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A Proposed Prototype of English Speaking Syllabus for Eleventh Graders of

Marketing Program
Ade Permata Sari
ABSTRACT
Sari, Ade Permata. (2015). Proposed English Speaking Syllabus for Eleventh
Graders of Marketing Program. Thesis, English Study Program. Faculty
of Teacher Training and Education, Jambi University in Academic Year
2015/2016. First supervisor: Lilik Ulfiati, S.Pd., M.Pd. and second
supervisor: Hidayati, S.Pd, M.Pd.
This study is aimed to produce prototype of English speaking syllabus for
eleventh graders of marketing program at SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi. The study used
a research and development design. The researcher used interview guidance,
questionnaire and document to collect more data and information in advance. The
participants of this study were eleventh graders and the English teacher of
marketing program at SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi. In designing the syllabus, the
researcher conducted some steps proposed by Dick and Carey (2009). They are
planning step, development step, implementation step and evaluation step.
Moreover, the researcher only focused in designing syllabus without
implementation. In evaluation the syllabus, the researcher had experts that help
the researcher in revising and to make better prototype syllabus. There are some
suggestions from experts. Based on the comments and suggestions from the
experts, it can be summarized as following; (1) add the model of the sentence in
the learning materials, (2) add the learning activity, (3) follow the rules of the
process of writing, (4) provide the model of sentences in learning material
specific, (5) provide various learning activities, (6) the assessment of speaking
have to be clear, (7) the learning material have to be more in ESPs nuance, (8)
make the order of achievements indicator more in detail. In conclusion, after
validation the English speaking syllabus could be used by the English teacher of
eleventh graders of marketing program at SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi to teach the
English speaking skill. Moreover, the researcher hopes to the further researcher
could implement and develop the learning material based this prototype syllabus.
Key words: Syllabus, English for Specific Purposes (ESP), English Speaking Skill,
Prototype
1. Introduction
According to the National System of Education Act Number 20/2003,
Curriculum is one of the main education components. The general statements of

the Act define curriculum as a set of plans and arrangements covering education
goals, contents, learning materials, learning methods intended as the guideline in
implementing the teaching and learning process to achieve the goals that have
been set.
In implementing KTSP or Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan

Pendidikan

(School-Based Curriculum), there is a challenge for school. As its name SchoolBased Curriculum, it is an operational curriculum that is made and implemented
by each educational unit. The government only provides the guidelines of the
curriculum. Schools are encouraged to develop their own syllabus and materials,
as long as the development refers to the standard competence and the basic
competences as officially stated in the content standard of the School-Based
Curriculum (Cahyono & Widiati, 2011). Thus, each school has opportunities to
elaborate the content standard based on the nature of the school, vision, mission,
and the goal of the school. The process of the teaching and learning should escort
students to achieve the graduate competency standard of the curriculum.
The general standard of competence and basic competence of English
subject of SMK give opportunities for schools to develop their own syllabus based
on the local potential and characteristics of the school and students need. The
English subjects goal in the vocational high school is to communicate by using
intermediate level English. To achieve the goal, students in vocational high school
must pass the three standard competencies provided in the curriculum, such as: to
communicate by using novice level English, to communicate in elementary level
of English, and to communicate in intermediate level of English. In other words,

English in vocational high school is aimed at developing students abilities in


communicating by using target language, both in spoken and written
communication based on required level: novice, elementary and intermediate in
real life communication.
Syllabus is an important aspect of a learning process. According to Harmer
(2003), syllabus is the selection of items to be learnt and the grade of those item
into an appropriate sequence. The syllabus designed is expected to bring the local
potential, learners need and characteristics.
In the previous studies, Istiqomah (2013) developed English syllabus and
lesson plans for Tenth Graders at SMK N 8 Malang. She found that syllabus and
lesson plan were only for documentation, teacher paid less attention to develop
syllabus and lesson plan, teacher downloaded syllabus and there was insignificant
changes, and the lack of materials related to students program. In another study,
Utomo and Winarno (2013) indicated that there was an inconsistent
implementation between the existing syllabus and instructional materials in
teaching-learning process of seventh graders at SMP N 2 Tarakan.
In the preliminary study at SMKN 4 Muaro Jambi, there were found that
syllabus used by the teacher just for documentation. The teacher get the syllabus
by the other teachers and no significant changes related to the students needs and
characters of the Eleventh Graders of Marketing Program of SMK N 4 Muaro
Jambi.
Based on the description above, the researcher intends to develop a
prototype of syllabus for the eleventh graders of Marketing Program of SMK N 4

