You are on page 1of 10

LITERATURE REVIEW

How a job seeker enters the placement setting is just as important as their
performance. The goal of both Company (HR) and the recruitment consultancy district is to
hire candidates who will effectively flourish as the leader. The researcher chose to make this
research relevant to the recruitment and selection of both groups. The review of related
literature discusses hiring from a historical perspective and current practices, the importance
of hiring, and need for recruiting and selecting effective job seekers in the firm. This is an
incredible feat that requires structure and a strong sense of commitment. Collins work could
help describe this process as Getting the right people on the bus, the wrong people off the
bus, and the right people off the bus, and the right people in the right seats (2001, p. 184).
Historical Perspective: Function of Human Resources in Recruitment consultancy
The gap between placements promise and its achievement is a concern for both
citizens and educators. When the causes of the discrepancies between placement and
actualities are examined, the personnel factor appears to be contributory (Castetter, 1962, p.
17). During the1960s the face and demand of placement continued to evolve. Socially, the
world began to change as well as the purpose of placement. Prior to this period, Americas
culture values transformed. According to Spindler (as cited in Castetter, 1962), people moved
from Puritan morals, of self-renunciation to becoming more outgoing and involved in the
lives of others. Events in life became less focused on individualism to concern for others.
Moral codes and what the group thought were right became important. People became less
and less focused on the future and began to relish their current state of living. Group
conformity and collectivity emerged as a way to bring synchronization. These cultural
changes led to an increase in the order of placement. During the 1960s, placement
encountered many problems including

should the recruitment consultancy attempt to open closed areas of culture


(economics, race and minority-group relations, social class, sex, courtship, marriage

religion and morality, nationalism and patriotism) for study;


can the recruitment and selection process be designed to identify value patterns of
personnel which will have negative impact on children and youth (Castetter, 1962, p.
9).

Castetter believed, The extent to which these and other placement issues of equal
significance can be solved satisfactorily depends on the availability of personnel capable of
rendering a high level of placement services (Castetter, p. 17).
Guiding Theories
Three theories guide this review of literature. The objective theory of job choice,
created by Behling, Labovitz, and Gainer in 1968 proclaims that individuals are motivated to
apply for a job based on the economic opportunities. The subjective theory of job choice
explains how applicants have psychological needs the position could fulfill. The work itself
theory of job choice shows us how applicants place importance on the job tasks, expectations,
and other factors (Young, 2008). Figure one depicts these theories in a conceptual way. This
brings us to the importance of recruiting and selecting effective job seekers for our
recruitment consultancy.
Figure 1
Conceptual Framework: Three Guiding Theories
W hy Choose to Lead?
Recruitm ent & Selection of
Effective Leaders

W ork itself theory of


job choice

Subjective theory of
job choice

Objective theory of
job choice

Recruitment and Selection


Recruitment
Recruiting effective job seekers is a necessary process in all recruitment
consultancies. Demanding testing standards, changing demographics of candidates, and each
recruitment consultancys altering characteristics leads us to the need to recruit more
educators and administrators (Young, 2008). According to Young, recruiting educators and
administrators, should be completed before the actual need occurs (succession planning).
Young also establishes two goals for recruitment. The first goal is to fillempty positions

through a search for qualified candidates. The next goal is to persuade, inspire, and give the
candidates a reason to work for your particular recruitment consultancy district. Both goals
are part of a strategic approach to human resource management.
According to Castetter, It is not difficult to realize that the investment made in every
recruitment consultancy employee is considerable; that the success of the local recruitment
consultancy system depends upon a continuous flow of qualified personnel; that future
placement job seekership is related to present recruitment policies; that the potential for waste
of every kind is enormous if recruitment programs are ineffective; and that solutions to
todays recruitment problems do not possess unchanging validity (1962, p. 172).
Castetters historical perspective on recruitment shined rays on the significance of effective
management of HR recruiting utilized to hire effective job seekers. He believed the HR
director or manager should provide the HR team with data and suggestions for recruiting job
seekers. In addition, throughout their job seekership, HR professionals should implement
strategic studies regarding the need for additional hiring; with info from all stakeholders,
build a repertoire of standards for all positions; creatively recruit; collaborate with placement
institutions and organizations to prepare future candidates; maintain a satisfying work
environment; and use various technologies to communicate recruiting needs. Casetters work
emphasis that some recruitment consultancy large in size, with enough resources benefit from
having an assistant superintendent of HR. Casetter believed The more todays
superintendent of recruitment consultancy considers the placement problems which he is
expected to solve, the more clearly he see that his organization cannot function successfully
unless it is fully and competently staffed (1962, p. 174). Historically, recruiting educators
and other staff was based on

enrollment trends;
staffing standards;
turnover rates;
staffing costs;
future staffing utilization (Casetter, 1962, p. 174).

