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Mid-Term Paper

Name: Kubendran Palani

Class: PHILOSOPHY 1000

The concept of Tao, Chung-Yung, Te, Li, Chun-Tzu and Jen are similar to
each other which says that there are two things cannot exist without one or
another. It directly relates to the holism. As these all determines the same thing.
Example goodness and badness, Earth and Heaven, body and soul, etc. As you
see in these examples, one cannot or able to exist with another.

Toa literally means way or path cannot be stated as defined or named. It also
known as Dao. In other hand we could say this as the source of all existence, the
principle of all living things, the way or path of the universe, or the moral law
which exists. Yin and yang are complementary, interdependent opposites, neither
of which can exist without the other.
Yin, the darker element, is passive, dark, feminine, downward-seeking, and
corresponds to the night. Yang, the brighter element, is active, light, masculine,

upward-seeking and corresponds to the day. Yin and yang can be used to describe
seasonal changes and directions, and can also be seen as a process of
transformation. The concept probably originated to ancient agrarian religion; it
exists in Confucianism, and it is prominent in Daoism. (Soccio, Douglas J. Archetypes
of Wisdom. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub., 2007. Print.)

Symbol of Yin and Yang

Chung-Yung is the way of golden mean. In other ways as mean, moderation,
normality, and universal moral law and it literally means centrality and
universality. Win-Tsit Chan means it is the same as equilibrium or harmony.
According to Confucius, if an individual restores equilibrium, order would also
restore to the family, to the relationships, to the state, to the country, to the world
and to the universe. (Soccio, Douglas J. Archetypes of Wisdom. 7th ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Pub., 2007. Print.)

Te means a virtue which is a potency and has the power to affect others without
using a physical force. I in the same way, te means morally neutral. Which means
Te has both good and bad purposes. For example, knife is a virtue which have
strength, flexibility and sharpness. It also neutral. The knife can be used to save a
persons life in surgery and in other hand same knife can take a persons life in
anger. (Soccio, Douglas J. Archetypes of Wisdom. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub., 2007.

According to Confucius, a good society only produced by good government and
virtuous human relationships. These two can only achieved by mastering and
honoring Li. Li literally means surrounded by rites, customs, and conventions
ranging to honor and respect the ancestors every day etiquette and good manners.
Also if we dont follow and master Li, we will deviate from Tao and Te, which
result in disorder and imbalance.
In the other hands if we mastered Li, we will become gracious, well-mannered in
all aspects of life, and we will succeed in life. Also we must participate in religious
service, a greeter, sharing food and things with others, and other good social things.

If dont participate or do good deeds and we will slowly lack the good deeds.
(Soccio, Douglas J. Archetypes of Wisdom. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub., 2007. Print.)

Confucius says that the Chun-Tzu means lords son. Also its original meaning is
the sovereign himself or a cultivated gentleman. In addition, it is confusion morally
superior man and a great or noble man. The opposite of the Chun-Tzu is the HsiaoJen. It means the small or vulgar man which is petty and base.
The Chun-Tzu always think about others. On the other hand, Hsiao-Jen just
only think about himself. The Chun-Tzu never except or ask someone to help them
instead they voluntarily ty to help other people. But the Hsiao-Jen, search or seek
other to help them instead doing their job. (Soccio, Douglas J. Archetypes of Wisdom. 7th
ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub., 2007. Print.)


Jen is literally mean that a general human virtue. It might come from the rooted
principle in empathy and fellow feelings. In the Chinese character, Jen has two
meanings, which are man and two. And so it refers to the relationship between two
men or men and women whom revile themselves truly. Jen is also translated as
human, humane, humanitarian, humanity, and benevolence. In addition, Chinese
American philosopher says that the Jen has double meaning of kindness and
humankind. Jen stated by conscientious (Chung) and altruism (Shu), which
together forms as one thread of Confucianism. (Soccio, Douglas J. Archetypes of
Wisdom. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub., 2007. Print.)

Holism is based upon ideas that: the whole is more than the sum of its constitutive
parts, so reduction of the whole to its constitutive elements eliminates some factors
which are present only when a being is seen as a whole. For example, synergy is
generated through the interaction of parts but it does not exist if we take parts
alone. The holistic perspective is seen in diverse intellectual, religious, and cultural
traditions and diverse disciplines throughout history. Ancient Greek philosophers,
for example, had a tendency to have a holistic perspective. We can find it both in
Plato and Aristotle. ("Holism." New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web.).