Muaro Jambi. Marketing programs students are selected as the participants of this
study because among the eleventh SMK in Muaro Jambi, four of them have
Marketing Program. SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi is chosen since this school is the
nearest school for the researcher. The researcher considers accessibility, financial
and time to get the location.
In this research, the English skill that will be developed in the syllabus is
speaking. It is chosen because as marketing programs students, the students will
interact more with the costumers than other skills. Therefore, the English skill that
students need to interact and communicate with costumers is speaking. The
syllabus is in form of prototype syllabus and followed the format of KTSP 2006.
The purpose of this study was to develop the prototype English speaking
syllabus for eleventh graders of marketing program. In order to achieve the
purpose of the study, the study attempted to answer the following question: how is
the prototype syllabus developed for teaching English speaking skill for eleventh
graders of marketing program at SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi?
2. Review of Related Literature
The Nature of Syllabus
Syllabus is a set plan in a particular course covers competence standard,
basic competence, learning material, learning activities, indicators of competence
achievement, assessment, time allocation, and learning sources (Department of
National Education, 2008). Harmer (2001) stated that syllabus not only list of
what will be taugth and in what order, but also the planning, implementation,
evaluation, management and administration of education programmes.

Syllabus is elaborated from standard competence and basic competence


into learning material, learning activities, and indicators of competence
achievement. There are eight components of syllabus in School-Based Curriculum
according to Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan (BSNP) 2006; 1. Standard
Competence, 2. Basic Competence, 3. Learning Material, 4. Learning Activities,
5. Indicators, 6. Assessment, 7. Time Allotment, 8. Learning Sources. According
to Jeremy Harmer (2001) there are several types of syllabus: 1. The grammar
syllabus, 2. The lexical syllabus, 3. The functional syllabus,4. The situational
syllabus, 5. The topic-based syllabus, 6. The task-based syllabus.
Speaking
According to Oxford Dictionary of Current English (2009), speaking is
the action of conveying information or expressing ones thoughts and feelings in
spoken languages. Harmer (2001) adds that speaking happens when two people
are engaged in talking to each other and they are sure that they are doing it for
good reason. Their reason may be that they want to say something, they have
some communicative purposes, and they select from their language store.
This part is to review the related criteria of speaking ability to measure
ones speaking skills that are accuracy, fluency, and appropriateness.
1) Accuracy
Accuracy in language is not means grammatical accuracy only.
Nevertheless, in Thornbury (2005), the terms accuracy seems to cover more
than that. Specifically, speaking English accurately means doing without or with

few errors on not only grammar but vocabulary and pronunciation, as well. He
also sets the clear scale for assessment of accuracy:
a) Grammar: Students use correct words order, tenses, tense agreement, etc.
Students do not leave out articles, prepositions or difficult tenses.
b) Vocabulary: Students have a range of vocabulary that corresponds to the
syllabus year list and uses words you have taught.
c) Pronunciation: Students speak and most people understand.
2) Fluency
Fluency is also used as a criterion to measure ones speaking competence.
Richards (1992) defines fluency as the features which gives speech the qualities
of being natural and normal. More specifically, Thornbury (2005) points out the
criteria for assessing fluency. They are as follows:
a) Lack of hesitation: Students speak smoothly, at a natural speech. They do
not hesitate long and it is easy to follow what they are saying.
b) Length: Students can put ideas together to form a message or an argument.
They can make not only the simplest of sentence pattern but also complex
ones to complete the task.
c) Independence: Students are able to express their ideas in a number of ways,
keep talking and ask questions, and many more to keep the conversation
going.
3) Appropriateness
Appropriateness is also used as a criterion to measure ones speaking
competence.

According

to

Spratt,

Pulverness,

and

Williams

(2005),

appropriateness in speaking shows the different levels of formality, which is more


or less relaxes ways of saying things. It is important to use the level of formality
that suits a situation. In speaking activity, appropriateness is very important to be
mastered by the students.
3. Research Methodology
Research Design
This research was a research and development (R&D) study. Richey and
Klein (2005) stated that research and development study is an approach
establishing a procedure and technique of the methodological analysis which give
solution directly to solve the educational issues. Latief (2010) stated that Research
and Development study are purposed to produce learning equipment such as;
syllabus, learning materials, learning media, module, students worksheet,
instrument for learning progress measurement, instrument for learning outcome
measurement, and etc.
This research was aimed at developing English syllabus and learning
materials. Researcher developed English syllabus and learning materials for the
eleventh graders of marketing program at SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi. The
participants of this research were eleventh graders of Marketing Program, English
teacher of Marketing Program of SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi. . SMK N 4 Muaro
Jambi is located on Jln. Nes Muhajirin Muaro Jambi. Marketing program consists
of 41 students. Eleventh graders of marketing program are 13 students consists of
five males and seven females.
Development Design

The development design of this study referred to Dick and Carey (2009).
This development research model consists of eight steps but they simplified into
four steps as follow:

