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dSPACE Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing


Systems

Cutting-edge systems for ECU software testing

From component tests to network tests

For all vehicle domains

HIL Testing / Contents

HIL Testing
Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation ______________________________________ 3

Typical HIL System ____________________________________________ 4

Characteristics and Requirements of Test Types ____________________ 5

ISO 26262 Recommends HIL Testing _____________________________ 6

Electrical Failure Simulation ____________________________________ 7

Restbus Simulation ___________________________________________ 8

Simulation Models ___________________________________________ 9

Test Domains for dSPACE HIL Simulation ________________________ 10

Use Cases

Testing ECUs for Engines _____________________________________ 11

Testing Electric Motor ECUs ___________________________________ 12

Testing Vehicle Dynamics ECUs ________________________________ 13

Testing ECU Networks of Hybrid Electric Powertrains ______________ 14

Environment Simulation for Driver Assistance Services _____________ 15

Euro NCAP Crash Tests through HIL Simulation ___________________ 16

Testing Integrated Sensors and Actuators _______________________ 17

dSPACE Systems for HIL Simulation ___________________________________ 18


SCALEXIO _________________________________________________ 19

dSPACE Simulator ___________________________________________ 20

dSPACE Hardware Boards for HIL Simulation _____________________ 21

dSPACE Software for HIL Simulation ____________________________ 22

dSPACE Engineering Services ________________________________________ 24


Openness: Third-Party Models________________________________________ 25

HIL Testing / Introduction

Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Simulation


High-quality ECU software tests with dSPACE

Highlights

Single-source solution with a comprehensive hardware

and software tool chain

In-depth tests systems for higher ECU quality

Automated simulation runs

For all domains

Scalable from small to large systems

Engineering for customer applications

Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is a method for testing the functions, system integration, and communication
of electronic control units (ECU) thoroughly in a simulated
environment. For example, the interconnected ECUs or the
rest of the vehicle may not be yet available, but the functions of the ECUs under development have to be tested as
soon as possible in a realistic environment. The solution is to
simulate the ECUs technical environment and the interconnected system parts electrically and in real time. These can
be just parts of the vehicle such as the engine or a whole
vehicle including the surrounding scenery.

Reproducibility for More Safety


HIL tests are easy to reproduce, so they can be very systematic and also completely safe, even when critical thresholds
are exceeded.
Because they enable original equipment manufacturers
(OEMs) and their suppliers to detect errors during the development of ECU software, they play an important part in
the approval and release process.
HIL simulation is widely used in the development and test
process, not only in the automotive industry but also in the
aerospace and robotics industries.

Enhanced Quality and Efficiency


With HIL simulation, ECUs can be tested far earlier than in
vehicle tests. This helps to:

Improve the quality of the ECU software at an early


development stage

Shorten the time to market despite the growing volume


and complexity of the vehicle electronics

Avoid recall campaigns

Support quality control (e.g. ISO 26262)

How you Benefit from HIL Tests

You save costs because you need fewer prototypes

and fewer test drives.

People and vehicles are safe, even while testing critical


situations.

You can test ECU functions even if the hardware


is not yet available.

Tests can run automatically.

You can reuse tests whenever and however required


to reproduce a situation that causes an error.

2016

HIL Testing / Introduction

Typical Hardware-in-the-Loop System


A typical HIL testing system comprises components such as:

Other auxiliary components such as load boards , and

Processing unit for computing large and complex simula-

the possibility to perform electrical failure simulation for


specific application scenarios. For this, dSPACE offers the
Electronic Load Modules and the DS2642 FIU & Power
Switch Board.

tion models and for connecting the real-time model with


the relevant I/O. The dSPACE SCALEXIO Processing Unit
therefore provides multicore support and communication
with the I/O via IOCNET for handling a high number of I/O
and bus channels within the required real-time condition.

Battery simulation components for providing the power


supply to generate currents and voltages for the ECU
for manual and automated tests. dSPACE offers various boards for controlling the battery simulation power
supply, e.g., the DS2907 Battery Simulation Controller,
the DS2642 FIU & Power Switch Board, and the DS2680
I/O Unit.

I/O interfaces for connecting the ECU with the testing


system. For different test scenarios, dSPACE offers various boards with determined or freely configurable I/O
interfaces, such as the SCALEXIO MultiCompact, HighFlex,
and I/O boards.

The unit under test is connected to the testing system. It


usually consists of one or more electronic control units (ECUs)
containing new functions or ECU software to be tested.
The software for configuring and automating the HIL test
runs on a PC, as well as the software for parameterizing
the simulation model and visualizing the simulation run. Test
data management software can also be used.
dSPACE supports its customers by adapting the simulation
hardware and test software to specific project requirements
or by setting up the complete HIL test system.

SYNECT
e.g., test data management and workflow management
ControlDesk
Test experimentation

AutomationDesk
Test automation

Loads for Unit


Under Test

ModelDesk
Model parameterization

Failure Insertion
Unit (FIU)

MotionDesk
Test visualization

I/O
Hardware

Simulation Model
Unit under test

Processing Unit

Schematic overview of a typical HIL system with its components.

2016

Battery Simulation
Power supply unit

Real-Time Interface,
ConfigurationDesk
Implementation software

HIL Testing / Introduction

Characteristics and Requirements of Test Types


With numerous hardware units and a huge range of different
I/O options, the modular and flexible dSPACE HIL simulation
systems can easily be tailored to fit specific tasks. They cover
a wide range of tests types and their requirements, e.g.,

simulating, measuring, capturing and generating signals, as


well as user-programmable FPGA options for fast signal processing. Project-specific solutions for hardware and software
and hands-on training are available for all test scenarios.

Test Type

Requirements

Function test

Flexible simulator to adapt to different ECU variants and reuse control algorithms

Flexible, interactive simulator experiment software

Testing single functions and the interaction between them for ECU acceptance tests

Management of HIL software components (models, parameter sets, test scripts, etc.)

Simulation of vehicle and component variants for testing against specifications, e.g., slalom tests and lane change

maneuvers (ISO TR 3888) for vehicle dynamics control units or standard drive cycles (FTP75) for engine controls
Component test

Restbus simulation with high computing power and interfaces for different bus protocols

Compatible test systems for suppliers and OEMs to exchange and compare tests and test results

Integration of the OEMs functions into suppliers ECUs

Integration test

Ample computing power for computing large simulation models

Management of the simulators software components (submodels, test scripts, etc.)

