Sie sind auf Seite 1von 5

Undergraduate Publication

Peer Reviewed
Title:
Distance Education Versus The Traditional Classroom
Journal Issue:
Berkeley Scientific Journal, 13(1)
Author:
Hassenburg, Amy, UC Berkeley
Publication Date:
2009
Permalink:
http://escholarship.org/uc/item/3859m52h
Local Identifier:
our_bsj_7609
Copyright Information:
All rights reserved unless otherwise indicated. Contact the author or original publisher for any
necessary permissions. eScholarship is not the copyright owner for deposited works. Learn more
at http://www.escholarship.org/help_copyright.html#reuse

eScholarship provides open access, scholarly publishing


services to the University of California and delivers a dynamic
research platform to scholars worldwide.

',67$1&(('8&$7,219(56867+(
75$',7,21$/&/$665220
&203$5,1*7+(75$',7,21$/&/$665220727+(9,578$/21(
'2(6%(,1*3+<6,&$//<35(6(17,16&+22/0$.($',))(5(1&("
$0<+$66(1%85*
7DNHWKHVWXGHQWDZD\IURPWKHFODVVURRP6HSD
UDWH WKH WHDFKLQJ DQG OHDUQLQJ E\ ORFDWLRQ DQG WLPH
)RUJHWIDFHWRIDFHFRPPXQLFDWLRQVWXII\OHFWXUHKDOOV
RUHYHQSHHUV,VWKLVUHDOO\HGXFDWLRQ"

(YLGHQWO\WKHUHLVDFHUWDLQ
DWPRVSKHUHLQEHLQJSK\VLFDOO\
SUHVHQWDQGLQWHUDFWLQJZLWKD
KXPDQWHDFKHULQDVHWWLPHDQG
SODFHWKDWLVFUXFLDOWROHDUQLQJ

%(5.(/(<6&,(17,),&-2851$/7(&+12/2*<$1'+80$1,17(5$&7,21)$//92/80(,668(

% 6 -

',67$1&(('8&$7,21
'LVWDQFH HGXFDWLRQ LV DQ\ IRUP RI OHDUQLQJ LQ
ZKLFK WKH WHDFKHU LV QRW SUHVHQW DW WKH VDPH WLPH RU
SODFHDVWKHVWXGHQW7KLVLQFOXGHVLQVWUXFWLRQDOYLG
HRV &'520 SURJUDPV RU LQWHUDFWLYH UHDO WLPH
OHFWXUHVDQGRIFHKRXUV
RQOLQHYLDZHEFDP7KH
SXUSRVH RI WKLV NLQG RI
HGXFDWLRQ LV WR GHOLYHU
WKURXJKWHFKQRORJ\HG
XFDWLRQWRVWXGHQWVZKR
DUHQRWSK\VLFDOO\LQWKH
FODVVURRP  6WXGHQWV
GR QRW DWWHQG FODVVHV LQ
SHUVRQ EXW LQ D SODFH
DQG WLPH RI WKHLU RZQ
FKRRVLQJ 7HDFKHUV DQG
VWXGHQWV FRPPXQLFDWH
RQWKHLURZQVFKHGXOHE\HOHFWURQLFPHDQV .HHJDQ
 
'LVWDQFH HGXFDWLRQ WUDFHV LWV URRWV WR WKH HDUO\
VZKHQIRUWKHUVWWLPHDXQLYHUVLW\SURIHVVRU
&DOHE 3KLOOLSV WDXJKW VKRUW KDQG E\ PDLO FRUUHVSRQ
GHQFH +ROPEHUJ    ,Q WKH PLG V &KDUOHV
:HGHQPH\HURIWKH8QLYHUVLW\RI:LVFRQVLQEHJDQD
SURJUDP HQWLWOHG $UWLFXODWHG ,QVWUXFWLRQDO 0HGLD 3URM
HFW $,0 ZKLFKXWLOL]HGDYDULHW\RIFRPPXQLFDWLRQV
WHFKQRORJLHV WR SURYLGH HGXFDWLRQ WR DQ RIIFDPSXV
SRSXODWLRQ  ,WV DFFHVVLELOLW\ DQG JURXQGEUHDNLQJ
XVH RI HOHFWURQLF PHGLD VXFK DV WHOHYLVLRQ DQG UDGLR
ZDV ZKDW PDGH WKLV SURMHFW VR LQQRYDWLYH VHFXULQJ
LWVSRVLWLRQDVWKHPRGHOIRUIXWXUHGLVWDQFHOHDUQLQJ
0RRUH 
:LWKWKHDGYHQWRIWKH,QWHUQHWDQGZHEFDPDQG
WKHSUHYDOHQFHRIFRPSXWHUVDQGFRPSXWHUWHFKQROR