Plan

Evaluation

Revise

Develop

Implement

Figure 1.1 Continuous Improvement Cycle for Instructional Design (Dick


and Carey, 2009)
The procedure of the Development
Planning Step
In planning step, the researcher identified the learning objectives that are stated
in KTSP or School-Based curriculum. Then, the researcher analyzed the students
needs, students interest and students difficulties with questionnaire. The

researcher also analyzed the learning need, students difficulties, students


characteristic, students performance, learning objectives, assessment instrument,
learning activities, mission and vision of the school by interview the English
teacher of SMKN 4 Muaro Jambi. The researcher also analyzed the syllabus and
textbook that used in learning English.
Development Step
In developing the English syllabus, there were many aspects that have to
be considered in order to make syllabus appropriate with the target and relevance
with the curriculum. In school-based curriculum syllabus, there were standard
competence and basic competence that have to reach. The standard competence
and the basic competences are available in content standard of School-based
curriculum (PERMENDIKNAS No. 22/2006).
After all the analysis in the planning step, then the researcher started the
development step by developing the learning materials that will be learnt by
students. The learning materials were based on the basic competences. After the
learning materials were developed, then the researcher had to consider the
appropriate learning activities that will be implemented. The next step was to
create the indiactors of basic competences achievement. Indiactors were defined
based on behavior changes which can be measured such as attitude, knowledge
and skill. Indicators will be used as a basic to arrange assessment instrument.
Then, assessment can be test or non test in learning activities. The
assessment will be used to investigate the achivement of basic competences and
indicators. Time allotment will be allocated by considering the number of basic

competences, range, difficulty and the importance level of basic competences. The
last step in development was to determine the learning sources that will be used in
learning activities.
Implementation Step
Implementation step was product trials. This step was conducted to collect
data in order to identify the problem and weakness of syllabus. The data collected
was used to help the researcher in revising and improving the syllabus to make it
better.
Evaluation Step
Evaluation was done by the independent evaluators. There were syllabus
experts who validated the draft of syllabus.
The revisions are occured in the all step. Revision was an ongoing process of
using information to reassess assumption and decision. The revision was not
begun until the all analysis, design, development, and evaluation work was
complete, but it was constantly done based on what was needed to be revised.
Product trials
This research considered trial subject, there were two experts. The experts
were the lectures of the English Study Program of Jambi University. The experts
validated the syllabus. This research was conducted at SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi.
SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi is located at Jln. Nes Muhajirin Muaro Jambi. It is lead by
Mister Reflihadi S.Pd as the Head Master of SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi.
Techniques of Data Collection

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The data was taken from the interview, questionnaires, documents, and
validation sheets. According to Creswell (2012) interview is used to ask one or
more participants by using open-ended questions and their answers will be
recorded. In this research, the researcher used one-on-one interview. One-on-one
interview is a process in which the researcher asks questions to only one
participant in a time and records the answers to collect the data (Creswell, 2012).
Interview was conducted with the only one

English teacher of marketing

program.
Questionnaire was constructed in the form of closed-ended questions in
which the researcher presents the questions and provides preset response options
for the participants (Creswell, 2012). The participants gave a symbol or mark (v)
on the column that was provided in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was
adopted from Sundari (2008) and Widiyati (2012). The questionnaire distributed
to the students.
Documents were good sources for text data. The existing syllabus was used
to analyze the relevance of syllabus to the basic competence and standard
competence, compatibility of syllabus with the students need, characters, and
nature of the school. The validation sheet for the syllabus expert was adapted from
Rahayu (2014). The entire of the questions from validation sheets was validated
by the experts. The expert was one of the lecturer of English study program of
Jambi University.
Technique of Data Analysis

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Regarding the data analysis, the researcher analyzed the data to answer the
research question of this study. The researcher described the data from the
interviews, questionnaires, document and validation sheets. The data from
interview transcribed, then the data described. In analyzing the result of
questionnaire, descriptive statistics used to describe data. According to Dornyei
(2003) descriptive statistics were used to summarize sets of numerical data in
order to conserve time and space. It means that descriptive statistics was purposed
to presenting data in a tidy way. The researcherr summarized the data from closeended questionnaire in descriptive statistic to find the data by mean, frequency,
and percentage. Then, the data described. The last, the result of data was the
guidance for researcher in developing the English syllabus. Then, product of this
research was validated by expert. The suggestion from expert used to revise the
product.
4. Finding and Discussion
Findings
Planning Step
There are two points in planning step; findings and analyzing discussions.
According to Dick and Carrey (2009), the first step in research and development
study is planning step. In the planning step, the researcher analyzes the learning
objective, learners, and contexts. The learner and context are both of the important
aspects that have to be considered in developing materials

