?

A class is a unit of teaching.


Class is a group of pupil put together for the purpose of collective

instruction.
The class is called a homogeneous group of pupils. So that they

can be able to work together and progress together.


A group of students having the same age, equal mental, physical,

psychological qualities and other similar activities having


different teachers for each subject, even a separate training
teacher for their physical activities is known as a class.
A group of students possessing the same and equal characteristics

in all aspects studying under the supervision of different teachers


for each different subject.
A group of students reading or writing under the auspices of a

single teacher is called a classroom.


To educate a large number of pupils with minimum expenditure of
time, energy and money in a specific place or room is called a
class.

Class Room and its Management

Classroom management means what we do to ensure that pupils

are engaged in class.


To keep students physically and mentally busy in classroom is

called the classroom management.


The operation of all activities of a school in action properly inside
a room is called, classroom management.

According to Yoakum and Simpson, "Classroom management is the art of


organizing the class room". So factors affecting the classroom situations
have been already discussed in detail in the topic of "Arrangement/criteria

for classroom". Here we are concerned with physical aspect of classroom,


Teacher's role as a leader, Discipline in classroom, technique of control etc.
Advantages of Class Room Management
The planning of good classroom management procedures can anticipate
and avoid problems. Through planning some of the advantages of a well
managed classroom are:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Good classroom management enhances the mental and social


development of pupils.
Good classroom management facilities the achievement of goals
of instruction.
Good classroom management provides intellectual and physical
freedom without known parameters.
Good classroom allows children to develop skills of self-direction
and independence.
Good classroom management allows pupils to share some
responsibility for classroom management.
Good classroom management works toward a warm but firm
relationship between the teacher and the pupils.
Good classroom management results in positive attitudes of the
pupils toward the class.

Modem Concept of Student Classification


In classifying pupils, two functions of education must be kept clearly in
mind, namely, the integration and the differentiating functions. These apply
to all levels of education. In their application, the student should always
keep in mind that they are considered in accordance with the integrating
functions they performs, rather than as divisions made up of so many
separate grades, groups, or year. Within each group, the emphasis should
be upon the greatest possible educational and social maturation and
advancement of each pupil, considering the educational objectives to be
attained.

1.

The Integrating Function

Man's responsibility towards man demands the acquisition of knowledge,


skills, and appreciation, which must be acquired through the school. The
integrating function must recognize this fundamental, social objective. The
school should teach common understanding, common ideals, common
attitudes and a body of common knowledge and skills, which will enable
all men to live together with full recognition of their mutual
responsibilities and obligations. These facts should be taken into
consideration in classifying pupils and should apply to all levels of
education.
2.

The Differentiating Function

The differentiating function is based upon the well-known fact that


children differ. The existence of individual differences is a normal
condition of mature they cannot be dominate them. When one examines
the scores of any test, however simple be, is impressed with the wide range
of achievement and abilities revealed. Individuals are unlike not only
physically but in abilities and many other characteristics. While it is true
that one may tend to display superiority in one direction, may be less
proficient in another.
Provision for individual differences must be considered as an important
part of the educational function. Each pupil's varying abilities and
characteristics must be studied if he is to develop, as he should, in the
direction of a balanced life. At the same time education tends to increase
rather than decrease certain divergences among individuals. This is shown
by comparing cultures and civilizations as well as persons.
Basis of Classification at Elementary Level
In classifying children in the elementary school, the bases most commonly
used are chronological age, mental age, educational age, social age,
intelligence quotient and teacher's judgment. While no single basis may be
said to be used exclusively, the most common one is the chronological age
of the pupil.

Basis of Classification at Elementary Level:

Chronological age has been the chief basis of classification at the preprimary level within the larger group; however, small groups have been
organize around the maturity of the child, physical or social attributes and
other factors.
Basis of Classification at Secondary Level
1.
Many of the principles and practices which have been discussed
in elementary and pre-primary level have equal application to the
classification of pupils on the secondary level. Grouping of pupils in the
secondary school occurs through selection, or assignment to specific
courses of study, as academic, scientific, commercial and vocational
curricula. Choices affect assignment, as in elective or college preparatory
course, ones circle of friends and economic and social factors of home and
community environment. So pupils are classified and transferred as their
abilities seem to indicate or predict or as personal or parental choices
dictate.
Classification of the Exceptional Pupil
Special consideration should be given when classification the pupils who
vary markedly from the normal groups. Variation may be of a physical,
mental, social or emotional nature. Special classes may be arranged to care
for accelerated or retarded groups, gifted children or any other who come
within this classification. Children of similar characteristic may be grouped
without too great regard for chronological or mental age achievement.
Certain classroom procedures and equipments are necessary for the proper
instruction of these groups.

Need for Classification


The early schools were upgraded. Much of the teaching was individual, the
pupil coming up to the teacher's desk to recite his lesson. Some attempts
were made to classify the children into groups according to reading ability
by assigning them a particular reader or speller. However instruction and

recitation were largely individual. As more and more children came to be


educated, especially poor children were often grouped according to the
potentialities of their future careers and sent to appropriate schools and
class.
Classification of students is very necessary if a school has pupils/students
whose mental abilities are so low that they can achieve but little in subject
matter, it would be well to place them in a situation where they can have a
specially trained teacher. A number of schools, group together those pupils
who need applied work in certain area such as mathematics. In the same
way, those pupils who plan to attend college are often grouped together for
particular courses. There are also times when a number of pupils may be
placed in a temporary group for special help or remedial work. After
receiving the special assistance, these pupils return to the regular class.
There are teachers who group children for certain work, with in regular
class. A teacher may have a group of four working on one project and
another group on another project. The children in these groups should not
work together on all projects. What may be a good team in reading may not
be grouped correctly for the social sciences. A pupil who may be doing
poor work in one subject may be doing superior work in another subject. If
methods of grouping are used wisely the classroom instruction will be
facilitated.
Classification of pupils for instructional purposes is generally approved.
No two children are alike. The school must respect the individuality of
each child and do everything possible which will assure his success. The
school must make the adjustment that may be necessary in its instructional
or organizational plans. The integrating and differentiating functions of
education must be kept in mind when classifying pupils at any school
level.

5.2

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF


CLASSIFICATION

Advantages
It makes better provision for the social aspect of education, because there
is opportunity for co-operation, speech, social and political participation. It
assists in motivation, it appeals to desire for the good opinion of others and
to the interest in group-discovered problems.
It is economical, because it saves duplicate preparation and explanations.
It permits the slow learner to get something from the more rapid learner.
It also enables the fast learner to his material better through the experience
of explaining it to the slower pupil.
It reduces the amount of preparation that the teacher must make for his
daily work and simplifies the problem of management and discipline.
Disadvantages
It adversely affects both the slow child and quick learner because they have
to go at average rate.
It allows quick learner child to over-estimate his progress.
It concentrates the attention upon the average work of the class rather then
up the individuals. It prevents the more gifted to go ahead and use his extra
power upon the work of his own choice and thus he falls into habits of
idleness.
It prevents the teacher to catch little glimpses of the child's interests and
possible vocational tendencies.
It prevents the teacher to develop diagnostic skill in ascertaining just how a
child's mind works as it finds its way through a problem. Briefly, not only
should a child be assigned at the start to a class or a division of class
suitable to his mental capacity and attainments, but the school should be so
organized and administered as to provide for the smooth, continuous, and
natural progress of every pupil through the course. The classes should be

so organized and the pupil so promoted from class to class, that he finds
the level and kind of work most appropriate to him at each stage of his
educational course.
The Personality of the Teacher
There are some suggestions for an ideal teacher to adopt. These will make
him a person who possesses the qualities of a fit and proper person as a
teacher in the class. The intention of the teacher is to give the children
information and guidance, which will call forth their possibilities and fit
them for the work and leisure of life. He strives to train them or think
logically and widely, and to develop in them the power to make right
decision the teacher moulds the future citizens.
Confidence in One Self:
It is the first essential in a teacher. Confidence is born of resolution and
knowledge. So a teacher should have confidence in one self and not work
confused.
New Sense of Proportion:
A teacher should have a new sense of proportion of relative values in such
a way that he must see a situation from various sides not merely from the
subjective point of view.
Unequal Temper:
A teacher is a human being, but he should steadily diminish in frequency
as his or her experience increases, and should eventually cease altogether.
A Sense of Humor Is a Priceless Asset:
Humor can notes kindliness, a sense of proportion, a balanced optimism,
and a capacity for infinite patience. A child feels at ease with teacher
whose humor springs from a sound humanitarianism.
Courtesy and Good Manners:
Both are the outward signs of a cultivated mind, and every teacher who
aspires to train children should be able to lay claim to these attributes.
The teacher should be earnest, reliable, and progressive. An alert, frank,
bright attitude is a necessity.

Manner is the reflex of personality. It reveals the presence or absence of


interest in the children and in what is being taught. It also tells whether
teacher's, knowledge is perfunctory or thorough because children are
splendid detectives.
Sound work requires an encouraging and purposeful atmosphere in the
classroom and it is the teacher who creates that atmosphere.
Speech:
Voice is the chief of a teacher's tools. He must be able to address a class as
a whole, oral reading of a high standard, of both prose and verse, is also
demanded, since the teacher's duty is to illuminate the sense by adequate
expression, to give a pattern worthy of imitation and demonstrate the
beauty which lies in literature. For this purpose a teacher should use a good
pronouncing dictionary, he should copy those recognized as good speakers
and should read aloud daily, in private, for five or ten minutes at a time.
This increases confidence in one's own voice. Speech should be brief and
make every word carry own weight. A teacher should stress the important
words, consciously stop and close the lips after statement and reopen them
when compelled to.
Speech is the tool of the personality and can only give of its best when
ruled by a wise and well-informed kindliness. "He who hath the truth at his
heart, need never fear the want of persuasion on his tongue" Ruskin".
The Role of Teacher in Classroom Climate
The teacher is the most important single element in setting the learning
group. There are four main roles, the teacher will pay.
1.
2.

3.
4.

As leader of the group, whose purpose is to keep the group


together to keep things going?
As teacher and an agent of change. The term change-agent, which
has been used for the teacher to bring about changes in skill,
knowledge, understanding and behavior.
As member of the group.
As audience, outside the group, the person before whom the
group members will perform their newly acquired learning in
search of evaluation and reinforcement.

Elements of Classroom Climate


Warmth:
The strength of emotions and identification, the teacher and the students
participants; is the group welcoming between encouraging to the learner,
not dismissive or exclusive.
Directness:
Whether the interaction between the teacher and the student's participants
is direct or indirect, whether the teacher does all the work or whether the
class stimulates the learner to do their own work.
Enthusiasm:
The way the teacher feels about the subject being taught about the students
their learning, the commitment of teacher both and student participants to
the learning task.
Organization:
The teacher demonstrates competence in organizing; the devising carefully
planned and purposeful exercises so that all involved feel they are not
wasting time.
5.3

NEEDS AND BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION

Proper arrangement of classroom is one of the basic necessities of school.


So organization of school classroom is "working teaching unit". It is a
study place for group of pupils but together for purpose of collective
instructions. That is why, while doing the management of class room the
needs and requirements of students should be fulfilled because when the
class room and working conditions are good they not only facilitate the
better intellectual achievement but also physical or good physique
development.
Generally the proper utilization of A/V aids, pointer, arrangement of seats
desks, cupboards and other furniture, proper care and usage of board and
storage of maps, globes and other apparatuses etc. are the basic necessities
of classroom arrangements. There are some more requirements to make a
best environment in the classroom. They are in the following.

The best shape for classroom is "Rectangular".


The length of classroom should be about 22-25 ft. It means that

the distance to which the teacher voice could carry and the
students with normal vision could see writing on board.
The width of class is 20 feet recommended so. It will

accommodate 45 students.
The ceiling of room should not be very low because during

summer, room becomes very hot therefore the height of the class
should be 14 ft.
The basic aim of classroom lighting is being about environmental
conditions. So there should be sufficient windows and ventilators
in class room, while there is still a need of prevent out sidelights
and stop of directing sunlight. For all these reasons teacher must
care to protect every pupil from handicaps to normal vision.
Fresh air provides the alertness. It keeps body and mind healthy,
while in stuffy and smelling room the pupils become less active
and this cause discomfort to teacher also. So both they feel tired
and become sick. Arrangement for the fresh air should be
provided.
Seating should be adjusted to the needs of the students, to give
each student at his seat the best possible lighting and cleanest
view of board and other visual materials. The desk should not be
larger than the age of student. It should be firm and rigid. Desks
should not be arranged more than six rows.