J\GLVWDQFHOHDUQLQJEHFDPHPRUHDQGPRUHSRVVLEOH
DVZHOODVPRUHDQGPRUHDQGPRUHSRSXODU,Q
WKH6ORDQ&RQVRUWLXPUHSRUWHGWKDWPRUHWKDQRI
WKHODUJHVWFROOHJHVDQGXQLYHUVLWLHVLQWKH86RIIHUHG
RQOLQHFRXUVHVDQGWKDWPRUHWKDQPLOOLRQVWXGHQWV
ZHUHWDNLQJDWOHDVWRQHRQOLQHFRXUVHLQWKHIDOORI
6ORDQ   $OWKRXJK GLVWDQFH HGXFDWLRQ KDV EHHQ
SUDLVHGIRULWVJURZLQJSRSXODWLRQRIRIIFDPSXVVWX
GHQWVLWVLQQRYDWLYHSHGDJRJ\DQGWKHDGYDQWDJHVRI
OHDUQLQJDZD\IURPWKHFODVVURRPYHU\OLWWOHLVNQRZQ
DERXW WKH HIIHFWLYHQHVV
RIWKHVHPHWKRGVLQWKH
ORQJUXQ
'LVWDQFH HGXFDWLRQ
LVUHYROXWLRQDU\LQWKDW
LW DOORZV PDQ\ IUHH
GRPV DQG DGYDQWDJHV
WKDW ZHUH QHYHU LPDJ
LQDEOH LQ D WUDGLWLRQDO
FODVVURRP  'LVWDQFH
HGXFDWLRQ DOORZV WKRVH
ZLWK GLVDELOLWLHV WR DF
FHVV HGXFDWLRQ LI WKH\
FDQQRW DWWHQG D SK\VLFDO FDPSXV  ,W DOORZV WKRVH LQ
UXUDODUHDVWRDWWHQGVFKRROVLQWKHFLW\DQGWRKDYH
H[SDQGHGDQGHQKDQFHGDFFHVVWRSRVWVHFRQGDU\HGX
FDWLRQDQGWUDLQLQJRSSRUWXQLWLHV7KRVHZLWKQDQ
FLDO GLIFXOWLHV PD\ HQUROO LQ ZHEEDVHG FRXUVHV RI
IHUHGDWDPRUHPRGHVWSULFH'LVWDQFHHGXFDWLRQDOVR
PDNHVFRPSOHWLQJDGHJUHHSRVVLEOHDWDQ\DJHUHJDUG
OHVV RI OLIHVW\OH 'LVWDQFHHGXFDWLRQRUJ   )OH[LELOLW\
DQGFRQYHQLHQFHDUHVRPHRIWKHELJJHVWDGYDQWDJHV
RIVHSDUDWLQJWKHOHDUQLQJIURPWKHFODVVURRPDQGHQ
DEOHDJUHDWHUSURSRUWLRQRIVWXGHQWVWRFRQWLQXHWKHLU
HGXFDWLRQZKRRWKHUZLVHZRXOGEHLQHOLJLEOH
,Q DGGLWLRQ PDQ\ SURSRQHQWV RI GLVWDQFH OHDUQ
LQJ DUJXH WKDW LW LV DQ HYHQ EHWWHU PRGH RI OHDUQLQJ
WKDQLQDSK\VLFDOFODVVURRPVHWWLQJ7KHIDFWWKDW\RX
FDQSDXVHOHFWXUHVDQGUHZLQGDOORZNQRZOHGJHWREH
PRUH UHDGLO\ DEVRUEHG DQG SHUPLW VWXGHQWV WR OHDUQ