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There are two main data that were used in this research. The first is the
data from interview. It was used to identify the learning need, students
difficulties, students characteristics, students performances, learning objectives,
assessment instrument, and learning activities. The second is data from
questionnaire. It was used to identify the students needs, students interest and
students difficulties. The document was used to get usefull information to
develop a prototype of syllabus.
The findings were started with the result of questionnaires which were
distributed to the students, the interview with the English teacher, and document
analysis of the eleventh graders of Marketing Program at SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi.
To make the results easily to read and discuss, the data were described in a
descriptive and statistical analysis format. Descriptive statistics was for
questionnaires, and descriptive analysis was for the interview and document
analysis. Another data that was used in this syllabus was validation sheets from
the experts who validated the product. There were two validators. There were
some comments and suggestions from the expert about this syllabus.
From the data, it was shown some interesting finding. From the data of
questionnaires, it shows that students need active speaking activities, specific
English learning materials for Marketing Program, vocabularies based on
functional usage, pronunciation practice, and various English learning media.
Students interest on some kinds of text such as congratulating, requesting,
complaining, expressing certainty, and bargaining. Students also interest on

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authentic learning media, direct evaluation for speaking, and dialogue activity in
learning English speaking skill.
Based on the data of interview, there were some interesting findings.
According to the teacher, bargaining text is the most difficult learning materials
for eleventh graders of Marketing program, students difficulty in speaking is
pronunciation, and there was no certain time allotment for teaching speaking skill.
Discussion
Development Step
The format of the prototype of syllabus for eleventh graders of marketing
program at SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi has followed the standard syllabus of KTSP.
The syllabus consist of identity (a school identity, subject, class/semester,
standard competence and time allotment), basic competences, learning materials,
learning activities, indicators, assessments, time allotment and learning sources.
The standard competence of the syllabus is available in content standard of
the KTSP standard which is to communicate in English at elementary level. Time
allotment for speaking skill is eighteen meeting hours for nine meetings. The
basic competences are chosen from the available basic competences of KTSP.
There are two basic competences which are related and appropriate for the
speaking skill. The first is the point 2.4 of basic competences (telling past event
and future plan). The second is point 2.5 of basic competences (expressing some
kinds of intentions.

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Based on the result of findings, the learning materials need by students


was past tense, future tense, congratulating text, requesting text, expressing
certainty text, and bargaining text. Learning activities consist of pronunciation
practice, dialogues, and role playing. The indicators of basic competence point
2.4 consist of identifying the use of tenses with the appropriate situations, asking
and responding the questions about past event and future plan, telling past event
and

future plan

in

appropriate

contents,

grammar,

vocabularies,

and

pronunciation. The indicators of basic competence point 2.5 consist of identifying


the appropriate expressions to express the intentions, expressing intentions in
appropriate grammar, vocabularies, and pronunciation. The assessment consists of
oral test by dialogues, responding questions, and role playing. For the basic
competence point 2.4, there are eight meeting hours for four meeting. There are
ten meeting hours for basic competence point 2.5 and consist of five meeting. The
researcher used the course book entitled effective communication for elementary
level by Widiantoro A., Pratiwi A., and Prihatin N (2008). Another sources of
learning source is some videos from youtube.
Implementation Step
Implementation step is conducted in order to collect the data for revising
and improving the product. While, in this research, the researcher only focused on
developing product. Implementation might be conducted by the next researcher
who has interest and want to examine the effectiveness of this syllabus.
Evaluation Step

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This prototype syllabus was evaluated by the independent evaluators. In


evaluating the prototype syllabus, there were two experts who validated the
syllabus. Then, the researcher revised the syllabus based on the experts
comments and suggestions. The first expert of this research is Dra. Radiatan
Mardiah, M.Hum. She is one of the lecturers in English Study Program of Jambi
University. She is concern with the English Specific Purpose Course. The second
expert is Melati S.Pd., M.CC. She is also one of the lecturers in English Study
Program.
5. Conclusion and Suggestion
Conclusion
The format of the prototype syllabus follows the criteria of KTSP while
the procedures of development prototype of syllabus follow the step proposed by
Dick and Carrey 2009. The basic competences selected in this prototype syllabus
are related to speaking skill. The prototype syllabus developed based on the need
analysis which was in the form of questionnaire, interview with English teacher,
and document analysis in the SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi. Then, the product was
validated by two experts. This product only validated by the experts without
implementation to the students. After validation and revision, the prototype could
be used by the English teacher in SMK N 4 Muaro Jambi to investigate the result.
Suggestion
The researcher hopes this product could be used by the English teacher to
teach speaking skill for eleventh graders of marketing program. The researcher

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hopes the further researcher could implement this syllabus and analyze the result
in order to get good result. The further researcher even could develop the learning
material based on this prototype syllabus.

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