Writing board should be on front wall of the classroom, properly lightened


but light should be always direct. Writing board should be kept 4 feet high.
The materials on the teacher's desk should be neatly arranged. Erase the
black board at the end of each period, except for those materials that are to
be used by all classes. At the end of each period the floor should be free of
scraps of paper and other waste materials that may detract from a neat
appearance.
Techniques of Control in Classroom
Definition of Control:

A teacher should know children psychology while controlling a class.


"Control implies restraint, regulating or regimentation and the direct use of
power."
The circumstances of class room management after with different ages,
and in varying environments, but the essentials are never the same.
Control is the testing point of personality. One may be master of all the
best methods of teaching, but in the absence of good discipline this
mastery is all but futile.
Class is a group, and in successful group management, it is the group
psychology rather than individual psychology, which is important. Groups
have their own characteristics quite apart from the individuals who
comprise them. The earnest teacher merely requires resolution in order to
go forward with confidence as the dominant personality in the classroom.
The mental attitude he intends his scholars to adopt towards him must be
the teacher's first consideration and aspect comes first.
"Teachers are the makers of a nation and a nation that does not respect its
teachers is bound to be doomed".
Some General Tips on Classroom Control
Following are some general types for classroom control.

Teacher should read in the classroom before time and start the

class immediately.
Teacher should learn the name of the students as soon as possible.
A teacher is supposed to come to class fully prepared.
Teacher must be consistent, he should never discipline one time

and ignore the next.


Always be with them friendly, fair and firm.
Weekly or fortnightly review the classroom students.
Use surprise, an interesting film, an outside speaker, a change in

classroom routine etc.


Conserve the voice, a noisy voice creates and encourages noise in
the room. So speech should be a little above the conversational
pitch.

Expect attention. Give each statement once only and see that the

desired result is obtained immediately.


Check each misdemeanor immediately.
If any student challenges you do not take it personal.
If a child misbehaving as a direct question. Look straight in his

eyes. Follow another question if necessary.


Teach with an alert eye.
In the beginning of new classes be strict with them.
Be methodical. Work to a system use the method (recommended)

whenever necessary.
Praise your pupils at their work, considering their ability and

aptitude time to time.


When class seems to be restless start some type of action games,

as to keep the classroom healthy.


Arrange meeting with their parents and work as team.
Make sure that children are succeeding in their class.
Young male teachers should avoid showing special attention to
females students, their attention is often misinterpreted. Young
woman teachers can avoid awkward situations with male students
by dressing, walking and sitting properly.

What to do and What Not to Do?

Do not interrupt pupils with orders, statements, or announcements

when they are busy doing something else.


Be sure the pupils are ready to hear you before you make

announcements, issue orders, or make statements.


Do not interrupt yourself.
Avoid getting off the topic.
If you start discussing one thing, keep to it until you are finished.
Don't jump around from one topic or activity to another and then

back again.
Avoid talking an activity to death.
When you have said what you have to say, stop.
Don't go into too much detail.
If something can be done in a few steps or explained in a few
words, don't expand unnecessarily.

5.4

MODERN CONCEPTS OF STUDENT CLASSIFICATION

The following are few kinds of problems and their solutions. Notice that
each type of problem needs different types of adaptation by the concerned
teacher.
Problems

Techniques of their solution

Sometimes
students
refuse to do their
classwork, this is very
embarrassing for the
teacher these types of
student not only disturb
the class but also effect
the
working
other
students in the class.

Never allow any student to refuse

class work even he/she has any solid


reason for it.
Call that student for a private

meeting to know the reasons.


Arrange a conference with principal

and parent for this reason, if


necessary.
Be sure that the assignments are

reasonable and the students can do


the work.
Sufficient time must be allowed to
them to complete their assignment.

Stealing:
It
is
common
complaint that children steal
things from their other fellows.
They do not admit their act easily.
Usually children are not very
honest and this is the time to
teach them honesty.

If a child is found stealing or

is seen with the stolen article


with a hard evidence, it s a
good time to make admit his
deed.
Children are not admitting

their deeds easily. They


should be made to admit
their deed by showing
evidence.
If a child has stolen a
valuable article or keeps on
practicing of stealing, report
to the principal and the

Dishonesty in School
Work

parents.
In order to minimize the

theft
chances,
make
classroom arrangements so
that no one should be
allowed in the classroom
without teacher or under any
other's proper supervision.
Teach them honesty, as every

child might be a little bit


dishonest.
While
checking
their

assignments try to notice


dishonesty signs and show
them to the student. In order
to made him to confess. Do
not allow any possibility of
dishonesty in classroom.
Sometimes students fear to

Some students are dishonest in


their class crowded classrooms.
The students with permanent
opportunities of learning.

give
their
incomplete
assignment, due to same type
of fear towards the teacher
will accept his honestly
worked assignments.
Students, those who keep on

working dishonestly, call


their parents. Take them in
confidence considering his
household assignments too,
help the student
Make classroom rewards

higher for honest student.


Give them sufficient work to

do in class.
Call conference with their

Restless student:
If restless behavior of the
students in class disturbs all other
students their restlessness may be
due to a child's being nervous.

Try,
not
schoolwork
classroom.

having
to do

enough
in the

History:

parents and look if the child


to under slept
Observe and ask their

parents about any physical


problem
making
him
restless.
Do not be strict with the

child, it he is physically to sit


at one place.
Change his seat if possible

and provide space for him.


Change their seat, among his

friends and away from their


enemy.
If you are trying to know the

In every class few students.

cause of fight, give time to


them to cool down, as a calm
child is good to tell the
reason and causes correctly.
If a child blames others, call

the child in private and argue


reasons with him.
Call a conference with his

parents,
with
your
observation and his parent
suggestions work as a team
and help the child to
improve.
Tell the Principal about this

problem and arrange a


meeting
with
parents.
Principal-teacher
students
and follow the outcome
suggestions.
Give sufficient amount of

Students who shout:


Due to poor classroom control
this problem of noisy students
arises.

Students who are mischievous:


These are very difficult students
to handle. Their actions are
generally not noticeable. It is
difficult to pin point them or
relate any action with them. They
justify their actions intelligently.

work to students.
Check the noise as soon as it

begins.
Do not let together most

talkative students.
Arrange few periods like

social sciences, to give them


time to full fill their desire of
taking.
Punish these students never

excuse them.
Change his seat in front of

teacher.
Convince them that actions

to attract attention in class


are not necessary.
Observe this child all the

time.
Provide

opportunities

to

them to attract attention of


class by good works like, in
studies, helping the class, in
sports etc.
5.5

PHYSICAL ASPECT OF CLASSROOM AND ITS EFFECT


ON DISCIPLINE

Truant student: Such student is a special type of problem student. When


he comes to class, he may be either a pathetic or descriptive. Perhaps life at
school is too dull for him and he sees to reason for attending it. He may be
restless due to being tired or nervous.
Students Who Are Usually Absent

Be prepared also for the student who is often absent not because he wants
to stay out but because he wants to stay out due to excessive family
responsibilities.
Student Who Are Misbehaving:
Suggestions:
If a student continues to misbehave and cannot be ignored, do not discuss
his behavior in front of class. Ask him to see you after class, and schedule
the meeting in a room where you will have privacy, begin by saying
something pleasant. Let the student do most of the talking. Be sympathetic.
Cheating:
Today's well-intentioned parents are putting more and more pressure on
their children to do well in school. When the student cannot do that he
often resorts to cheating.
Suggestions:
If you suspect a student of cheating, handle the situation intelligently.
Never accuse a student of cheating until you have evidence. If you catch a
student with a cheat sheet next to his test papers, for example, quietly take
the test and the cheat sheet and ask the student to see you after class. If two
students turn in papers with identical off beat answers, show the students
the papers during a conference and ask for an explanation. If the caliber of
a student's paper seems too high for his ability and you suspect plagiarism,
you must locate the item plagiarized for evidence. Usually, once the
student learns that he cannot cheat in your classroom. The matter can be
dropped after the conference, if cheating is a habitual pattern of behavior,
you must send a report of the incidents to the counselor to see the student.
In some cases, the parents may need to be consulted.

UNIT-6
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE
SCHOOL SYSTEM
6.1

ORGANIZATION OF SCHOOL SYSTEM AT DIFFERENT


LEVELS

In Pakistan, the president is the head of state, where prime minister is the
head of government. In protocol, the resident is first and prime minister is
second. In parliamentary type of government prime minister is the public
representative and chief executive, while the president is the chief
custodian of the state.
In Pakistan the president is the chief executive of the country & the chief
ministers of the province. Every level of government has its chief
executive so that in a federal country like Pakistan, there is a chief
executives of the national government & also the chief executives of the
several provinces. Similarly at the level of local government, we have
mayors, presidents chairman, city mayors etc., who are the chief executive
of their several jurisdictions.
In Pakistan the work of the federal as well as provincial governments is
divided into a number of ministers. A ministry may consist of a single
department or number of departments grouped together. A typical ministry
of the governments is like a three storied building of:
i.

ii.
iii.

The minister incharge who is its political & non-permanent head


& who has sometime under him one minister of state, to assist
him in his work.
The secretarial organization & the attached offices of the ministry,
headed by the secretary who is a permanent official.
The executive organization of the divisions, sections comprised
within the ministry.
The functions of the ministry are of three kinds:

Firstly, he initiates the broad policy which the ministry is to follow &
decides all the most important policy questions which may arise within
ministry.
Secondly, he exercises general supervision over the implementation of his
policies by the ministry.
Thirdly, It is his duty to justify & to bear responsibility for the policies &
the administration of his department before the public. Under the minister,
there is the secretarial organization of the ministry. The function of the
secretariat is to provide the minister the materials and expert advice. The
head of secretariat organization of a ministry is called the secretary. In the
ministry, there are additional, joint and deputy secretaries.
Section officers are the incharge of the sections of the ministry. The Officer
has under him assistants, stenotypist, record keeper & clerk etc.
The organization structure of education: is not an end in itself but a mean
for the achievement of national objectives through education, its purposes,
therefore, are two fold:
The first is to allocate the tasks of government or an agency so that they
will be performed in a manner that is both efficient & economical with a
minimum duplication & overlapping.
Second purpose which is to define the areas of authority & responsibility
of administrative units so that they may be properly subject to
constitutional & political controls.
A sound administrative organization must not only prevent duplication,
friction & waste of effort, but must also safeguard constitutional guarantees
& encourage flexibility & responsiveness to various new educational
policies & programmes.
Pakistan came into existence in 1947 as an independent democratic state
with the Islamic ideology as the base for all her administrative process.
Naturally, the educational administration of Pakistan must have been
structured in such a manner that suited the ideology, values & aspirations
in Pakistan is more or less continuation of the pattern of administration

developed by the British colonial during about two hundred years of their
rule in India:
The system that we inherited from the British, whatever is was, we had not
improved it. It was confused, stopped its functioning & controversial by
word of mouth or by hand, and all that followed brought us this
mishandling & obtuse thinking.
Education is not a push process. It is the slowest of processes. It has to be
according the very nature of man. It has to grow. It has to adjust. It has to
meet the requirements of socio-political & economic conditions. Every
country has to face this problem. In Pakistan we also inherited a certain
system; whatever its defects it was a system which created Pakistan & gave
us leaders we admire every day unknowing. Similar systems was operated
& obtained with certain changes all over the world. We also inherited a
certain system.
With the emergence of Pakistan as a sovereign state, education received a
great impetus. The government of Pakistan appointed a number of
commissions & committees to make a critical appraisal of the progress of
education in the country & to suggest ways & means for further
improvement.
The first educational conference held in Karachi on November 27, 1947,
emphasized the need for the reorientation of Pakistan's educational policy.
It said,
"We have now before us the opportunity to reorient our entire
educational policy to correspond closely with time & to reflect the
ideas for which Pakistan as an Islamic state stands."
The second five-year plan (1960-65) says:
"An unchanging administrative machinery will not be effective
for all times under all conditions. With the developing complexity
& multiplicity of government activities, new means must be found
to adjust the administration of new needs."
This principle is equally reflected in the structure of educational
administration as recommended by the commission on National Education

and Provincial Administration Commission in 1959 & 1960 respectively


and also in the National Education Policy 1992 and 1998-2010.
Proper implementation of plans & policies hinges largely on the strength &
efficiency of organization & agencies involved in the process. Since 1947,
our system of education has considerably expanded, but the administrative
structure of system of education in Pakistan has been quite flexible in
adopting the pattern, the civil administration from time to time. Broadly
speaking, Educational administration, is coterminous with the civil
administrative units at divisional, district, subdivision, & Tehsil levels.
Although the present administrative set-up of the national education
system at federal as well as at lower levels is based on the implementation
of the recommendations of the education policy 1972. So many cosmetic
changes have been made in Zia regime as well as in Nawaz regime 1992,
but it still faithfully retains inextricably the salient features &
characteristics of the administrative organization of the pre-partition era of
British rule in the sub-continent.
Education from primary to university level is being managed and run by
various agencies, private individuals/bodies, government & semigovernment organizations in the country.
In March 1998 the government has announced a new education policy
"Education Policy 98-2010"
6.1.1

FEDERAL LEVEL

Apart from the Ministry of Education, other ministers/organizations are


also directly or indirectly engaged to a certain extent in the management &
administration of education in their own sphere in the county. These
organizations are:
Ministry of Finance, Planning & Development Division, Special Education
& Health Division, Science & Technology Division, Kashmir Affairs &
Northern Affairs Division, Labour Division, Railway, WAPDA, Steel
Mills, P.I.D.C, and Army.