% 6 -

DW WKHLU RZQ SDFH $OVR KROGLQJ D GLVFXVVLRQ LQ DQ


RQOLQHIRUXPDOORZVVWXGHQWVWRKDYHDZULWWHQUHFRUG
RI WKH WKLQJV VDLG LQ FODVV DQG DOORZV VWXGHQWV ZKR
DUHDIUDLGRIVSHDNLQJLQIURQWRISHHUVWRFRPPXQL
FDWH WR IHOORZ VWXGHQWV DQG WKHLU SURIHVVRUV WKURXJK
WH[W HPDLOV VHSDUDWH IURP WKH VRFLDO HQYLURQPHQW RI
D W\SLFDO FODVVURRP 7KURSH
   $OORZLQJ VWXGHQWV WR
UHVSRQG RQ WKHLU RZQ WLPH
SURGXFHV PRUH ZHOO URXQG
HG WKRXJKWIXO PHDQLQJIXO
DQGUHHFWLYHUHVSRQVHVWKDQ
GRHV FDOOLQJ RQ D VWXGHQW LQ
FODVVDQGJLYLQJWKHPRQO\D
VPDOODPRXQWRIWLPHWRFRPH
XS ZLWK DQ DQVZHU +DZNHV
 

WHDFKLQJDQGOHDUQLQJWKHLQVWUXFWRUVUHVSRQVLYHQHVV
WRVWXGHQWQHHGVLVFRPSURPLVHGLQVWUXFWRUVDUHXQ
DEOH WR EH H[LEOH LQ FKDQJLQJ FODVVURRP G\QDPLFV
DQGFRPPXQLFDWLRQLVFHUWDLQO\LQDGHTXDWHFRPSDUHG
WRWKHWUDGLWLRQDOV\VWHP
6LPLODUO\ GLUHFWLQJ VWXGHQW GLVFXVVLRQ DQG FRP

(/,0,1$7,1*7+(62&,$/
(19,5210(17
+RZHYHU GLVWDQFH OHDUQ
LQJ DOVR KDV GHHS LQJUDLQHG
SUREOHPV7KHVHSDUDWLRQRI
WKHDFWLRQRIWHDFKLQJDQGWKH
UHDFWLRQ RI OHDUQLQJ FDXVHV D
P\ULDGRISUREOHPV+DYLQJ
SXUSRVHIXOHGXFDWLRQDOOHDG
HUVKLS FKDOOHQJLQJ VWXGHQWV 0DQ\GLVWDQFHHGXFDWLRQFXUULFXODFRQVLVWRISUHWDSHGZHEFDVWOHFWXUHVDQGVXSSOHPHQWDU\
DFWLYHO\ LQYROYLQJ VWXGHQW RQOLQHFRXUVHPDWHULDO
KWWSZZZH[WHQVLRQKDUYDUGHGXLPDJHVGLVWDQFHBYLHZMSJ
ZLWKWHDFKHUDQGPDLQWDLQLQJ
DSRVLWLYHDQGRUGHUO\FOLPDWH
FRPSULVH IRXU RI YH FRPSR
QHQWV RI WKH YH IDFWRU PRGHO WKDW KDV EHHQ XVHG PXQLFDWLRQ WKURXJK WKH ,QWHUQHW LV FKDOOHQJLQJ DQG
IRUGHFDGHVDVWKHEDVLVRIPXFKVFKRROHIIHFWLYHQHVV GLIIHUHQWIURPGLDORJXLQJIDFHWRIDFH$VWXG\GRQH
E\ 0DU\ 7KRUSH DQDO\]LQJ D JURXS RI /RQGRQ VWX
UHVHDUFK (GPRQGVE $FKLHYLQJDOORIWKRVHIDF
WRUV LQ GLVWDQFH HGXFDWLRQ LV GLIFXOW DQG VWUDLQHG GHQWVVKRZHGWKDWLQDGLVWDQFHHGXFDWLRQFODVVURRP
SDUWLFLSDWLRQZDQHGZLWKPRVWVWXGHQWVSDUWLFLSDWLQJ
LIQRWLPSRVVLEOH(YLGHQWO\WKHUHLVDFHUWDLQDWPR
VSKHUH LQ EHLQJ SK\VLFDOO\ SUHVHQW DQG LQWHUDFWLQJ LQJURXSSURMHFWVDWWKHODVWPLQXWHDQGLJQRULQJWKH
ZLWKDKXPDQWHDFKHULQDVHWWLPHDQGSODFHWKDWLV RQOLQHGLVFXVVLRQIHDWXUHVGHVLJQHGWRKRXVHDQLQWHU
FUXFLDOWROHDUQLQJ:KHQWKHUHLVVHSDUDWLRQEHWZHHQ DFWLYH IRUXP   &ROODERUDWLYH ZRUN EHWZHHQ D JURXS