Test automation

Communication tests between all ECUs via CAN, LIN, Ethernet, and FlexRay

Tests of networked ECUs, e.g., for powertrain or body electronic systems

Electrical failure test

Inserting electrical errors for failure simulation

Testing ECUs behavior when sensors, actuators or wiring harness are faulty

Automated electric failure simulation

Communication test

Restbus simulation with emulated communication to and from missing nodes

Manipulation gateways

Support of all automotive bus systems

Monitoring the bus communication

Regression test

Test automation

Reusing automated tests from the development phase

ECU network test/system test

Diagnostics included

Support of numerous different controlled system models, I/O channels and bus communications

Distributed multiprocessor system providing ample computation power for networked systems

Tests reproducible for all ECU/vehicle variants

Release/approval test

Flexible, configurable HIL system that adapts to different ECUs

Easy management of HIL system software components

Software layouts for representing the HIL systems functionality

Test automation

Regression tests with failure insertion

ECU calibration

Model-based calibration can be carried out at a very early development stage

Use of realistic vehicle models

Automatic parameter adaptation of the ECUs connected to the simulator system

Signal manipulation

Generation, measurement, and manipulation of signals

PWM and Hall sensor signals

Analog and digital sensor signals

Sensor signals based on resistance, algorithms and waveform

Test of diagnostic functions


(OBDII or EOBD)

Closed-loop simulation

Systematic testing of all defined operating points

Insertion of implausible signals or defective electrical connections and errors

Insertion of communication and electric faults to test the ECUs response

2016

HIL Testing / Introduction

ISO 26262 Recommends HIL Testing


Safety-critical functions have to be reliable, and so do the
test methods used to verify them.
These requirements are covered by ISO 26262, the functional safety standard for E/E systems in road vehicles up to
3.5 tonnes. It was derived from IEC 61508 and covers the
whole product life cycle.

For testing safety-related functions, components, single


ECUs and ECU networks, the ISO standard recommends HIL
tests or test methods based on HIL simulation as suitable
methods. This is because HIL tests have been state-of-theart for years and have been used for testing safety-critical
function nearly as long.

dSPACE Services for Verification


The suitability of a HIL system for use in a specific safetyrelated project is verified by testing the entire system. This
must be done after system assembly and then performed
repeatedly for a system in use. If the HIL system consists of
hardware and software, both have to be verified together.
ISO26262 recommends HIL testing as a verification process.
Based on a large number of successful projects, dSPACE has
detailed knowledge about how to set up HIL test systems
for safety-relevant functions.

dSPACE can advise customers on this, and also offers test


services for initial and recurring verification, such as:

Providing dedicated information on system verification

Verifying the suitability of dSPACE HIL systems before


their first operational use

Verifying the suitability of dSPACE HIL systems during


maintenance and after modification

Documenting the development and test process to prove


the HIL simulators correct behavior

Automated Testing for Safety-Related Applications


In addition to making recommendations for HIL testing,
ISO 26262 also suggests possible methods for qualifying
software development tools. dSPACE AutomationDesk is
the front-end tool for automated HIL testing of application
software. It has been certified by TV SD for testing safetyrelated systems according to ISO 26262 and IEC 61508.
dSPACE can support your classification and qualification
procedures by providing dedicated information demonstrating AutomationDesks suitability for use in safety-related
applications.

2016

Further Information on ISO 26262


These two parts of the ISO 26262 refer to HIL simulation:

ISO 26262-6: Recommends HIL to verify that software


safety requirements are fulfilled by product development
on software level.

ISO 26262-4: Recommends common HIL test methods for


product development on system level (e.g., fault injection
tests, requirements-based tests).

HIL Testing / Introduction

Electrical Failure Simulation for ECU Testing


ECUs not only need testing during normal operation. It is also
vital to know how they will behave during exceptional situations if components such as sensors, actuators or wiring
harnesses are faulty, for example, or if errors occur in bus

Standard Electrical Failure Types


Electrical failure simulation with FIUs can be performed with
all dSPACE simulator systems. The following failure conditions can be used:

Open circuit

Short circuit to ground

Short circuit to battery voltage

Short circuit between ECU pins

Bouncing for all failures

Bad Contacts and Damaged Isolation


To simulate bad contacts and damaged isolation, dSPACE
uses resistors, the same method as that used for inserting electrical failures. A special failure simulation module is
available for dSPACE Simulator Full-Size, i.e., short circuit
to ground with additional hardware in series.

communication. Faults and errors can be simulated within


the model and/or with the help of additional hardware, the
Failure Insertion Unit (FIU), which inserts electrical failures
on ECUs inputs and outputs.

Electrical failure simulation on the HIL simulator is usually


performed on all channel types: actuator, sensor and bus
channels. With actuator channels, you can specify whether
to reject the load when switching to the failure potential to
avoid an open circuit state.
Because the sensor signals are simulated, a large proportion
of failures can be simulated by the model itself. An electrical
FIU is used if the ECU has to capture and evaluate currents,
or to simulate an open circuit.

The possible RSIM failure options are:

Bleeder resistance

Transfer resistance

Resistance between two signals

Battery

Device under
Test (DuT)

Load
FIU

The Failure Insertion Unit enables the electric


manipulation of the cable harness to simulate
effects such as a broken cable or open wire.

I/O

2016

HIL Testing / Introduction

Restbus Simulation
Often during HIL simulation, not all participants of a networked system are available. These absent network participants (called the restbus) have to be simulated by the
test system. The test system emulates the communication
from the missing nodes, which is necessary to operate the
device under test. A basic requirement for a realistic restbus
simulation is the ability to generate all the needed protocol
data units (PDUs), messages and signals, including all their
features, mechanisms, and characteristics. To perform negative testing, the simulator must also be able to manipulate
the communication. Typically, the emulated communication
is based on available communication descriptions.

Comfort ECU 1

Comfort ECU 2

Device under
Test (DuT)

Comfort CAN
Comfort LIN

Comfort ECU 3

Central
Gateway ECU

Simulated restbus

Example for a rest bus simulation.