Ministry of Finance allocates funds to the provincial government & other


agencies for their development & non-development expenditures on
education through normal budgetary procedure. Part of the expenditures is
met through their own resources. Planning Commission has an education
centre (Section) headed by a chief who is assisted by a deputy chiefs &
assistant chiefs. The Ministry of Education is more deeply & directly
responsible for formulation of development plans & policies & their
implementation in the country to achieve national goals & objectives.
Special Education & Health Division, run schools for the welfare of the
awards scholarships for local & overseas training programmes of teachers,
& engineers & scientists to enhance their pedagogical, administrative &
research capabilities.
The Ministry of Education is headed by a Federal Minister for education
who is a political man & acts as a spokesman of ministry of education in
the National Assembly. He is assisted by a Secretary who is the real
executive head to advise the Minister on policy matters on one hand & on
the other hand. He has the responsibility to assure that the policies & plans
formulated by the Federal government are implemented efficiently &
effectively.
The secretary is assisted by joint educational advisors/joints secretaries,
deputy educational advisors/deputy secretaries; assistant educational
advisor; senior research officers; research officers, assistant research &
section officers who are professionally qualified & trained and perform
their duties in the best interest of the nation. Various wings, headed each by
a joint educational advisor comprise the ministry of education.
The Ministry is divided into nine wings:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

Planning wing.
Curriculum wing.
Culture & Sport wing.
Administration wing.
Research wing.
Provincial co-ordination.
National Education Council.
Federal government educational wing.

ix.

The trade school wing.

The Ministry of Education, has also undertaken the responsibility of


operation & management of educational institutions.
The Federal educational institution wing of the Ministry of education is
responsible for the management of education institutions in the cantonment
area, capital area of Islamabad & other institutions of national importance
in the country. Federal Institute wing is assisted by the directorate's i.e.
Federal institution directorate, Islamabad & Rawalpindi which are
functioning as attached departments of the Ministry of education.
6.1.2

PROVINCIAL LEVEL (KPK)

Constitutionally, provinces enjoy full autonomy in the management &


operation of educational system in their respective administrative
territories, pursuing the policy and guidelines of the Federal government.
The administrative system in the Provinces is not so rigid & stalemated as
may preclude meeting. The local requirements in the organizational
structure.
At the provincial level, each province has a provincial department of
education with the downward hierarchy to the regional/divisional, district,
subdivision, Tehsil. Each province is split into division, districts,
subdivisions, Tehsils & union councils for the purpose of administration.
The head of the Regional or Divisional office is the Director. The officer
incharge of a district is the District Education Officer.
Girl's schools are administered by a lady District Education Officer in each
district, but in some cases, one lady District Education Officer may
administer two districts, because of the small number of girl's schools in
those districts.
The system is decentralized & most of the authority has been delegated to
the District Education Officers.
Now we describe in detail the administrative mode of Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa.

6.1.3

DISTRICT OFFICERS AFTER DEVOLUTION OF


POWERS AND ESTABLISHMENT OF DISTRICT
GOVERNMENTS

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
S.N
o:

Dy.Do

ADO(Ban
d A)

D.O
(Admin/Dev)Secondar
y/Primary-(Large
Districts)

EDO

1.

Supervusi
on of the
process of
preparatio
n of
Budget
for his
subDivision
Circles/sc
hools and
his office

Collecting
informatio
n/ data
from
Dy.DO.
Secondary
! Higher
Secondary
and
Middle/Pri
mary
Schools

Check of consolidated
Budget proposals

Checking

Comparis
on with
last year
budget,
sign and
submissio
n to EDO
Office

Preparatio
n of initial
draft and
submissio
n to DO

Comparison with the


last year
budget, sign and
submission to EDO

Finalize
the
Proposals

Utilizatio
n of
sanctione
d budget
and
regular
monitorin
g of the
expenditu
re of
his/her

Collection
of reports
regarding
utilization
of budget

Monitor the progress of


budget utilization and
report Discrepancies to
the EDO

Monitor
the
utilization
of the
budget.

from
offices/sch
ools

the budget
Proposals

offices
and
schools.
2.

Sanctioni
ng of TA
Bills of
PTCs

Procession
/scrut my
of office
bills

Sanctioni
ng of
bills/G
I
/Advance
s

Forwards

TA Bills up to BPS-16
of schools staffs/ADOs
and staff of EDO office

BF/G1/Adv
ances for
Teaching
staff of
GHS/GHS
S upto
BPS-17/18
and staff of
his office.

cases to
DDO/Dy.
Dos

of
PTC/Clas
s IV of
filed and
offices
staff
Forwards
cases to
DO/Dy.Do
s.
3.

Checks
and signs
cash book
tallys
with bills/
vouchers

Checks
the entries

Checks the
entries on
income/
expendit
we side
rallys with
bills/
vouchers

Sanctionin
g of: TA
Bills
Dos/Dy.Do
s/A
DO/Staff of
GHS/GHS
S from
BPS-17 to
BPS-I9

Signs cash book

Signs AC/DC Registers

with
vouchers/
bills
Signs orders for issues
of articles of articles on
demand
4.

Checks
pay bills
and signs

Sign pay bills

Checks
AC Bills
and signs

Sign AC Bills

Sign scholarship Bills


5.

6.

Ensure
preparatio
n of lists
of
Requirem
ents
according
to
available
funds

Prepares
lists of
Requireme
nts

Checks the
Requirements

Heads the
purchase
committee

Inspects

Prepares
comparati
ve
statements

Keeping in view Funds

Place
orders for
Purchases

Check
stock
Entries

Prepares
supply
Orders

Calls quotation/ Tenders

Approves
distribution
list to
offices!
Schools

Responsi
ble for
ensuring
custody
of record

Receives
stores

Prepares

statements
of
expenditur
e
7.

Supervise
s conduct
of internal
Audit

Submits
proposal
for
internal
Audit of
circles/
schools

Checks proposals for


internal Audit and
submit the EDO

Ensure
internal
audit.

Assist
EDO in
preparatio
n of
replies for
advance
paras

Signs parawise
comments to Audit
paras

Ensure
replies of
external
audit.

Attend
Audit
Meetings

Attend audit meetings

II. OFFICE MANAGEMENT


S.N
o:

Dy.Do

ADO (Banda)

D.O(Admin/D
ev)

EDO

1.

Ensure that
the record is
well
maintained in
relevant files

Signs the Dak


and gives it to the
office staff. Puts
up
drafts
to
Dos/EDO.

Checks
the
Dak and marks
it
to
the
concerned
branches

Receive
all
letters
address
to him,
initial
and
marks to
the Dos
along
with
short
direction
s.

Keeps an eye on
Diary
and
dispatch section
2.

Ensure
maintaining/k
ee ping of
service
books,
making
entries in the
service books
and ensuring
safety of the
record,
regularly
signing
as
and
when
required.

Maintaining/keep
ing
all
such
record.

Making entries
in
it
and
ensures safety
of the record.

Random
ly
checkin
g
different
entries.

III. PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT


S.No

Dy.Do

ADO(Development)
Secondary/Primary

D.O (Admin/Dev)

1.

Identification of
development
demands

Scrutiny of proposals
received from Dy.Dos/
communities

Verification of the
recommendation
made by the ADO and
checking of the
proposals and
submission to EDO

2.

Accompanies the
ADO/EDO for
site selection etc
and helps the
ADO in
preparation of
fasibility report

Preparation of the detailed


feasibility report according
to criteria.

Examines the
feasibility reports

3.
4.

Prepares papers for meeting


Submits data,

Preparation of PC-1 with

Checking of the PC-1,

information to the
EDO office

IV.
S.No:
1.

V.

all other required


documents and signature

signature and
submission to the
EDO

SCHOOL SUPERVISION AND INSPECTIONS


ADO (Est.
D.0 Primary
Dy.Do
Secondary)
and Literary/
(Est.Primary)
Secondary
He/she will
inspect/visit the
schools for ma
minimum of
twelve days in a
month

He/she will
inspect/visit the
schools for a
minimum of
seventeen days in a
month.

Evaluation of
teachers/students nd
cocurricular activities
and others during he
surprise visits to the
primary schools in case
of DO (secondary) and
check the Academic and
instructional work and
annual inspection of
Middle and high
schools.

ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION OF PRIVATE


SCHOOLS

S.No

Dy.Do

ADO(Physical/
Literacy)

D.O Primary/
Secondary

EDO

1.

He will
examine/process
the applications for
registration and
will conduct a
preliminary
inspection to see
that all the
infrastructure and
basic requirements
are available on the
premises after

He will
receive
applications
for
registration/rec
ognition of
private schools
through
Dy.DO and
will process
the case.

The DO will
ensure before
granting
registration that
the school has all
the required
facilities e.g.
building,
furniture,
playground, staff
and necessary
funds to run the

Approval for
registration
in the light
of the
report/docu
ment/recom
mendations

C
s
s
a
o

which he will
recommended the
application.

VI.
S.N
o
1.

2.

school and that


the Fees/Funds
are reasonable,
and syllabus and
tax books are in
accordance with
Government
policy.

TEACHER TRAINIG
Dy.DEO/A DO
(TT)
Will institute
names of
teacher due for
in-service
course and short
term courses for
untrained
teacher
He will be in
charge of
LTRC. Will
organize and
conduct in
service teacher
training in the
LTRCs in
collaboration
with GTZ staff.
He will prepare
lists of
schools/teachers
in each LTRC.
He will receive
and then deliver
training material
to LTRC.

ADO
(Literacy)
Will prepare
list of
teachers for
in-service
teacher
training/
short term
teacher
trainings.
Maintains
lists of
LTRC.

DO
(Primary)
Will
scrutinize
and finalize
the lists for
in-service
training/
short term
trainings.

EDO

Will
supervise the
process

Will
supervise the
process
inspect
raining in
LTRCs.

Will approve
nomination
and send to
GCETs
/PITE or
other
training
institutes.

6.2

ADMINISTRATIVE EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES

LEAVE ON MEDICAL CERTIFICATE


Leave applied for on medical certificate shall not be refused. The authority
competent to sanction leave may, however, at its discretion, secure a
second medical opinion by requesting the civil surgeon or the medical
board to have the applicant medically examined.
RECREATION
Recreation leave may be granted for fifteen days once in a calendar year
which shall not be debited to the leave account.
LEAVE EX-PAKISTAN
Leave ex-Pakistan may be granted on full pay to a Civil Servant who
applies for such leave or who proceeds abroad during leave, or takes leave
while posted abroad or is otherwise on duty abroad.
EXTRAORDINARY LEAVE (LEAVE WITHOUT PAY)
Extraordinary leave may be granted outside leave account on each
occasion upto a maximum period of five years at a time; provided that the
civil servant to whom such leave is granted has been in continuous service
for a period of not less those ten years.

STUDY LEAVE
Study leave may be granted to government servants to enable them to
study scientific, technical or similar problems or to undergo special courses
of instructions such leave is not debited against leave account.
Study leave is granted on half pay and the maximum period should not
exceed 2 years in the whole period of government servant's service.
Extraordinary leave may also be combined with the study leave and in that
case the condition of the maximum period will not apply.
During the study leave a study allowance at the prescribed rates is granted
for the period spent in prosecuting, a definite course of study at a
recognized institute.
LEAVE TO CIVIL SERVANTS ENGAGED ON CONTRACT BASIS
Civil servants engaged on contract, who are subject to the rule making
control of the Governor of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa shall be governed by the
Revised Leave rules, 1981.
CASUAL LEAVE
a.
b.

c.

d.

e.

Maximum Casual Leave which can be granted a Government


servant is 25 days during a calendar year.
Government servants are not entitled to casual leave as of right.
Casual leave is granted by way of grace to enable government
servants to attend to their private affairs of casual nature.
Casual leave may not ordinarily exceed ten days at a time and 25
days during any one calendar year. The sanctioning authority may,
however, grant leave upto 15 days at a time under special
circumstances.
Casual leave may be granted in conjunction with Sundays or
public holidays but not with any other kind of leave or joining
time. When it is combined with holidays the total period shall not
exceed 15 days at a time.
Casual leave may be sanctioned to a government servant by his
immediate superior officer.

f.

