Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 129 (2015) 1522

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/petrol

Residual oil distribution characteristic of fractured-cavity carbonate


reservoir after water ooding and enhanced oil recovery by N2 ooding
of fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir
Dengyu Yuan n, Jirui Hou, Zhaojie Song, Yong Wang, Min Luo, Zeyu Zheng
Research Institute of Enhanced Oil Recovery, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 20 October 2014
Accepted 11 March 2015
Available online 27 March 2015

The 4th block Ordovician fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir of Tahe oil-eld consists of high-density
fractures and large caves which are well developed. The oil is stored in fractures and caves, rather than
carbonate rock matrix. In other words, the carbonate rock matrix has no oil storage capability and
permeability is extremely low. The fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir possesses the features of severe
heterogeneity, complex structure of reservoir space. During the development, many shortcomings such
as short period of stable production, early water breakthrough, fast increasing of water cut, high natural
decline rate and low degree of development are exposed gradually. The well which cannot achieve
effectiveness by water injection was selected to carry out N2 ooding experiments in Tahe oil-eld. By
the end of September 2012, the total injection volume of high pressure N2 was 700 m3 and the
incremental oil production was 2600 t. However the displacement mechanism was still poorly understood. In this paper, a two-dimensional visual fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir model was developed
based on the distribution feature, space structure and connection type of fractures and caves in reservoir
space. Four main types of residual oil i.e., attic oil, locked oil, bypassed oil and residual oil trapped in the
lled area were determined from the water ooding experiments. Also, their formation mechanism was
investigated. In addition, the recovering mechanism of residual oil was claried on the basis of N2
ooding experiments. The results show that N2 ooding can signicantly increase the oil recovery by
more than 40% after water ooding, and it mainly mobilized attic oil and partial locked oil. The entire
experiment process was recorded by video, therefore the displacing process of residual oil can be
observed directly. These results in this study indicate that N2 ooding has a broad application prospect in
fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir.
& 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Carbonate reservoir
Residual oil
Recovering mechanism
Nitrogen ooding
Enhanced oil recovery

1. Introduction
With the increasing energy demand and deepening exploration
and development for oil all over the world, carbonate reservoir
which becomes increasingly important possesses about 60% of
global hydrocarbon resources. While the fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir has a broad prospect for development due to the
fact that fractured-cavity reservoir represents more than 30% in
carbonate reservoirs (Xiao et al., 2003). Many of the world's large
oil and gas elds are composed of fractured-cavity carbonate
reservoir (Rosales et al., 2002). In recent years, China has made
some breakthroughs on exploration and development of carbonate
reservoir, e.g., billion tons level Tahe oil-eld is discovered at Tarim

Corresponding author. Tel.: 86 15645903177.


E-mail address: 137008985@qq.com (D. Yuan).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.03.016
0920-4105/& 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Basin. Currently Tahe oil eld has proven oil area of 704 km2;
discovered original oil in place (OOIP) has exceeded 500 million
tons; recoverable oil area is 381 km2, recoverable oil initially in
place (OIIP) is 224 million and annual production capacity reaches
3.5 million tons (Chen et al., 2005). Tahe oil eld is gradually
becoming the main battleeld of oil and gas development of
China. In this background, the investigation of fractured-cavity
carbonate reservoir draws much attention from industry and
academia.
The 4th block Ordovician carbonate reservoir of Tahe oil eld
consists of high-density fractures and large caves which are well
developed. Due to the extremely low permeability of carbonate
rock matrix (between 0.1 and 1 mD), it has no storage capability
and oil is stored in fractures and caves (Zheng et al., 2010; Du et al.,
2011; Xu et al., 2010). Strong heterogeneity of reservoir, complex
structure of reservoir space and oil/water ow relationship is main
characteristics of fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir. Moreover