Supported Bus Systems and Networks


dSPACE supports a wide range of automotive communication networks for communication tests, such as

LIN

CAN, CAN FD (ISO and Non-ISO)

FlexRay

Ethernet

Errors in Bus Communication


Testing bus communication plays a key role in large-scale
networks. Errors in bus communication, such as missing or
manipulated messages, can be simulated with a dSPACE HIL
simulator system during restbus simulation.
For example, it might be necessary to manipulate messages
between real ECUs to validate the behavior of networked
or distributed functions. An established method for this is
the error gateway. The bus lines of a device on the bus are
switched to a failure bus on the simulator, and the messages
are manipulated (if required) and then transferred back to
the original bus. You can change individual bus signals (such
as checksums) and entire messages (missing, wrong timing),
or even remove the complete bus node, to investigate the
effects of these changes on the rest of the network.

CAN gateway software


Signal manipulation

Signal
manipulation

Rx

Tx

Rx

Communication
Controller 1

ECU 1

Tx

Communication
Controller 2

ECU 2

ECU n

CAN gateway hardware

Example setup for error simulation with a CAN gateway.

2016

HIL Testing / Introduction

Simulation Models
dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models
To use a HIL system efficiently, comprehensive and realistic
simulation models, such as plant and environment models,
are essential. dSPACE offers its own dSPACE Automotive
Simulation Models (ASMs). The open Simulink models are
used for model-based function development and for ECU
tests on a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator.

Key Benefits
All the Simulink blocks in the models are visible, so it is
easy to add or replace components with custom models to
adapt the properties of modeled components perfectly to
individual requirements. The ASMs standardized interfaces
make it easy to expand a single model such as an engine
or body, or even create a whole virtual vehicle. Roads and
driving maneuvers can be easily and intuitively created using
graphical tools with previews and clear visualization.

Combustion engine
gine

Vehicle dynamics

Electrical components
nents

Driver assistance systems

Integration of Third-Party Models


dSPACE simulator systems are open for use with thirdparty and custom simulation models that are designed
with MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow. For more information about integrating and using third-party models, please
see page 25.

2016

HIL Testing / Use Case

Test Domains for dSPACE HIL Simulation


With more than 20 years of experience in HIL simulation,
dSPACE has a wide range of knowledge regarding simulation models, hardware, software, and project organization.
dSPACE offers complete turn-key simulation systems in all

sizes, but also supports users setting up their own simulator.


As a single source, dSPACE provides the right tools and simulation models for each domain and test scenario, including
engineering for project-specific adaptations.

Engine/transmission: Different vehicle models mean

Infotainment: dSPACE offers optical instrument panel

that numerous test variants are needed for testing engine


and transmission ECUs. dSPACE offers a universal simulator with numerous I/O channels for quick changes from
one variant to another.

Vehicle dynamics: dSPACE supports the use of safetycritical bus systems. Highly dynamic simulation models
including parameterization are available. The ModelDesk
software also supports the parameterization of user-
defined simulation models.

Hybrid vehicle, e-drive: Fast reactivity is needed for


electric motors and their sensor signals. Tests on electric
motors require the simulation of high currents. dSPACE
provides modular hardware for these purposes, and also
for failure simulation and electronic loads.

Chassis/comfort: Different vehicle models with different


combinations of features have to be tested. This means
that resistance-coded switches, high current, low-speed
and low-cost buses, failures, etc., all have to be simulated.

cluster tests and automatic keypad manipulation for


testing infotainment systems. The simulation of typical
infotainment bus systems, like MOST and Ethernet, is
also supported.

Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS): Suitable


models for the driver assistance functions, the vehicle, its
sensors, the road, the driver and the traffic environment
have to be combined and configured in order to test
ADAS applications. They can all be simulated by means
of the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models tool suite.

Virtual vehicle: All the above domains can also be


combined. Used together with simulation models such
as the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models, the HIL
simulator can represent a whole complex virtual vehicle
for testing ECUs.

Diesel






Up to 24 cylinders
Turbocharger, EGR
Common rail and unit injection
Exhaust systems, incl. DPF, SCR
In-cylinder pressure sensors

Transmission

Gasoline






Up to 16 cylinders
Manifold injection
Direct injection
Turbocharger, EGR
Formula One engines







Continuously variable transmission


Automatic transmission
Automated manual transmission
Double-clutch transmission
Central and rear differential (AWD)








10








Radios, amplifiers
Displays
Man-machine interface (MMI)
Head unit

Others
Body electronics
Comfort electronics
Air-conditioning control systems
Restraint systems (airbag, belt, pretensioner)
Door and seat modules
Interior and exterior lighting

2016

 Electric motors
 Power electronics
 High-voltage battery systems
(Li-Ion, NiMH, )
 DC/DC converters
 Hybrid control system
Vehicle Types

Multimedia/Infotainment





Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

Driver Assistance Systems








Adaptive cruise control (ACC)


Lane departure warning (LDW)
Traffic sign recognition
Automatic emergency braking
Park assist systems

Passenger cars
Light trucks
Heavy-duty trucks
Off-highway vehicles
Formula One
Vehicle with trailer

Vehicle Dynamics







Active front steering


ESP including ABS, ASR,
Electronic air suspension
Continuous damping control
Electronic parking brake
Electronic wedge brake

HIL Testing / Use Case

Testing ECUs for Engines


Application Area
With a dSPACE HIL Simulator, you can test either one single
ECU or several networked ECUs together. One typical application is testing ECUs for an internal combustion engine. The
ECUs are connected to the simulator, which simulates the
environment, including the interacting components, and inserts
specific faults for testing purposes. Mean value models can be
parameterized for specific engines and used to simulate them
in real time. dSPACE simulators are scalable and extendable,
so they can quickly be adapted to new requirements even
in mid-project, for example, for system tests with modified
ECU wiring. To adapt the HIL simulator to different engine
types, you can simply add an exchangeable load rack that
makes it easy to switch between different engine and vehicle
configurations.