No government servant should leave his headquarters during


casual leave or holidays without the permission of the leave
sanctioning authority.

ADMINISTRATION STRUCTURE IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA:


Almost federal set-up is more or less replicated in the province. There is a
department of education headed by a Minister who, like his counterpart at
the federal level, is a political man & acts as a spokesman for education in
the Provincial Assembly.
He is assisted by the Secretary, who is the chief executive in the provincial
department of education to advice the minister regarding policy issue & on
the other hand, is responsible to implement & evaluate these polices &
plans in the province.
The Secretary is assisted by:

Additional Secretary,
Deputy Secretaries,
Assistant Secretaries,
Section Officers &
Other supporting staff.

A step downward from the hierarchy, there is a directorates of education of


primary level as well as secondary level with their Additional Director.
ADMINISTRATIVE EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES:
Administration leadership needs three bases namely:
1.
2.
3.

Personal
Political
Institutional

1.

Personal:

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Good health, and personal energy


A sense of mission, purpose and self confidence.
A sense of friendliness and concern for others.
Keep intelligence and profound knowle3dge of details.
Capacity to know the strong and weak.
Sense of normal duty and fairness.

2.

Political:

Political conditions mean the responsiveness of the officer and the


administrative agency over which he preside, and external political
direction and control. Administrative leadership must reflect the political
attitudes and traditions of the country.
3.

Institutional Base:

Administrative leadership must also fulfill the condition necessary for the
institutional well being of the administrative agency which he has to direct.
A major task which lies before the prospective administrator is that of
determining how to serve the functions for which the groups is organized
and the ways in which the group is intended.
The democratic administration has function as team, co-partnership of the
directing officers and the workers. All the co-workers have to develop a
team spirit.
The fundamental principles of democratic administration are as follows:
1.

2.

3.

4.

6.3
Table 1

Democratic administration to a group and the individuals


composing it, the responsibilities for participating in making
decisions that affect undertakings of the groups and the activities
and the interests of the individuals composing the group.
Democratic administration attempts to locate leadership and
encourage its exercise by a person in accordance with his abilities,
capacities, background, experience and interests.
Democratic administration provides such flexibility in
organization that adjustment may be made from time to time in
the manorial of human relationships, as the occasion and
development may seem to indicate.
Democratic administration recognizes the urge to creative activity
among human beings and allows for its expression in planning
and carrying out education programmes and procedures.
TERMS & CONDITIONS FOR TEACHER EMPLOYMENT

S.No

Nomencl
ature of
Post

Qualificati
on for
Recruitme
nt

1.

P.T.C

Matric

2.

C.T.

F.A-F.Sc

3.

P.T.I.

F.A+Diplo
ma in
physical
Education

4.

D.M

F.A +
Diploma
in
Drawing

5.

T.T
0.T-A.T

6.

Qari T

Middle
Wafaq-ulMadaris
Certificate
of
Tajwed-eQuran

Scale

Scale 7
Selection Grade:10
a) F.A 2nd division
S-9
b) F.A 3rd division:
S-7+Two
increment
Scale = 9
Selection Grade = 12
a) B.A 2nd division
14
b) 3rd division 9 + 3
advance increment
S=9
S.G = 12
a) B.A 2nd division
14
b) B.A 3rd division
9+3
advance increments
S=9
S.G = 12
B.A 2nd division: 14
B.A 3rd division 9+3
advance increments
S = 7 wafaqul-Madris
S = 9 F.A
B.A 2nd = 12
B.A 3rd 9 + 2
increments
S=7

School

Primary school

Middle school

High school

Middle

Middle
Middle
Middle

Middle High

7.

D.P.E

B.A/B.Sc

8.

S.E.T or
T.G.T

B.A/B.Sc
B.Ed

9.

Subspecialist

10.

Head
Master
Principal

B.A/B.Sc
M.A /
M.Sc
B.Ed /
M.Ed

Scale = 16
One year regular
diploma
S.G = 17
S = 16
Selection Grade = 17
M.A / M.Sc 3
increment
M.Ed 3 increment
D = 17
S.G = 18
S = 17
S = 18

High school

High school

High Secondary
School
High School High
+ High Secondary
School

No. FD/So(FR) 10-22-2007. In suppression of this department's letter No.


So (FR) 10-22 (B) 2005 dated 01-10-2007 and in pursuance of the decision
of the meeting held under the chairmanship of Secretary Establishment on
2-01-2008, the competent authority is pleased to allow up gradation for the
posts as per details given below w.e.f. 01-10-2007.
S. No

Existing designation and


pay Scale

Qualification

Upgraded scale

1.

Primary school Teacher


(PST) (BPS-07)

FA.SSc and are


trained Teachers

BPS-09(One time
only)

2.

Primacy school Teacher


(PST) with
requisite
experience renamed as
head teacher/Head Mistress
Primary Schools (BPS-07)

Having 10 years
service

BPS-12(One time
only)

3.

CT (BPS-09)

BA/B.Sc and are


trained Teachers

BPS-15(One time
only)

4.

SETs (BPS-l6)

With at least ten


years science
upgradation to the
post shall be
made through

BPS-17

DPC as laid down


procedure
5.

1.

2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Qari/qaria (BPS-07)

Hafiz Quran with


SSC

BPS-12

Appointments of teachers normally is being made through


Education department/Public Service Commission at provincial as
well as at Federal level.
Age limit for appointment is 30 (Relaxation in maximum age
limit may be allowed to candidates with technical and
professional qualification in specific field up to a period of 5 years
by the competent authority and for not more than 10 years by the
S & G.A.D.
Sound health, physical fitness
Professional qualification in pre-requisite for initial recruitment.
Rs. 200 P.M science teaching allowance for science teacher at
Secondary School level.
Drawn of additional increments for improvement of qualification
is shown in table 1.
S.E.T. or T.G.T service in Scale 16 is Gazzetted.
Retirement Age is Sixty 60 or at the completion of 25 year
service.
Teachers have the right of associations for their genuine problems
and for the academic uplift.
Probation period is two years, after initial recruitment.
In case of resignation from the service application must be filed
one week before leaving or one week advance pay.
Teaching is full time service No additional Job is allowed,
subject to the previous sanction from the competent authority.
Rs. 300 per month is allowed to draw study leave allowance.

No. SOS (R-111)(FD)7-131/73, Doted 1.4.1984


1.

i.
ii.

Grant of leave on full pay, (I) The maximum period of leave on


full pay that may be granted at one time by the competent
authority shall be as follows:
Without medical certificate 120 days
With medical Certificate 180 days

PLUS
iii.

On medical certificate from leave account in entire service 365


days.

2.

The maximum prescribed at (i) and (ii) of sub-rule (I) are


independent of each other. In other words a civil servant may be
granted, at a time, total leave on full pay on medical certificate
upto the permissible extent in continuation of leave upto 120 days
without medical certificate, subject to given conditions.

2(a).

Conversion of leave account (1) All leave at credit in the account


of a civil servant who was in service on the 1st day of July, 1978,
shall be carried forward and expressed in term of leave on full
pay. The leave account in such cases shall, with effect from 1"
July, 1978, or in the case of a civil servant who was on leave on
that date with effect from the date of his return from leave, be
recast as under, ignoring the fraction if any:

3.

Debits to the leave account will be at the rate of one day of the
former for every two days of the latter, fraction of one-half
counting as one full day's leave on full pay.

The request for such conversion shall be specified by the civil servant in
his application for the grant of leave.

4.

There shall be no limit on the grant of leave on half pay so long as


it is available by conversion in the leave account.

5.

Grant of leave on half pay- (I) leave on full pay may be converted
into leave on half pay at the option of the civil servant.

(i)

Leave on full pay


a) 1 month
b) 1 day

(ii)

30 days
1 day

Leave on half pay


a) 1 month
b) 2 days

15 days
1 day

2.

In carrying forward the leave, the leave at credit of a civil servant


in columns, 7 and 8 and half of the leave at credit in column 9 of
the existing leave account shall be carried forward to the new
leave account of the civil servant.

3.

The leave availed under the existing rules from column 13(a) of
the leave account shall be debited against the maximum limit of
365 days fixed under Rule 4(1)(iii).

4.

Special leave to Female Civil Servants: A female teacher may, on


the death of her husband be granted special leave on full pay not
exceeding 130 days. This leave shall not be debited to her leave
account and will commence from the date of death of her
husband.

5.

Maternally leave: Maternally leave may be granted on full pay,


out side the leave account, to a female servant to the extent of
ninety days such leave may not be granted for more than three
times in the entire service of female.

6.

Leave preparatory to retirement: The maximum period upto which


Civil Servant may be granted leave preparatory to retirement shall
be 365 days only. It may be taken subject to availability in the
leave account, either on full pay and partly on half pay, or entirely

on half pay, at the discretion of the Civil Servant and it will not
extend beyond the age of superannuation.
7.

Disability Leave: Disability leave may be granted upto a


minimum of seven hundred and twenty days, disabled by injury
ailment or disease.

LEAVE EARNED DURING FOREIGN SERVICE


No part of leave earned by him during the period of Foreign Service will
be credited to his leave account with the Government nor will any liability
in respect of leave salary on account of such leave devolve on the
Government. The government will not recover any leave salary
contribution from the borrowing Government or Organization.
SCHEDULE OF VACATIONS
The government of N.W.F.P. with the approval of competent authority, is
pleased to announce the following schedule of Vacations for the year 199798/1998-99 for all the schools/colleges and Technical Education
Institutions
and
other
Educational
Institutions
in
Khyber
Pukhtunkhwa/FATA.
Plain Areas in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa
a.
b.
c.

Winter Vacations (1997) w.e.f. 24.12.1997 to 31.12.1997


Summer Vacations(1998) w.e.f. 15.06.1998 to 24.08.1998
Winter Vacations (1998) w.e.f. 24.12.1998 to 31.12.1998

Hilly Areas
a.
b.

Winter Vacations w.e.f. 24.12.1997 to 28.02.1998


Summer Vacations w.e.f. 01.08.1998 to 14.08.1998

Snow Areas
a.
b.

Winter Vacations w.e.f. 24.12.1997 to 10.03.1998


Summer Vacations w.e.f. 01.08.1998 to 10.08.1998

6.4

SCHEDULE OF EXAMINATION
Classes

Commencement of
Exam.

Termination of
Exam.

Declaration of
Results

I-IX

10/4

25/4

30/4

Intermediate

20/5

10/6

30/9

BA/B.Sc.

10/8

10/9

15/12

MA/M.Sc.

1/12

31/12

Medical
Colleges (1st
prof:)

1/3

15/3

31/3

Engineering (1st
Year)

5/3

5/5

The above schedule is to be followed strictly by all Educational


Institutions, Boards, and University in the province. In case of any
deviation approval of the competent authority (Governor Khyber
Pukhtunkhwa) is to be obtained in advance by giving reasons for such
deviation.

Com
nex

UNIT 7
ORGANIZATION OF CO-CURRICULAR
ACTIVITIES
7.1

DEFINITION OF CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES

Previously the purpose of education was confined to the teaching of


subjects of the curriculum. The social activities were regarded as `extras'. A
weak student had no right to go to the playgrounds or to functions.
Gradually, this attitude of hostility changed into that of indifference. These
activities were not supervised nor was any guidance given. But now the
concept of education has changed. All-round development of the child is
the theme of new education. Modern education recognizes that when the
child comes to the school, he comes in mentally, physically, spiritually,
socially and vocationally and as such he must be educated in all of them.
Now it is recognized that these activities are valuable media for developing
proper attitudes, habits, interests, and ideals among pupils. Because of their
importance in education, they have been renamed as co-curricular activities
as they form an integral part of the school curriculum in their organization,
therefore, need just much care and fore thought.
7.2

SCOPE AND VALUE OF CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES

1.

To meet the needs of Adolescent nature:

Gregarious instinct is very predominant in adolescents. Growing boys


desire to behave socially. If opportunities are not provided to them, they
will form their own undesirable groups and gangs. This grouping may be
harmful to them and to the society. Their activities give a healthy outlet to
various instincts like gregariousness, assertion and curiosity. Many
curricular activities e.g., self-government, social service league, scouting
etc. will be very conductive to sublimate their instincts as they will provide
them a field for doing something socially worthwhile through group
activities.

2.