16

D. Yuan et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 129 (2015) 1522

the main storage space and seepage path possesses the features of
discontinuous and random distributions of fractures (width in
millimeter level) and caves (diameter in meter level), big scale
difference of caves and large dip angle of fractures (Popov et al.,
2007; Lu et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2010). With the development,
many shortcomings such as short period of stable production,
early water breakthrough, fast increasing of water cut, high natural
decline rate and low degree of development are exposed gradually.
This brings many technical problems to the development (Lu,
2003).
Specialist and experts did a lot of researches on enhanced oil
recovery (EOR) for conventional sand reservoir, but not much for
fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir. Most researches studies
were conducted by creating specic physical models and building
mathematical models. Generally these physical models were in
regular structure, xed special distribution or simple sand-packed
model (Hernandez and Juarez, 2001; Wang et al., 2011; Li et al.,
2008a, 2009). However these simple physical models could not
reect the distribution of fractures and caves correctly, which
brought great difculty to the development of formulation and
adjustment. As a secondary recovery method, water ooding is the
most common application for development of carbonate reservoir.
But the recovery is still in a low level because of uncertainty of oil
ow discipline and residual oil distribution. N2 ooding can be
used for EOR of fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir because of its
high oil displacement efciency (Poole, 1986; Karpov and Kokorev,
2008). At present, in terms of the recognition of N2 ooding
mechanism, some main aspects are listed as following (Li et al.,
2008b):

migration mechanism and recovering mechanism of residual oil.


The results had guiding signicance for the development of
fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir.

(1) In general, the minimum miscible pressure between N2 and oil


is higher than Tahe oil eld strata pressure, therefore depending on gasoil gravity difference, N2 can displace the attic oil
on top of caves;
(2) N2 can redeploy the pressure distribution effectively and alter
the ow direction of uids, so more locked oil can be
recovered;
(3) N2 has a strong expansion capability which can be taken full
advantage of in the injection process.

2.2. Experimental apparatus

In this paper, through making a survey for the geological


characteristics of fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir, including
development type, distribution feature, space structure and connection type of fractures and caves and distribution feature and
property of uids, a two-dimensional visible fractured-cavity
carbonate reservoir model was developed. By this model water
ooding and N2 ooding was conducted to investigate the formation mechanism and distribution of residual oil, and study N2

Fig. 1. The stratigraphic prole of well S48 and well TK467 in 4th block Ordovician
fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir of Tahe oil eld.

2. Experimental
2.1. Designing and making of two-dimensional visible physical
model
The two-dimensional visible physical model was developed
based on the stratigraphic prole of well S48 and well TK467 in
4th block Ordovician fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir of Tahe
oil eld, as shown in Fig. 1.
Small-scale fractures and cavities were etched on the bulk
articial carbonate core. The model was lled with sand and
sealed by transparent epoxy resin. The size of the model is
30 cm  30 cm  5 cm, the articial carbonate core is 3 cm-thick,
entire volume of fractures and cavities is 345 ml, and lling degree
is 30%. By water saturation test, porous volume (PV) is 290 ml. An
illustration of this model is shown in Fig. 2.
The model design strictly complies with the following principles (Liu et al., 2012): (1) ensure the actual fracture-cavity
combinations on the basis of reservoir; (2) maintain the reasonable fracture and cavity size and coordination number accordance
with reservoir space characteristics. Visualization is the most
advantaged characteristic of this model. The migration and distribution of oil in the fractures and cavities can be observed clearly.

The schematic of experimental setup is shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 4


depicts the photograph of experimental setup which includes
physical model system, displacing and injection system, oil/water
calculation and image detection system, data collection and
information processing system.
(1) Physical model system includes physical model, model holder
and LED light source;
(2) Displacing and injection system is composed of constant-ow
pump (working pressure 042 MPa, working velocity 0.001
9.999 ml/min), several piston type intermediate containers
(volume 1 l, the highest pressure 32 MPa);

Fig. 2. The photograph of the two-dimensional visible physical model.

D. Yuan et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 129 (2015) 1522

17

Fig. 3. The schematic of experimental setup.