Important Aspects
Engine ECUs contain time-based and engine-angle-based
functions and subsystems. The main task of these is to generate injection and ignition signals. They measure the engine
angle, i.e., they capture crankshaft and camshaft signals, as
the input data for the control system. A clock rate of 1 ms
is usually sufficient to present a realistic environment to the
ECUs, though crankshaft-angle-synchronous signals require
much faster sample rates in the s range. dSPACEs DS2680
I/O Unit is used for capturing and computing the necessary
signals at a high resolution. It contains an angular processing unit (APU) based on FPGA technology and is easy to
configure in MATLAB/Simulink.

dSPACE Simulator System

Implementation software
Test and experiment
software

Processor and HIL I/O board

Signal conditioning
Failure insertion units
Load cards
Simulation of car battery
Real-time model such as ASM,
executed by processor board

Possible ECU Testing Task

Function tests for validating the control strategy

Diagnostic tests

Software integration tests (testing the overall functionality of the ECU)

Acceptance and release tests

Communication tests and tests on distributed functions


(testing ECUs in the network)

Typical Application Cases

Gasoline engine (manifold and direct injection,


turbocharger)

Diesel engine (common rail and unit injection,


exhaust system, turbocharger)

Cylinder in-pressure sensors, lambda probes, piezo


injection, ...

Transmission

12 48 V applications

2016

11

HIL Testing / Use Case

Testing Electric Motor ECUs


Application Area
Electric motors are increasingly being used across a wide
range of applications automotive, aerospace, automation, and so on. They are compact enough to be installed
almost anywhere, have great energy-saving potential, and
provide power on demand, direct controllability, and easier
maintenance.
You can test ECUs for all different kinds of electric motors
with dSPACE HIL simulation systems.

ECU
3 Phase
Voltages

Electric
Motor
Controller
Power
Converter
Current Signal
Application
Controller

Position Signal

Controller

Power Stage

Signal Level

Electric Motor

Electric Power Level

Possible Interfaces Between ECU and HIL Simulator

Signal level

Simulation of the power electronics, the electric motor,


and the mechanical environment

Electrical power level

Simulation of the electric motor and the mechanical


vehicle environment

Simulation of electric motor current using electric loads

Mechanical level

Simulation of the mechanical vehicle environment

Effects of the real motor and additional mechanical


parts on the controller can be taken into account

Mechanical test bench

12

2016

Important Aspects
Electric motors mainly differ from combustion engines in
their highly dynamic behavior, which requires an ECU clock
rate of 10-20 KHz. So that electric motor ECUs can be tested
at these high sample rates, dSPACE supplies special FPGA
boards for HIL simulation. They enable PWM measurement,
position sensor simulation, and simulation of encoders and
resolvers at a high clock rate. As well as controlling motor
speed, another essential function of an electric motor ECU
is to control the
current. (This is in
contrast to a combustion engine,
where only lowVehicle
Application
load actuators need
to be controlled.)
The HIL simulator
Transmission
therefore has to be
prepared for its
function as a current
sink and source for
Sensor Signals
high power requirements.
Mechanics

Mechanical Level

Application Fields (Excerpt)

Powertrain systems such as starter-generator systems


and mild/full-hybrid systems, and electric vehicles

Electric steering systems

Brake boosters

Electric window lifters

Wind energy converters

Electric locomotives/trains

Printing machines
Production machinery, e.g., rollers for hot and cold forming

Headway and motor controls for zinc coating plant

Artificial respirators

Magnetic resonance tomography

HIL Testing / Use Case

Testing Vehicle Dynamics ECUs


Application Area
Vehicle dynamics systems like electronic stability programs
(ESPs) are extremely safety-relevant and require comprehensive HIL tests that make tough demands on the test system.
This calls for a very realistic vehicle model.
Tests are carried out both on individual ECUs and on several networked ECUs, for example, for integrated chassis
systems. dSPACE has many years of experience in setting
up HIL test systems for vehicle dynamics ECUs, and we give
our customers every kind of support needed.

ESP ECU

Valve signal
detection unit

12 x Valve signals

Brake pressure sensor


4 x wheel speed
Steering wheel angle
Rotational speed
Lateral acceleration

Important Aspects
The ECUs of vehicle dynamics systems perform plausibility
and function checks after power-up. The sensor signals they
receive are monitored very precisely. If the ECUs detect implausibilities or errors, they shut down immediately or enter
restricted limp-home mode. The test system therefore has to
meet tough requirements with regard to signal quality and
signal type. For example, for wheel speed simulations, current interfaces with overlaid protocols have to be provided,
valve current signals have to be captured, and all other sensors have to be synthesized
properly to present the ECU
with a realistic environment
in any situation.
Handling the sensors and
actuators integrated in the
ECU enclosure also makes
demands on the test system: The example below
shows the requirements
of a valve signal detection
unit.

Possible ECU Testing Task

Examples of Test Areas

Function tests, control strategy validation

ESP, ABS, ASR/TCS (traction control system), ...

Diagnostic tests

Electronic parking brake and wedge brake

Software integration tests (the overall functionality

Electric power-assisted steering (EPAS)

of the ECU)

Acceptance and release tests

Communication tests and tests on distributed functions


(testing ECUs in the network)

Active/adaptive front steering (AFS)

Continuous damping control (CDC)

Interaction with mechanical test benches (see also

the use case Testing ECUs with Integrated Sensors


and Actuators, p. 17)

2016

13

HIL Testing / Use Case

Testing ECU Networks of Hybrid Electric Powertrains


Application Area
A hybrid electric powertrain typically contains several networked ECUs which the functions are distributed to. The
functions, such as overlaid hybrid control functions, can be
implemented on separate ECUs or combined with other
functions. As these functions need to be extremely reliable,
the development and test requirements are high.
For hardware-in-the-loop simulation, you can connect all
the powertrain ECUs with the HIL simulator. The simulator
is equipped with at least one processor board and various
interface boards. Powertrain components that are not yet
available are emulated via restbus simulation. Testing usually also covers several CAN networks. The modularity of
the dSPACE hardware means that the simulators can be
configured for various applications. All known hybrid vehicle
versions and ECU or CAN configurations are possible.
For integration testing, a hybrid electric powertrain simulator can be extended to simulate a full virtual hybrid electric
vehicle by adding further racks to cover all the other ECUs
in the vehicle, such as ESP.

Powertrain CAN

Possible Test Areas

Testing complex ECU structures with extensive communication or whole virtual vehicles

dSPACE simulators can be extended to fit project requirements.