To provide Social Training:

By participation in co-curricular activities pupils learn valuable lessons in


practical co-operation and the habits of team work; they realize the relation
of the society to the individual and of the individual to the society.
One has to sacrifice one's immediate interests for the welfare of the group.
Pupils have to move from sheer individualism to social awareness. Team
spirit is developed in them. Spirit of "give and take" takes the place of
selfishness.
The pupil identifies himself with the group of his own choice, a debating
club, a dramatic club or a football team. He is no longer an individual but a
member of the group. He learns loyalty to his group. Universal
brotherhood, true democracy, faith in man and unselfish, service are ideals
which are encouraged.
3.

Moral Training

Co-curricular activities are also helpful in giving moral training, what is


moral conduct? "Moral conduct is the response that an individual makes to
the requirements and expectations of the social order, in which he lives, in
matters affecting the welfare of others". "It is a conduct approved by
society"
By participating in their activities.
i.
ii.
iii.

Pupils learn to act according to the will and standards of the


group.
Moral qualities such as honesty, truth and justice are put to test.
Pupils find opportunities to decide and choose the right and to
learn the great values of self-control and - moderation.

"Every ounce of moral experience is worth a pound of ethical teaching".


Through the community life of games and activities, the child learns an
inner discipline, which abides with the child as a directing and restraining
influence when he is away from the school.

4.

Civic Training:

The school should be a training ground for democracy. It should be


organized and administered on democratic lines. The students will thus
have opportunities and responsibilities somewhat similar in a small way to
those they will have later as grown-up citizens. Co-curricular activities
train pupils for their rights and responsibilities as citizens. Students learn
the mechanics and devices of government and develop true spirit of
citizenship.
Self-government will provide experience of the life of a democratic
society. In this, pupils determine the policies and the programmers; they
plan and present assembly programmers. The individual pupil learns how
to conduct a meeting in an approved and parliamentary style. It gives him
an opportunity to exercise his vote. Here the students will know that rights
involve responsibilities.
Lessons in co-operation can be learnt by practice. In order to retain his
position as a member in a Students' Council, Athletic team etc., a student
has to exercise co-operation.
5.

To Provide Worthy Recreational Interests:

Education for leisure should begin in school. It is as important as education


for work. If recreational interests are developed during school life, they
prove to be very beneficial in leisure hour of adult life and make life fuller
and richer.
With the advent of industrial civilization, human lab our has been replaced
by machines. So increasing leisure hours have been afforded to men. As
the work is entirely mechanized, the worker does not derive any human
satisfaction from it. He is never responsible for a work as a whole. He will
never take satisfaction and pride on the completion of the whole, work.
The denial of human values during work hours results in a reaction in the
worker to enjoy his leisure hours violently. He is frustrated.
Schools can create favorable attitudes in their pupils for healthy activities
and unfavorable ones for unhealthy leisure time activities. If love for one
or more hobbies is created at the school stage, that hobby will be the
principal leisure time activity of the pupil throughout life.

6.

Supplementation of Academic Work:

Due to co-curricular activities, the teaching of civics, composition, history,


geography etc. will be greatly supplemented. Election to the students'
council will give them a picture of Central and State elections. Excursions
to historical, geographical and industrial places will enrich the experiences
of the students. Contributions to the School Magazine will supplement the
teaching of languages.
7.

To discover and develop individual Merest and provide


recreation:

The school should organize various kinds of activities in the school so that
the pupil may participate according to his interest. The pupil will
participate in only that activity in which he is interested. So the teacher can
find out the interest and the aptitude of the pupil. Recreation can, therefore,
be provided according to the interest of the pupil. When individual
differences are recognized, when tastes and aptitudes are discovered and
when recreation is provided, the problem of school discipline can be
solved. All these activities are helpful in experimenting with their likes and
dislikes, in finding their interests and capacities in these fields and in
developing their tastes and aptitudes they possess.
8.

Training for Leadership:

Many performances have to be organized. Many situations have to be


faced in the running of various societies. All these inculcate in the students
the qualities of quick and clear thinking, adaptability, good judgment,
initiative, self-confidence, broad vision, tact, patience, tolerance, integrity,
willingness to work, enthusiasm faith, courage, conviction, unselfishness
etc. These qualities cannot be developed through the regular curriculum.
9.

Development of Discipline:

Discipline become self-discipline. Students remain busy with different


kinds of activities and develop their talents in different directions. They
make laws for various societies and come to realize the need for showing
respect to other school laws. Many kinds of education activitiesBasic as
well as non. Basicshould be organized in schools. These activities should
be able to serve some objectives.

1.
2.

3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

All students should have equal opportunity to be a member of


school organization.
These activities should stimulate children's interests in their
environment. Education of children in schools should be closely
linked to their lives in the community.
These activities should provide such experiences as would
contribute to the all-round development of children. They should
be organized in such a manner that they are helpful in the
physical, mental and moral development of the child.
These activities should be helpful in giving training for
leadership.
They should give the child training in citizenship and in the art of
self-government.
Pupils should learn while doing things. Learning should be
purposive, realization and more effective.
They should give scope for creativity and self-expression in
children.
They should develop initiative in children.
They should teach the child the art of recreation and worthy use of
leisure.
They should help acquire knowledge.

Essentials of a Programmed of Co-Curricular Activities:


i.
ii.
iii.

iv.
v.
vi.

vii.
viii.
ix.

These activities should be organized during school time.


These activities should be strictly under the guidance of teachers.
These should not be started merely for "show work." These
activities must be organized and considered as a means to the
educative process.
The teacher should play the role of an adviser.
Record of the various activities should be kept by every
organization.
Some credit should be given to those teachers who organize these
activities either in the form of less teaching periods or in the form
of extra payment.
Activities should be started in a small way and developed
gradually.
Once an activity is started it should not be allowed to die.
These activities should not be expensive as far as possible.

x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.

Funds should be raised by the society concerned in order to meet


the expenditure involved in various activities.
These funds should not be spent on a few selected stars (selected
players or characters in a drama or debates).
Regular time should be devoted to these activities
Community should be well informed of these activities and ample
publicity should be given.

Organizer Duties:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

To plan the schedule of the year's activities and to set dates of


special activities such as concerts, parents' days, school sport etc
To secure a list of clubs that the teachers desire to offer.
To take care of special discipline cases during club periods.
To issue bulletin of club activities.
To make research in the educative value of the co-curricular
activities.
To select and organize those activities which relate to the school
curriculum.
vii To, try to make the activities less expensive as far as possible.

7.3

BASIC
PRINCIPLES
OF
CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES

1.

Need and interests:-

ORGANIZING

CO-

The programmed of co-curricular activities should grow out of the needs


and interest of the pupils unless the membership of an organization
satisfies a pupils native interest and results in meeting his needs, he is not
likely to take part in it with enthusiasm.
2.

Free Choice

In no case the membership of an organization be imposed upon a pupil, it


should be the result of his own free choice, what the head of the school has
to see to only the presence of a large number and variety of organization so
as to cater for the different interests and aptitudes of the pupils. Each pupil
should be allowed to choose from the activities the one, which is more
interesting to him.
3.

Educational Value

Co-curricular activities should contribute in high degree to the realization


of educational objectives unless each activity can be justified in terms of
this principle; it has no justification for being in the programme.
4.

Flexibility

The programme of co-curricular activities should be flexible enough to fit


new demands and meet changed conditions. The same old programme
should not be repeated year after year.
5.

Responsibility

Responsibility for the administration and supervision of co-curricular


activities should be clearly defined and shared with faculty and students.
6.

Protections

The number of co-curricular activities in which pupils may participate


should be limited. This does not contradict that every pupil should have the
opportunity to participate and that his participation should be varied
according to his needs and interests; it means that a desirable balance
should be maintained between the curricular and co-curricular
programmes. Unless limitations are imposed some students are almost
certain to overemphasize this phase of school life. Thus limiting the extent
of participation is likely to result in a more general distribution of
opportunities for the entire student's body.
7.

Expense

Co-curricular activities should- be provided at a little or no cost to those


who take part in them. Those activities should not be organized in which a
very few member of students are participating and which involve much
expenditure.
8.

Eligibility

Co-curricular activities should be available to all pupils regardless of their


scholastic standing.
9.

Tune

Co-curricular activities should be given a place in the daily timetable of the


school if it is not done so, they would be looked upon as extra. By

inclusion of these activities in the regular timetable, on tie one hand all the
students would be provided with the opportunity to participate in social
experience and on the other land the status of the activities would be raised
to the level of curricular pursuits.
10.

Direction

Individual activities in the co-curricular programme should be planned and


directed by pupils under teacher guidance. This principle is fundamental to
the achievement of objectives set up for the programme. Pupils must have
the opportunity to learn how to plan their own affairs, to work cooperatively and to assume their own affairs.

7.4

TYPE OF CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES

1. Physical Activities

i) Athletics

ii) Games

iv) Mass Drill and mass exercises or cycling


vii) Swimming
vi) Boating
iii) Sports
v) Driving

2. Physical Activities

i) School

ii) Dramatics
iii) Debates and
iv)Discussions
Scientific and Other
v) Symposl-ums
clubs
vi) Brains Trust vii) Story
and Essay writing

3. Social
Service
Activities

i) Junior
Red Cross

ii) Social
Education

iii) Labour
Squads

iv) Service
on Special
occasions
like fairs

v)
Scouting

vi) Girl
Guiding

vii) Helping
Health authorities
in the control of
epidemics

4. Civic Training Activities

School
School
Panchayat
i) Student cooperative
ii) Student
store Council
iii)iv)
School
Visits toBank
Institutionv)
the
legislature
court etc.
vi) Assembly
vii) Mock Parliament
vii) Celebrating Festiv

5. Hobbes Co-active and Collective

ii) Collection let tamps leaves pictures own stone


fishes
iv) Photgraphy
i) Gath-ering
v) Friend ship
vi) Weed work
vii) Mater work
viii) Toy Making
ix) Grey work
x) Leatherxi)
work
Card Board work
xii) Seuthy
iii) Soap making
xiii) Book building

Training and karting


xiv) Book ofxv)
making
xvi) Sparing

6. Cultural Activities

i)
ii)
Drawing Painting

iii)
Music

iv) v) Sculpture vi) vii) Dancing


vii) Dramatics
viii) Community Activities
Band
Folk songs

7. Multipurpose Activities

i) Excursions and Trips (e.g. Picnics, hikes, visit to factory, dam, coal-mine, power station,
river
valley,
museum,schools,
lake,
new
city,
temple,
cave)
iii) Decoration
ii) N.C.C.
beautifying
v)aiv)
Projects
preparation
Surveying
such
sketching
of
as Charts
running
and
and
a bank,
Mode
map
A.C.C.

UNIT-8
ORGANIZATION OF PHYSICAL
FACILITIES
8.2

TYPES OF PHYSICAL FACILITIES THEIR


FUNCTIONS AND ORGANIZATION

Physical facilities are building and equipment provided for a


particular purpose. The physical facilities are the following:
1

School building

School Hostel

School Cafeteria

Dispensary

Learning Resources

Library

A.V. Aids

Use of School Diary.

Time table

10

School Record

11

Use of Instructional material

8.2.1

School Building

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.

The site of the school.


The school building.
The classroom.
Lighting.
Ventilation.
Water supply.
Washing and lavatory arrangements.
Writing Board
School cleaning.

1.

The site of the school:


1.

The school sites selected in our country are often without


proper regard for sanitary and health condition.

2.

In some cases these disadvantages are remediable but in other


cases they may be permanent and may even render the school
unit for no use.

3.

Modern methods of building have overcome many of the


natural disadvantages of certain sites.

4.

Prevention is better than cure. In choosing a school site in a


city or town, opportunities are to be considered for open-air
education and organized games.

5.

Other important points for careful examination in selecting a


site are:

a.

The surroundings.

b.

The condition as to natural drainage and ordinary level of


the ground water.

c.

The nature of the side soil and sub-soil,

d.

The aspect and Elevation.

2.

The school building:

1.

In the construction of school building, not only should good


material be used but also expert advice should be sought
with regard to the present and future needs of the school.

2.

A simple dignified and artistic building suitable for the


purpose for which it is intended is a very desirable thing
from many points of view.

3.

Its beautiful location help to make the scholars proud of their


connection with the school and it exercises a lasting
influence upon the neighborhood.

4.

One of the well-known concerns of architecture is that the


exterior of the building should be suggestive and should
reflect the character of the interior.

5.

First floor in the building must be planned in conformity


with hygienic laws.

6.

The building should be situated that the sun can reach all the
classrooms without filtering through the foliage, without
being absented by house type.

7.

The air must be able to play round it freely and the natural
drainage must be affected without saturating the sub oil with
moisture.

3.

The Classroom:

i.

The best shape for the classroom is that of a rectangle with


the greater side about a fifth longer than the smaller side.

ii.

