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Year 12 Nutrition Summative Test Revision

Core topic 1: Fundamentals of Human Nutrition



Describe the structure of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.

Main food sources of each group of carbohydrates.
Functions of carbohydrates in the body.
Nutrient dense vs energy dense carbohydrate foods.
Consequences of too little or too much carbohydrate consumption.
Differentiate starch and fibre.
Benefits of high fibre diets.
Difference between insoluble and soluble fibres.
Regulation of blood glucose levels.
Impact of High GI and Low GI foods in the diet.
Inadequate levels of blood glucose levels: Diabetes Mellitus.
Alternative food sources for Diabetics
Effect of exercise on blood glucose levels.
AI for an adult and adolescent.

Structure of proteins.
Complete, incomplete and partially complete proteins.
Essential, non-essential and conditionally essential amino acids.
Bioavailability of proteins in animal foods and plant foods.
Functions of proteins in the body
What are the health effects of too little protein in the diet?
Describe various types of vegetarianism and the foods they may avoid.
How can you make sure a vegetarians diet is healthy, for example what types of
foods are good sources of protein.
Discuss social reason why people may choose to be a vegetarian.
RDI for an adult and adolescent.

What are lipids?
Difference between LDL, HDL and VLDL and their role in lipid digestion and
Two essential fatty acids.
Food examples of the essential fatty acids.
Food that contain cholesterol.
Difference between saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acids.

Consequences and health benefits of the different fatty acids in the diet.
Functions of fatty acids in the body.
Impact of too much fat in the diet.
Ways to limit fat in the diet.
Effect of exercise on lipid digestion and absorption.
RDI for an adult and adolescent.


Why is water important in the diet?

What are the effects of too little or too much water in the diet?
What are some roles of water in the body?
How is water regulated in the body?
AI for an adult and adolescent.

Digestion and absorption of macronutrients

Digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids.
Major structural components of the digestive system and where each macro group is
mainly digested.
Enzymes involved in the digestive process.
Malabsorption syndromes: Lactose intolerance and coeliac disease.
o Discuss how these problems arise and ways to control the disease or illness.
Calculating the distribution of macronutrients
Energy calories/kJ from macro groups.
Recommended energy intakes for each macro group.
Total energy intake from groups expressed at a percentage.