Hybrid CAN

Transmission

Engine

Electric Motor
Battery

Transmission
ECU

Engine
ECU

E-Motor
ECU

Valve
Drawer

Hybrid
EPS
Powertrain
ECU
ECU

Battery
Management
system

Load FIU

Node #1

14

Important Aspects
To set up a typical realistic hybrid powertrain, two parallel
CAN structures have to be built: A powertrain or vehicle CAN
and a private hybrid CAN. The powertrain CAN connects
the standard ECUs such as the engine ECU and transmission
ECU, and others such as the ESP ECU which can also be
simulated by their CAN messages. The hybrid-specific ECUs
are usually connected to the hybrid CAN.
If the HIL tests cover the simulation of the electrical motor
and the battery, safety aspects make it necessary to separate
the HIL simulations. The simulator racks are then connected
via Gigalink. This high-speed serial data transmission via
fiber-optic cable and 1.25G bit/s technology provides very
fast information exchange.

2016

Gigalink

Gigalink

Node #2

Node #3

Extension
by further
racks and
ECUs
to full
Virtual
vehicle

Node #X

HIL Testing / Use Case

Environment Simulation for Driver Assistance Services


Application Area:
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) can be based
upon camera systems, radar sensors, ultrasonic sensors,
etc., in order to react to other vehicles and the environment.
Adaptive cruise control (ACC), and assistants for intersection braking, parking, lane changing and lane keeping, are
examples of ADAS.
One example is a lane keeping assistant which monitors
the road ahead of the vehicle by using a video camera and
actively controls the steering system to keep the vehicle
between the road lanes. Validating such a functionality
requires numerous test runs to be repeated under different
conditions.
Some other examples:

Traffic sign recognition

Lane departure warning systems

Parking assistant

Car2x

dSPACE Solution
dSPACE provides realistic simulation scenarios for hardwarein-the-loop testing so that many tests drives on the road can
be replaced with virtual test drives in the laboratory. The HIL
simulation can be based, for example, on real navigation
date or data from a video camera integrated in the ECU under test. The dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models (ASM)
tool suite offers models for the vehicle and its environment
sensors, the driver, the road and the traffic environment.
Additional, third-party models can be integrated. dSPACE
AutomationDesk, the HIL test software, enables automatic
simulation runs and overnight tests, resulting in increased
test depth and a greater maturity of driver assistance
systems.

MotionDesk provides a realistic simulation scenario for driver assistance systems.

2016

15

HIL Testing / Use Case

Euro NCAP Crash Tests through HIL Simulation


Application Area
The European New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) uses
a 5-star rating system to evaluate the safety of new cars
through crash tests and other investigations. This safety
rating covers four areas: adult protection, child protection,
pedestrian protection and safety assist.
In the past, NCAP tests traditionally focused on evaluating
passive safety systems, but now active safety systems are
playing an ever-increasing role. This means that using active
safety systems in the automobile is a prerequisite for achieving the maximum possible 5-star safety rating.
Since 2014, the safety ratings include assessments of lane
keeping assistants and autonomous emergency braking
systems (AEB) in urban driving (AEB City) and interurban
driving (AEB Inter-Urban). As of 2016, emergency brake
assistants with pedestrian detection (AEB VRU/Pedestrian,
VRU = vulnerable road users) will follow.
The Challenge
The recommended procedure is to perform these NCAP test
scenarios virtually on a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator long before the vehicle and the ECUs are complete,
in order to correct possible errors at an early stage. Since

Model and
environment
parameterization

EURO NCAP Test Scenario


CCRs*:
Approach to
stationary target

Simulation model

CCRm*:
Approach to slower
target

* CCR: Car-To-Car Rear;


s: standing; m: moving; b: braking

v= 20 km/h

d0

v0 = 50 km/h
v0 = 50 km/h
v0 = 50 km/h
v0 = 50 km/h

HIL Simulator

2016

v= 0 km/h

v0 = 30 km/h ... 80 km/h

Test automation
and reporting

16

The dSPACE Solution


dSPACE provides an extensive test environment and all the
test systems necessary for performing Euro NCAP tests
and validating the relevant assistance systems through
HIL simulation. The dSPACE HIL simulator, together with
the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models (ASM), which
can be parameterized for the various NCAP tests via ModelDesk, provides the test components that are necessary
for performing NCAP tests in an early phase of ECU verification. The ASMs are based on open Simulink models
and have an accuracy that is optimal for HIL tests. If there
are components that are not available yet during the early
stages of ECU development,
these can also be replaced
by ASMs.
This makes it possible to carry
out NCAP tests throughout the
entire ECU validation process
and to use them as standard
test scenarios. The dSPACE tool
chain provides all the necessary
test scenarios and model parameters out-of-the-box and lets
you combine the various test
tools for the NCAP tests.

v0 = 10 km/h ... 50 km/h


v0 = 30 km/h ... 80 km/h

CCRb*:
Approach to braking
target

Visualization and
animation

costly verification scenarios and test scenarios are necessary throughout the entire ECU development process, the
convenient and practical method is to use the NCAP test
scenarios for verification, too.
First of all, the ECU tests can be reproduced during the HIL
simulation. Secondly, it is possible to make an early prediction of the completed vehicles later NCAP rating. Finally,
by using existing NCAP tests, it is not necessary to create
self-made, complex test scenarios.

d0 = 12 m
d0 = 40 m
d0 = 12 m
d0 = 40 m

v0 = 50 km/h, a= -2 m/s2
v0 = 50 km/h, a= -2 m/s2
v0 = 50 km/h, a= -6 m/s2
v0 = 50 km/h, a= -6 m/s2

HIL Testing / Use Case

Testing Integrated Sensors and Actuators


Application Area
If an ECU has integrated sensors and actuators, you cannot
connect the HIL simulator directly on the electrical level.
You have to provide the physical signals to stimulate the
ECUs sensors and actuators by other means, for example,
via an ECU mounting device or a mechanical test bench,
by opening the ECU and accessing its internal pins, or by
stimulating the signals in the ECU software and bypassing.
The dSPACE Simulator then provides physical variables from
the environment simulation and can additionally simulate
any missing components. Not only purely electrical tests
can be performed: Mechatronic parts such as the steering
or the chassis system can also be tested. As the required
stimulation signals vary for each ECU, the HIL test benches
have to be designed individually.
dSPACE has years of experience in stimulating integrated
pressure, engine speed and temperature sensors, acceleration
sensors, and yaw rate sensors for integration into HIL systems.