There should be at least 15 feet of floor space and 200 cubic


feet of air for each scholar.

iii.

The dimensions of the classroom should not exceed 20 feet


by 25 feet.

4.

Lighting:

1.

The problem of keeping the lighting of a schoolroom


properly adjusted be a difficult one even if the amount and
the direction of sunlight remain constant.

2.

Assuming that all satisfactory arrangement are made in this


regard by providing a suitable number of windows and
shelves, there is still a need to prevent annoying side light
spots of direct sun light upon the desks.

3.

The problem is further complicated by the variation of light


between sunny and cloudy days between mornings and
afternoons. For all these reason the following preventive
steps should be taken.

i.

Light should not fall directly on the eyes.

ii.

In class room left lighting is best i.e., the light should strike
the scholar's left shoulder when he is facing the teacher.

iii.

When left lighting is impracticable right lighting at least


should be secured. The light should not come from the front;
in such a case it dazzles the eye.

5.

Ventilation:

1.

Ventilation is a matter, which has great effect on health. A


small room may be healthier than bigger one because of
better ventilation.

2.

It is rightly said that "Air is food as truly as bread and meat."


for fresh air makes vigor and alertness.

3.

When children are in stuffy and close smelling rooms they


are less lively.

6.

Water supply:

1.

A plenty supply of pure drinking water must always be


accessible inside the school building & on the playground.

2.

Children require frequent drinks of water & their health


suffers if it is not available.

3.

In playgrounds, a drinking fountain is better than cups, and


cups, very often spread disease.

4.

Water comes from wells or springs; the care must be taken to


avoid pollution of drains or cesspools.

7.

Washing and lavatory arrangements:

1.

In our country the provision for enough lavatory and


washing is often a neglected feature in schools.

2.

One lavatory for every 40 is the necessary maximum. In fact


twenty-five would be more satisfactory

3.

The absence of proper lavatory accommodations is injurious


not only in its direct effects but also indirect affects.

4.

As personal cleanliness is of utmost importance it ought to


be regarded as one of the chief lessons to be learnt in school.
Therefore, the school should begin this lesson by providing
hygienic atmosphere. Washing and lavatory arrangements as
well as urinals, cleaning and washing of the equipment's in
this connection should be carried out.

8.

School Cleaning:
1.

Slate, writing boards are to be preferred to modern ones


since the former can be washed without much difficulty.

2.

The board should either be black or white in colour, but


whatever may be the kinds of Chalkboard used, the
production of chalk dust is inevitable.

3.

The dust particles however may be prevented from polluting


the air and getting into nostril by using damp duster.

4.

Desks, and seats accumulate greased and dirt, they therefore


become a source of danger to health unless they are cleaned
periodically especially during vacation.

5.

Dirty windows decrease the amount of light, to allow them


to remain dirty, is to present a bad example to the pupils.

6.

No amount of oral precepts in hygiene will do any good


when the visible example of the school is bad.

7.

Dust is a potent cause of ill health and it should be avoided


at all costs. In short everything in the school should be kept
as constantly clean as possible.

8.

Marker board helps in maintaining good hygiene in the


room.

8.2.2

Hostel

1.

Hostel environment should be as closely related to a house


as possible. All students should be treated like family.

2.

It should be constructed within the boundary wall of the


school but a little away from it.

3.

Building should be of U-Type, so that lawns and grounds


can be in the middle.

4.

There should be a good dispensary for emergency treatment

5.

Rooms should be big enough to accommodate four students.

6.

There should be proper lavatory facility.

7.

Rooms should be clean and walls should have yearly white


wash,

8.

Recreational facilities should be provided.

9.

A common room for the students.

10.

A Hall for the arrangement of functions.

8.2.3

Cafeteria:

It is a kind of restaurant which works on a self service basis, It has


got a. variety of mean fruits, chips, packets of biscuits, peanuts and
sweets.
1.

Good quality food should be prepared.

2.

Wholesome and balanced food should be available.

3.

3 There should be sufficient furniture and crockery.

4.

A full time manager should be appointed who is responsible


for good food.

5.

Care should be taken that principles of cleanliness are


observed.

6.

A teacher and some student assistants should be there to


provide help in distributing food and collecting money.

7.

Nominal price should be fixed which should attract both


teachers and students.

8.

If possible free food should be provided to poor students.

9.

Cafeteria should be a useful place for recreational and social


activities.

10.

If possible there should be a criterion for balanced and fresh


food.

4.

Dispensary

1.

It is necessary to establish clinics and to employ nurses in


school for necessary treatment of minor illness.

2.

The school nurse should be a health visitor; she should help


in assisting the parents in the treatment of vermin's
conditions and then advise various directions in regard to
such diseases as ringworm etc.

Physical development is as important as intellectual development,


school healthy conditions influence in the formation of child's
personality.
1.

School dispensary is necessary to help the students in case


of emergency.

2.

Medical kit should always be ready for help. Medical kit


should contain cotton wool, bandage, sticking plaster, and
pair of scissors, gaze pads, spirit and anti-septic ointment.

3.

At the time of admission there should be regular physical


check up of all students.

4.

Certain physical defects such as hearing, sight and speech


are noted and must be brought in notice of the class-teachers.

5.

Physical weaknesses should be brought to the notice of the


parents.

6.

Doctor should visit the school frequently and point out any
student suffering from diseases.

7.

Some kind of free treatment should be given by the school if


the. parents are poor.

8.

Importance should be given to the habit of cleaning teeth


after the meal.

9.

System of regular inoculation should be made in school


against infection diseases e.g. Measles ( ) typhoid. Etc.

A small medical room should be available where the child can rest in
case of fever.
5.

Need for Teacher's


Conditions:

Special

Attention

to

Health

1.

It is clear that the teacher should cultivate certain power of


observation and judgment in regarding a child's health. It
would be better if he is also trained to do some skilled work
in this connection. He should, for instance, know how to
record accurately the height, weight and chest
measurements.

2.

The teacher should generally keep the under height and


underweight pupils in mind but more important is the
appearance of alternates or languor vigor or weakness, a
clear or muddy red or pale lips, a healthy or unhealthy skin
and so on.

8.3

LEARNING RESOURCES, THEIR FUNCTIONS AND


MANAGEMENT

It will include the experts, equipment available and maintain (books


& maps).
8.3.1

Library

The facility of a good library should be provided for the students,


they should be given all information in the use of library. The
students should keep quite in the library. How to find a relevant book.
It should be a source of motivation and stimulation for the students.
There should be a very large variety of books, magazines, newspapers
and illustrated storybooks should be available.
Importance
They give training for youth in the art of communicating one's ideas
to other, fully clearly and effectively. The impulse to communicate is

very powerful in adolescents and it seeks expression in various ways


side by side with the growth of this impulse, the thought processes
develop rapidly and the youth becomes capable of organizing his
ideas and of reasoning about things. He also accumulates varied
experiences. His urge to express his thoughts and feelings is thus
greatly helped by his increasing rang of experience and his ability in
logical thinking.
The ability to communicate one's thoughts and feelings in an
effective manner is an essential condition for participation in social
life. The school should therefore, provide maximum opportunities for
practice in the art of effective expression and to expand the social
capacity of the pupil.
1.

School Diary:

A school calendar is drawn up at the beginning of each year. It gives


out probable dates of various events or works to be done during the
coming year or session. It should contain the following items of
information.
i.

General, partial and local holidays.

ii.

Dates for the submission of monthly, quarterly, half-yearly


and annual reports and returns.

iii.

Dates of public and school examinations.

iv.

Dates of meetings of School Committees, Teachers'


Associations, Local Excursions, School Tournaments, etc.

v.

Dates of the Monthly Tests and the subjects in which they


will be held.

8.3.2

Audio-Visual Aids

Instructional material is comparable to textbooks. Because they


facilitate learning and aid to teaching. Most of the concepts, which
are abstract, can be presented in a concrete form with the help of
instructional material.

According to Edger Dale (1969), "Audio Visual are those devices by


use of which communication of ideas between persons and groups in
various teaching and training situation is helped". These are also
termed as multi-sensory materials.
The audio-visual aids are of three types:

Audio aids.
Visual aids.
Audio-visual aids.

Teaching Aids or Audio Visual Aids


Definitions
1.

Audio means to hear, visual means to see, and Aids mean


the helping materials. Thus we can say, those materials,
which can be heard, seen and the teacher gets help from
them during the presentation of a lesson.

2.

Whatever materials or machinery, which are used by a


teacher, to make the lesson interesting and effective.

3.

A.V. aids make things clear, make instructions real, and


make the Teaching Learning process interesting.

4.

A.V. aids include all the means, techniques, instruments, in


short, every thing which may, help the teacher in catching
the eyes and ears of the students and enables him to do his
job more effectively.

5.

Devices that help to make learning more meaningful, more


nteresting and more effective.

6.

According to the dictionary of Education, Hardware


equipment's and media, used in learning, teaching and
research are called Audio-visual) A.V) aids.

The Importance of A.V. Aids


1.

There is a famous Chinese proverb, "One seeing is worth, a


hundred words". According to WEBER, a famous

Educationist, We receive knowledge through our senses. In


which we get 40% by the help of visual experiences, 25% by
the help of auditory experiences, and 17% by tactile
experiment.
2.

There is another Chinese proverb about the use of A.V. aids,


"If we hear we forget, if we see we remember, and if we do
something, we know it". Experts of education say, if we
hear, we remember 10%, if we see we remember 50%, and if
we hear, see, and do we remember 90%.

3.

They give concrete concepts in thinking.

4.

The students take keen interest in A.V. aids.

5.

They make learning more beneficial.

6.

They develop continuity of thought. This is true in case of


motion pictures.

7.

They contribute to the learning of meanings and hence


useful for building vocabulary.

8.

They give reality to the experiences of the students and


hence stimulate self-activity.

9.

They make abstract things concrete.

10.

They provide experiences not easily obtained through other


means and contribute to the efficiency, depth and variety of
learning.

11.

Easy-explanation is encouraged and time is saved.

12.

Due to dynamic pictures, continuity of thought is


established.

13.

Realism is created in the learning, which open doors to


individual activities.

14.

An everlasting and stable base is provided to the progressive


lesson.

15.

A.V. aids motivate and stimulate towards learning.

16.

A.V. aids make the lesson more meaningful.

17.

A.V. aids involve students in the development of the lesson.

18.

A.V. aids help in longer retention and better recall.

19.

It creates variety and change in the routine lesson.

20.

Pronunciation and expression is developed.

21.

Events of the past are presented at present.

22.

It is the Prophet's way of teaching. He (PBUH) used


different aids in his teaching of Islam, to inculcate the ideas
of Islam.

Principles of using of A.V. Aids


1.

The use of audio-visual materials involves four steps.

2.

Selecting the proper A.V. aids.

3.

Preparing the A.V. aids.

4.

Using A.V. aids.

5.

Following up the A.V. aids.

Selecting the proper A.V. Aids


Selection of the proper A.V. aids is very important. Using the wrong
tool will make the class ineffective. For the effective aids, we should
consider their,
i.

Suitability

ii.

Visibility

iii.

Clearness

iv.

Level of understanding

v.

Ease of Presentation and

vi.

Availability

i.

Suitability

Suitable objects should be used. It should not be only a show of aids.


These should be relevant to the topic and should also fulfill some
educational values. It should be used to make the teaching effective.
It should be helpful to achieve your objectives it should help you to
get across the concept at which you are shooting. It should give an
accurate understanding of the facts in the case.
ii.

Visibility

It should be clear and visible to all students, and it should be


attractive and have suitable size.
iii.

Clearness

It should not be difficult for the students to understand.


iv.

Level of Under Standing

Too much complicated aids should be avoided. Examine the mental


age of the students and then select aids according to that stage.
v.

Ease of Presentation

Select such type of material, which can easily be shown in the class.
vi.

Availability

Select aids according to the resources.


2.

Preparing the A.V. Aids

The accurate use of A.V. aids, usually requires advance preparation,


both Psychological Preparation, in which you prepare the pupils to
get the most out of the A.V. aids, and Physical preparation, in which
you prepare the physical conditions for use of the aids.
Sometimes the preparation needed is minimal, as with the use of
chalkboard, at other times, you will need to prepare extensively and
in detail. In your introduction you should clarify the purpose of the
activity, suggest points to look for in general, take whatever steps you
deem necessary so that pupil will get the most from the use of the aid.
You should check physical A.V. aids carefully before the class begins.
You should check the class position, the machine and the required
instruments.

3.

Using the A.V. Aids

The purpose of the AV. Aids is not to replace teaching, but to make
teaching more effective. Do not expect the A.V. aids to do all the
work. The teacher expects the A.V. aids to do all the work. The
teacher has to make it work for himself. The teacher will have to
explain certain points, show the relationships and point out the
concepts being demonstrated.
4.

