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How to read and Write

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WHOLE NUMBERS

THE POWERS OF 10

What are the ten digits?

The ten symbols: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Examples.

105 is a three-digit number. The digits are 1, 0,

and 5.

28 ends in the digit 8.

$364 has the same digits as $3.64.

Those ten marks are also known as the Arabic

numerals, because it was the Arab mathematicians

who introduced them into Europe from India,

where their forms evolved.

The powers of 10

Number Ten is a collection of ten Ones.

One Hundred is a collection of ten Tens.

collection of ten One Hundreds.

The numbers in that sequence are called

the powers of 10.

2. Which numbers are the powers of 10?

They are the numbers produced when, starting

with One, we repeatedly collect them into

groups of 10.

10 Ones. 10 Tens. 10 Hundreds. 10

Thousands.

And so on.

The Powers of 10

Class of

One

Ones

Ten

10

Hundred

100

Class of

One thousand

1,000

Thousands

Ten thousand

10,000

Hundred thousand

100,000

Class of

One million

1,000,000

Millions

Ten million

10,000,000

Hundred million

100,000,000

Class of

One billion

1,000,000,000

Billions

Ten billion

10,000,000,000

Hundred billion

100,000,000,000

above.

(The metric system is the system of

measurement based on the powers of 10; see

. The first power of 10 is 10 itself. Its numeral

is a 1 followed by one 0. The second power of 10

is 100; it has two 0's. The third power has three

0's. And so on.

Notice how the names fall into groups of three:

d thousand.

lion.

One million, Ten million, Hundred mil

called a class.

has a Latin prefix. To read a number more easily,

we separate each class -- each group of three

digits -- by commas.

Note that each class is 1000 times the

previous class; the Thousands are

1000 times the Ones; the Millions are

1000 times the Thousands; and so

on.

we showed how to read and write any number

from 1 to 999, which are the numbers in the class

of Ones. Together with knowing the sequence of

class names, that is all that is necessary to be able

to name or read any whole number.

4. How do we read a whole number, however

large?

256,312,785,649,408,163

Starting from the left, read each three-digit

Example 1. Read this number:

256,312,785,649,408,163

Answer. Starting from the left, 256, read each

three-digit group. Then say the name of the class.

Say:

"256 Quadrillion, 312 Trillion, 785 Billion, 649

Million, 408 Thousand, 163."

Do not say the class name "Ones."

Example 2. To distinguish the classes, place

commas in this number:

8792456

Answer. Starting from the right, place commas

every three digits:

8,792,456

Read the number:

"8 million, 792 thousand, 456."

Example 3. Read this number: 7,000,020,002

Answer. "Seven billion , twenty thousand, two."

When a class is absent, we do not say its name;

we do not say, "Seven billion, no million, ..."

Also, every class has three digits and so we

must distinguish the following:

002

020

200

"Two"

"Twenty"

"Two hundred"

As for "and," in speech it is common to say "Six

hundred and nine," but in writing we should

reserve "and" for the decimal point, as we will see

in the next Lesson. (For example, we should write

$609.50 as "Six hundred nine dollars and fifty

cents." Not "Six hundred and nine dollars.")

Example 4. Write in numerals:

Four hundred eight million, twentynine thousand, three hundred fifty-six.

Answer. Pick out the classes:

"million", "thousand". Each class (except

perhaps the first class on the left) has exactly

three digits:

Five billion, sixteen thousand, nine.

Answer. After the billions, we expect the millions,

but it is absent. Therefore write

5,000,016,009

Again, we must write "sixteen thousand" as

016; and "nine" as 009; because each class must

have three digits. The exception is the class on

the extreme left. We may write "Five" as 5 rather

than 005.

When writing a four-digit number, such as Four

comma and write 4500. In fact, we often read that

as "Forty-five hundred." But when a number has

more than four digits, then for the sake of clarity

we should always place the commas.

Example 6. Distinguish the following:

a) Two hundred

seventeen million

Answers.

a) 217,000,000

b) Two

hundred million seventee

n

b) 200,000,017

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