Examples of Sensor Stimulation

Inductive engine speed sensors stimulated by controlled


coils

Pressure membranes by strong lifting magnets

Temperature sensors by controlled hot plates

Integrated switches by magnetic fields

Integrated acceleration sensors and yaw rate sensors by


a 3-D motion platform

Additional physical measurement equipment, e.g., for


currents, torques, temperatures, positions, engine speeds
Typical Domains with Integrated Sensors/Actuators

Chassis systems and vehicle dynamics (ESP, ABS, ASR,

continuous damping control)

Integrated transmission ECUs installed inside the transmis-

sion (continuously variable, automatic, dual clutch, and


central and rear differential)
Steering systems (active steering, electric servo steering)

2016

17

HIL Testing / dSPACE Simulator Hardware

dSPACE Systems for HIL Testing:


SCALEXIO and dSPACE Simulator
dSPACE offers two systems for HIL simulation: IOCNET-based
SCALEXIO and dSPACE Simulator, based on the peripheral
high-speed (PHS) bus.

Both systems use the same dSPACE software, such as

ControlDesk Next Generation for experimenting,

AutomationDesk for test automation,

MotionDesk for 3-D visualization of the simulation runs,

With its new technology and hardware architecture,


SCALEXIO addresses current and future test requirements.

Automotive Simulation Models as simulation models,

ModelDesk for parameterizing the simulation models.

No matter which system you use, you do not have to get


used to a completely new software tool chain.

Smooth System Transition


dSPACE offers comprehensive support, whether you plan to
use both systems simultaneously or change your HIL system
to SCALEXIO.
Depending on your system structure, there are different
strategies for a smooth transition.
For more information, please contact dSPACE at
info@dspace.de.

18

2016

Coupling Both Systems


You can couple SCALEXIO and dSPACE Simulator to work
with both at the same time. To do so, you can connect a
SCALEXIO system to a PHS system by processor-to-processor
coupling via Gigalink technology.
You can then use existing HIL systems, such as dSPACE
Simulator Mid-Size and dSPACE Simulator Full-Size, together
with SCALEXIO, thus protecting your investment.

HIL Testing / dSPACE Simulator Hardware

SCALEXIO
Versatile system technology for HIL simulation

Highlights

High processing power

Maximum flexibility due to extensive I/O features

Unlimited application range

Completely software-configurable

Integrated signal conditioning and FIU

Model integration via Simulink or FMI

Smooth extension of existing HIL systems

Use of virtual ECUs for HIL tests

Hardware Concept
The SCALEXIO hardware is standardized and can be combined and extended to the system configuration you need.

Configuration is completely software-based, making system setup or redesign very efficient.

The core of a SCALEXIO system, the SCALEXIO Processing Unit, is based on standard components so that users
benefit from performance improvements in processor
technology.

IOCNET, the scalable serial I/O network, provides the


internal communication between the real-time processor
and the I/O boards or in multiprocessor systems.

IOCNET (I/O Carrier Network)


IOCNET is network technology developed by dSPACE for
internal simulator communication. A SCALEXIO system with
IOCNET can comprise more than 100 device nodes, which
can be located up to 100 meters apart. The transmission rate
is about 10 times higher than with the previous technology.
Input signals can be read synchronously, and I/O data can be
bundled for transmission to the SCALEXIO Processing Unit.
You can also use decentralized I/O, in other words, I/O units
without an additional processing unit.

The SCALEXIO I/O hardware comprises three I/O hardware


types, each specifically designed for typical application needs.
The HighFlex, MultiCompact and SCALEXIO I/O hardware
all provide local signal preprocessing, thus increasing overall
system performance. In addition to the comprehensive I/O,
the HighFlex boards and MultiCompact units already contain
parts of the electrical failure simulation.
For more hardware details, please refer to the table on
page 21.

dSPACE Engineering
Engineering Services are available to develop applicationspecific solutions for special requirements such as high
system flexibility or high-current applications.
For more information on dSPACE Engineering, please see
page 24 and visit www.dspace.com/goto?engineering.
For more detailed product information on SCALEXIO,
a separate brochure is available at
www.dspace.com/goto?downloads
with download code 1523.

2016

19

HIL Testing / dSPACE Simulator Hardware

dSPACE Simulator
Modular, standardized, off-the-shelf HIL simulator systems

Highlights

HIL systems tailored to your needs

No limit to application range

For testing everything from complex single ECUs

to large ECU networks in any application field

Signal conditioning, load simulation and electrical


failure simulation

Hardware Concept
The dSPACE PHS-bus-based simulation hardware (PHS =
peripheral high-speed) comprises a wide range of processor
and I/O boards. These are standardized, modular components for assembling project-specific HIL simulation systems.

The core of each system is the processor hardware on


which the simulation models are computed.

I/O signals are generated and measured via integrated


dSPACE I/O boards.

Project-Specific Failure Simulation


dSPACE offers different hardware units to fit different application areas. dSPACE Simulator is available in different
sizes, ranging from one processor board, to the standardized,
off-the-shelf Simulator Mid-Size, to the freely expandable
Simulator Full-Size. It offers different concepts for failure
simulation and additionally covers all automotive domains.

20

2016

Signal conditioning, loads, failure insertion units and

a power supply round off the range of functions.

I/O signals are configured with dSPACE Real-Time


Interface.
For more hardware details, please refer to the table on
page 21.

dSPACE Engineering
Engineering Services are available to develop applicationspecific solutions for special requirements such as high system flexibility or high-current applications.
For more information, please see page 24 and visit
www.dspace.com/goto?engineering.