Following up A.V. Aids

The teacher should follow up all the A.V. aid presentation. The
teacher should evaluate, discuss and explain. The teacher should
make clear, those points which are not clear. Questions, review,
practice and discussion can be used to tie together loose ends, to point
out and drive home the major concepts, skills and attitudes.
Techniques for using A.V. Aids
1.

It should be clear and attractive.

2.

It should fulfill educational values and standards.

3.

It should be used on proper time and on suitable places.

4.

It should be used in a sequence and in a proper order.

5.

It should be according to the resources.

6.

It should be durable.

7.

Questions should be
explanation.

8.

It should be removed after use.

asked during presentation for

Some of the Commonly Used Audio-Visual Aids


Audio

Visual

Audio-Visual

Radio

Writing Board

19

T.V. Set

Cassette Player

Flannel Board

20

V.C.R

Language
Laboratory

Display Board

Gramophone

Pictures

Wall, charts

10

Flash Cards

11

Maps/Globs

12

Real objects

13

Overhead

14

Slide projector

15

Film strip
projector

16

Computers

17

Models

18

Specimens

8.3.3

21

Movies or files

Resource Persons

Well expert and specialized persons in specified areas. They are


experienced persons and they have traveled widely. They are invited
to share their experiences with the students.
Lectures are arranged for different subjects and the resource person
with his detailed knowledge discusses with the students. The students
get motivated and got firsthand knowledge, students can ask
questions and can learn in an interesting manner.
e.g. if a lesson is about Hospitals and Banks. So a doctor and a bank
manager can be called to discuss and talk about his field. He becomes
a helper for the teachers.

UNIT-9
SCHOOL RECORDS
9.1

NEED FOR SCHOOL RECORDS

Importance
1.

School is entrusted with the task of all-round development of


the personality of a child. To discharge this function it is
absolutely essential to keep a record of his day-to-day
growth and development.

2.

School is social institution. It is answerable to the parents,


the managing committee, the department and the public in
general and records kept by the school serve as a useful
means to judge its efficiency. Carefully kept records are
indispensable for the successful working of the school.

3.

School records help us to assess the progress and needs of a


particular locality.

4.

The department requires the supply of certain facts on the


basis of which grants-in-aid are sanctioned. School records
are helpful for this purpose.

5.

Educational reforms can be undertaken only when the


school records provide a useful help in supplying
comprehensive data to those who are asked to shoulder the
responsibility of educational reforms.

6.

School records help in the administration of the school.

7.

School records and reports are used to satisfy the legal


environments of the state, to appraise the effectiveness of the
instructional programme.

8.

School records furnish research data for statistical analysis


and interpretation of policies and programmes and to

develop co-operative and constructive relations with the


parents of pupils in school.
9.

School records help in sending progress to parents.

Advantages of school records:


L.M. Chamberlain and L.W. Kindred give the following advantages
of the school' records.
i.

Records help the School:


1.

To locate each pupil quickly.

2.

To have available the facts significant about each pupil.

3.

To explain and remove undesirable conditions.

4.

To find if all legal requirements are met.

5.

To determine if any administrative of other changes are


desirable.

6.

To make important investigations and case studies possible.

7.

To find if school funds are adequate and wisely expended.

8.

To reduce retardation and failure to the minimum.

ii.

Records help the Classroom Teacher:

1.

To know pupils when the school year begins.

2.

To determine what work a pupil is capable of doing.

3.

To provide learning activities suitable to each pupil.

4.

To formulate a basis for the intelligent guidance of pupils.

5.

To explain the behavioural characteristics or unhappy


conditions of any pupil.

6.

To make possible the development of unusual capacities or


exceptional talents.

7.

To identify and make proper provisions for mentally slow.

8.

The make assignments to committee work and monitorial


positions.

9.

To make periodic reports correctly and in time.

10.

To be properly informed when conferring with parents and


others about a pupil:

iii.

Permanent Records help the Pupil:

1.

To receive fair consideration in his classification.

2.

To do his best in making a good record.

3.

To make a progress in accordance with his ability.

4.

To secure development of his natural capabilities.

5.

To secure transfer of correct information to other schools


when desired.

6.

To receive proper adjustment and guidance.

Mode of Keeping Records:


1.

A stock list of registers should be prepared in the school.

2.

On the outer cover of the register the following particulars


should be written distinctly.
a.

The name of the school.

b.

The serial number of the register.

c.

The name of the register.

d.

The number of volume.

e.

The number of pages of the volume.

f.

The opening and closing dates.

3.

Number of the pages consecutively either in the red ink or


with a numbering machine when a register is opened.

4.

Keep the registers tidy. Avoid overwriting.

5.

Make all the entries in ink.

6.

Get each cutting attested by the head.

7.

Do not open a new volume of a register every year, if the


previous volume contains some blank pages.

8.

Fill up every column provided in a prescribed register and


do not leave any blank space between entries.

9.2

GUIDELINES FOR PROPER MAINTENANCE OF


SCHOOL RECORDS:

1.

It is the ultimate responsibility of the headmaster/principal to


maintain and preserve the school records properly and as
such he should be well conversant with this aspect of school
administration.

2.

The headmaster should not transfer to his clerks or assistants


blame for faulty discharge of what are his own primary
responsibilities.

3.

All information contained in the school records should be


accurate, well organized, pertinent and justified solely on
grounds of the contribution it can make either directly or
indirectly to the welfare of the student.

4.

Record system should provide for the collecting and


recording of information that is relevant and useful in
working with children.

5.

In the case of a child's transfer form one school to another,


his records should follow him.

6.

For the harmonious development of the child, different kind


of records should be kept. All members of the staff have a
responsibility for keeping records according to their field of
activity.

7.

The records and reports should be easily maintained and


should require a minimum of time and energy for making
entries.

8.

9.3

10 School records should always be available in the school


premises and should not be removed from the school
premises for the purpose of scrutiny.
STUDY OF IMPORTANT SCHOOL RECORDS:

School records and registers can be broadly classified under the


following heads.
A.

General Records

i.

School Calendar.

ii.

Log Book.

iii.

Visitor's Book.

iv.

Service Registers.

v.

Admission and Withdrawal Register.

vi.

Transfer Certificate Book.

vii.

General Order Book.

viii.

School leaving certificate Book.

B.

Financial Records:

i.

Acquaintance Roll.

ii.

Contingency Register.

iii.

Contingent Order Book.

iv.

Fee Collection Register.

v.

Abstract Register of Fees.

vi.

Bill Register.

vii.

Register of Donations.

viii.

Register of Scholarships.

ix.

Private Tuition's Register.

C.

Educational Records:

i.

Pupil Attendance Register.

ii.

Teacher Attendance Register.

iii.

Class Time Table.

iv.

General Time Table.

v.

Teacher's Monthly Progress Register.

vi.

Examination Result Register.

vii.

Head Master Supervision Register.

viii.

Cumulative Records.

D.

Equipment Records:

i.

Stock Book of Furniture and School Appliances.

ii.

Library Catalogue.

iii.

Accession Register.

iv.

Issue Books, Register of Newspapers and Magazines


received.

v.

Stock and Issue Register of Sports Material.

E.

Correspondence Records:

i.

'From' and 'To' Register

ii.

Peon Book.

iii.

Memo Book.

iv.

File of Departmental Orders.

v.

Register of casual Leave Granted.

F.

Account Books:

i.

Cash Book for Daily Receipts and Expenditure.

ii.

General Ledger or Classified Abstract of the Monthly Totals.

iii.

Remittance Book.

iv.

Register of Pay Bills.

Few of the important school records, relating mainly to the


educational side of the school administration, are described below:
2.

Log Book:
It is a school dairy.' It records those events which occur
during a year. It furnishes material for history of the school
year by year. It contains special events happening to the
institution, introduction of new text books or apparatus,
visits of officials, changes in school building, staff, timing
etc.
The log-book should contain only 'statement of facts' and not
expression of opinion concerning those facts. If possible
only the headmaster/concerned authorities should make
entries into it.

3.

Admission Register:
The headmaster is personally responsible for the entries
made in an Admission Register. It is one of the most
important school records. It is a record of all the pupils
admitted to the school. In it should be entered the date of
admission, the serial number of the pupil, the age and name
of the pupil, the father's name, caste, occupation and address,
the class to which the pupil is admitted and the date on
which he leaves to school. There be no wrong entry at all as
this register is to be kept permanently.

4.

Pupils' Attendance Register:


This register is meant for making the attendance of pupils.
Attendance should be marked as soon as the class assembles
at the prescribed time. Attendance has to be marked for both
the morning and after-noon sessions. Absence owing to
illness is indicated by suitable symbols such as S.L. (Sick
Leave). At the foot of each daily column, the number present
at the morning and the after-noon sessions should be noted.

At the end of each month, the number of times each pupil


was present should be noted in the column provided. When
the school does not meet, the nature of the holiday should be
written. These registers are to be preserved for 5 years.
Teachers Attendance Register:
A register for purpose of recording the daily attendance of
teachers in a school is another necessary record. As soon as
teachers come to the school, they should write their initials
opposite their names in the columns provided for the
purpose. Late-corners should indicate the time at which they
arrive. The head master should also mark his attendance and
should check the attendance of his assistants at the
commencement of each school session.
5.

Stock Register of School Equipment:


All movable property of the school should be entered into
this register. Whenever any equipment or furniture is
purchased and placed in the school, it must be duly entered
in the property register. The name of the article, date and
receipt of the article, its price and the authority who
purchased it must be entered in it. The equipment should be
checked by the headmaster at least once a year and
verification should be recorded in the Stock Register.

If there is any difference in stock, explanation and action


taken should be recorded.
6.

Monthly Progress Register:


Usually the marks obtained by pupils in class, terminal and
annual tests are entered in progress records. The evaluation
of routine work also should find a place in progress register.
The progress of pupils should be shown separately for each
of the subject of the curriculum so that each pupil's strength
and weakness may be judged.

7.

Cash Book:
In contains a record of all money transactions that are being
carried through from day to day in school. The credit side of
the cash book shows all the money, received by the school
from different sources, e.g., donations, grants-in-aid, fees,
boys' fund etc. and its debit side indicates all the payments
made e.g., salaries paid, deposits made in bank, contingent
expenditure incurred etc.
Cash book should be well bound and the pages should be
carefully numbered in print.
It should be written up from day to day. The entry relating to
each item of receipt and expenditure should be made at the
time of transaction.
As far as possible the cash balance should be immediately
deposited in the bank. Daily balancing of the cash book
avoids chances of errors.

UNIT- 10
TIME TABLE
10.1

INTRODUCTION AND VALUES OF SCHOOL


TIMETABLE:

Time table is a simple word meaning for schedule of various


activities, work or recitations in respect of time duration. Looking at
the universe the sun, earth, moon, stars, galaxies and whole of the
solar system run by a proper schedule. The beneficent Allah has also
pointed to it in the Holy Quran as:
"Neither the sun can overcome the moon nor the night could
overcome the day, each of them run on their own orbits", i.e. each one
of the masses has been allotted his own job and is bound to obey
punctually and regularly; no one has the courage to deviate. In
another occasion Allah Taala points to the prayer (Namaz) to be
offered in its specific time i.e.
"The Prayers has been assigned to the Muslims in their respective
times". It also gives us the lesson to be punctual and do your work in
time, as the Prayer of morning cannot offered at evening and the
prayer of evening cannot be offered at morning time. So similarly one
should have a Time Table for each and every work. Thus the school,
the office, the railways, the airports, Radio, T.V etc all have their
scheduled time table to follow. Even in a single atom there is also a
schedule for the movement of its components i.e. Electron, Proton
and Neutrons. If there is no such perfect schedule for them to follow,
the Electron will clash with the proton, similarly the trains will
collide with each other, the aeroplane will be air crashed and the
masses will also be crashed and thus, "The whole system will be
destroyed".

