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sensitivityincrisis

sensitivityincrisis

Astudyongenderandconflictsensitivityinhumanitariancrises

March2016


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Acknowledgements

Theresearch team wouldliketothankDr.HenriMyrttinenandJanaNaujoksfromInternationalAlert


for their insight, dialogue, and directionin the creationof this project.Wewould alsolike to thank
membersoftheexaminedorganisationsfortakingpartintheinterviews.
Finally,we wouldlike to offerourgratitude toourprofessorsattheLSE:ReginaEnjutoMartinez,Dr.
RachelIbreck,andDr.StuartGordonfortheirconstantencouragementandsupport.

BackgroundofReport

This report has been compiled for International Alert byaconsultancyteamfromtheLondonSchool


of Economics and Political Science. It constitutes the Humanitarian Consultancy Project of the
programmefortheMScinInternationalDevelopmentandHumanitarianEmergencies.

Disclaimer2016
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or
transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise, without full attribution. Interviewees gave consent for information gathered from
interviewsforthisspecificpublication.
Coverphotoby:
Getty
AnadoluAgency(2014).
VictimsofWar
Tableofcontentsphotoofschoolgirl:
UNPhoto/MarcoDormino


sensitivityincrisis

Acronyms

GAD

GenderandDevelopment

IA

InternationalAlert

IFRC

InternationalFederationoftheRedCross

ICRC

InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross

LGBTI

Lesbian,gay,bisexual,transgenderandintersex

MSF

MdecinsSansFrontires

OCHA

UnitedNationsOfficefortheCoordinationofHumanitarianAffairs

SGBV

SexualorGenderBasedViolence

UNHCR

UnitedNationsHumanitarianCouncilforRefugees

UNICEF

UnitedNationsInternationalChildrensEmergencyFund

UNMEER

UnitedNationsMissionforEbolaEmergencyResponse

UNSCR

UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution

WID

WomeninDevelopment

WHS

WorldHumanitarianSummit


sensitivityincrisis

Theaim ofthisreportistoassessgenderandconflictsensitivityinhumanitariancrisesbyexamining
organisationalpoliciesandpractices.
>Background
Gender refers to the dynamic social characteristics associated with masculinity and femininity
which vary overtime and space. Theimportance of recognizing gender within humanitarianpolicies
originated in the 1970s, as is seen in the Women in Development (WID) movement. The WID
approach recognises women and girls face different vulnerabilities than men and boys and places
them at the centre of development. However, the WID approach targets solely women and girls,
without incorporating theminto overall development objectives. It hasthereforehasbeencriticised
for promoting Add Women and Stir policies. Gender and Development (GAD) explores the
relationships between genders, andhowtheserelationscanaffecteverydaylifeandcapabilities.This
creates opportunities to gain an understanding of complex systems of power and respect.
Furthermore, the GAD approach allows space for LGBTI individuals whomaynotfitinto traditional
categoriesofmaleandfemale.

Conflictsensitivity is an approach which focusesonthe potential impact of anintervention within


the specificcontext in which it is beingimplemented.Thepurposeofconflictsensitiveapproaches is
to evaluate which methods and programmes would be the most beneficial within crises. If an
emergency response is not adequately contextualised, attempts to intervenecould be detrimental
andevenleadtofurtherconflict.

>ThematicFramework
The framework for analysis used in this report was developed from a report byInternational Alert
entitled
Rethinking Gender in Peacebuilding
. Criteria from this report were categorised into four
mainthematicareaswhichwereusedasframeworksforourdataanalysis.

1. Beyond Add Women and Stir seeks to understand the extent to which organisational
policies and practices extend beyond the traditional social constructs of male and
female.
2. Informing and Promoting Human Rights focuses on the measures, strategies and tools
putin place to facilitate accessto informationandjustice,whilerecognisingthedynamics
genderedaspectsoftheseservices.
3. Inclusionand Participation of Marginalised Gender Groups exploresthedegreetowhich
marginalised gender groups have access to leadership positions within the local
programmaticstructures.
4. Extends Beyond ShortTerm Thinking with Gender assesses how responses to
emergencies can be used to provide lasting solutions in regards to gender, rather than
simplymeetingimmediateneed.


sensitivityincrisis

>Methodology
Using a combination of semistructured interviews, desk research and thematic analysis, we
investigated ten selectednongovernmental organisations (NGOs) and UNagencies, looking atboth
policies and practices. The organisations were examined within the context of two humanitarian
crises; namely,the 2014 Ebola virusoutbreakinWestAfricaandtheongoingconflictinSouthSudan.
Additionally, we analysed the preliminary documents and reports of theWHS in order to revealif,
and how, gender and conflictsensitivity are being discussed at the global level. By analysing the
conversation at the international level, we were able to highlight the extent to which the global
conversation on gender and conflictsensitivity has filtered down to the level of organisations
policies, and finally to the level oforganisations practices; in the field of response. Organisational
policiesandpractices werescoredusingaredorangeyellowgreenscaletoillustratetheiradherence
tothethemes.

>ResearchFindings
Analysis of published policy documents, reports, gender toolkits,interviews,andinternal notes on
EbolaandSouth Sudan showeda generalawareness of genderand conflictsensitive policies,yet a
lackof demonstrated implementation ofsuch policies.Policiesdonotoftenthoroughlydiscussareas
of rights, inclusivity, marginalised groups, and longterm thinking. In particular, policies from nearly
all of our chosen organisations scored highly in the first thematic area, Beyond Add Womenand
Stir, suggesting that humanitarianism as a whole perceives gender as being fluid and dynamic,
rather than rigid and binary.However,theorganisationshighscoreswithinpoliciesarenotreflected
in their practices. When there are time constraints and limited resources during an emergency,
gender is often undermined and prioritised below meetingimmediate needs(e.g.thedistributionof
food and medical supplies). Although, as aforementioned, failing to properly contextualise such
interventions canleadtofurther harm. Our researchhighlighted that theinclusionandparticipation
of the LBGTI community was seldom explicitly mentioned byorganisations, despite thatthepolicies
of nearly all organisations seemedto appreciatethebenefitofinvolvingmarginalisedgenderswithin
the recoveryprocess. Thepromotionof human rights in relation to gender isalsorarelyseenwithin
practice.

Furthermore, there appears to be a widening gap between humanitarianism and development.


Interviewees often cited gendersensitivity as development work, because the encouragement of
genderequalitycould beseenasalongtermaim.However,ifgenderisnotincludedwithinthe initial
stages of the intervention, there is alowprobabilitythatitwillbeincorporatedwithinlaterstagesof
the response.It can be deduced fromourfindingsthat whilegenderisviewedasanimportantissue
within policies, humanitarian organisations do not view the implementation of gender and
conflictsensitive practices to be immediately necessary in a crisis, and therefore prioritise other
aspectsofresponse.Ourfindingsaresummarizedinthetablebelow:

ThematicArea

Policies

Practices

BeyondAddWomenandStir

InformingandPromotingHumanRights

InclusionandParticipationofMarginalisedGenderGroups

ExtendsBeyondShortTermThinkingwithGender


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During emergencies and crises, the need to respond quickly can often undermine other less visible
dimensions of response such as gender and conflictsensitivity. Factors such as sex, age, race,
traditional norms, and culture have previously been overlooked, despite the fact such aspectsare
crucial in order tofully understand the needs ofvictims. Yet,therehasbeenincreasingappreciation
in policy ofthe role thatgenderandconflictsensitiveapproachescanplaytoenhancehumanitarian
effectiveness. Studies have shown that incorporating the views of men, women, boys, and girls is
beneficial to humanitarian interventions (UN Women, 2015; IASC, 1999). Additionally,a contextual
understanding of the conflict is noted to be critical in aiding humanitarian actors to devise
appropriate responses for beneficiaries and is key to mitigate the reoccurrence of emergencies.
However, gender and conflictsensitive approaches are often disregarded or trivialised inpractice,
particularlyaffectingmarginalisedgroups.

A threeyear research project conducted in four countries by International Alert on gender within
peacebuilding resulted in the Rethinking Gender in Peacebuilding report, which further provided
evidence to the vital nature of gender andconflictsensitivities in humanitarianinterventions.The
main finding of this research was that a genderrelational approach to emergencies provides a
nuanced and deeper appreciation of thecomplexities and dynamicsof gender identities,aswell as
acting as an effective and sustainable framework for gender analysis (Myrttinen et al., 2014). A
genderrelational approach allows for greater contextual understanding by enabling broad
descriptions ofgenderrolesandintersectionalities, and providinginformation as to howtheseroles
and relations are social constructs. This approach also allows for themapping and inclusion of key
stakeholders,therebyenablingfocusedandtargetedresponses.(Myrttinenetal.,2014).

This consultancy project builds onInternational Alerts aforementionedfindings.We havesoughtto


analyse the extent to which the genderrelational approach has permeated organisational policies,
practices and global discussions within the humanitarian system. This report explores whether
policies, practices, and discoursesreflecttheneedtomovebeyondtraditionalgenderbinariesandto
the integration of othergenderidentitiesandmarginalisedgroups.Tenorganisationswereexamined
andevaluated:ChristianAid;IslamicRelief;CAREInternational;MdecinsSansFrontires(MSF);Save
the Children; Concern Worldwide;International Committee ofthe RedCross (ICRC); UnitedNations
Office for the Coordination ofHumanitarianAffairs(OCHA);UnitedNationsHumanitarianCouncilfor
Refugees (UNHCR); and United Nations International Childrens Emergency Fund (UNICEF). The
UnitedNationsMission forEbolaEmergency Responsewasalsoexploredwhereappropriate.Inorder
to examine the discourse at the global level on gender and conflictsensitive approaches in
humanitarian aid, reports fromthe World HumanitarianSummit(WHS)wereresearched.Usingboth
desk research and interviews, we focused on the case studies ofthe 2014 Ebola outbreakin West
Africa and theongoing conflict inSouth Sudan, in order tocomparewhetherorganisationspolicies
wereconsistentwiththeiractionsandpractices.