HIL Testing / dSPACE Simulator Hardware

dSPACE Hardware Boards for HIL Simulation


Typical Applications

PHS Hardware (Excerpt)

SCALEXIO Hardware (Excerpt)

Expandable computing power for


processing-intensive, real-time
simulation models and I/O signals

DS1006 Processor Board

SCALEXIO Processing Unit

Modules for expanding the HIL system

Support of multiprocessor system

I/O for simulating and measuring


automotive signals

Real-time, high-accuracy generation,

Capture, simulation, and analysis of


sensor signals,

Simulation of angle-based sensor


signals,

Crankshaft, camshaft, and knock


signal simulation

Injection measurement

Resistance simulation

DS2211 HIL I/O Board

MultiCompact and HighFlex

DS2202 HIL I/O Board

DS2601 Signal Measurement

Interfaces to communication networks,


e.g. CAN, LIN, FlexRay, Ethernet

DS4302 CAN Interface Board

into a multiprocessor system


I/O Boards

DS4340 FlexRay Interface Module

DS6101 Multi-I/O Board


Board (galvanic isolation per
(dedicated channel functions,
channel)
including signal conditioning)

DS2621 Signal Generation

DS6201 Digital I/O Board


Board (galvanic isolation per
(dedicated I/O functions for
channel)
digital I/O and PWM)

DS2680 I/O Unit (dedicated


channel functions)

DS2690 Digital I/O Board


(dedicated digital I/O
functions)

DS2671 Bus Board for CAN, LIN, and FlexRay

SCALEXIO Fieldbus Solution for PROFIBUS and EtherCAT

Aerospace Interface Solutions for ARINC 664/AFDX, ARINC 429,


and MIL-STD-1553 networks

Automotive Ethernet protocol SOME/IP

FPGA hardware for project-specific


programming

DS5203 FPGA Board

DS2655 FPGA Base Board

Electrical failure simulation

Failure insertion for actuators and

Battery simulation for HIL simulators


power supply

Power switch module

DS2642 FIU & Power Switch Board

Support of different power supply units

DS2907 Battery Simulation Controller

DS4004 HIL Digital I/O Board

A/D and D/A board with various

resolutions, channel numbers and speeds

PWM Measurement Solution

Position Sensor Simulation Solution

Electric Motor HIL Solution

DS4330 LIN Interface Board

DS4505 Interface Board

DS4342 CAN FD Interface Module

DS2642 FIU & Power Switch Board


sensors

Onboard failure routing unit (MultiCompact and HighFlex)

FIU Bus Board for failure insertion options High-current (up to 80 A) and low-capacitance (up to 1 A)

Special FIU for high-current signals


fail rail for connecting I/O channels with FIU

DS2680 I/O Unit

Support of different power supply units

Integration of real and substitute loads

Use-case-specific load boards

Tailored loads for electric drives

applications

Substitute loads can be integrated directly (MultiCompact and

HighFlex)

Tailored loads for electric drives applications

SCALEXIO Hardware
The SCALEXIO I/O hardware comprises three hardware types:

MultiCompact

HighFlex

SCALEXIO I/O boards.

Connection to the processing unit via an IOCNET interface

The hardware is specially designed for typical application


needs and can be combined to produce whatever system
configuration you need.

The MultiCompact and HighFlex boards additionally include


failure insertion units (FIU), current measurement, and the
option to connect loads.

They have the following in common

Completely software-configurable

Similar installation and configuration processes

2016

21

HIL Testing / dSPACE Simulator Software

dSPACE Software for HIL Simulation


Product

Description

Automotive Simulation Models

Open MATLAB/Simulink models for real-time and ofine simulation of

Components such as the engine, vehicle dynamics, and electrical systems

Passenger cars and trucks

Roads, maneuvers, and traffic scenarios

Modular simulation models for everything from component tests to virtual vehicle simulation

ModelDesk

Graphical user interface for

Simulation model parameterization

Parameter set management

Parameterization of Automotive Simulation Models

Road Generator and Maneuver Editor for defining roads and driving maneuvers

Traffic Editor for easy, exible traffic scenario definition

Real-Time Interface
CAN MultiMessage Blockset
LIN MultiMessage Blockset
FlexRay Configuration Package
Ethernet Configuration
Package

Link between dSPACE hardware and the development software

Connecting simulation models to the simulation hardware.

Automatically implement MATLAB/Simulink/Stateow models on dSPACE hardware (other modeling

environments are also possible)

Graphical I/O configuration

Connecting simulation models to the hardware by drag & drop

Easy and safe to use because automatic consistency checks prevent parameterization errors

Automatic code generation

Special bus configuration, e.g. bus matrix importer, graphical restbus simulation, automatic com task

configuration
ConfigurationDesk

Graphical configuration and implementation of

HIL real-time applications based on dSPACE SCALEXIO hardware

The behavior model and the I/O function code

Manage

ControlDesk
Next Generation

external devices (ECUs, loads)


signal paths from the ECU/load pins to the behavior model interface

Implement behavior model code and I/O function code on dSPACE hardware

Change the hardware configuration independently of the MATLAB/Simulink behavior model

Universal, modular experiment and instrumentation software for accessing simulation platforms

Powerful layouting, instrumentation, measurement and postprocessing

Failure simulation module for controlling failure insertion units in real time

Monitoring bus communication

Synchronized data capture across ECUs, RCP and HIL platforms, and bus systems

Integrated ECU calibration, measurement and diagnostics access (CCP, XCP, ODX)

MotionDesk

Visualization software for animating moving objects such as vehicle, wheels, steering wheel

Manage

3-D online animation of simulated mechanical systems in real time

Intuitive graphical scene design

3-D object library with objects in VRML2 format

Multitrack mode for synchronized replay of multiple animations

22

2016

HIL Testing / dSPACE Simulator Software

Product

Description

SYNECT

Data

AutomationDesk

Front-end tool for automated HIL testing of the application software or diagnostics functions of ECUs

management and collaboration software with a special focus on model-based development


and ECU testing

Handles models, signals, parameters, tests, test results, etc., as well as their dependencies, versions
and variants

Integration into the existing IT infrastructures and workows using an open API

Creating HIL tests, running them automatically, and generating test reports

Flexible test planning with weekend and overnight tests

Ofine test execution and development

Real-time testing using Python scripts

Complex signal evaluations

Automatic test report generation in HTML or PDF format

Libraries containing a large number of predefined tests steps, e.g., for easy access to the HIL simulation,

to a Failure Insertion Unit, or to calibration or diagnostics software

Remote-control calibration, measurement, and diagnostic tools such as ControlDesk Next Generation

Support of XIL API for easy exchange of test scenarios between different test teams or between OEMs

and suppliers
Platform API Package

Support of XIL API for using third-party software with dSPACE simulator systems

Automation libraries for accessing dSPACE systems

Downloading models, starting/stopping models and access model variables for reading, writing,

stimulating, capturing, etc.


Failure Simulation API Package

Automation libraries for accessing dSPACE FIU systems

Standardized Access via XIL API

All dSPACE HIL simulation systems support the XIL API (application programming interface)

standard. The interface provides access to all systems by dSPACE and third-party products that use
the same standard. For example, you can use various software programs for automated (scripted)
access to dSPACE simulation systems.