School Time Table:


School is also society within the society in a miniature; so it also
requires a schedule to run its activities and gain its objectives well in
a proper way A school time table is a plan showing the weekly
allotment of the time among several subjects and other co-curricular
activities. It is a plan of distribution of available time during the day
among the various items of work to be done. Its importance rests
upon the fact that the smooth running of the intricate machinery of
the school, from the opening morning of the new session or year to
the last day of the year, depends largely upon the skill with which the
Schedule of recitations has been made. Time Table making is a very
difficult task and can be properly done only by an expert who
becomes more skillful year by year. A good schedule can be
continued from year to year with rare changes as experience suggests,
or transfer of a skilled person occurs. Through the time table both the
Teacher and taught get benefit i.e. the teacher may be able to know
which subjects he has to teach, to which classes, and the pupils may
know what ground of study they have to cover, which standard they
have to reach and what objectives they have to achieve?
Values of Time Table
A better time table is very useful to all concerned because:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

By the time table the teacher and the taught know their jobs
and the time they should devote to it.
There is no wastage of time and energy as the whole work is
distributed among the members of the staff.
Time table ensures a regularity and even progress in the
institute.
Due place, attention and emphasis are given to each subject
according to its importance and difficulty.
It develops methodical attitude towards work both in
teachers and pupils.
As definite items of work are allotted to definite periods, so
a time table helps to form habits of orderliness, steadiness,
regularity and attention to the duty assigned in fixed periods.

7.

8.
9.

10.2

There is full adjustment of school work. Everything is


planned in advance. All teachers and the students know their
jobs and the time allotted for them.
There is subject justification, i.e. each subject is give due
time for its study.
Assembly, recreation recess, tutorial group, guidance group
sports and library has given separate periods; thus both
curricular and co-curricular activities flourish side by side.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE CONSTRUCTION OF
SCHOOL TIMETABLE

There are four major types of school time table.


1.
2.
3.
4.

Residential school time table


Ordinary school time table
Activities time table
Home work time table

1.
Residential school time table implies where the school is
provided with the facility of hostel also e.g. cadet college Kohat,
cadet college Razmak (Waziristan) The Fazli Hiq College Mardan
and Risalpur college etc., where there are boardinghouse facilities.
The students are in the supervision of their teacher 24 hours. So they
follow a 24 hour time table i.e. morning prayers, exercise or running,
breakfast, school teaching periods, lunch, rest, games, dinner, study I
revision in the supervision of the teachers and light off (sleeping).
Such school and colleges follow a 24 hour time table and the students
remain under supervision all the time. Such types of schools and
colleges show good results.
2.
Ordinary school time table. Such type of time table is
followed up in most of the government and private schools and
colleges.
There is a consolidated time table for the whole school, which has
three sub time tables.

i.

Class wise time table:- In this time table the various subjects
of the same class and section are arranged. It is provided to
each class or section. Each section and class has a different
time table and a copy of it should be present in the class.

ii.

The teacher wise time table:- It is a time table of all the


teachers showing period number, subject, class and section.
Each and every teacher keep on this time table, while a
combine copy of the teacher's time tables is kept in the office
of the Head master or the Principal. This time table also
shows the vacant periods of each teacher in which he can
check students note books and prepare himself for the next
class.

3.
Activities time table:- This time table contains all of the
activities and programmes to be aiTanged during the year by the
school. Their dates and little detail is to be given in the time table,
e.g.

23rd March Pakistan resolution day.

12th Rabiul Awwal (Eid milad-dun-Nabi).

1st May Labour

27th Rajab Shabi Meraj.

14th August (Independence day)

6th September (Defence day)

9th November (1gbal day)

Bazme Addab

Parents day

day

iii.
Room time table:- In such type of time table the lecture
rooms, laboratory, workshop, Drawing room, and library etc, are to be
used by each and every class and section in a week These specific
rooms are to be used by every section and class alternatively; so their

time table must be as such to arrange all of the subjects concerning to


them alternately daily or weekly in alternate periods.
4.
Home work Time Table:- It is time table in which schedule
of home work or various subjects and classed is arranged in such a
way that the student may neither be over loaded nor left free to move
hither and thither. It is better to classify important subjects like
English, Maths, Urdu, G.Sc. etc and their home work should be
allotted in different days of the week. Thus their home work easily. If
a Teacher teaches the same subject to the different classes or sections;
He should be given alternate days for the allotment of home work to
the different classes or sections. If there was no such arrangement,
then either the student will be over loaded by the home work one day
and would be left free next day, which is not beneficial to the student
as well as to the teacher for check up-and correction work.
In the consolidated time table on one side there would be teacher wise
time table and on the other side there would be class wise time table.
One copy of this consolidated time table would be on the, office table
of the head master or principle and other copy would be in the vacant
period register; through which the periods of the teacher on leave
could be distributed among the present teachers, one copy of the
activities time table, home work time table should be in office and
one copy of each should be on the notice board, while one copy of the
room time table would be in their respective room and the second
copy would be in the office for verification.
Preparations for Time Table Making
1.

Difficult and important subjects should be first:- Before


making a time table for a school the difficult subjects should
be enlisted first e.g. mathematics, English. physics,
chemistry and other science subjects etc, that they may be
given enough periods and should be retained regularly whole
of the week.

2.
Incidence of fatigue:- Two or three consecutive difficult
periods bring more mental fatigue, so it should be noted that after two

difficult subjects one light subject must be kept, e.g. Drawing subjects
General Science, Qiraat and physical education etc.
3.
Principle of variety:- While framing a time table principle
of variety should be kept in mind for both teachers and pupils.
Students will feel mental fatigue and boredom, if they are kept
engaged in the same subject for a number of periods; so it is better
not to have the same subject for two or more consecutive periods
except science practical, wood work, metal work or and any other
vocational work. In case of teachers principle of variety should be
kept in alternate periods. For example a teacher of English or
Mathematics could not attend two consecutive periods of oral work or
written work. So he should be given a free period in between the two
periods or some other alternate period should be given in middle. For
the practical work e.g. Science practical. wood work, metal work or
some other vocational or technical work if there are two consecutive
periods then it is better for them because they require more time to
complete and are interesting, also.
4.
Principle of Justice:- Teaching periods among the staff
members should be equally distributed except special subjects of the
specific teacher e.g. science, Qiraat, Drawing, Arabic, Drill and
vocational subjects, for which there is a specific teacher. So these
subjects should be allotted to theni definitely. If the total periods of a
teacher were less than the average periods of the remaining staff
members such staff members should be given extra periods beside his
own subjects. Thus a justice could be maintained among the staff
members. The teachers of subjects with more written work and
correction work like English, Urdu, Maths etc should not be over
loaded by the burden of extra periods: The teachers keeping various
records like admission with drawl register, stock register and funds
registers etc. should not be over loaded-by teaching periods.
5.
Teaching Staff, equipments and building:- The number
and qualification of teachers, the number of class rooms, lecture
rooms, laboratory and library should be taken into consideration

while framing the time table. The time table for a primary or middle
school with a qualified staff will be quite different from a school in
which there is only one teacher. Again where the number of class
rooms is less than the number of classes or sections, thus one
roorprshould be used for two classes and the time table should be
arranged as such that one class will be doing reading work while the
other silent calligraphy writing work. The equipment available also
determines the time table; science and drawing rooms especially
require well 'equipped rooms. All the classes should not have to be
the same subject in the same period so that each class may be given
the chance for the utilization of science equipment's and library books
as well.
6.
Vacant or free periods for teachers:- All the teachers must
be provided with some free periods. The placing of these free periods
requires important consideration. It would be useless if all the free
periods of the week are collected to one day or two days of the week,
while the remaining week he has to work like a machine, so that the
free periods should be scattered over the whole week as far as
possible. It would be better if the form-masters are given the second
period vacant and the remaining staff should be facilitated by a vacant
period at least after two consecutive teaching periods. An expert
schedule maker could be arrange such a time table in which there will
be one vacant period after each teaching period. A teacher must be
facilitated by at least two vacant periods daily because a human being
is not a machine so he should be given rest for a while definitely. The
vacant period is also not useless hut it is for the preparation to the
next class as well as for the checking / correction of the note books of
the students.
7.
The time table should not be rigid but flexible:- It must be
remembered that there should be no rigid time table, as the changes
occurs in the curriculum, teachers transfers or the government
announce half day weekly or two consecutive holidays weekly, for
which the time table can be adjusted. A time table rigid by nature and
mechanical in its operation will reduce a school to a static lifeless

Shelton. So a schedule must he flexible and not rigid to accept


necessary changes.
Procedure of Schedule (Time Table) Making:
One week before the commencement of the new session, a meeting of
teachers is held in the supervision of Head master or principal. The
time table maker usually have made the necessary preparation like.

A list of all the classes and number of sections in series


along with their subjects to be taught and the number of
weekly periods of each subject written in front of each
section and class.

A list of names of all the available teachers along with their


qualification and post held. A list of subjects of their own
choice and space for the next subjects to be allotted.

A list of available class rooms, lecture rooms, drawing


rooms, workshops, library and science laboratories etc.

Already square lined graph sheets one for teacher wise


schedule one for class-wise schedule and one for workshops
and laboratories etc.

In the meeting held (called distribution of work) under the


supervision of head of the institute every teacher proposes choice
subjects which are noted against their names in the teacher's list. This
option is for only those who are not subject teachers i.e. science
teacher, workshop instructor, drawing master, Arabic teacher, Qari
and subject specialists etc. Who are bound to teach their respective
subjects definitely though they can also allotted subjects other than
their respective subjects or choice subjects?
The schedule maker note all the selected, assigned and allotted
subjects in front of each teacher and simultaneously cross those
-subjects and number of periods from the class list and subject list
one by one as the work proceeds during the meeting. When all of the
subjects noted in the list are crossed it may be checked again. Then

the total number of periods of each teacher should be noted in front


line of his name. Then add the total periods of all the teachers, it
should be equal to the addition of the total weekly periods of all the
subjects of a class or section multiplied by number of total periods of
the week. When both the totals are balanced it would be perfect time
table. Now it should be arranged in the consolidated time table sheet
in the square lined graphs or blocks in the class or section timetable
sheet and- room time table sheet, in which the days of the week and
serial number of periods have already noted. The first period of all the
form-masters should be noted first, then the Qiraat and physical
education in a scattered manner in whole of the week, while English,
Maths, Urdu and some of the sciences of higher classes should not be
later than the half day or 5'1' period. It should also be noted that two
consecutive periods of the same teacher may not come with the same
section or class. Every teacher must have a rest of one period after at
least two or three consecutive periods. The difficult and easy subjects
should be arranged alternatively, because three or more consecutive
difficult subjects bring more mental fatigue to the students as well as
to the teacher, so in the middle of the difficult subjects there should
be a shot break or physical education period or some other light
subject like. Drawing, G.Sc. Qiraat etc. If a subject has more than six
periods weekly, the remaining two or three periods should be kept
beyond 5`11 period i.e. in the 6th ,7111 and Eith period. The period
for library of each class should be arranged after the 5th period
scatteredly i.e. all of the class should not have the same period on the
same day but alternately arranged. Now we consider short time table
of a high school having 5 classes. 611', 7'1', 8th, 9th, and 10'h and 14
available teachers (Three SETs, three C.Ts, three S.Vs, one D.M, one
PET, one A.T. one T.T and one Qari).
The subjects taught in these high classes are English, Urdu, Maths,
Islamic studies, Pak. Studies, Physics. chemistry Biology, Qiraat,
Library. Physical Education, G.Sc, Islamiyat Elective, Pashto and
Arabic, while the subjects in middle classes are: Eng. Urdu laths,.

Islamic studies social studies, G.Sc. Drawing, Arabic, and Physical


education.
10.3

QUALITIES OF A GOOD TIMETABLE

1.

In a best schedule there are no two consecutive periods of


the same teacher with the same teacher with the same class
or section.

2.

There is at least one or two periods rest for every teacher


during the whole working day.

3.

There are maximum three consecutive teaching and writing


periods of every teacher per working day.

4.

Difficult and compulsory subjects like English, Maths, Urdu


etc. have been kept before short break or 5th period.

5.

Physical Education and other light subjects like Qiraat and


Drawing have been kept in between 2nd and 8th period.

10.4

PREPARATION OF TIMETABLE IN A GIVEN


SITUATION

Modern educationists advocate the abolition of time-table altogether


because each individual is unique in certain respects. Each child has
his own testes, his own preferences and his own rate and speed of
working. When he is left to himself, he is loses interest of feels
fatigued. if he is interested in his work, he is alert and active. This
inters gives him psychological satisfaction. But when work is being
done under a rigid time-table, a child might have to stop it at the time
when he has begun way, that is he would feel fatigued with the
subject before the period is over. But because the period is meant for
that particular subject, he has to continue even though he is disgusted.
It is for this reason that some educational reformers would like to
abolish time-table altogether. If a child is left to himself, he would
give more time to those subjects in which he is interested and give up

those in which he is not interested to come back at a more favourable


time.
As education must enter the individual needs of the students, modern
education not prescribe and collective time-table. No two individuals
are alike. All will, therefore, need individual methods. Different
methods will have to be devised, like Dalton plan, project method etc.
which are not bound to the time boundaries.
Conclusion:
Though both the sides have strong evidences yet it is clear that a
schedule/time table has a great importance on educational institutions
as well as in other departments.