Today, Young (2008), emphasis how effective recruiting for recruitment consultancy is still
necessary to the placement process. Placement is a revolving door, where vacant positions (or
even filled ones) are waiting to be occupied by effective job seekers. Interestingly, Gajda and

Militello (2008) conducted a study to find more about principal shortage in Massachusetts.
Their study was conducted online, with a sample of 523 principal participants. The
researchers found that 4,414 individuals were licensed as a principal in the state, with only
2,377 positions requiring a license. Findings from this research showed that 63% of
respondents plannedon leaving the profession within five years. Nearly 35% of respondents
said they would leave because of stress, low salary, and job complexity. Findings also
suggested that some principals are underemployed, while some who are licensed do not chose
to work in the profession.As an operational task within the human resources process,
recruitment is not an easy administrative endeavor for recruitment consultancy districts
(Young, 2008, p. 91). Young caste shadows on how recruitment has become an overlooked
process, not being utilized appropriately, and often seen as needless. He brings to surface,
how recruitment is a vital operational service, led by organizational mission, goals, and
aspirations. In addition, recruitment of effective job seekers involves designing effective
policies and procedures aligned, with state and federal standards. By law, all public
recruitment consultancy districts must follow mandated public employment legislation in the
recruitment and selection of employees and should develop well-formalized policies
reflecting their intentions (Young, 2008, p. 95). Some of the major legislations guiding
recruiting today are Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (1964); Age Discrimination in
Employment Act (1967); Section 504 of the Rehabilitation (1973); and the Americans with
Disabilities Act (1990) (Young, 2008).
To recruit and select effective job seekers, positions must first be outlined. According
to Young (2008), a position is a collection of tasks constituting the total work assignment
of a single employee (p. 106). A job analysis describes a positions requirements and duties.
This is necessary for both compensation and appraisal purposes. A well-completed job
analysis forms a physical document called a job description. These steps make it possible to
recruit effective job seekers. According to Young, there are several avenues to recruiting both
certified and classified employees. Figure two in the appendices shows these different
avenues (2008).
The external labor market is utilized to recruit employees who are not currently
employed with the recruitment consultancy district. Young (2008) proclaims that three
recruitment processes are part of all successful HR undertakings. Communication should be
established between the district and its applicants; establish a budget for recruitment
activities; and monitor the recruiting process continuously (2008).

In Gutmore, Strobert, and Gutmores 2009 study, they describe a grow your own job
seeker program between Newark Public Recruitment consultancy and a local university. The
program was introduced in 2003. Aspiring teachers desiring job seekership positions had the
opportunity to gain a Masters degree and their principal certification. This program was
completed through online, weekend, and a 600-hour internship. Each participant has a faculty
mentor and gains hands-on-experience in a job-embedded fashion. At the programs end, 25
people graduated and 16 were received a principal or assistant principal position at a Newark
public recruitment consultancy. The assistant superintendent of Newark public recruitment
consultancy was asked to rate the program and graduates performance. The assistant
superintendent believed all new administrators were well prepared and did not require much
guidance. This study found it easier to select qualified assistant principals and principals. This
now brings us to the discussion of selection.
Selection
Selecting employees is a necessary incurred hiring cost for recruitment consultancy.
Rebore (2001), suggests that hiring a new employee could cost about $1,000 and $25, 000 for
a superintendent. The selection process aims its arrow to to hire individuals who will be
successful on the job (Rebore, 2001, p. 114). There are ten major steps in the selection
process as identified by Rebore (2001), they include
1. write the job description (Young (2008), emphasized this in recruitment step);
2. establish selection criteria;
3. write the vacancy announcement and advertise the position;
4. receive applicants;
5. select the candidates to be interviewed;
6. interview candidates;
7. check references and credentials;
8. select the best candidate;
9. implement the job offer and acceptance;
10. notify unsuccessful candidates (2001, p. 115).
According to Young (2008), The main purpose of employee selection is to fill vacant
positions in the company which is available (p. 129). Selecting employees is a longstanding
problem for placement. The community, taxpayers, and candidates bear the cost of selection
errors. Many traditional selection systems used by public recruitment consultancy districts
to select employees have ignored these concerns, and this oversight has dampening effect for
the selection of new employees from a strategic planning perspective (Young, 2008, p. 131).
Just as recruitment consultancy districts have specific needs, applicants also have desires