%(5.(/(<6&,(17,),&-2851$/7(&+12/2*<$1'+80$1,17(5$&7,21)$//92/80(,668(

%(5.(/(<6&,(17,),&-2851$/7(&+12/2*<$1'+80$1,17(5$&7,21)$//92/80(,668(

% 6 -

',67$1&(/($51,1*96
RIVWXGHQWVZDVDQHDUIDLOXUHVLQFHHDFKVWX
GHQWZDVVWLOOJRLQJE\WKHLURZQVFKHGXOHDQG 7+(3+<6,&$/&/$665220
ZRXOGZDLWXQWLOWKHGXHGDWHWRWXUQLQDQ\LQ
6XUSULVLQJO\ VRPH RI WKH PRVW DOOXULQJ
GLYLGXDOZRUNGHIHDWLQJWKHSXUSRVHRIDFRO
IHDWXUHV RI GLVWDQFH HGXFDWLRQWKH DELOLW\ WR
ODERUDWLYHJURXSSURMHFW 7KRUSH 7KRVH GRZRUNRQRQHVRZQVFKHGXOHDQGIUHHGRP
JURXSVWKDWPHWIDFHWRIDFHWRZRUNRQWKHLU IURP D SK\VLFDO FODVVURRPDUH LQ SUDFWLFH
SURMHFWV GLG VLJQLFDQWO\ EHWWHU PDGH PRUH QRWHQWLUHO\WUXH,QWKHVDPH%ULWLVKVWXG\E\
SURJUHVVDQGKDGDGHQLWHGLUHFWLRQWKURXJK
7KRUSH VWXGHQWV FRPSODLQHG WKDW WLPH FRQ
RXWWKHLUWLPHOLQHFRPSDUHGWRWKRVHZKRZHUH VWUDLQWVZHUHPXFKKHDYLHUWKDQWKH\WKRXJKW
FRPPXQLFDWLQJ VROHO\ WKURXJK WKHLU FRPSXW
:KLOH ERRNV FRXOG EH WDNHQ DQ\ZKHUH VWX
HUV 7KRUSH ,QGLVWDQFHOHDUQLQJWKHLGHD GHQWVKDGWRVLWDWKRPHLQIURQWRIWKHLUFRP
RIWKHFODVVURRPDVDFRPPXQLW\LVVKDWWHUHG SXWHU  +HDY\WLPHOLQHVZHUHPDQGDWHG
ZLWK HDFK VWXGHQWV DFKLHYHPHQW SHUFHLYHG WR HQVXUH WKH VWXGHQWV ZHUH EHLQJ KHOG DF
DV LQGHSHQGHQW UDWKHU WKDQ DV SDUW RI D FODVV FRXQWDEOH IRU WKHLU ZRUN VLQFH DOO WKH OHDUQ
ZRUNLQJWRZDUGVDFRPPRQJRDO,WKDVEHHQ LQJ ZDV XQVHHQ E\ WKH LQVWUXFWRU   0DQGD
DUJXHGIRUGHFDGHVE\
VRPH RI WKH ELJJHVW
QDPHV LQ HGXFDWLRQ
OLNH+XOODQG9\JRWVN\
WKDWWKHJUHDWHVWOHDUQ
LQJ DQG SHUVRQDO
JURZWK FRPHV IURP
FRRSHUDWLRQDQGJURXS
ZRUN  /HDUQLQJ FDQ
EHYLHZHGDVDVRFLDO
FRJQLWLYH LQWHUDFWLYH
SURFHVV 9\JRWVN\
  ZLWK LQWHOOHFWXDO
JURZWKLQH[RUDEO\WLHG
0XFKRILQWHOOHFWXDOJURZWKLVDVRFLDOSURFHVVVKDSHGWKURXJKIDFHWRIDFHLQWHU