(3) Water ooding experiment was started with velocity of 2 ml/min;


(4) When the water cut of well TK467 reached 100%, close
well TK467;
(5) After that, when the water cut of well S48 reached 100%, the
experiment was over.

2.4.2. EOR experiment of N2 ooding with bottom water supplying


N2 ooding was initiated after the core has been water ooded.
Three individual N2 ooding experiments were conducted. The
injection speed of N2 was 2 sccm.
Fig. 4. The photograph of experimental setup.

(3) Oil/water calculation and image detection system contains


Logitech Pro C910 HD camera (video resolution 1920  1080),
and several cylinders (volume 50 ml);
(4) Data collection and information processing system consists of
computer, differential pressure transducer (working pressure
0500 kPa), gas owmeter (ow rate 0500 sccm) and heating
cabinet (the highest working temperature 120 1C).

2.3. Experimental supplies and conditions


Experiments were conducted at 45 1C. Viscosity of Tahe crude oil is
23.49 mPa s at underground temperature 130.5 1C and bubble point
pressure is 20.24 MPa. Experimental simulation oil is based on Tahe
crude oil and kerosene with a mixing ratio 1:2 under 45 1C. Displacement uid is the simulated formation-water with salinity of
200,000 mg/l, density of 1.14 g/cm3 and viscosity of 1 MPa s. Nitrogen
gas is supplied by high pressure nitrogen with purity of 99.99%.
According to the average line speed of Tahe eld, the water ow is
adopted at 2 ml/min and N2 ow velocity is 2 sccm.
2.4. Experimental procedure
In this paper, two kinds of experiments were conducted,
(a) bottom water ooding experiment, and (b) EOR experiment
of N2 ooding with bottom water supplying. The aim of bottom
water ooding experiment is to investigate oil/water owing
mechanism, formation mechanism and distribution of residual
oil. The purpose of EOR experiment of N2 ooding with bottom
water supplying is to study effect of N2 ooding, N2 migration
mechanism and recovering mechanism of residual oil.
2.4.1. Bottom water ooding experiment
(1) All the equipments were set up as Fig. 4 showed;
(2) The model was saturated with oil;

(B1) N2 injected to well TK467 after its water cut reached 100%,
well S48 worked as production well;
(B2) N2 injected to well S48 after water ooding was over, well
TK467 worked as production well;
(B3) N2 injected to well TK467 after water ooding was over,
well S48 worked as production well.
The entire experimental process was recorded by video, and all
the data was analyzed after experiment.

3. Result and discussion


3.1. Experiment A: Formation mechanism and distribution law of
residual oil after bottom water ooding
Oil/water interface change with water ooding is shown in
Fig. 5, from which the residual oil formation and distribution can
be observed clearly.
At the beginning of water ooding, bottom water entered into
cave D1 and D3 through the fractures below and displaced the oil
in the lled areas (Fig. 5b). Because the lled areas can be
considered as porous media, water coning occurred during water
ooding process and the oil/water interface did not go up
horizontally but convexly, which showed the characteristic of
non-piston displacement. At this moment, the residual oil trapped
in lled areas was generated (Fig. 5c). With the injection of bottom
water, the oil/water interface was elevated. When it was higher
than the narrow position of left side of cave D1, the oil could not
be displaced. The reason is that due to the complex shape of cave
D1, water ow deviated from the main waterline and ew around;
as a result, partial bypassed oil came into being (Fig. 5d). When the
bottom water pushed into caves D2 and non-lled area of D3, oil/
water interface rose horizontally, which exhibited the characteristic of piston displacement. Basically the oil saturation in water
spread area was nearly zero (Fig. 5e). With the oil/water interface
constantly pushed upward, when it reached the connecting position of cave D2 and D3, partial water ew into cave D2 because of
wateroil gravity difference and the oil/water interface climbed up

18

D. Yuan et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 129 (2015) 1522

Fig. 5. Oil/water interface change with water ooding.