motivating them to apply; these characteristics should not be ignored. Youngs (2008) work
revealed that individuals are motivated differently, depending on this position they desire,
complementing the subjective theory of job choice theory guiding this study.
Before selecting a candidate, there are characteristics to look for among those wishing to
occupy the job seekership position. An applicants motive must not be ignored during the
selection process (Young, 2008). SEDL, which is not currently used as an acronym, describes
six characteristics that are found in effective job seekers. These characteristics include being
a visionary, believing recruitment consultancy are for learning, valuing human resources,
communicating and listening effectively, being proactive, and taking risks (2011, p. 1). These
characteristics also describe individuals who have the ability to positively change recruitment
consultancy. The central theme of the research is that those who find themselves supervising
people in an organization should be both good managers and good job seekers (SEDL, 2011,
para. 9). Sorenson and Goldsmith offer a model for principals and other administrators to use
when selecting educators and administrative job seekers. It is referred to as the Selection
Criteria for the Recruitment consultancy Setting and can be seen in figure three below.
These criteria are typically associated with a candidates academic background, personal,
characteristics, and relevant experiences in the field of placement (2009, p. 112).
Figure 3: Selection Criteria Relative to the Recruitment consultancy Setting
4 -Po s itio n S k ills a n d
Pe rfo rm a n c e S u c c e s s

5 -S e le c tio n
In s tru m e n ts

3 -Po s ito n
Pe rfo rm a n c e
M e a s u re m e n ts
S e le c tio n C rite ria fo r
th e S c h o o l S e ttin g

2Po s itio n
D e s ig n

1O rg a n iz a tio
n a l G o a ls

Issues in Placement: The Need for Effective Job seekers

Recruitment consultancy districts, universities, and companys educate diverse groups


of individuals, yet teaching faculty still under represents women and minority educators.
According to Blount, Only in desperate situations, do recruitment consultancy boards seem
willing to hire women or persons of color for superintendencies (1998, p. 150). STEM
placement areas include science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, where there is a
lack of women and minority educators employed (Bilimoria and Buch, 2010).
According to Valian (as cited in Bilimoria and Buch, 2010) Ifwe can change the
faculty search process in ways that encourage more diverse applicant pools and ensure that all
applicants are evaluated fairy, more women should make it to the short list and be invited to
campus (2010, p. 28). There are ways placement institutions can recruit more women and
minority applicants. Bilimoria and Buch studied this process. Their work describes how
business organizations usually grow their own talent, unlike placement institutions. In six
years, they studied the hiring process at two universities. Their findings were applicable to
hiring job seekers for recruitment consultancy districts.
According to Turner (as cited in Bilimoria and Buch, 2010) Historically, institutions
have not provided training to faculty on how to conduct effective searches, especially those
likely to yield diverse pools and outcomes. Findings from Bilimoria and Buchs study found
that effective recruitment and selection involves training interviewers about the importance of
the organizations mission and goals as it links to hiring diverse faculty. Interviewers in the
study were also trained to identify and control their own biases and are given tools and
resources from HR on how to identify proper candidates (2010).
According to Davis, Darling-Hammond, LaPointe, and Meyerson (2005), selecting
effective job seekers requires the selector to identify specific characteristics in applicants. The
job seekers move candidates to arching levels of success by developing teaching staff and
creating processes that enhances effective learning environments. Specifically, effective
principals are skilled at

developing a deep understanding of how to support teachers;


managing the curriculum in ways that promote candidate learning;
developing the ability to transform recruitment consultancy into more effective
organizations that foster powerful teaching and learning for all candidates (2005, p.
5).