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Webegin the reportby consideringthe existingdebates aroundgenderandconflictsensitivity,and


thegendereddimensionsofepidemicsand conflicts.Thesectionwhichfollowsisadetailedoutlineof
the methodology employed within the study. Finally, though we do notprovide a onesizefitsall
approach for gender and conflictsensitivities, we offer our conclusions and recommendations,
which will hopefully enable and persuade humanitarian responses to become increasingly gender
andconflictsensitive.

UNPhoto/StuartPrice


sensitivityincrisis

>GenderSensitivity
Whilst gendersensitive policies have their origins in the 1970s Women in Development (WID)
movement, theexpansionfromfemalespecificpoliciestogenderrelationalpolicieswascatalysedby
the GenderandDevelopment (GAD)movement in the1980s,whichadvocates forgenderrelational
approaches(Baden andGoetz,1998).Theterm genderissociallyconstructedandallowsforamyriad
of understandings of masculinity and femininity within different cultures. InternationalAlert has
identified three approaches to development and humanitarian programmes: genderblind
approaches; approaches which operate from WID principles (for example UN Security Council
Resolution 1325); and approaches based on GAD principles (Myrttinen et al., 2014). The extent to
whicheachapproachutilisesoradvocatesforgendersensitivepoliciesandpracticesvaries.

The WID approach puts women and girls at the centre of development by recognising the unique
vulnerabilities women and girls face, and advocating for genderspecific practices. This approach
emerged fromUN researchwhichdiscoveredwomensparticipationandneedswereofteninvisible
in development programmes (World Bank Group, 2001). WID encourages womensinvolvementin
the development process (Ndenyele and Badurdeen, 2012) and promoteswomens contribution to
productive work in society (World Bank Group, 2001). However, WID approaches such as United
Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325have since beencriticised as they follow an Add
Women and Stir framework, whereby they target women in isolation; failing to incorporatethem
into overall development objectives (Myrttinen et al., 2014). By
neglecting the importance of gender relations and gendered
power dynamics, programmes can also potentially reinforce
traditional genderroles, for example byunderstanding or valuing
women primarily in their roles as mothers and caregivers (Jones
and Homes, 2011). Although the WID approach was the first to
highlight the invisible needs of women, by focusing solely on
women, by not recognising the gendered relations in which
women exist the ability of the approach to fully comprehend
power dynamics and to impact programmes in the longterm is
limited.

The GAD approach, unlike WID, focuses on genders in relationship to one another, and how
conceptions of gender affect ones ability to participate in, or gain benefits from, aid programmes
(NdenyeleandBadurdeen, 2012;WorldBankGroup,2001).Byexamininggendersinrelationtoeach
other, itis possibletogain an understanding ofthecomplexsystemsofpowerandrespect.TheGAD
approach viewsgendered differences inrelationtoothersocial,economicandpoliticalinequalities
(Myrttinen et al.,2014; World Bank Group, 2001, p.7). Furthermore,this approach allows spacefor
LGBTI individuals, whose identities may be overlooked as they do not conform to the traditional
gender binaries of male and female.This approachmovesawayfrom women andgirlsasa target
group,towardsabroaderanddeeperdiscussionofhowgendersinteractwithoneanother.


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10

The majority of organisations have moved away from genderblind approaches and, at least in
theory, are advocating for genderspecific activities or gender mainstreaming in development
programmes(Buchy and Basaznew, 2005). Genderblindapproaches neglectthedifferentneedsthat
genders may have, and focus mainly on offering basic provisions to specific population groups
(Olivius, 2014; UNWomen, 2013). Whilst the majority of organisationstodayclaimthattheyarenot
genderblind, many remain so (Olivius, 2014). Genderblind approaches restrict an organisations
understanding of gendered power dynamics, and can overlook the needs of specific marginalised
groups in an effort to treat all beneficiariesin a universal manner.Forexample, distributing foodin
equalamounts,althoughsomegroupsmaybemoreinneedthanothers.

Nevertheless, gendersensitivity tends to be primarily focused on development programmes and


often fails to highlight the ways in which humanitarian responses could incorporate
gendersensitivity. Aspects of gendersensitivity, such as power dynamics; gender roles and
expectations; vulnerabilities; et cetera,canoftentakemonthsoryearstofullycomprehendwithin
a specific context.Thisisoftenoneofthereasonswhygendersensitivityseemstobeconfinedtothe
longerterm developmental sphere, rather than meeting immediate humanitarian needs (UN
Women, 2013). Furthermore, when an urgentresponse or decision isneeded,it maybechallenging
to intentionally include women in the decisionmaking process (Ndenyele and Badurdeen, 2012,
p.335). However, the failure to initially recognise gender needs and relationship power dynamics
greatly distorts the likelihood that rehabilitation efforts will be gendersensitive, if relief efforts
initially failed to meet this standard (Oxfam International, 2013; Ndenyele and Badurdeen, 2012).
Policies and practices which demonstrate gendersensitivity should be implemented in both
humanitariananddevelopmentresponses.

>ConflictSensitivity
Since the endof the ColdWar, there hasbeenanincreasedamountofspending(inbothhumanand
economiccapital)oninterventionswithinhumanitarianemergencies(Duffield,1994).However,ifthe
emergency response is not properly and adequately contextualised, theintervention couldactually
be detrimental andcausemoreharmthanbenefits(GulleteandRosenberg,2015). Thisissuebecame
dominant within humanitarianism during the late 1980s, where it was entitled Do No Harm,
highlighting the fact that what mayappeartobeassistancecan actuallyleadtolongtermharm(Fox,
2001).An example ofa DoNo Harm violation occurredinAlbaniancampsin1999(Wessells,2009).
An American psychologist set up a tent which providedcounselling servicesfor women survivors of
rape. Whilst on a superficial level thismayseemtobeaneffectiveintervention,whenexaminingthe
context of the counselling tent, it becomes clear that this could actually lead to further conflict.
Traditionally, familiesregardedrapesurvivorsasbringingdishonourontheirfamilies,and,inorderto
abolish this dishonour, must kill the respective victim. Hence, if a woman selfidentified as a rape
victim, potential violence from her family could ensue (ibid). This could be perceived as being
conflictblindastheinterventionwasnotproperlycontextualised.

The term most appropriate to describe the contextual analysis of an intervention is


conflictsensitivity. Conflictsensitivity is a vital factor to take into consideration within a
humanitariansituation,asitcanbeappliedtoanyemergencywithinterventionsinplace.
Thedefinitionisasfollows:


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11

Conflictsensitivityisasensitivitytoaninterventionspotentialimpactonthespecific
contextinwhichitisbeingimplemented;bybeingconflictsensitiveonestandsabetter
chancetoensurethattheinterventionwillnotfuelaviolentconflict

(DeLeHayeandDenayer,2003,p.50).

It can therefore beassumed that the purpose of conflictsensitivityis toappropriately assess which
tools and methods would be the most beneficial within any given situation (Paffenholz, 2005). If
conflictsensitivity is ignored or undermined, interventions could actually lead to further levels of
conflict, as demonstrated by the rape victims counselling case above (LuteijnandMathias, 2012).
There isanincreasing awarenessoftheimportanceofconflictsensitivity,andthis canbeseenbythe
fact that theconcept isexpanding beyondhumanitarianismtoenvironmentalism(Babcicky,2013).A
common misconception regarding climate change is that it is generally the cause of conflict.
However, it can be the human response to climate change that actually causes the conflict and
tension. Hence, when climate change policies aredeliberated, they should beconsideredwithsome
degreeof conflictsensitivity(ibid). It isevidentfromthisthatconflictsensitivityisanessentialfactor
toconsiderwithinanyhumanitarianemergencyinordertoshorten,ratherthantoprolong,thecrisis.

KateHolt/IRIN


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12

In order to examine the full extent to which organisations enact conflict and
gendersensitive practices during a humanitarian response, it would be ideal to
survey and researchamultitudeof crises. However, with respect to thetimeframe
and scope of this project, we have chosen to focus on two of largest and most
recent humanitariancrises:the 2014EbolaoutbreakinWestAfricaandthe ongoing
SouthSudan conflict. It wasimportant to selectrecent crises inorder todetermine
the most uptodate practices of organisations, and weselectedlarger crises to be
able to examine multiple NGO responses, experiencing both internal and
international pressure torespond quickly and efficiently.The diversity betweenthe
crises allows for a wider understanding of current practices of NGOs and UN
agencies. In order to accurately measureconflictsensitive practices, it was vital to
analysea primarilyconflictdriven humanitarian response. An epidemic waschosen
as a case study to observe howNGOs respondtoaslowonsetdisaster,wherethey
mayhaveaslightlylargerwindowofopportunitytoprepare.Bothcasestudiesallow
fora multitude of opportunities and avenuesin which NGOs candemonstratetheir
howtheirconflictandgendersensitivepoliciestranslateintopractice.