rapidly. Because well TK467 just drilled on fracture L3 and bottom


water from left side and right side gathered at the bottom of well
TK467, the water cut of well TK467 reached 100% rapidly. Therefore, in the meanwhile the attic oil was generated in the area of
cave D2 (Fig. 5f). At that time, well TK467 was shut in and water
ooding continued. However cave D4 and D5 connected with only
one fracture L1 and L2, respectively, the connectivity of which was
poor. As a resulted, oil in cave D4 and D5 could not be mobilized
and formed locked oil (Fig. 5g). In terms of cave D3, because the
top of it connected with fracture L4, with the oil/water interface
rising up, oil in cave D3 ew into cave D9 through fracture L4 and

was produced by well S48. But oil above the junction of cave D3
and fracture L4 could not be displaced. Therefore the attic oil was
formed (Fig. 5h). When the oil/water interface in cave D9 went up
to the bottom of well S48, the water cut reached 100%. Since the
gravity difference effect of water and oil, oil at the bottom of well
S48 could not be displaced. Therefore the attic oil was generated
and water ooding was over (Fig. 5i). From Fig. 5i, it was noticed
that oil in cave D6 and D8 was not mobilized effectively. The
reason was that the connectivity of cave D6 was poor and its
position did not match the mainstream line. Therefore much attic
oil was generated in cave D6 and D8.

D. Yuan et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 129 (2015) 1522

19

cut of well S48 appeared uctuation, and the well produced both
oil and gas. Therefore the oil production declined (Fig. 7h). With
the water cut of S48 increasing to 100%, the oil/water interface and
oil/gas interface disappeared gradually, N2 ooding was over
(Fig. 7i). From water ooding to N2 ooding, oil/water interface
switched to oil/gas interface and most residual oil was mobilized
and displaced, which resulted in the signicant increase of the
nal recovery. However because the connectivity of cave D4 and
D5 cave was poor and the junction of them with the mainstream
line was lower than bottom of well TK467, N2 was difcult to enter
these areas. Therefore the residual oil in cave D4 and D5 could not
be mobilized.

Fig. 6. Recovery and water cut versus total injected volume.

3.2. EOR experiments of N2 ooding with bottom water supplying


3.2.1. Experiment B1: N2 injected to well TK467 after the water cut of
well TK467 reached 100%
Fig. 6 reveals the relationship between the nal recovery of
water ooding, the nal recovery of N2 ooding, the water cut of
well S48 (N2 ooding), the water cut of well S48 (water ooding)
and the total injected volume.
It can be observed from Fig. 6 that compared with the nal
recovery of water ooding 37.92%, the nal recovery of N2 ooding
is 82.31%, which increased the oil recovery by 44.39%. During
water ooding process, the injection volume of water is 0.3 PV;
and during N2 ooding with bottom water supplied process, the
total injection volume of N2 and water is 0.2 PV (i.e., 0.5 PV minus
0.3 PV). According to the experimental procedure, the injection
rates of N2 and bottom water are both 2 ml/min, so it can be
concluded that the injection volume of N2 is 0.1 PV.
The mobilizing process of residual oil by N2 injected to well
TK467 after the water cut of well TK467 reached 100% is shown in
Fig. 7.
Basically when the water cut of well TK467 reached 100%
(Fig. 7b), the oil/water interface reached the bottom of well TK467.
With bottom water injected, the oil/water interface continued
rising up. While well S48 was in high structural position, therefore
for a long time of N2 injection, the bottom of well S48 was
between the oil/water interface and oil/gas interface, and well
S48 kept producing oil. N2 entered into caves through well TK467.
Due to the effect of bottom water and oilgas gravity difference, N2
could not move downward to cave D1, but migrated upward to
cave D2 and displaced the attic oil on top of cave D2 (Fig. 7c).
And then with N2 injected, N2 entered into cave D3 and migrated
to cave D8 along cave D6 and mobilized the attic oil in cave D8
(Fig. 7d). Due to the density difference between gas and oil, N2
continuously aggregated in cave D8. After the residual oil in cave
D8 was displaced completely, N2 began to mobilize the residual oil
in cave D6. When the oil/water interface fell to the junction of
fracture L3 and cave D6, due to fracture L3 connecting with cave
D7, under the function of oilgas density difference, N2 migrated
into cave D7 to mobilize the locked oil (Fig. 7e), until the residual
oil in cave D6 and D7 was displaced completely (Fig. 7f). After that,
N2 stepped up to the top of cave D9 to mobilize the residual oil.
With the increasing of injected N2 and bottom water, the oil/water
interface and oil/gas interface came close gradually. When N2
broke through from well S48, it indicated that the oil/gas interface
pushed upward to the bottom of S48 (Fig. 7g). In the meantime,
bottom water pushed the oil/water interface upward and the
residual oil in cave D9 was continuously displaced. Due to gas
breakthrough, oil/gas interface and oil/water interface both rose
instantly. Under the combined effect of oil, water and N2, the water