WR VRFLDO LQWHUDFWLRQV DFWLRQVZLWKERWKWHDFKHUVDQGSHHUV
KWWSZZZSDFLFXHGXDGPLVVLRQVLPDJHVDGPLVVLRQVBPDLQBMSJ
%XW WKLV LPSRUWDQW SLO
ODULQIXUWKHULQJHGXFD
WLRQLVLJQRUHGEHFDXVH
LW LV YHU\ GLIFXOW WR FRRUGLQDWH HIIHFWLYHO\ WRU\GLVFXVVLRQVKHOGDWFHUWDLQWLPHVEHFDPH
WKURXJKGLVWDQFHOHDUQLQJ
WKHQRUPVLQFHVWXGHQWVOHIWWRWKHLURZQWLPH
$GGLWLRQDOO\ WKH LQGLYLGXDOLVWLF DVSHFW RI VFDOHZRXOGQRWSDUWLFLSDWHHIIHFWLYHO\RWKHU
GLVWDQFHOHDUQLQJDVPXFKRIWKHSURFHVVLVD ZLVH  ,W DSSHDUV WKDW IUHHGRP WR FKRRVH WKH
VRORRQHGRHVQRWZRUNIRUDOOVWXGHQWV0DQ\ WLPHDQGSODFHIRUOHDUQLQJZKLFKLVWKRXJKW
VWXGHQWVUHTXLUHDQDXWKRULWDWLYHJXUHVSUHV
RIDVWKHFRUHDGYDQWDJHRIGLVWDQFHHGXFDWLRQ
HQFH LQ RUGHU WR PRWLYDWH WKHP WR SDUWLFLSDWH LVDFWXDOO\VRPHZKDWVWLOOOLPLWHG 7KRUSH 
DFWLYHO\WRSD\IXOODWWHQWLRQWROHFWXUHVRUWR ,QVRPHDVSHFWVWKHIRXQGDWLRQVRIDSK\VLFDO
LQYHVW PRUH LQ VWXG\ RU DVVLJQPHQWV  :KHQ FODVVURRP DUH VLPSO\ EHLQJ UHSURGXFHG DQG
WKHVH VWXGHQWV DUH XQGHU WKH FRQGLWLRQV RI FRPSOLFDWHG :KLOHPRUHFRQYHQLHQWLQVRPH
SHUFHLYHG FRQWURO DQG DUH DZDUH RI RXWFRPH ZD\VGLVWDQFHHGXFDWLRQSRVHVPDQ\KXUGOHV
H[SHFWDWLRQV SRZHU G\QDPLFV RU RWKHU VR
WKDWVHHPWREHUHJUHVVLYH
FLDOSUHVVXUHWKH\WHQGWRSHUIRUPEHWWHUWKDQ
,Q D FRPSUHKHQVLYH UHYLHZ RI  VWXGLHV
LI OHIW WR VHOIHIFDF\ 6FKXQN    :LWK WKH GDWHG IURP  WR  6KDFKDU DQG 1HX
PDMRULW\RIWKHFRXUVHJRLQJXQVXSHUYLVHG LQ
PDQQ IRXQG D VLJQLFDQWO\ ORZHU DFKLHYH
FOXGLQJ WHVW WDNLQJ LQ VRPH FDVHV  GLVWDQFH PHQWOHYHOIRUVWXGHQWVLQGLVWDQFHHGXFDWLRQ
HGXFDWLRQUHTXLUHVPXFKVHOIFRQWURODQGVHOI
FODVVURRPV FRPSDUHG WR SK\VLFDO FODVVURRPV
PRWLYDWLRQ ZKLFK DUH WUDLWV QRW DOO VWXGHQWV 6KDFKDU    ,Q D ODUJHU VWXG\ VXPPDUL]
KDYHGHYHORSHG
LQJRYHUVWXGLHVWUDGLWLRQDOSK\VLFDOFODVV