>StructuralViolence
Suffering is an intrinsic part of society difficult to ignore (Farmer, 1996). Often, this suffering is a
consequence of some form of violence. When speaking of violence, one usually thinks of direct
violence, whereby there is an obvious victim,intention,andperpetrator(Hoivik,1977).Forexample,
if someone walkingalong thestreethastheirpossessionsstolen,itisclear thatthisisaformof direct
violence:the victim is theperson whose possessionsarestolen, the intention is to stealtheiritems,
and the perpetrator is the person committing the theft. However, Gultang rejects this narrow
concept of violence,andstates that violence can take anyformas itisfundamentallytheseparation
of actual and potential realisations (Gultang, 1969). Structural violence occurs when political and
economic societal structures repeatedly deprive certain groups from realising their full potential
(Christie, 1997). Structural violence lacks a perpetrator as it is being systematically exerted by
everyone who belongs in the respective social structure (Farmer, 1996). An example of structural
violence is the right to life. The right to life, defined as theabsenceof killing;andthe righttolife,
defined as the provision of basic human needs, are separate matters, as there is a fundamental
difference between not killing and withholding necessary resources (Hill, 1992). Structural violence
canbeexacerbatedbycertainsituations,particularlybyhumanitarianemergencies.

>Disease&Gender
Such examplesof structural violence can be seen within disease epidemics.Generally,it is themost
vulnerable and marginalised within a population that suffer the most from this type of epidemic
(Seckinelgin, 2012). Vulnerability greatly increases susceptibility to harm, as a result of
developmental problems; lack of agency; et cetera (Mechanic and Tanner, 2007). Diseases can
actually be prolonged and perpetuated as a result of social structures, as it can be assumed that
there will be unequal access to economic and social resources(Farmer, 1996;Dowsett,2003).
More


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specifically, there is a strong association between marginalised groups and issueswithhealthcare;


either inrelation to access to healthcare orpoor receipt ofmedicalservices(ShiandStevens,2005).
Placing thisissueinthe contextofanepidemicisaneffectivewayofdemonstratingthis.HIVwasfirst
identified during the 1980s, when it was believed to have been transferred from a primate to a
human (Hillis, 2000). Since then it has grown to beoneof thelargest disease epidemics in history,
affecting37million people in2014 (WHO, 2015).However, thishas proportionallyaffectedwomen,
with 400,000 more women dying fromHIV/AIDSthanmen peryear (Pongou and Serrano,2013). In
many developing countries, the comparably lowerstatusof women relative to men puts them ata
higher risk, particularly sex workers (Turmen, 2003). For example, in subSaharan Africa women
account for 60 per centof thetotal populationwho sufferfrom HIV (QuinnandOverbaugh,2005).
However, this issue is not limited to developing countries; it can alsobe seenin developed states.
From 1999 to 2003 in the United States, there was an estimated annual growth in reported AIDS
cases of 15 per cent among women, but only 1 per cent annual growth among men (ibid). It is
evident from this that while diseases can infect anyone, it is structural violence, and society as a
whole,thatdictatewhichgroupsofpeoplearemorelikelytosufferfrominfection.

>Conflict&Gender
Gender roles and expectations are misconstrued by NGOs during conflict and subject to change
during times of war (Hyndman, 2008). For this reason, it is important to have gendersensitive
policies and practices during responses to conflict that reflect the changing attitudes and
expectations of the beneficiaries. There is often a dichotomy established amidst expected gender
roles in humanitarian programmes that setswomen asthe peacemakersor caregivers,andmen as
the warriors or fighters.This delineation is unhelpfulandoftenuntrue.Although somemight argue
that women are innately peacemakers (UnitedNationsSecurity Council, 2000; Ruddick, 1983),they
play roles as combatants, spies, military leaders and active participants in atrocities (vanDijkhorst
and Vonhof, 2005). Responses to humanitarian programmes aimed at peacebuilding or conflict
resolution are shaped and defined by gender experiences in society, and should reflect the
complexityanddepth of theexperiencesof theindividual.Programmeswhich focusonlyontraining
the combatant male in how to forgive, fail to ignore the role women play in contributing to the
hatredandshame,whichmayhavehelpedtoproducetheviolence,aswellascommittingtheviolent
acts themselves (Keen, 2003; vanDijkhorstandVonhof, 2005). Focusing on rigid gender norms and
traditionalexpectationsis imprudentwhenit comesto understandingthevarietyofmotivationsand
explanationsastowhybothgendersengageinactsofpeacebuildingandwar.

The dynamic responsibilities that conflict can yield are a crucial consideration when discussing
humanitarian programmes. Often, when one partner leaves the community to fight, the other
partner is forced to more activelyparticipatein productive work in orderto provide forthe family;
moreoften than not, it isthewomanwhoisleftbehind
(
vanDijkhorst,2005
).Womenscontribution
to productivework isignoredwhenprogrammesunderstand womenonly asmothersandcaregivers
(van Dijkhorst and Vonhof, 2005). While continuing their traditional roles as mothers and wives,
women often also take part in increased agricultural work and labour in order to maintain their
livelihood (ibid). Despite this, humanitarianresponses repeatedly ignore changinggenderdynamics.
For example, many refugee camps do not recognise femaleheaded households, thereby denying
women refugee status (Baden andByrne,1995).Womenscontributiontothefamilyslivelihoodand
to productiveworkinsocietymustbeunderstoodinordertodevelopappropriatereliefandrecovery
programmes.


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>FrameworkandThematicAnalysis
Thereport uses thematicanalysis as our chosen method of investigating our data. Therationalefor
selecting this qualitative analytic method isthatit canbe used to answer awide varietyofresearch
questions; it also enables the researcher to expose themes that recur across a wide range of
qualitativedata (Braun and Clarke,2013).Themesareabletobeidentifiedintwodifferentmanners:
either on thebasis of what is inthe data, or alternativelythe researcher can utilise specificthemes
and theoretical ideas in a topdown fashion to analyse the data (ibid), as was the case in this
consultancyproject.

Drawing on International Alerts report, we developed a thematic framework to analyse policies,


practices and discourse at the organisationalandgloballevel. Four themeswere identified and 36
criteria were included undereachtheme. Our first theme, BeyondAdd WomenandStir,aimedto
understand the extenttowhichorganisationalpolicies andpracticesextendedbeyondthetraditional
social constructs of male and female, and whether organisations were cognisant of this in their
gender analysis. The second theme, Informing and Promoting Human Rights, focused on the
measures, strategies and tools put in place to facilitate access to information and justice, whilst
recognising the dynamics and influence of gender identities on these services. The third theme,
Inclusion and Participation of Marginalised Gender Groups, measured the degree to which
organisational policies and practices were considering not only men and women, but also
marginalised genders,suchasLGBTI, particularly regardingtheirleadershippositionswithinthelocal
structures. The final theme, Extends BeyondShortTerm Thinking with Gender, assessedwhether
or not humanitarian organisations appreciated the importance of longterm planning within
humanitarianinterventions.

With the World Humanitarian Summit (WHS) scheduled to take place this May, we were giventhe
opportunity toinvestigate theextent to whichgenderandconflictsensitivitiesarealsoattheglobal
level, and whether they are being been recognised as essential in progressing humanitarian
interventions. In order to do this, we reviewed reports submitted to the WHS by key actors, in
addition to those developed by the WHS Secretariat. Through this, as well as looking at specific
organisationalpolicies and practices,wewereabletoofferanalysisat theinternational,institutional,
andimplementationlevel.

ThemesforGender&ConflictsensitiveApproaches:
BeyondAddWomenandStir
InformingandPromotingHumanRights
InclusionandParticipationofMarginalisedGenderGroups
ExtendsBeyondShortTermThinkingwithGender


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We used desk researchand interviews toexamineorganisational policies and practices.We utilised


interviews as they provide an opportunity to converse with the intervieweein a dynamicway and
therebyobtain additional informationthanaquestionnaire wouldyield(KitchenandTate,1999).We
constructed interview questions to reflect the aforementionedcriteria created, with each interview
question corresponding to a specific criterion (See Appendix B for interview questions). We also
conducted desk research on published and internal documents from the relevant organisations,
academic articles, and external evaluations to gauge policies on their level of gender and
conflictsensitivity.Wemaximisedtheinformationcollectedfromourintervieweesanddocumentsto
informthecorrelationbetweenorganisationalpolicyandorganisationalpractice.

>ThemesandCriteria

BeyondAddWomenandStirApproaches
1. Extendsbeyondsociallyconstructedideasofmaleandfemale(e.g.malesasvulnerable,
womenasperpetrators)
2. Conductsagenderanalysisofrolesandexpectationsinthecommunitycontextandknows
howgendersintersect
3. Encouragescontextualgenderedreintegrationpractices

InformingandPromotingHumanRights
1. Promotessecurityandaccesstojusticeformarginalizedgenders
2. RecognizesSGBVagainstmenandboysandprovidesaccesstoservicesforjustice
3. Informsallgendersabouttheirrights,regardlessoftheirsocialstatusoridentity

InclusionandParticipationofMarginalisedGenderGroups
1. Promotesinclusivedialoguebetweendiversegenderperspectivesamongbeneficiariesand
partners
2. Dialoguesandprogrammesleadbyminoritiesmostaffectedbyviolence
3. InsistsonmeaningfulwomensandLGBTIrepresentationinprojectcommittees
4. Encouragesinclusivityandasksopenendedquestionsaboutgenderthatallowfor
complexities
5. Addressesgenderidentitiesanddynamicsatvariouslevels(personal,local,national,and
international)inordertofocusonpoliticalapproachestogenderratherthanjusttechnical
approaches

ExtendsBeyondShortTermThinkingwithGender
1. Reflectoftenonhowinternalpoliciesdemonstrateconflictsensitivity
2. RecognizestheeffectsofGoldenageismonpeacebuilding,asitcanbeenforced
throughconflict
3. Acknowledgeswhoseattitudesandpracticesneedtobechangedandwhosecanbe
changed
4. Addresseseconomicdimensionsinpeacebuildingandrecognizesthesedimensionsas
gendered
5. Promotesaccesstoresourcesincludinginformationandsocialnetworkstoencourage
economicrecovery
6. Offersvocationalcourseswhicharenotbasedongenderstereotypesandwhicharelinked
toavailableemploymentwithinthecontextoftheconflict(forexample:cashforwork
programmes)


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16

From the desk research and interviews conducted,we then formulateda methodof evaluatinghow
well each organisation performed. We used a traffic light colour coding system to evaluate each
organisationspoliciesandpracticesagainstthesecriteria.