3.2.2. Experiment B2 and B3: EOR experiments of N2 ooding after


water ooding
The relationship between nal recovery, water cut and total
injected volume is shown in Fig. 8.
As seen in Fig. 8, the injection volume of water injection is
0.7 PV during water ooding process; and the total injection
volume of N2 and water is 0.2 PV (i.e., 0.9 PV minus 0.7 PV) during
N2 ooding. According to the experimental procedure, the injection rates of N2 and bottom water are both 2 ml/min. Therefore it
can be obtained that the injection volume of N2 is also 0.1 PV.
The mobilizing process of residual oil by N2 injected to well S48
after water ooding is shown in Fig. 9
After water ooding (Fig. 9b), N2 was injected to well S48. Due
to the effect of oilgas gravity difference, N2 continuously aggregated on top of cave D9, thus displaced the attic oil and pushed
gas/liquid interface downward (Fig. 9c). At that moment, large
amount of water existed near the bottom of well TK467, so the
production was mainly water. It can be seen from Fig. 8 that the
water cut of well TK467 was high. With N2 injection, when the
interface of gas/oil pushed downward to the top of cave D3, N2
started to move into cave D8 along cave D6 and displaced the
attic oil in cave D8 (Fig. 9d). Under the co-effect of bottom water
and N2, the displaced oil migrated into cave D2 through D3 until
arriving at the bottom of well TK467. At the moment well TK467
was producing oil and from Fig. 8 it can be seen that the water cut
of well TK467 reduced to zero. Therefore a period of water-free oil
production was maintained. When the residual oil in cave D8 was
displaced completely, N2 moved into cave D6 and cave D7 through
fracture L3, and displaced the residual oil (Fig. 9e and f). As the oil/
gas interface descended further, N2 entered into cave D2 and
mobilized the attic oil on top of cave D2 (Fig. 9g). Finally N2
migrated to the bottom of well TK467 and under the co-effect of
N2 and bottom water, the residual oil was displaced (Fig. 9h). Until
the water cut of well TK467 reached 100%, N2 ooding was over
(Fig. 9i). However eventually, the residual oil in cave D4 and D5
could not be swept by N2.
The mobilizing process of residual oil by N2 injected to well
TK467 after water ooding is shown in Fig. 10
After water ooding (Fig. 10b), N2 was injected to well TK467.
Due to the effect of oilgas gravity difference, rst N2 displaced the
attic oil on top of cave D2 (Fig. 10c). At this moment, the bottom
of well S48 was still under the oil/water interface, so well S48 was
in water production period. It can be obtained from Fig. 8 that the
water cut of well S48 was high. After a while, N2 entered into cave
D3 and then migrated upward to cave D8 along cave D6, so that
the attic oil was displaced in cave D8 (Fig. 10d). In the meanwhile, the displaced oil entered into cave D9 with bottom water
and the oil/water interface declined, which caused that the bottom
of well S48 was above the oil/water interface. Therefore a period of
water-free oil production was maintained. N2 continuously accumulated in cave D8. When the residual oil in cave D8 was
displaced completely, N2 migrated into cave D6 and cave D7

20

D. Yuan et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 129 (2015) 1522

Fig. 7. The mobilizing process of residual oil by N2 injected to TK467 after the water cut of well TK467 reaching 100%.