Supported programming languages: Python and .Net 4.0

Supported XIL API ports: MAPort, EESPort

For more detailed product information, please visit


www.dspace.com/go/hil-products.

2016

23

Engineering / dSPACE Engineering Services

dSPACE Engineering Services


Dedicated assistance and tailored-made

Highlights

Engineering and consulting services available

worldwide

Hardware and software adapted to your specifications

Comprehensive know-how from small projects

to complete turn-key solutions

Service for You


Turn-Key HIL Systems

From selective services to complete turn-key systems

Concept design, hardware planning, project management

Signal list / wiring harness specification

Development of custom hardware, e.g., lambda probe


simulation, ECU mount, gearbox mount, valve signal
detection unit, 1-D and 3-D motion platforms, steering
test benches, special I/O

Development of custom software (e.g., Simulink models)

Open- and closed-loop HIL system tests

On-site commissioning

Hands-on training

Test Automation

Concept design of test scenarios and test cases

Hands-on training

Test process support and test automation engineering

Project-Specific Adaptation

Integration of the HIL system into the E/E development

process

Configuration of custom I/O functions

Integration of various bus protocols, e.g., Ethernet, SPI


Connection to Third-Party Tools

Implementing access to dSPACE simulator systems

Simulation Models

Model parameterization/calibration and model validation

Model integration

Model development and model adaptation

Integration of third-party models

via XIL API

Contact dSPACE
Please contact dSPACE if you are interested in integrating third-party
models or have further questions on services for dSPACE Simulator.

24

2016

info@dspace.de

Engineering / dSPACE Engineering Services

Openness
Third-Party Models
Not only dSPACEs ASM models can run on dSPACE Simulator hardware, but also a large number of third-party and custom models. With dSPACE Real-Time Interface and dSPACE
ConfigurationDesk, models designed with MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow or Functional Mock-up Units (FMUs) can
be perfectly integrated in the dSPACE tool chain. dSPACE
ModelDesk provides a convenient way to parameterize your
own models.

Wide Selection of Models1)2) 3)


Here is a brief list of just a few of the models and tools
which, like the dSPACE ASMs, have also been successfully
implemented on our HIL systems:

Customers own models or third-party models provided


in MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow from The MathWorks

enDYNA and veDYNA from TESIS DYNAware

CarSim, TruckSim from Mechanical Simulation Corporation (MSC)


Models based on physical modeling libraries from The
MathWorks (e.g., SimPowerSystems, SimDriveline)

Services for Real-Time Models


With years of experience in hardware-in-the-loop simulation,
dSPACE also offers modeling services such as:

Integration of models into dSPACE Simulator

Parameterization of models using customer data

In addition, many physical modeling tools are being used


in many customer projects in all kinds of fields: powertrain,
vehicle dynamics, electrical machines, body, and others.
We also offer services to integrate models from other
sources.
For more information about dSPACE FMI support, please visit
www.dspace.com/go/FMI.

Dymola from Dassault Systmes

SimulationX from ITI

MapleSim from Maplesoft

AMESim from LMS

SIMPACK from SIMPACK

GT-SUITE from Gamma Technologies

WAVE-RT from Ricardo Software

Models from VI-grade

C/C++

Fortran

Model interfaces

Integration of different modeling tools

Adaptation of customer models

Standardized Access via XIL API


All dSPACE HIL simulation systems support the XIL API
(application programming interface) standard. The interface
provides access to all systems by dSPACE and third-party
products that use the same standard.

For example, you can use various software programs for


automated (scripted) access to dSPACE simulation systems
such as PHS-bus-based dSPACE Simulator and SCALEXIO.

Brand names and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies or organizations.
This is not a complete list, and aims solely to illustrate dSPACE Simulators capabilities by giving examples of third-party models and tools which
can be integrated into dSPACE Simulator. The list of products does not imply any endorsement or recommendation of the products concerned.
Likewise, the absence of a company or product from the list does not imply any evaluation. dSPACE is not associated with the listed companies
and/or their products.
3)
dSPACE is a registered trademark of dSPACE GmbH in the United States or other countries. See www.dspace.com/goto?trademarks
for a list of further registered trademarks.
1)
2)

2016

25

www.dspace.com

Copyright 2016 by dSPACE GmbH.


All rights reserved. Written permission is required for reproduction of all or parts of this publication. The source must
be stated in any such reproduction. dSPACE is continually improving its products and reserves the right to alter
the specifications of the products at any time without notice. "CalDesk", "ConfigurationDesk", "ControlDesk",
"dSPACE", "Embedded Success dSPACE", "Green Success", "MicroAutoBox", "ProMINT", "SCALEXIO", "SYNECT",
"SystemDesk", "TargetLink", and "VEOS" are trademarks or registered trademarks of dSPACE GmbH in the United
States of America or in other countries or both. Other brand names or product names are trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective companies or organizations.

02/2016

Germany

United Kingdom

France

dSPACE GmbH
Rathenaustrae 26
33102 Paderborn
Tel.: +49 5251 1638-0
Fax: +49 5251 16198-0
info@dspace.de

dSPACE Ltd.
Unit B7 . Beech House
Melbourn Science Park
Melbourn
Hertfordshire . SG8 6HB
Tel.: +44 1763 269 020
Fax: +44 1763 269 021
info@dspace.co.uk

dSPACE SARL
7 Parc Burospace
Route de Gisy
91573 Bivres Cedex
Tel.: +33 169 355 060
Fax: +33 169 355 061
info@dspace.fr

China

Japan

USA and Canada

dSPACE Mechatronic Control


Technology (Shanghai) Co.,Ltd.
Unit 1101-1105, 11F/L
Middle Xizang Rd. 18
Harbour Ring Plaza
200001 Shanghai
Tel.: +86 21 6391 7666
Fax: +86 21 6391 7445
infochina@dspace.com

dSPACE Japan K.K.


10F Gotenyama Trust Tower
4-7-35 Kitashinagawa
Shinagawa-ku
Tokyo 140-0001
Tel.: +81 3 5798 5460
Fax: +81 3 5798 5464
info@dspace.jp

dSPACE Inc.
50131 Pontiac Trail
Wixom . MI 48393-2020
Tel.: +1 248 295 4700
Fax: +1 248 295 2950
info@dspaceinc.com