Code

%organisation
adheredtocriteria

<25%

25%50%

50%75%

>75%

>OrganisationChoice
Our selected organisations included a combination of both United Nations agencies and NGO, in
ordertocomparethewaysinwhichthesetwo distincttypesoforganisationsvariedintheirresponse
to humanitarian crises; to contrast their gender and conflictsensitivity policy standards and
guidelines; and to examine the variance atwhich thesewereappliedin practice.The presence and
significance of certain organisations in responding to our chosen case studies provides further
rationale for our selection. For example, MSFs leading role inresponding to theEbola outbreakin
WestAfrica,andUNHCRsleadingroleinrespondingtotheSouthSudancrisis.

As the dominant humanitarian UN organisation, we selected OCHA to examine the role they play
within crises, and to gauge whether their genderrelational and conflictsensitive approaches. We
were interested to discover whether, if OCHA were to overlook a concept, for example, the
recognitionof men as well aswomen aspossible victims ofsexual orgenderbasedviolence(SGBV),
how thiswouldinfluence the humanitarian sector asawhole.Weselected UNHCRasoursecondUN
organisation in order to analysetheir responsetotheSouthSudancrisis,althoughassessinghowthe
organisation responded to a disease epidemic (where people are quarantined rather than seek
refugee status) also proved to be insightful. UNICEF played a large role within both of the case
studies as the leadorganisationof severalclusters,suchasNutrition,Water,sanitationandhygiene,
and colead on Education (UNICEF, 2013).Itwas alsovitalto research UNMEER as thecoordinating
bodyofUNagenciesinresponsetotheEbolaoutbreak.

MSF was chosen to determine the extent to which amedical organisation would takegender and
conflictsensitivity into consideration and and to examine if their understanding of vulnerability
included social andpoliticaldimensionsinadditiontomedicaldimensions.Thecorepolicy rhetoricof
both MSF and the ICRC is the adherence to the four humanitarian principles of humanity,
independence,impartialityandneutrality.This makesacomparingtheresponses ofUNandnonUN
organisations particularly crucial. Save the Children played a vital role in responding to the Ebola
outbreak and has had alongtermpresenceintheWestAfricanregionwheretheoutbreakoccurred.
CARE International was chosen firstly because of its leadership in promoting gender equality, and
secondly, due to its extensive and longstanding presence in the humanitarian sphere. Concern
Worldwidewaschosenduetoitsreadilyavailableinformationanddata.


sensitivityincrisis

17

With regards to the selection of Christian Aid and Islamic Relief, we chose to include these
organisations within our analysisbecausetheyaretwoofthelargestandmostinfluentialfaithbased
humanitarian organisations. By considering the responses from both faithbased organisations and
secular organisations, we were able to evaluate the ways that religion influence how these
organisations approach gender and conflictsensitivity. Furthermore, we chose two faithbased
organisations of differing religion to take into account how the differences between faithbased
humanitarian organisations may sometimes be greater than those between secular and faithbased
organisations(Ferris,2011).

KateHolt/IRIN


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18

>GlobalConversation:WorldHumanitarianSummit
After reviewing reports submitted to the WHS, Regional Consultation Meeting notes, and formal
WHSsecretariatdocuments,thefollowinganalysiswasformed:

BeyondAddWomenandStir
Throughout the WHS reports, there is an overall view that genders face differentrisks throughout
emergencies, and that this should be taken into account within humanitarian interventions (CARE
International, 2015; IASC, 2015). It is recognised if these varying risks are not appropriately
addressed, gender inequalityandculturallyembeddedpatriarchalvaluesarelikelytobeexacerbated
(EISF, 2012). Itis importantto lookbeyond traditional views ofmasculinity and femininity withinan
emergency context, as this could be detrimental to the response at hand (ibid). For example,
perceiving women purely as victims undermines theiragency and their active roletheyplay within
crises(Actionaid,2015).

InformingandPromotingHumanRights
The primary focus of any WHS reports and consultations around gender is on the need to promote
security and access to justice for women and girls (UN Women, 2015). However, reports do not
address thespecific security and justiceneedsandvulnerabilitiesof allgenderidentities.Although it
is acknowledged there isanincreasingneed for awareness fromagencies ofthe specific needs and
vulnerabilities of men(EISF, 2012),thereisanabsenceofrecognitioninregardstoSGBVagainstmen
andboys,andofprovidingsecurityandaccesstojusticeformarginalisedgenders(IASC,2015).

InclusionandParticipationofMarginalisedGenderGroups
The reviewed reports indicate that there is recognition of the disproportionate impact of
emergencies on boys, girls, women and men. Reports also emphasise the importance of the
participation and inclusion of the marginalised gender groups into humanitarian responses (UN
Women, 2015). Nonetheless,the marginalised groups are understoodonly withintraditionalgender
binaries (WHS, 2015). LGBTI is rarelycitedas an important category to betargetedbyhumanitarian
assistance.ThisisillustratedbyonlyonereportadvocatingforLGBTIinclusion(EISF,2012).

ExtendsBeyondShorttermThinkingwithGender
Several reports recommended or used femaletargeted economic empowerment programmes to
enable longterm results from humanitarian efforts (CARE International, 2015; IASC, 2015; UN
Women, 2015). While advocacy (IRC, 2015; Shepherd, 2014) and womens civil society groups are
understood as important (CARE International, 2015), reportsfailedto acknowledgethedifficultiesin
determining whose attitudes and practices need to, and can, be changed. Furthermore, some
organisations suggest unanimous consensus within the affected community before intervention
(Mdecinsdu Monde, 2015), which is difficult to practice during peacetime, letaloneduringacrisis.
There isalso confusionastowhichactivitiesaretheresponsibilityofdevelopmentorganisationsand
whicharetheworkofhumanitarianorganisations(CarpenterandBennett,2015;WHS,2014).


sensitivityincrisis

19

>OrganisationalPoliciesandPractices
Ourfindingsaresummarizedinthetablebelow:

ThematicArea

Policies

Practices

BeyondAddWomenandStir

InformingandPromotingHumanRights

InclusionandParticipationofMarginalisedGenderGroups

ExtendsBeyondShortTermThinkingwithGender

>BeyondAddWomenandStir:Policy
Overall, theorganisationsscoredgreeninthistheme,whichamountedtobeingthehighestscoreout
of allthe themesandcriteria.All theexamined organisations lookedbeyond traditional conceptsof
male, female, masculinity and femininity within their gender policies.The differing definitions
between sex and gender i.e.sex isbiologicallydeterminedwhereasgenderissociallydetermined
were accounted for byacoupleoforganisations,andthisledtoanunderstandingthatgenderroles
are changeable, and can vary across time and cultures (UNHCR, 2011a;Concern Worldwide,2005).
Additionally, some organisations went as far as to say that orthodox views of masculinity and
femininity are detrimentalwithin societies,asthey can perpetuate inequalities (CARE International,
2014a;UNICEF,2014).Asaresultof this,there isanincreasingappreciationthatgenderrelationsand
roles often mean that people are affected differently throughout crises, particularly in regards to
economic resources (Islamic Relief Worldwide, 2015; ICRC, 2015b). The term gender has also
expanded: as aforementioned, the WID approach focuses purely on women and girls, and omits
discussing men andboys (Myrttinen et al, 2014). Organisations arecombatting thistraditional view
of gender by saying that it is harmful to focus only onfemales:boys and men should beviewed as
part ofthe solution to solving genderinequality, notmerely as partof the issue (Savethe Children,
2009).
Furthermore, all organisations with the exceptionof MSF gave an indication thattheyassessand
review gendered roles within societies; showing an understanding abouthow thiscan affect social
dynamics. Inorder to fullyappreciatea personsgendered role in society, it isvitaltomovebeyond
simply classifying people as male or female(Savethe Children, 2009).A persons gender is not the
sole basis of their identity; marginalised genders canface discrimination on morethanone ground
(Concern Worldwide, 2005). Avarietyof factors canaffect genderdiscrimination:poverty,ethnicity
and disability are a few examples (UNICEF, 2014). However, viewing gender as multifaceted is a
relatively modern concept adopted by the international community; originating in the 1980s
(Rathgeber, 1990). By expanding the definitionof gender to include intersectionalities, the strength
of the genderargument becomes weakened, as there are varyinglevelsofvulnerabilitythatneedto
be takeninto account (IntervieweeA, 2016).Integratingavariedconceptofgenderandthediffering
inequalities that come with this intoorganisationspolicies,meansthatinnovativesolutionsandnew
insightsintohumanitarianemergenciesareabletobeexplored(SavetheChildren,2013b).
Gendered reintegration practices tend to be focused on longterm, developmental policies, as
opposed to humanitarian ones. For example, UNICEF is attempting to increase levels of secondary


sensitivityincrisis

20

school education for adolescent girls, and Savethe Children is supporting child soldierreintegration
policies(e.g. family tracing and reunification)(UNICEF,2014;Savethe Children,2009).Effectiveness
and efficiency of response would increase if development and humanitarian sectors work
simultaneously and discuss potential genderedreintegration policiesinanattempttobridgethegap
between the two sectors.Itis notunheardofforhumanitarianismanddevelopmentorganisationsto
actasynchronously,whichcanconsequentlyunderminecertainaspectsoftherecoveryprocess.