However the PV of water injection in Experiment B1 is much less


than the ones in Experiments B2 and B3. Therefore it should be
noticed that in terms of N2 injection timing, it is better to conduct
N2 injection when the water cut of well TK467 reached 100%.
Basically the regions from which N2 displaced the residual oil were
almost the same, but only the N2 owing direction was different.
So injection well selection has little effect on N2 ooding for
fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir.

4. Conclusion

Fig. 8. The recovery and water cut versus total injected volume.

through fracture L3 to displace the residual oil (Fig. 10e and f).
With the oil/gas interface declining further, the attic oil in cave
D2 was displaced completely (Fig. 10g). Soon afterwards N2
migrated into cave D9 and mobilized the attic oil (Fig. 10h).
When gas breaks through, the water cut of well S48 started rising
up until to 100%, thus N2 ooding was over (Fig. 10i).
The nal recovery of experiment B1 is 82.31%, which increases
the oil recovery by 44.39% compared with that of water ooding of
37.92%. The nal recovery of experiment B2 is 80.22%, which
increases the oil recovery by 42.30%. The nal recovery of experiment B3 is 81.16%, which increases the oil recovery by 43.75%.
Comparing these results, it can be seen that these three kinds of N2
ooding methods can all increase the nal recovery signicantly
and the increasing rates are also close. Also in fact, the injection
volumes of N2 injection are the same in these three experiments.

(1) A two-dimensional visible model of fractured-cavity carbonate


reservoir was developed based on geological model of Tahe
oil-eld. This model can simulate the ow characteristic of oil
in small fractures, large corrosion cavities and half-lled caves.
(2) The residual oil can be mainly divided into four types, attic
oil, which exists on the top of swept caves and unswept caves.
The formation mechanism is oilwater density difference
which causes bottom water cannot displace the oil; locked
oil, which distributes in constant volume caves above fractures. The formation mechanism is due to low coordination
number of caves and large angle of fractures; bypassed oil,
which distributes at the lled area of complex caves. The
formation mechanism is due to the complex shape of caves,
water deviates from the main waterline; the residual oil
trapped in the lled area, also existed in the lled caves. The
formation mechanism is due to bottom water coning, the lled
area is not swept completely.
(3) N2 ooding can signicantly enhance the recovery of
fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir. It primarily mobilized
attic oil and then partial locked oil. The injection volume of

D. Yuan et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 129 (2015) 1522

Fig. 9. The mobilizing process of residual oil by N2 injected to well S48 after water ooding.

Fig. 10. The mobilizing process of residual oil by N2 injected to well TK467 after water ooding.

21

22

D. Yuan et al. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 129 (2015) 1522

water in Experiment B1 is much less than the ones in Experiments B2 and B3 and the ultimate recoveries of these three
experiments are almost the same. Therefore in terms of N2
injection timing, it is better to conduct N2 injection when the
water cut of well TK467 reached 100%. In addition, because
the regions where N2 displaced the residual oil are almost
the same, N2 ooding efciency for fractured-cavity carbonate reservoir has little relationship with the selection of
injection well.