% 6 -

URRPVZHUHPRUHHIIHFWLYHWKDQWKHLUGLVWDQFHHGXFD
WLRQFRXQWHUSDUWVLQWHUPVRIVWXGHQWDWWLWXGHVDQGUH
WHQWLRQ %HUQDUG %HVLGHVUDZGDWDDVWXG\GRQH
E\$OOHQ LQ  VXPPDUL]HG  VWXGLHV RQ GLVWDQFH
HGXFDWLRQDQGUHVXOWVVKRZHGWKDWDIWHUFRPSOHWLQJ
D GLVWDQFH HGXFDWLRQ FRXUVH WKH JUHDWHU PDMRULW\ RI
VWXGHQWVIDYRUHGWKHWUDGLWLRQDOFODVVURRPLQVWUXFWLRQ
$OOHQ    7KLV SUHIHUHQFH IRU WKH WUDGLWLRQDO FODVV
URRPZDVVHHQDJDLQLQWKH%HUQDUGVWXG\  7KH
PRXQWLQJHYLGHQFHLQIDYRURIWKHSK\VLFDOFODVVURRP
KRZHYHULVGHQLWHO\QRWDSHUPDQHQWSKHQRPHQRQ
DQGWKHVHVWXGLHVGRKDYHWKHLUOLPLWDWLRQV ZLWKVRPH
VWXGLHV XVLQJ GLIIHUHQW FULWHULD VKRZLQJ FRQWUDGLF
WRU\GDWDHWF 
7+()8785(2)',67$1&(('8&$7,21
3UHMXGLFHUHJDUGLQJWKHOHJLWLPDF\RIGLVWDQFHHG
XFDWLRQLVDKXJHKXUGOHWRRYHUFRPH+RZHYHUZLWK
NQRZOHGJHRIWKHVKRUWFRPLQJVRIGLVWDQFHHGXFDWLRQ
DOVRFRPHQHZWRROVWRKHOSRYHUFRPHWKHVHREVWDFOHV
%HWWHUPRUHLQWHUDFWLYHWHFKQRORJ\LVEHLQJLQYHQWHG
DQGRUXWLOL]HG'LIIHUHQWPHWKRGRORJ\DQGSHGDJR
J\DUHEHLQJLPSOHPHQWHGDQGEHWWHUUHJXODWLRQVRYHU
SDFLQJDQGFRQWURODUHMXVWEHJLQQLQJ 7KRUSH 
7KHHYHUJURZLQJSRSXODULW\RIGLVWDQFHOHDUQLQJ
LVDZRUNLQSURJUHVVDQGWKHUHDUHGHQLWHDGYDQWDJ
HVDVZHOODVGLVDGYDQWDJHVWRWKLVHGXFDWLRQSKHQRP
HQRQ2QOLQHHGXFDWLRQLVQRORQJHUDUDGLFDOLGHDEXW
D UHDOLW\ ZLWK SHRSOH FRPSOHWLQJ FODVVHV SURJUDPV
DQG GHJUHHV DW D UDSLG SDFH  'LVWDQFH OHDUQLQJ LV
GUDVWLFDOO\FKDQJLQJWKHZD\HGXFDWLRQLVSHUFHLYHG
PDQDJHG DQG UHFHLYHG ERWK QRZ DQG LQ WKH IXWXUH
IRU \HDUV WR FRPH  7KRXJK WKHUH DUH PDQ\ GLIFXO
WLHVDQGVKRUWFRPLQJVIDFLQJGLVWDQFHHGXFDWLRQLWLV
VWLOOLQLWVSURWRW\SLFDOVWDJHV0DQ\OHDGHUVLQWKHGLV
WDQFHHGXFDWLRQPRYHPHQWDUHFRQGHQWWKDWLQWLPH
GLVWDQFH HGXFDWLRQ ZLOO EH DV JRRG DQ DOWHUQDWLYH LI
QRWEHWWHU WKDQWKHSK\VLFDOFODVVURRP7KHHYROXWLRQ
RIWKLVUHYROXWLRQVWLOOUHPDLQVWREHVHHQ
5()(5(1&(6
$OOHQ0%RXUKLV-%XUUHOO1 0DEU\(  
&RPSDULQJ VWXGHQW VDWLVIDFWLRQ ZLWK GLVWDQFH
HGXFDWLRQ WR WUDGLWLRQDO FODVVURRPV LQ KLJKHU
HGXFDWLRQ $ PHWDDQDO\VLV $PHULFDQ -RXUQDO RI
'LVWDQFH(GXFDWLRQ  
%HUQDUG 5REHUW 0 $EUDPL 3KLOLS & +RZ 'RHV
'LVWDQFH (GXFDWLRQ &RPSDUH :LWK &ODVVURRP
,QVWUXFWLRQ"  $ 0HWD$QDO\VLV RI WKH (PSLULFDO
/LWHUDWXUH  5HYLHZ RI (GXFDWLRQDO 5HVHDUFK 9RO