>BeyondAddWomenandStir:Practice
Organisationalpoliciesarenotalwaysreflectedinthepracticesoforganisationsinthe field,andthis
led to an overall scoring of orange in regards to practices within this theme. Although many
organisations have gender policies,at timesthisismoreofaformalityratherthanaframeworkfrom
which to work from. One organisation stated that [gender] has often been more of a tickbox
exercise rather than a deep understanding (Interviewee F, 2016). Another organisation admitted
that in emergency settings, gender is often overlooked or pushed aside, as there is a plethora of
other factors to take into consideration (Interviewee G, 2016). Followingthis,the interviewee said
that LBGTI rightswithin the context oftheSouthSudaneseconflictareoneofthelesserconcernsof
everything else goingon(ibid).Thislackofunderstanding andappreciationofgendersensitivityhas
led tothe sustainmentand perpetuationof traditional gender stereotypes.Forexample, duringthe
Ebolacrisis,one NGO organised a day ofgamesforchildrenaffectedwithinthecommunity.Thegirls
had a dolly race, whereby theywouldruntoatoydoll,tieitontheirback,andthenrunbackasfast
as they could (Interviewee C, 2016). A football match was also
organised forthe boys, with mainly male NGOworkersassistingwith
the event (ibid). It is evident here that whilst policies may look
beyond traditional views of male and female, when it comes to
practice, organisations struggle to balance gendersensitivity with
humanitarianneed.
Similarly, when it comes to contextualising gender dynamics within an emergency, many
organisations are aware of the significance ofcontextualisation yet fail to actupon it. For example,
within theEbola crisis, Savethe Children were aware that differinglevelsofvulnerabilitycanleadto
certaingroups of people having a highersusceptibilitytothedisease,particularlywomenasthey are
traditionally the caregivers within the West Africa region (Interviewee F, 2016). Despite this, little
actionwastakentoreconcilethedisproportionatelevelsofEbolaamongst marginalisedgenders.The
reason given for this was that everyone was very much working outside their comfort zone and
learningastheywent (ibid).Despite thesefindings, thereappears to beagrowingappreciationfor
considering the role of marginalised groups withinemergencies. Certain organisations have started
to focus on inequalities within crises, albeit on very specific groups;for example, during the South
Sudanese conflict, CARE Internationaladapted its emergency responsetowardsimproving theliving
conditions of single mothers, female heads of households, and separated children (CARE
International, 2014b). As well as this, during the Ebola crisis, ChristianAiddistributedhygieneand
food kits to the most vulnerable groups, including single mothers (Kamara, 2014). There was little
evidencewithinourresearchoforganisationsencouragingcontextualgenderedintegrationpractices.
All of this suggests that while progress has been made by organisations in promoting genderand
conflictsensitivity, it is still very muchunderminedby theeffort to meet immediate need.The gap
between humanitarianism and development therefore needs to be bridged in order to achieve
furtherprogress.


sensitivityincrisis

21

>InformingandPromotingHumanRights:Policy
The organisations received a score of yellow in this section. Thefindingsshow that themajorityof
organisations still perceive the term marginalised genders to encompass solely women and girls,
and frequentlyoverlookmembersoftheLGBTIcommunity. Theonlyorganisationthatexplicitlyuses
the term LGBTI within their policy documents is UNHCR (UNHCR, 2015a, p19). In addition to
promoting security and access to justice formarginalisedgenders, UNHCR ensuresthat the waiting
areas in their officers are LGBTIspecific as well as being welcoming to all, regardless of gender
(ibid). Measures advised in organisations policies to encourage security include organising patrols
and installing appropriate lighting to ensure safe access to waterand sanitation facilities(Save the
Children, 2013a); and also to integrate a gender perspective within the provision of such services
(UNICEF, 2014).
Moreover, the findings suggest that the promotion of security for marginalised
gendersisoftenprioritisedratherthantheprovisionofaccesstoservices.

Regarding therecognition ofSGBVagainst menandboys,alargeproportion(althoughnotall)of the


examinedorganisationsacknowledgedin policythatmenandboyscanbevictimsofSGBV,aswellas
women and girls.Again,it is UNHCRthatisshowntohaveinvestedthehighestlevelsoftime,money
and humancapital into implementing aresponsetoSGBVagainstmenandboys withintheirpolicies.
Theorganisationhasproduced specific guidelinesforworkingwithmenandboysurvivorsofSGBVin
forced displacement (UNHCR, 2012). However, despite the fact that many organisations recognise
men and boys as victims of SGBV, there is an alarming lack of reference within their policies in
relation to the provision of access to services for justice for male survivors of these crimes. With
regards to educating marginalised groupsabouthumanrightsviolations,organisationalpolicieswere
vague and failed to articulate specificpolicies. Instead, itwas usualfororganisationstoexpress how
they consider the rights of
all people,withoutmakingspecific referencetogenderedgroups. UNHCR
and Save the Children are notable exceptions to this, as both organisations affirm a clear
commitment to supporting diversegenderidentitiesthroughouttheirwork(UNHCR, 2015b;Savethe
Children,2013b).
With one exception, all of the organisations policies recognised the fact that gender identities and
performance roles can influence access to information about aid, though to varying degrees.Each
organisation offered an understanding as to how power dynamics within communities affect the
allocation of and access to resources provided during humanitarian responses. Even with the
collectivepositiveperformancefromorganisations,therewasatendencytofocusspecificallyonhow
female vulnerabilities can limit access to resources for women and girls (UNICEF, 2014; Save the
Children, 2009; UNHCR, 2005).Many organisations fail toconsiderhow other marginalisedgenders,
such as LGBTI persons, may also face barriers that consequently limit their access to economic
resources.

>InformingandPromotingHumanRights:Practice
Theorganisations receivedascoreofredinthissection,makingitthemostpoorlyratedsectionofall
of the themes and criteria. The overall findings demonstrate that, in parallel with the majority of
organisations policies, women and girls are accounted for within the category of marginalised
genders.In relation toboth the Ebolacrisisandthe SouthSudan conflict,LGBTIpersonswererarely
considered in terms of theirsecurityandaccesstojustice. Ininterviews, some ofthe organisations
stated that in practice the promotion of security and access to justice for marginalised genders is


sensitivityincrisis

22

often ignoredentirely(IntervieweeE,2016;IntervieweeF, 2016).Similarly,theorganisationsthatdid


take into account the needs of marginalised genders in practice narrowed their responses to the
provision of sexual and reproductivehealth services,andpsychosocial support to women and girls,
particularlywithintheconflictinSouthSudan(CAREInternational,2014c).
Inpractice, SGBV against males is beginningtobe acknowledgedbysomeorganisationsinregardsto
both of thecase studies.Furthermore,thereare anincreasing numberof men and boys who come
forward to reveal themselves as being victims of SGBV. Within the South Sudan conflict, the
performance of UNHCR was highly effective, with the organisation ensuringthat referralpathways
for access to services were easily accessible for women, men, boy, and girl survivors of SGBV
(UNHCR, 2014, p11). The organisation also provided material assistance to those facing SGBV risks
(ibid). This is anexampleofaprogressiveintervention,asUNHCRwasusingtheconflicttoencourage
civiliansandactors to look beyond traditionalviews ofmale and femalebyinformingpopulations
that men can also bevictimsofSGBV.Inturn,thiscouldleadtosustainablegenderequality.Interms
of the Ebola outbreak, the findings highlight that themessages communicatedby almost all of the
organisations were not nuanced towards human rights, but rather weregeneral awareness raising
messages,mainlyadvisingpeopleabouttohowtoavoidspreadingthevirus(IntervieweeF,2016).
Thefavourableperformanceoforganisationalpolicy,inregardstoappreciatinghowgenderidentities
and performance roles influence access toinformationaboutaid,isonlypartlyreflectedinpractices.
Whilst working in theSouth Sudan conflict,one organisation had a perceptive understandingabout
the importance of enhancing the economic opportunities for women whilst also ensuring not to
undermine the cultural practices of the community (Interviewee D, 2016). Conversely, a small
number of selected organisations presented limited evidence to show that they understood how
gender identities could influence individuals access to the resources or services that they were
providing,inthecontextofboththeEbolaoutbreakandtheSouthSudanconflict.

>InclusionandParticipationofMarginalisedGenderGroups:Policy
In regards to policies addressing inclusion and participation of marginalised gender groups, the
organisations received a score of yellow. This is an indication that the examined organisations
showeda generalappreciation of theimportanceofinvolvingalllevelsofactorswithinhumanitarian
emergencies. For example, UNICEF states that it works with men, women, girls and boys, local
leaders, civil society, governments and other partners (UNICEF, 2014). CARE International also
highlights the benefits that working with multiple partners can have in promoting gender equality
(CARE International, 2009). Several agencies identify the need of beneficiary involvement within
humanitarianism, with a particular focus on their role in creating beneficial, sustainable
interventions. From this, it could be assumed that conflictsensitivity is alsobeingdiscussed within
institutional policies. UNOCHA reflectsthis when statingthatmen, women,boysandgirlsshould not
be perceived as passive recipients of aid, but as active figures with the capabilities to design and
deliver effective recovery programmes (Ekayu, 2015). Hence, not only areorganisationsadvocating
to involve a plethora of actors and partners, but also to incorporate them in a conflictsensitive
manner.
Someorganisationsextendthisevenfurtherandactivelyencouragetheinclusionandparticipation of
marginalised groups within emergency responses. As previously mentioned, there is awareness
amongst organisations that different groups are affectedin diverse waysin the course ofdisasters,
and because of this it is vital that marginalised gender groups are involvedwithin leadership roles
(IslamicRelief Worldwide, 2015). Implementing peoplecentred and rightsbasedapproachesappear


