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IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm


Email: editoriijee@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-600X

A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2016

Protection of Transmission line using FACTS


Device
Jyoti Ranjan Swain1, Suryanarayan Mohanty2, Sanjukta Nayak3
1

Jyoti Ranjan Swain, Student, Power System Engineering, GITA, Bhubaneswar Odisha,India
2

Suryanarayan Mohanty, Asst.Prof.Department of EEE, GITA, Bhubaneswar Odisha,India


3

Sanjukta Nayak, Asst.Prof.Department of EEE, GITA, Bhubaneswar Odisha,India

ABSTRACT
Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) is shown that not only the TCSC affects the protection of its line, but also protect the
transmission line. The study is done first analytically by using simple models, then the simulation results for protection of
transmission line and protection relays in Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) are used. Finally, the simulation results are
verified by using a commercial relay. The results are reviewed for the study of the impact of TSCS on protection of
transmission line

Keywords: UPFC, FACTS, TCSC

1. INTRODUCTION
Protection of transmission lines is a very important area. Owing to increase in demand the lines are heavily loaded
because of which the margin between load and fault current is often small. Sometimes the magnitude of fault current
may be less than the maximum full load current in the line.
Transmission line can also protected by a core group of protective elements. These elements must be dependable and
safety for all the power system weakness can cause problems with a relaying scheme. The distance relay are operating a
normal speed and when fault [2], [3] occurs element under- and over reach, out-of-step (OOS) conditions, and
Capacitive Voltage Transformer (CVT) transients. A major project to create a new mechanism for develops a new
mechanism to help protection of the total transmission system.

2. UPFC AND ITS MODELING


A unified power flow controller consists of two converters series and shunt connected converters to the transmission
line which have a common D.C link via a D.C storage capacitor .Converter 1 is the shunt connected converter and
could insert the reactive power and releases the required amount of active power of the series converter.Converter-2 is
injects a variable voltage because of the series connected converter in the forms of both variable amplitude and phase
angle .The converters 1 and converters 2 are operating independently from the reactive power point of view, but the
required active power of converter-2 and the losses of the both converters and storage capacitor is provided via
converter -1.

Fig.1: Schematic diagram of UPFC

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IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)


Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm
Email: editoriijee@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-600X

A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2016


3. MODEL DESCRIPTION

The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) [9], [10] is helpful for control the power flow in a 500 kV transmission
system. The UPFC located at the left end of the100-km line L2, between the 500 kV buses B1 and B2, is used to control
the active and bus B2 reactive powers is flow through while controlling voltage at bus B1. It consists of two 100-MVA,
three-level, one connected in shunt at bus B1, 48-pulse GTO-based converters and one connected in series between
buses B1 and B2. The series and shunt converters can interchange power through a DC bus. The series converter can
inject a maximum of 9.9% of line-to-ground voltage (27.89 kV) in series with line L2.

4. PRESENCE OF FACTS DEVICES IN TRANSMISSION LINE


FACTS devices are used for increased stability, improve the voltage regulation, improved reactive power balance and
improves load sharing between parallel ac transmission lines. The power flow through a given transmission line
depends on three key parameters. (i) Voltage at both ends of the line (ii) reactance of the line (iii) phase angle
difference between sending and receiving end voltage. The new FACTS technology regulates the key parameters by fast
acting switches. A device Unified Power Flow Controller which combines the Static Compensator and Static
Synchronous Series Compensator represents the 3rd generation of FACTS controller. It will have the unique ability to
control all the three parameters voltage, line impedance and phase angle simultaneously.

5. PROPOSED SCHEMES

Fig.2: Proposed scheme


The proposed scheme (transmission line employing UPFC) for fault detection is described as follows. Current signal
from both the ends of transmission lines are pre processed by a DWT.DWT [4], [6] extracts information from the
transient signals (generated due to fault) in both time and frequency domain. The output low frequency signal of
current is then fed in to DFT and classified the transient. DFT calculates the magnitude and phase of the fundamental
frequency components of the end currents. The energy spectrum of the difference fundamental current compared with
the average one to discriminate between the internal and external faults. The difference current called operating current
enable to operate the relay

I OP I a1 I a2

Average current called restraining current enable the relay to restrain.

Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2016

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IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)


Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm
Email: editoriijee@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-600X

A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2016

I res

I a1 I a2
2

Spectral energy approach for differential relay greatly improves the sensitivity and stability of the relay. Spectral
energies are computed to extract the operating and restraining components.
Operating spectral energy = Eopf=

op

Restraining Spectral energy = Eref=

I
res

For internal faults higher operating current and low restraining current.
For external faults low operating currents and high restraining current.
N= number of samples in the sliding window (400 samples per cycle)
Eopf Eref Alarm / Trip signal
Eopf Eref no operation
= Scale factor required to provide the relay with minimum pick-up current.
Current differential relays are applied to protection of transmission line due to their inherent simplicity, excellent
sensitivity on internal faults and high stability for external faults.

6. FLOW CHART

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IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2016

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Email: editoriijee@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-600X

7. CASE STUDY AND TEST RESULT

Fig.3: UPFC (Detailed Model) 48-Pulse, GTO-Based Unified Power Flow Controller

Fig.4: UPFC P-Q Characteristic with 0.1pu series Injected voltage

Fig.3: SSSC output

Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2016

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IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2016

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm


Email: editoriijee@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-600X

Fig.3: UPFC Output

8. CONCLUSIONS
The Proposed Scheme provides discrimination between external and internal faults at all operating conditions like
fault elements, fault location area, fault resistance, fault inception angle, impedance variation and reverse power flow
without incorporating UPFC in Transmission Line. Proposed technique works on the energy content of the signals at
different substations , only communication link is required to perform the relaying task at a particular substation and
thus reducing the cost of time-synchronization of the signals(error introduced due to phase angle difference are
minimized) at all substations.

REFERENCES
[1] N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission
Systems. New York: IEEE Press, 2000.
[2] Parikh Urmil B, Das Biswarup, P Maheshwari R. Combined wavelet- SVM technique for fault zone detection in a
series compensated transmission line.IEEE Trans Power Del 2008.
[3] Parikh UB, Das B, Maheshwari RP. Fault classification technique for series compensated transmission line using
support vector machine. Int J Elect Power Energy Syst 2010;32:62936.
[4] Samantaray SR, Dash PK. Wavelet packet-based digital relaying for advanced series compensated line. IEE
GenerTransmDistrib 2007;1(5):78492
[5] M. Sanaye-Pasand and P. Jafarian, Adaptive protection of parallel transmission lines using combined crossdifferential and impedance based techniques, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 18291840, Jul. 2011.
[6] A. H. Osman and O. P.Malik, Protection of parallel transmission lines using wavelet transform, IEEE Trans.
Power Del., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 4955, Jan. 2004.
[7] M. M. Eissa and O. P. Malik, A new digital directional transverse directionalcurrent protection technique, IEEE
Trans. Power Del., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 12851291, Jul. 1996.
[8] A. K. Pradhan and GezaJoos, Adaptive Distance Relay Setting for Lines Connecting Wind Farms, IEEE Trans,
Energy conversion, vol. 22, no. 1, march 2007.
[9] S. I. Jang, J. H. Choi, J.W. Kim, and D. M. Choi, An adaptive relaying for the protection of a wind farm
interconnected with distribution networks, in Proc. IEEE PES Transmiss. Distrib. Conf. Expo. Sep. 712, 2003,
vol. 1,pp. 296302.

Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2016

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IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2016

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm


Email: editoriijee@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-600X

[10] Mahdi GhazizadehAhsaee and JavadSadeh, Member, IEEE, New Fault-LocationAlgorithm for Transmission
Lines Including Unified Power-Flow Controller, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 27,
NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012 1763
[11] H. Shateri, s. Jamali Distance Relay Over-Reaching due to UPFC Presence on SecondCircuit of a Double Circuit
Line Centre of Excellence for Power Systems Automation and Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran
[12] P.K. Dash *, A.K. Pradhan, G. Panda Distance protection in the presence of unified powerflow controllerCenter
for Intelligent Systems, Electrical Engineering Department, Regional Engineering College, Rourkela 769 008,
IndiaReceived 2 January 1999; received in revised form 19 April 1999; accepted 15 September 1999
[12] A.M. El-Zonkoly, H. Desouki wavelet entropy based algorithm for fault detection and classification in FACTS
compensated transmission line in elsevire Arab academy for science and technology, Faculty of engg& tech .p.o.
1029 Miami, Alexandria, Egypt.
AUTHOR
Jyoti Ranjan Swain, M.Tech Student in the Department of Power System Engineering, Gandhi
Institute of Technological Advancement, Bhubaneswar.

Prof. Suryanarayan Mohanty is working as an Asst. Professor in the department of Electrical &
Electronics at Gandhi Institute of Technological Advancement, Bhubaneswar.

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