1R  
'LVWDQFHHGXFDWLRQRUJ  1RYHPEHU   :K\
GLVWDQFHHGXFDWLRQ"5HWULHYHG1RYHPEHUWK
IURPKWWSZZZ'LVWDQFHHGXFDWLRQRUJ
(GPRQGV55 E 6RPHVFKRROVZRUNDQGPRUH
FDQ6RFLDO3ROLF\
*ROG /  0DLWODQG &   :KDWV WKH
GLIIHUHQFH" $ UHYLHZ RI FRQWHPSRUDU\ UHVHDUFK
RQ WKH HIIHFWLYHQHVV RI GLVWDQFH OHDUQLQJ LQ KLJKHU
HGXFDWLRQ:DVKLQJWRQ'&1($
+DZNHV0  9DULDEOHVRILQWHUHVWLQH[SORULQJ
WKH UHHFWLYH RXWFRPHV RI QHWZRUNEDVHG
FRPPXQLFDWLRQ-RXUQDORI5HVHDUFKRQ&RPSXWLQJ
LQ(GXFDWLRQ
+ROPEHUJ %   7KH HYROXWLRQ SULQFLSOHV DQG
SUDFWLFHV RI GLVWDQFH HGXFDWLRQ %LEOLRWKHNVXQG
,QIRUPDWLRQVV\VWHP GHU 8QLYHUVLWDW 2OGHQEXUJ S

.HHJDQ 'HVPRQG    2Q GHQLQJ GLVWDQFH
HGXFDWLRQ'LVWDQFH(GXFDWLRQ  
0DVRQ 5  8VLQJ &RPPXQLFDWLRQV 0HGLD LQ
2SHQDQG)OH[LEOH/HDUQLQJ.RJDQ3DJH/RQGRQ
0RRUH 0LFKDHO * *UHJ .HDUVOH\   'LVWDQFH
(GXFDWLRQ$6\VWHPV9LHZ6HFRQG%HOPRQW&$
:DGVZRUWK,6%1SDJHV
0DNLQJ WKH *UDGH 2QOLQH (GXFDWLRQ LQ WKH 8QLWHG
6WDWHV  7KH 6ORDQ &RQVRUWLXP KWWSZZZ
VORDQFRUJSXEOLFDWLRQVVXUYH\VXUYH\DVS
6FDFKDU 0  1HXPDQQ <  2FWREHU 
'LIIHUHQFHV EHWZHHQ WUDGLWLRQDO DQG GLVWDQFH
HGXFDWLRQDFDGHPLFSHUIRUPDQFHV$PHWDDQDO\WLF
DSSURDFK  ,QWHUQDWLRQDO 5HYLHZ RI 5HVHDUFK LQ
2SHQDQG'LVWDQFH(GXFDWLRQ5HWULHYHG2FWREHU
  IURP KWWSZZZLUURGORUJFRQWHQW
YVKDFKDUQHXPDQQKWPO
7KURSH0DU\  $VVHVVPHQWDQGWKLUGJHQHUDWLRQ
GLVWDQFH HGXFDWLRQ 'LVWDQFH (GXFDWLRQ  

9\JRWVN\ /    ,QWHUDFWLRQ EHWZHHQ OHDUQLQJ
DQG GHYHORSPHQW  7KH 3UHKLVWRU\ RI :ULWWHQ
/DQJXDJH,Q0&ROH9-RKQ6WHLQHU66FULEQHU
 ( 6RXEHUPDQ (GV  0LQG LQ VRFLHW\ SS 
    &DPEULGJH 0$ +DUYDUG 8QLYHUVLW\
3UHVV
6FKXQN 'DOH +    6HOI (IFDF\ DQG$FDGHPLF
0RWLYDWLRQ  (GXFDWLRQDO 3V\FKRORJLVW  
,VVXHVDQG-XQHYROXPH

%(5.(/(<6&,(17,),&-2851$/7(&+12/2*<$1'+80$1,17(5$&7,21)$//92/80(,668(