sensitivityincrisis

23

tobedominantwithinorganisational policies,withbothUNOCHAandConcernWorldwidepromoting
the empowerment of vulnerable groups inorder tofullyunderstandandaddresstheirneeds (OCHA,
2015; ConcernWorldwide,2005).Oneorganisationexpressedthedilemmathattheremaybecertain
timeswhenit is implausible orproblematic to addresstheneedsofminorities,butgenerallywhenit
is viable to do so then organisations encourage including the needs of all people (Interviewee F,
2016). In terms of integrating marginalised gender groups within decisionmaking processes, all
organisations promoted female leaders within humanitarian interventions, although many omit
mentioning LGBTI representation. A few organisations accounted for LBGTI representation within
leadership roles, with the ICRC and UNHCR advocating the issue explicitly (Dolan, 2015; UNHCR,
2011b). One organisation explained that because attempting to include gender, age,anddisability
was already challenging, they had not workedparticularlywith LGBTI concerns, suggesting itis not
prioritisedoverothervulnerabilities(IntervieweeA,2016).
There is evidence inpolicy of organisations allowing forcomplexities withingender, and addressing
these complexities in a manner which creates political, longterm change. There is an emphasis
within policies to focus on power structures within communities, as well as examining
intersectionalities in order to assess how these affect gendered relations (Interviewee A, 2016;
OCHA, 2015). There are a range of methods
organisations use in order to create political
and sustainable change, involving: addressing
and transforming root causes of conflict, only
working with partners who share a similar
equality ethos, and developing international
advocacy capacity to engage withmechanisms
of change(IslamicReliefWorldwide,2015;Save
the Children, 2013b; Concern Worldwide,
2005).

>InclusionandParticipationofMarginalisedGenderGroups:Practice
In terms of incorporating marginalised groups within humanitarian interventions, organisations
received a score of orange, meaning that practices did not score as highly as policies within this
theme.While in policy there seems to be strong advocacytoincludingpartnerswithinhumanitarian
interventions, this appears to become difficult when put into practice. The main issuesof involving
partners within interventions are cultural practices and patriarchal values. For example, when
organisation wasworking in SouthSudan,thereresistancefromsomeofpartners.Itwasagreedthat
all committees would be inclusive with women, youth and elders playing activeparticipatory roles.
However, the partners treated the females as perfunctory members of the committee and didnt
encourage their involvement. When questioned why women werent being encouraged to
participate in themeetings,partners statedallwomenareshy(IntervieweeD,2016).Thissuggests
that whilst an organisation may encourage gendersensitivity, partners may not necessarily follow
thesamecodeofethics,whichcouldbedetrimentalwithinemergencysituations.
Within our case studies, most organisationsspoketocommunitiesthat they had beenworkingwith
for years in order to provide an opportunity to create dialoguebetween allgroups of the affected
populations (IntervieweeF, 2016). For example,duringtheEbolacrisis,CAREInternational notedthe
importance of involving all members of the community within the humanitarian intervention, as
topdown approaches may not have been accepted by the population (CARE International, 2015).


sensitivityincrisis

24

UNMEER also acknowledged that marginalised groups should be incorporated within an


organisationspractices,statingthatnoglobalresponsewillsucceedwithouttheownershipofthose
mostaffected by the crisis(UNMEER, 2015a). However,eventhoughmanyorganisations promoted
the representation ofwomenwithin decisionmaking processes, difficulties wereencounteredwhen
implementing this. In the South Sudan conflict, when women were involved in committees and
leadershiproles, itwasnotuncommonfortheiropinionstobeunderminedandignored(Interviewee
D, 2016). Furthermore, there was little mention of LBGTI representation within committees and
councils. Several organisations accounted for this,particularly in termsof theSouth Sudan conflict.
Themajorityof theSouth SudaneseLGBTIcommunity arescaredtoselfidentifyduetohomophobic
values within the country. Hence, partners are reluctant to represent marginalised gender groups
within humanitarian intervention for fear of genderbased violence and conflict (Interviewee G,
2016).

Within humanitarian crises, concerns regarding gender complexities tend to be prioritised below
reaching immediate needs. Only a small percentage of the organisations took into consideration
gender complexitieswhilst working in the field. While gender may be consideredtobe a significant
issue, in practice it is at times pushed aside (Interviewee G, 2016). Additionally, several
organisations adhere to the Dunantist humanitarian principles of humanity, neutrality, impartiality
and independence; andhence donot address political issues withincrises theyhelp whoeveris in
mostneed, regardless of identity (Barnett,2005). Although gender is not explicitly a politicalissues,
LGBTI concerns are political issues in most states where the casestudies occurred. Yet, during the
Ebola crisis, one organisation worked with bothnationalandinternationalNGOsin orderto bridge
the gap between thetwo (IntervieweeB,2016). UNHCR organisedathreedaytrainingworkshopon
the topic of SGBV in South Sudan, with a variety of actors attending, including: Child Protection
Committee, youth and women committees,the police, and theParentTeacherAssociation(UNHCR,
2015c). Therefore, whilst gender is beginning to be integrated within somepractices, organisations
continuetooverlookitduringtimesofemergency.

>ExtendsBeyondShortTermthinkingwithGender:Policy
Organisations would have scored green within this theme, but universal lack of acknowledgement
towards goldenageism lowered the overall average to yellow. It is vital for organisations to
implement conflictsensitive internal policies, structures and procedures in order to effectively
advocate for conflictsensitive practices in programmatic efforts. The majority of organisations
showedpolicy initiatives around theimportanceofexamining internalpoliciesforconflictsensitivity.
Several documents have even been created by organisations to act as frameworks for
conflictsensitive policies, including building institutional capacity for conflictsensitivity (Conflict
Sensitivity Consortium, 2012),Professional Standards Guidelines (ICRC,2013), and audits on gender
and power dynamics (Interviewee A, 2016). Organisations also recognise the need to commit to
regular monitoring in order to maintain these conflictsensitiveapproaches(Christian Aid,2014). In
policy,organisationsarestrongadvocatesofconflictsensitiveapproaches.

One criteriaforthisthemeascenteredongoldenageismisdefinedto beaprevalentsocietalwish,


at times enforced through violence, to returntoanimagined goldenage before the conflict, when
societywassupposedly inharmony,(Myrttinenet al., 2014,p9).Althoughthismentalitymaybean
issue during humanitarian crises, there were noorganisational policies found whichmadereference
tothisexperience.


sensitivityincrisis

25

Inorder to createlongtermchange,itiscrucialtounderstandwhichattitudesandpracticesneedto,
or can be changed. Although some NGOs do actively participate in advocacy work (Interviewee B,
2016; Interviewee F, 2016; OCHA, 2015; Islamic Relief Worldwide, 2015; Savethe Children, 2013b,
p3),this themefocusesspecifically onhumanitarianresponsesinthefield.Maleallieswerecitedas
invaluable to longterm empowerment, andstates were identifiedasthe primaryresponsible party
for meeting the basic needs of its people (ICRC, 2015a; CARE International, 2014a). The fact that
humanitarian organisations are seeking to change patriarchal attitudes suggests that they are
beginning to implement interventions that can produce longterm change, as well as meeting
immediate need. Tying into the increasing presence of conflictsensitivity within humanitarianism,
knowledge of community and cultural contexts are considered fundamental principles for many
organisations when seeking to enact change (Interviewee B, 2016; OCHA,2015; Save the Children,
2013b;UNHCR,2001).

Economic opportunities for those experiencing conflict or crises are further crucial factors of
longterm sustainability and survival. The majority of organisations have policies on cash transfers
and financial loans as means of generating income for affected populations (CARE International,
2016; UNHCR, 2015e; Save the Children, 2013a; IFRC, 2007). When discussing gender in terms of
access to resources or vocational training, women and girls are describedashaving limited access,
or requiringgenderspecificeconomic support groups(CAREInternational,2015; ChristianAid,2015;
Islamic Relief Worldwide, 2015; UNHCR, 2015e; UNICEF, 2014; UNHCR, 2001). Although most
organisationsoffereconomicopportunitiesaspartoftheirresponsetohumanitariancrises,thereare
significantly fewer economicrelated policies in relation to peacebuilding and conflict resolution
responses(IntervieweeF,2016).

>ExtendsBeyondShortTermthinkingwithGender:Practice
Whileorganisations scored yellow in policyforthistheme, organisationsscoredorangeinpracticeas
they lacked explicit adherence to the criteria. Although organisations specifically stated their
commitment to reviewing internal policies for conflict or gendersensitive practices, it was unclear
from the research whether this occurred or not. Within both South Sudan and the Ebola crisis,
culturally sensitive awareness training and gendered power relations training were carried out in
ordertoemphasisethe importance of conflictsensitivity (IntervieweeA, 2016;IntervieweeG,2016;
CARE International, 2015). However, reviewing organisational dynamics or practices was not
necessarily part ofthisprocess(IntervieweeE,2016).AseniorlevelNGOworkerrecognisedtheneed
forsuchinternal reviews duringthe Ebolaresponse by stating mostofthelocalpartnershavebeen
quite reluctant to consider female leadership within their own organisations [...] there is always
resistance (Interviewee D, 2016). If gender or conflictsensitivity is not modelledby thefunding or
implementing organisations,thenit isunrealistictoexpectbeneficiarycommunitiestoreplicatesuch
approaches.

