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Inputs Management

Information System (e.g.,


Fertilizers)
Dr P P Nageswara Rao
Outstanding Scientist, ISRO (Retd)
ppn1953@gmail.com

IFFCO

ISRO

12

Yield 3t/ha

10
8
6
4
2

Yield 1.5 t/ha

Low

Medium

Note that crop areas


that received
fertilizers in
adequate quantity
and at optimal time
gave high yields
(3t/ha) than others
(less than 1.5t/ha)

Ju
n

Ja
n
Fe
b
M
ar
A
pr
M
ay

Near infra red/red ratio

Effect of fertiliser input on crop


spectral response

High

Source : Rao. MVK., Ayyangar, RS & Rao, PPN 1982, Proc. 12th Machine Processing of RS Data

Input Optimization
It aims at allocation of agriculture inputs to areas
where they are needed and to the extent they are
needed, rather than at a constant rate across the
entire field, with the goal of minimising the input
cost and maximising yield (precision farming).
It integrates remote sensing, GIS and GPS to
identify locations where inputs needed and a
prescribed rate of application of inputs depending
on the need.
A project carried out by ISRO for Indian Farmers Fertilizers
Cooperative Ltd (IFFCO) project carried out by ISRO addresses
the issues related to precision farming at a national level.

What ISRO did ?

North ZOChandigarh

Aonla
(Bareilly dist.)
North Central
ZO-Lucknow

Kandla

Phulpur

(Gandhidham)

Kalol
(Gandhinagar dist.)

(Allahabad dist.)

West ZOBhopal

East ZOCalcutta
South ZOBangalore

-Fertiliser Plants and - Zonal offices of IFFCO.


Imagine the task of fertilizer distribution.

IFFCOs Information Needs


Geospatial technology Modules by ISRO

Natural
Resource
Module

Crop Area
Estimates in
Kharif & Rabi
Seasons

IFFCO

Logistics
Management

Weather/
Climatic
Conditions
Crop Growing
Period and
Time of
Supply/Demand

Optimal Route and


Priority Society/
Sale Point

Business
Module

Present Stock
Sale trends
Storage capacity

GIS
SOFTWARE + DATABASE
TOOLS

Demand /
Supply Analysis

DECISIONS ON :
Where to supply
How much
What route
When

NATURAL RESOURCE MODULE


Based on satellite remote sensing

DISTRICT WISE LANDUSE/LAND COVER (one


time effort)
CROP AREA CHANGES (on monthly basis so that
timely mobilization of inputs can be done)
Extent of crop area under Irrigated AREAS (because

the fertilizer requirements of irrigated crops is almost double that of dryland crops)

SOILS POTENTIALS & CONSTRAINSTS from


existing maps (NBSS&LUP,NRSA,other sources like
UAS-B/D, KSDA etc.)
Scale of map is not critical

Note the monthly changes in


Crop Area.
i) Snow cover in the
Himalayas (Yellow colour)
ii) Wheat crop area in Jalandhar,
Ludhiana, Sangrur, Patiala(Blue
to red)
iii)Cotton+Rice crop in Abohar
Fazilka, Muktsar &
Bhatinda(Pink red to Blue)
iv)Maize+rice crop system in
Hoshiarpur (Bright red to Pink)

November 2,1999
INSAT 2E CCD
Camera data

December 2,1999

Note the change Rabi sorghum area in


Don river valley, Karnataka

November 2,1999
Don river

Krishna river

INSAT 2E CCD
Camera data

December 2,1999

Land use estimates


as of October,1999
(Mha)
Built-up land

Land use / cover map using OCM

11.5

3.5%

Crop land
142.3
Fallow land
25.2
Agri.plantations 10.5

43.1%
7.7 %
3.2%

Forest
65.4
wastelands 46.7
Water
8.8

19.8%
14.5%
2.6%

snow
5.6
cloud
8.6
grassland 3.4

Red - Forest, Green- Irrigated crop land


Yellow- Dry land crops ; Pink/grey/orange- Wasteland

1.7%
2.6%
1.1%

Analysis
completed on 23 Jun 2000

Kharif and Rabi OCM data of Karnataka for land use / cover mapping

November 99
OCM
Nov,1999

January,2k
OCM
Jan,2000

March,2k

Insat 2E CCD

Land use/ cover of


Karnataka State

Built-up
Irrigated Crop
Dry land Crop
Agri. Plantations
Evergreen Forest
Deciduous Forest
Forest Plantations
Waste lands
water
Others
Cloud

Soil types and fertilizer consumption

Vertic soils
Vertic soils+ Verisols
Vertic soils + Inceptisols
Vertic soils + Psaments
vertic soils +ustalfs/ Ustolls
Ustalfs/Ustolls+Loamy Alfisols
Sandy Alfisols+ Orthids
Psaments
Udolls/Udalfs+ Inceptisols
Variou combinations
Mostly forest
Districs having > 40% of GCA irrigated

Fertilizer
Consumption
( Kg/ha)

< 30
30-60
60-100
>100
Mostly forest

Source:ICRISAT(1994)/NATMO(1991)

GPS-tagged sampling locations


for Nitrogen content

GIS-based Kriegged
Surface of Nitrogen
(kg/Ha)

GPS-GIS based
Nitrogen
Availability Map.
Similar maps can
be prepared for
organic carbon,
phosphorus,
Potassium,
pH or any other
fertility variable

WEATHER MODULE
End goal is to identify the likely
peak period for fertilizer demand

Normal rainfall pattern


WEEKLY PE/ rainfall Plots (TALUK WISE)
Identification of crop growing periods
Epochs of maximum rainfall
INFORMATION to be collected FROM DIFFERENT
ORGANISATIONS (e.g; NBSS&LUPs voluminous book is an
excellent source)

Scale is not important

Estimation of Crop Growing Period

CGP1

(using climatological data)

CGP2

This graph provides an approximation of


sowing and harvesting dates Of Kharif and Rabi crops
Raw data from IMD &DES ; Value addition by RRSSC team

An Example

Bijapur tq

mm

INSAT ID IR band
on 25Jun2K
1800hrs
Dry areas

These images
provide
indications of
in-season
rainfall
distribution

Source:www.imd.ernet.in

LOGISTICS MODULE
GIS-based

GEOREFERENCED SPATIAL DATABASE ON


ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARIES STATES,DISTRICTS,TALUKS
SURFACE TRANSPORT NETWORK -RAIL/ROAD
LOCATIONS OF SOCIETIES,SALES POINTS,WARE
HOUSES,RAKE POINTS (IFFCO & NON IFFCO INFORMATION)

On 1:250,000 scale

GIS allows State, district, taluk and Hobli


boundary overlay

Only roads need to be digitised

Aspatial data is linked


to each location

SAMPLE OF ATTRIBUTE DATA LINKED TO SPATIAL DATABASE

Natural Resource Module

Fertilizer Distribution System

+
Crop Acreage & Type

Weather
Module

Demand for
Fertilizer
(22000mt)

Soils & Fertility

Input From
RS & GIS

Business
Module

Supply
Position
(12000mt)

Infrastructure Module
Decision Implementation
HOW MUCH
WHERE, WHEN
& HOW
Transport Network

IFFCOs Facility

ISRO