These principals must be skilled at tackling pressing problems. For example, since the 9/11
events in the United States, many Muslim and other immigrant candidates continue to face
discrimination in Americas recruitment consultancy. This discrimination comes in the form

of verbal slurs, avoidance, violence, and murder (Tindongan, 2011). Another pressing
problem strangling the effectiveness of principals is bullying in recruitment consultancy.
Bullying is often defined as unprovoked aggressive behavior repeatedly carried out against
victims who are unable to defend themselves, according to Smith, Ananiadou, & Cowie and
Whitted and Dupper, as (as cited in Good, McIntosh, and Gietz, 2011, para. 1). Candidates
being bullied are often from a marginalized group, with a physical drawback, or live with a
disability. Recruitment consultancy campaigns against bullying are often presented after
longstanding events of abuse have occurred, rather than preventing these events. Another
rising problem for recruitment consultancy job seekers is sexting.
Ostrager describes this a sending nude or almost nude pictures of oneself to another
person via mobile communication device, usually though a cell phone. Candidates caught
sexting could be suspended, arrested, or charged with handling child pornography (2011).
These are only few problems faced by job seekers. Reflecting back on the conceptual model
guiding this study, interviewers Young (2008) suggests that interviewers really understand
why one wishes to serve as a job seeker. These issues in placement make it important to know
before a hiring decision is made if a candidate has the skills, knowledge, and motivation to be
effective job seekers.
In the recruiting and selection process job seekers have the opportunity to improve
placement programs, according to Webb and Norton (as cited in Sorenson and Goldsmith,
2009). This review of related literature revealed how historical HR recruiting and selection
processes are similar. Both aim to hire educators who will plant seeds of knowledge in each
candidate. This review also expounds on the need for recruitment consultancy to implement
creative recruiting strategies, which should reach the most qualified candidates. Often,
recruiting strategies utilized by recruitment consultancy fail to take advantage of
technologically advanced possibilities. A current practice working for business-like
organizations is a grow your own job seeker approach. If implemented effectively by
recruitment consultancy, this approach has the ability to reduce hiring cots and gives the
candidate an opportunity to lead in a familiar setting. Selecting job seekers is crucial part of
the HR process. In fact, a well-planned and carefully executed screening and selection
process can breathe new life into a recruitment consultancy where ineffective visioning and
planning, low morale, and teacher absenteeism, low test scores and overall tedium are the
norm (Sorenson and Goldsmith, 2009, p. 107).

REFERENCES
Bilimoria, D., & Buch, K. K. (2010). The search is on: Engendering faculty diversity through
more effective search and recruitment. Change, 42(4), 27-32.
Blount, J., M. (1998). Destined to rule the recruitment consultancy: Women and the
superintendency 1873-1995. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Castetter, W. B. (1962). Administering the recruitment consultancy personnel program.
Ontario, Canada: The Macmillian Company.
Collins, J. (2001). Good to great. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Davis, S., Darling-Hammond, L., LaPointe, M., and Meyerson, D. (2005). Recruitment
consultancy job seekership study: Developing successful principals. (Review of
Research). Retrieved from The Recruitment consultancy Redesign Network (SRN):
Stanford University Website: http://www.srnleads.org/data/pdfs/sls/sls_rr.pdf
Gajda, R. and Militello. (2008). Recruiting and Retaining Recruitment consultancy
Principals: What we can learn from practicing administrators. E-Journal of AASA
Journal of Scholarship and Practice,5(2), 33-39. Retrieved from
http://www.aasa.org/jsp.aspx
Gutmore, D., Strobert, B., & Gutmore, G., F. (2009). Meeting the needs: A best practice grow
your own recruitment consultancy job seeker program. E-Journal of AASA Journal of
Scholarship and Practice,6(1), 33-39. Retrieved from http://www.aasa.org/jsp.aspx
Good, C. P., McIntosh, K., & Gietz, C. (2011). Integrating bullying prevention into
recruitment consultancywide positive behavior support. Teaching Exceptional
Children, 44(1), 48-56.
Ostrager, B. (2010). SMS. OMG! LOL! TTYL: Translating the law to accommodate today's
teens and the evolution from texting to sexting. Family Court Review, 48(4), 712-726.
doi:10.1111/j.1744-1617.2010.01345.x

Rebore, R. W. (2001). Human resources administration in placement: A management


approach (6th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
SEDL. (2011). Job seekership characteristics that facilitate recruitment consultancy change.
Retrieved from the SEDL Website:
http://www.sedl.org/change/leadership/character.html
Sorenson, R., D. & Goldsmith, L., M. (2009). The principals guide to managing recruitment
consultancy personnel. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press
Tindongan, C. (2011). Negotiating Muslim youth identity in a post-9/11 world. High
Recruitment consultancy Journal, 95(1), 72-87.
Young, I, P. (2008). The human resource function in placement administration. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Placement, Inc.