As previously noted inthe policy findings forthis theme, there was an overalllack ofrecognitionof
the effectsof goldenageism anditisnotknowntohavebeenpracticedaspartofthehumanitarian
response of the organisations researched. An understanding of goldenageism requires both prior
knowledgeof the beneficiaries situationbefore the crisis, and a longterm responsewithinaffected
communities; itcould therefore befairly expensive tomonitorandincorporatewithinorganisational
policies.


sensitivityincrisis

26

When determining whose attitudes or practices can be changed, organisations responses were
mixed. Through their practices,some organisations demonstratedanunderstanding ofthe effectof
gendered power dynamics on behaviour change, butfailedtoincorporate practices which targeted
thosedynamics duringeithertheEbola orSouthSudanresponse (IntervieweeA,2016;IntervieweeC,
2016; CARE International, 2015; UNICEF, 2015). Other organisations were able to address issuesof
practice or attitudinal change at the appropriate levelofinfluence(UNHCR,2015b;UNMEER,2015b;
UNMEER, 2015c). Methods undertaken in anattempt to induce attitudinal change include:training
journalists to better engage with females at the local level during the Ebola epidemic (UNMEER,
2015c); working with police officers on protection for refugees in SouthSudan(UNHCR,2015b); and
engaging with bothmalesandfemalestochangesocialnormsaroundSGBVinSouthSudan(UNICEF,
2015).

In regards to the economic dimensions of crisis response,withthe exception oftwo organisations,


there was an overall failure to incorporate a gender lens within implementation. Several
organisations operated within traditional understandings of gender with regards to economic
opportunities; for example, by offering sewing supplies and vegetable seeds to female Ebola
survivors,andfishingor shoe makingsuppliestomalesinSouthSudan(IntervieweeC,2016;UNHCR,
2015b; UNHCR, 2015c; UNHCR, 2015d). Femaletargeted cash for work programmes and Village
Savings and Loan Associations, whereby groups of women worked in unison to create
communitylevel loans, were cited as examples of resiliencebuilding and economicempowerment
during the Ebola crisis (Interviewee H, 2016; CARE International, 2015). Also during the Ebola
response, one organisation provided cash transfers specifically for small scale, predominately
female, traders (Save the Children, 2015, p12).However, themajority of resourcesprovided were
not directed towards economic sustainability, but to basic survival needs (Interviewee E, 2016;
Interviewee G, 2016; Ekayu, 2015; MSF, 2015; UNHCR,2015b; UNHCR,2016). Within South Sudan,
this tends to bejustifiedbysomeorganisations:becausetheconflictisstillactive,wehavenotbeen
thinking of anyrecovery programme (Ekyau, 2015) Nonetheless, some organisations are beginning
to contemplate the following: its been an emergency for two years now [...] no one thinks IDP
camps are going to go away anytime soon (IntervieweeG,2016).Longterm thinking,particularlyin
terms of economic programmes, must be enacted in order to achieve stability within affected
communities.

CarolAllenStoryforInternationalAlert


sensitivityincrisis

27

It is evident fromourfindingsthat mostorganisationsshow some form of awareness regardingthe


significance of gender within emergencies. Despite this, many still perceive it as being a tickbox
exercise,whereby itis assumed thatbysimplyincorporatingwomenandothermarginalisedgender
groups within the intervention that the organisation is being gendersensitive; thisis notthe case.
Additionally, there is evidence that gendersensitivity is sometimes recognised as a longterm
development aim, hence is often overlooked by humanitarian actors. However, if gendersensitive
approaches are not adhered to within the immediate response, it is unlikely that gender will be
considered in subsequent interventions within thesame crisis (UN Women,2014). This reflects the
overall findings, which suggestthatwhilst organisations are abletoidentifygenderrolesbeyondthe
traditionalsocialconstructs ofmale and female, theyoftenfail to implementtheirunderstanding
of gender roles within emergencies. For example, the majority of organisations acknowledge
marginalised gender groups such as LGBTI within their definition ofgender, yet do not target this
demographicwithintheiraccesstoservicesforjustice.

Within bothorganisationalpoliciesandpractices,LBGTIcouldbeconsideredastheforgottengender
group. Often the active participation of women within leadership roles and committees is
encouraged, whereas there is little mention of appropriate LGBTI involvement. An issue that has
beenconsistent throughout the findings isthat within humanitarian emergencies, itisoften difficult
to prioritise gender concerns over meeting immediate needs. Incorporating marginalised gender
group needs mayprovetobecomplicatedwhenfacedwithfiniteresources,alimitedtimeframeand
a homophobic community. Furthermore, even though organisations may advocate for LGBTI
inclusion and participation,this does notnecessarilymeanthattheirlocalpartners willalsoupholda
similar ethos, which consequently could lead to further conflict. Throughout the broad range of
organisations examined, the majority do not include LGBTI rights within theirpoliciesorpractices.
The almost universal institutional negligence of LBGTI suggests that this is an issue prevalent
throughouthumanitarianism.
There is room for further research on the topic of gender and conflictsensitivity within the
humanitarian sphere.International Alerts report, whilst extensive, does not include all aspects that
could be considered within these approaches. For example,advocacy remains relatively untouched
within the document compared to the other issues that are discussed. In addition to this, many
organisations choose not to publish internal documents, which limits the breadth of our findings.
Alternatively, they could have avoided mentioning certain aspects of their work during the
interviews. In order to mitigate this, more research could be conducted in regards to the
organisations. As policies apply to both development and humanitarian programmes, it is
counterintuitive to assume that an organisation is not implementing their policies simply because
they are not beingcarried out withinspecific humanitarian emergencies.Overall,therehasbeenan
increasing appreciation towards gender and conflictsensitive approacheswithin humanitarianism.
Large gaps still remain,particularlyintermsofhumanitariananddevelopmentorganisationsworking
concurrently. Gender and conflictsensitivity are fundamentally crucial to ensure effective,
sustainableinterventionsandshouldbetreatedaccordingly.


sensitivityincrisis

28

>Recommendations:
1. GENDER ANALYSIS:
The international community should collect gender analyses previously
conductedby developmentorganisationstoconstructadatabaseregardinggendertoreduce
duplicative work and to pool resources. In recognisingthe importance of addressinggender
in the initial stages of relief, humanitarian organisations have the responsibility to consult
suchgenderanalysesbeforerespondingtoacrisis.
2. DEVELOPMENT AND HUMANITARIANISM:
Improve communication between humanitarian
and development sectors by sharing knowledge and resources in order to bridge the gap
between the two fields. For example, with regards to cash transfers during crises,
humanitarian organisations should be responsible for sending related information to
developmentorganisationsasameansofqualityassurance.
3. CONFLICTSENSITIVITY: Although conflict may not be immediately apparent during a
humanitarian crisis, elements such as structural or historical violence are still pervasive in
beneficiary communities and organisations should nevertheless demonstrate
conflictsensitivepractices.
4. ACCESS TO JUSTICE
: Organisations should increase access to justice, including referrals for
victims (for example,victimsof SGBV), whilst limitingassumptions of vulnerabilitywhichare
basedongenderidentification.
5. RIGHTS:
Whileit is not always possible toaddress issuesofhumanrightsinthefieldduringa
crisis, theseshould beaddressedthrough advocacyefforts withglobal and national political
stakeholders,aspoliciesdirectlyimpacttherightsofbeneficiaries.
6. LGBTI
:Recognising this as anissueofhighsensitivity,awarenessofLGBTIconcernsshouldbe
raisedattheinternational,national,andlocallevelsamongkeyhumanitarianactors.
7. ACCOUNTABILITY:
Funders should endeavour to provide stronger incentives to ensure
partnerspracticegendersensitivity. This canbeachievedthroughregularexternalreviewsof
projects in the same manner that projectproposals areinitiallyreviewed and evaluated on
theirlevelofgendersensitivity.
8. FEEDBACK:
Mechanisms should be put in place to enable beneficiaries and implementing
agencies to provide timely feedback during the response in order to enable adaptive
practicesaroundgenderandconflictsensitivity.
9. AVOIDING GENERALISATIONS:
Organisationsshouldavoidoverarchinggeneralisations about
vulnerabilitiesandbewillingtotailorresponsestoeachculturalcontext.

CarolAllenStoryforInternationalAlert


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sensitivityincrisis

Appendices
A. TermsofReference
B. CriteriawithInterviewQuestions
C. ConsentFormforProjectParticipants

36


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37

AppendixA:TermsofReference
Objectives
InternationalAlertisoneoftheworldsleadingpeacebuildingorganisations.Withinitspeacebuildingframework,
thereisafocusongenderandhowgenderinequalitycanperpetuateconflictandhinderpeaceprocesses.The
followingprojectwilllookathowgenderandconflictsensitivityisbeingimplementedwithinthecontemporary
humanitarianagendainresponsetoconflict.

Thefollowingdefinitionsofgenderandconflictsensitivitywillbeusedwithintheproject:

Gendersensitivitycanbeappliedinthreeapproaches:genderblindapproaches,approachesintheframeof
UNSecurityCouncilResolution1325,andgenderrelationalapproaches.InternationalAlertadvocatesfora
genderrelationalapproach.Genderrelationalapproachisatermwithinpeacebuildingthatisusedtolook
atthedifferentwaysinwhichgendersinteractwitheachother,andhowtheserelationshipscouldeither
hinderorhelptoregainpeaceafteratimeofconflict.Thewordgenderdoesnotexclusivelymeanjust
menandwomen:italsolooksatLGBTI(lesbian,gay,bisexual,transgenderandintersexual)peoplesaswell.
Forexample,insomeculturesitisnotperceivedthatSGBVcanoccurtomen,andmanyLGBTIpeople
struggletohaveaccesstojustice.

Conflictsensitivityfocusesontheabilityofanorganisationtounderstandthecontextinwhichtheyarein.
Itlooksattowhatextentanorganisationsinterventiontoaconflictsituationrespectsthecultureinwhich
ittakesplace,attemptingtominimisenegativeimpactsandmaximisingpositiveones.