Acknowledgments
The authors gratefully acknowledge nancial support from
National Science and Technology Major Project of China
(2011ZX05014-003), National Basic Research Development Program (973) of China (2011CB201006), and Science Foundation of
China University of Petroleum, Beijing (2462014YJRC053).
References
Chen, Z.H., Liu, C.H., Yang, J., Huang, G.T., Lu, X.B., 2005. Development strategy of
fractured-vuggy carbonate reservoirs-taking Ordovician oil/gas reservoirs in
main development blocks of Tahe oileld as examples. Oil Gas Geol. 0253-9985
(2005) 05-0623-07.
Chen, Z.J., Liu, L., Wang, W., 2010. Characteristics and controlling factors of the
upper Ordovician petroleum reservoirs in the Tazhong No. 1 fault belt, Tarim
Basin. Pet. Explor. Dev. 1000-0747 (2010) 04-0409-07.
Du, J.H., Zhou, X.Y., Li, Q.M., Wu, G.H., Pan, W.Q., Yang, T., 2011. Characteristics and
controlling factors of the large carbonate petroleum province in the Tarim
Basin, NW China. Pet. Explor. Dev. 1000-0747 (2011), 06-0652-10.

Hernandez, J.C.; Juarez, R.I. (2001): Oil Displacement by Water in Vuggy Fractured
Porous Media. SPE-69637
Karpov, V.B.; Kokorev, V.I. (2008): Gas Utilizing MethodsA New Technology of Oil
Recovery Factor Improvement, SPE-117373.
Li, J., Peng, C.Z., Wang, L., Sun, L., Lin, T., 2008a. Simulation experiment of waterdisplacing-oil mechanism in fractured-cavity carbonate oil reservoirs. Nat. Gas
Explor. Dev. 31 (4), 4144.
Li, J.J., Jiang, H.Q., Xu, H., Qin, J.S., Chen, M.F., 2009. Experiment on production laws
for single well in vuggy carbonate reservoir. J. China Univ. Pet., 16735005. ) 020085-05.
Li, J.Y., Jiang, H.Q., Li, J.J., Chen, M.F., Tu, X.W., Ren, W.B., 2008b. The feasibility study
for fractured and vavernous carbonate reservoir by injection nitrogen. Inn.
Mongolia Petrochem. Ind. 23, 8487.
Liu Z.C.; Hou J.R.; Li J.L.; Cheng Q. (2012): Study of Residual Oil in Tahe 4th Block
Karstic/Fractured Heavy Oil Reservoir, SPE-151592.
Lu, M.H., Zhang, C., Xu, J.X., Wang, S.D., Wei, J.X., Song, X.J., 2010. Inverse-scattering
imaging of cavern models. Pet. Explor. Dev. 100020747 (2010), 0320330208.
Lu, X.B., 2003. Heterogeneity of Karst-vuggy carbonate reservoir rocks. Xinjiang Pet.
Geol. 10013873 (2003), 04-0360-03.
Poole, E.S. (1986): Evaluation and Implementation of CO2 Injection at the Dollarhide Devonian Unit. SPE-17277.
Popov, P.; Bi, L.F.; Efendiev, Y.; Ewing, R.E.; Qin, G.; Li, J.L.; Ren, Y.L. (2007):
Multiphysics and Multiscale Methods for Modeling Fluid Flow Through
Naturally Fractured Vuggy Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE-105378.
Rosales, C.P.; Diaz, A.M.; Hernandez, J.C.; Juarez, R.I. (2002): Electric Resistivity of
Vuggy Fractured Media. SPE-74340 .
Wang, L., Dou, Z.L., Lin, T., Zhao, H.Y., Luo, J., 2011. Study on the visual modeling of
water ooding in carbonate fracture-cavity reservoir. J. Southwest Pet. Univ.
16745086 (2011) 02-0121-04.
Xiao, Y.R.; He, F.Y.; Sun Y.M. (2003): Reservoir characteristics of paleocave
carbonates-a case study of Ordovician paleocave in Tahe oileld, Tarim Basin.
Oil Gas Geol., 02539985 (2003) 01-0075-06.
Xu, T.; Lun Z.M.; Zhang, X.H.; Lv, C.Y. (2010): Gravity drainage in oil-wet carbonate
matrix rock system. Pet. Explor. Dev., 10000747(2010) 03-0358-05
Zheng, S.Q.; Li, Y.; Zhang H.F. (2010): Fracture-cavity network model for fracturecavity carbonate reservoir. J. China Univ. Pet., 16735005( 2010) 03-0072-04.