Thegroupwilllookatdifferentcriteriathatorganisationsshoulduseinregardstogenderandconflictsensitivity,
usingInternationalAlerts
ReThinkingGenderinPeacebuilding
(2014)asabasisforthesecriteria[seemethodology].
Theprojectwillbesplitupintotwomainparts.Firstly,thegroupwilllookathowgenderandconflictsensitivityis
beingincorporatedindiscussionsattheWorldHumanitarianSummit,andseetowhatextentthesummitasawhole
isincorporatingthecriteriachosenfromtheaforementionedInternationalAlertreport.

Secondly,thegroupwillexaminewhethergenderandconflictsensitiveapproachesareintegratedwithin
humanitarianorganisationspoliciesandpractices.Ourchosenorganisationsare:

UNICEF

UNHCR

UNOCHA

UNMEER

CAREInternational

IslamicRelief

ChristianAid

MdecinsSansFrontires

InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross

ConcernWorldwide

SavetheChildren

Theworkoftheseorganisationswillbenarroweddowntoseehowtheyrespondedtotwospecificcasestudies:the
EbolacrisisinLiberiain2014andtheongoingconflictinSouthSudan.

RolesandResponsibilities
ThisprojectwillbeundertakenbyfourstudentsstudyingMscInternationalDevelopmentandHumanitarian
EmergenciesattheLondonSchoolofEconomicsasoneoftheirmodules,withthereportandpresentation
deliverablescountingtowardstheirfinalgradeofthecourse.Therolesandresponsibilitiesofthemembersofthe
groupare:

ElianaHarriganCoeditor
LaurenMawdsleyCoeditorandsecretary
CarolineToneyNolandClientliaison,researchcoordinator,andreportdesigner
MercyJelimoFacilitatorandlogistics


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38

ResearchDesignandMethodology
UsingInternationalAlertsreportasaframework,thegroupwillusethematicanalysisinordertodiscovertheextent
towhichorganisationsarebeinggenderandconflictsensitive.Thereportwillbestudied,andfromthisanalysiskey
criteriawillbeextractedandusedtoassessorganisations.Thefourthemesareasfollows:BeyondAddWomenand
StirApproaches;InformingandPromotingHumanRights;InclusionandParticipationofMarginalisedGender
GroupsandExtendsbeyondShortTermThinkingwithGender.Alldocuments,interviewsanddatathatisgathered
willbeexaminedandevaluatedaccordingtoourcriteria.

Toaccomplishtheformerpartoftheproject,wewillreadandanalysekeydocumentssubmittedinpreparationto
theWorldHumanitarianSummittoseehowtheyrelatedtogenderandconflictsensitivity.Wewillalsolookat
reportssubmittedundertheFourThematicAreas(HumanitarianEffectiveness,ReducingVulnerabilityandManaging
Risk,TransformationthroughInnovation,andServingtheNeedsofPeopleinConflict).Afterresearchingthese
reports,wewillcomparethemtoInternationalAlerts
RethinkingGenderinPeacebuilding
reportandfocusonthe
specificallychosenindicatorswithinittoseeiftheyarebeingmentionedwithintheWorldHumanitarianSummit.

Forthelatterpartoftheresearch,wewillfocusontheresponsesoftheeightorganisationsmentionedabove,with
eachteammemberspecialisingontwoorganisations.Eachteammemberwillreadreportswrittenbytheirassigned
organisationsinregardstotheirresponsestothetwoidentifiedcasestudiestoseehowtheyhaveincorporated
aspectsofgenderandconflictsensitivityintotheiractions.Followingthisdeskresearch,teammemberswill
conductopenendedsemistructuredinterviewswithemployeesofourchosenorganisations.

DeliverablesandOutputs
Producea10,000wordreportwhichincludes:
AreviewoftheWorldHumanitarianSummitreportsanddocumentsinrelationtogenderand
conflictsensitivity,asoutlinedinInternationalAlerts
RethinkingGenderinPeacebuilding
Acomprehensivereviewcomparingorganisationspoliciesandresponsetoourcasestudiesinreferenceto
ourcriteria
Atleastfourcriticalreviewsofacademicworkpertainingtoeitherthecasestudiesorgenderand
conflictsensitivity


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39

AppendixB:CriteriawithSuggestedInterviewQuestions
>BeyondAddWomenandStirApproaches
1. Extendsbeyondsociallyconstructedideasofmaleandfemale(e.g.malesasvulnerable,womenas
perpetrators)
a. Howdoes[insertorg]tackletraditionalconceptsofgender?
i.
genderanalysisofrolesandexpectations
2. Encouragescontextualgenderedreintegrationpractices
a. Howis[insertorg]contextualisingreintegrationpolicieswithregardstogender?
3. Conductsagenderanalysisofrolesandexpectationsinthecommunitycontextandknowshowgenders
intersect
a. Howdoes[insertorg]appreciategenderintersectionalities?

>InformingandPromotingHumanRights
1. Promotessecurityandaccesstojusticeformarginalizedgenders
a. Does[insertorg]offerservicesforsecurity/accesstojusticeformarginalisedgenders?Ifso,what?
2. RecognizesSGBVagainstmenandboysandprovidesaccesstoservicesforjustice
a. Howdoes[insertorg]addressSGBV?WhatdemographicdoyourSGBVservicesreach?
3. Informsallgendersabouttheirrights,regardlessoftheirsocialstatusoridentity
a. Howdoes[insertorg]informpopulationsabouttheirrights?
4. Realizesgenderidentitiesandperformancerolesinfluence
accessto
informationaboutaid,including
economicpossibilities
a. Does[insertorg]thinkgenderidentitiesandperformancerolesinfluenceaccesstoinformation?

>InclusionandParticipationofMarginalisedGenderGroups
1. Promotesinclusivedialoguebetweendiversegenderperspectivesamongbeneficiariesandpartners
a. Howdoes[insertorg]coordinateinclusivedialogueamongbeneficiariesandpartners?
2. Encouragesinclusivityandasksopenendedquestionsaboutgenderthatallowforcomplexities
a. Seegendertools/audits
3. InsistsonmeaningfulwomensandLGBTIrepresentationinprojectcommittees/councils
a. Withinprojectcommittees/councils,does[insertorg]ensureminorityrepresentation?
4. Dialoguesandprogrammesleadbyminoritiesmostaffectedbyviolenceorcrisis
a. Incommunities,wholeadsorfacilitatesdialoguesandprogrammesaboutthecrisis?
5. Addressesgenderidentitiesanddynamicsatvariouslevels(personal,local,national,andinternational)in
ordertofocusonpoliticalapproachestogenderratherthanjusttechnicalapproaches
a. Howdoes[insertorg]addresslongtermaswellasshorttermsolutions?

>ExtendsBeyondShortTermThinkingwithGender
1. Reflectoftenonhowinternalpoliciesdemonstrateconflictsensitivity
a. Has[insertorg]reflectedonhowinternalpoliciesdemonstrateconflictsensitivity?
b. ORDoes[insertorg]reviewinternalpoliciestoaccountforconflictsensitivity?
2. RecognizestheeffectsofGoldenageismonpeacebuilding,asitcanbeenforcedthroughconflict
a. DEFINEGoldenageism
b. HaveyoucomeacrossthismindsetintheEbolaoutbreakortheconflictinSouthSudan?
3. Acknowledgeswhoseattitudesandpracticesneedtobechangedandwhosecanbechanged
a. Howdoes[insertorg]assesswhatattitudesandpracticesneedtobechangedandwhosecanbe
changed?
4. Addresseseconomicdimensionsinpeacebuildingandrecognizesthesedimensionsasgendered
a. Howdoes[insertorg]addresseconomicdimensionsinpeacebuilding?
5. Promotesaccesstoresourcesincludinginformationandsocialnetworkstoencourageeconomicrecovery
a. Howdoes[insertorg]promoteaccesstoresourcesincludinginformationandsocialnetworksto
encourageeconomicrecovery?
6. Offersvocationalcourseswhicharenotbasedongenderstereotypesandwhicharelinkedtoavailable
employmentwithinthecontextoftheconflict(forexample:cashforworkprogrammes)
a. Does[insertorg]offerformsofeconomicrecovery,forexamplevocationaltraining?
i.
Aretheseopportunitiescontextualisedorgendered?


sensitivityincrisis

40

AppendixC:ConsentFormforProjectParticipants
Projecttitle:InternationalAlertConsultancyProject
IagreetotakepartintheaboveconsultancyprojectinconsultationwithInternationalAlertandtheLondonSchool
ofEconomics.TheprojecthasbeenexplainedtomeandIagreethattakingpartintheprojectmeansthatIam
willingtotakepartinaninterviewinwhichthedatawillberecorded.ThereportwillbeprovidedtoInternational
AlertandtotheInternationalDevelopmentDepartmentattheLondonSchoolofEconomics.Findingsfromthe
reportmayalsocontributetoathinkpiecefortheWorldHumanitarianSummit.
IunderstandthatthereistheoptionofalltheinformationIprovidetobeconfidential.Ifso,allinformationwillbe
handledinaccordancewiththeDataProtectionAct1998.Pleaseselectoneofthefollowingoptions:

Iamhappyformypersonalandorganisationsnametobeincludedinthereport.
Iamhappyformypersonalnametobeincludedinthereport.
Iamhappyformyorganisationsnametobeincludedinthereport.
Iwishforneithermypersonalnormyorganisationsnametobeincludedinthereport.

IunderstandthatparticipationisvoluntaryandthatIcanwithdrawfromtheprojectatanystageandIwillnotbe
penalisedordisadvantaged.

Name:
Signature:
Date:

InterviewersName:

InterviewersSignature: