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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background study


An electrode in an electrochemical cell is referred to as either an
anode or a cathode (words that were coined by William Whewell
at Faraday's request).[1] The anode is now defined as the electrode
at which electrons leave the cell and oxidation occurs, and the
cathode as the electrode at which electrons enter the cell and
reduction occurs. Each electrode may become either the anode or
the cathode depending on the direction of current through the
cell. A bipolar electrode is an electrode that functions as
the anode of one cell and the cathode of another cell.

Primary cell
A primary cell is a special type of electrochemical cell in which the
reaction cannot be reversed, and the identities of the anode and
cathode are therefore fixed. The anode is always the negative
electrode. The cell can be discharged but not recharged.

Secondary cell
A secondary cell, for example a rechargeable battery, is a cell in
which the chemical reactions are reversible. When the cell is
being charged, the anode becomes the positive (+) and the
cathode the negative () electrode. This is also the case in an
electrolytic cell. When the cell is being discharged, it behaves like
a primary cell, with the anode as the negative and the cathode as
the positive electrode. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrode)
1.1.1 Lead Acid Batteries
The leadacid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist
Gaston Plant and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery.
Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low
energy-to-volume ratio, its ability to supply high surge currents
means that the cells have a relatively large power-to-weight ratio.
These features, along with their low cost, makes it attractive for
use in motor vehicles to provide the high current required by
automobile starter motors.
As they are inexpensive compared to newer technologies, lead
acid batteries are widely used even when surge current is not
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important and other designs could provide higher

energy

densities. Large-format leadacid designs are widely used for


storage in backup power supplies in cell phone towers, highavailability

settings

like

hospitals,

and

stand-alone

power

systems. For these roles, modified versions of the standard cell


may be used to improve storage times and reduce maintenance
requirements. Gel-cells and absorbed glass-mat batteries are
common in these roles, collectively known as VRLA (valveregulated leadacid) batteries.
Starting batteries (Automotive battery)
Leadacid batteries designed for starting automotive engines are
not designed for deep discharge. They have a large number of
thin plates designed for maximum surface area, and therefore
maximum current output, but which can easily be damaged by
deep discharge. Repeated deep discharges will result in capacity
loss and ultimately in premature failure, as the electrodes
disintegrate due to mechanical stresses that arise from cycling.
Starting batteries kept on continuous float charge will have
corrosion in the electrodes which will result in premature failure.

Starting batteries should be kept open circuit but charged


regularly (at least once every two weeks) to prevent sulfation.
Starting batteries are lighter weight than deep cycle batteries of
the same battery dimensions, because the cell plates do not
extend all the way to the bottom of the battery case. This allows
loose disintegrated lead to fall off the plates and collect under the
cells, to prolong the service life of the battery. If this loose debris
rises high enough it can touch the plates and lead to failure of a
cell, resulting in loss of battery voltage and capacity.
Deep cycle batteries
Specially designed deep-cycle cells are much less susceptible to
degradation due to cycling, and are required for applications
where the batteries are regularly discharged, such as photovoltaic
systems, electric vehicles (forklift, golf cart, electric cars and
other) and uninterruptible power supplies. These batteries have
thicker plates that can deliver less peak current, but can
withstand frequent discharging.[8]
Some batteries are designed as a compromise between starter
(high-current) and deep cycle batteries. They are able to be
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discharged to a greater degree than automotive batteries, but


less so than deep cycle batteries. They may be referred to as
"marine/motorhome" batteries, or "leisure batteries" or Inverter
batteries.

1.2 Statement of problem


As a result of fast discharger of zinc

and copper electrodes

which is caused by hydration in the cell of a liquid battery,


technology has invented a lead acide battery which its
electrode are made of leads packs to form a positive and
negative poles with a socked separator of dialuted H 2SO4 as
the electrolyte
1.3 Aim and objectives
The aim of this project is to design and implement a bipolar dc
battery concentrating on its bipolar electrode and application.
1.4 Scope of the project
In this project a student be able to understand a bipolar
electrodes and how they are used in making a simple 12volts lead
acid battery.
1.5 Advantages of Bipolar lead acid battery
The advantages of bipolar batteries have long been known.
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a. Uniform current density


b. Increased active material utilization
c. Higher energy density
d. Higher power density
e. Simpler construction
1.6 Project report organizations
Chapter one carries the introduction, aim and objective,
scope of study, limitation of the work, significance and the
project report organization of the work. Chapter two carries
the literature review of the work along with other reviews of
the project. Chapter three carries the project design
methodology and steps which lead to the construction of the
project. Chapter four testing the project design, observation
and Bill of engineering. Chapter five carries summary and
conclusion.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIWE


2.1 Historical review
In 1801 that wires that had been used for electrolysis experiments
would themselves provide a small amount of "secondary" current
after the main battery had been disconnected. [9] In 1859, Gaston
Plant's leadacid battery was the first battery that could be
recharged by passing a reverse current through it. Plant's first
model consisted of two lead sheets separated by rubber strips
and rolled into a spiral.[10] His batteries were first used to power
the lights in train carriages while stopped at a station. In 1881,

Camille Alphonse Faure invented an improved version that


consisted of a lead grid lattice, into which a lead oxide paste was
pressed, forming a plate. This design was easier to mass-produce.
An early manufacturer (from 1886) of leadacid batteries was
Henri Tudor.
Using a gel electrolyte instead of a liquid allows the battery to be
used in different positions without leakage. Gel electrolyte
batteries for any position date from 1930s, and even in the late
1920s portable suitcase radio sets allowed the cell vertical or
horizontal (but not inverted) due to valve design (see third Edition
of Wireless Constructor's Encyclopaedia by Frederick James
Camm). In the 1970s, the valve-regulated lead acid battery (often
called "sealed") was developed, including modern absorbed glass
mat types, allowing operation in any position.

2.3 Design features


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

12.432volts at ideal state.


Charger current 1.05 amps DC.
Charge voltage 13Vdc to 15Volts DC
Initial current 2.5Amperhour when not
When charge 4.5Amps
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f. Electrode type Bipolar Lead Electrodes


g. Dimension L = 16.23cm, width = 7cm, height = 10cm
2.4 How it works
Discharge

Fig 2.1 fully discharged: two identical lead sulfate plates


In the discharged state both the positive and negative plates
become lead (II) sulfate (PbSO4), and the electrolyte loses much
of its dissolved sulfuric acid and becomes primarily water. The
discharge process is driven by the conduction of electrons from
the negative plate back into the cell at the positive plate in the
external circuit.
Negative plate reaction
Pb(s)

HSO

4(aq)

PbSO

4(s)

H+

(aq) + 2e
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Positive plate reaction


PbO
2(s)

4(aq)
(aq)

HSO

+
+

2e

4(s)

3H+

PbSO

2H

Pb(s)

PbO

2(s)

2H

2O(l)
The total reaction can be written as

2SO
4(aq)

4(s)

2PbSO
2H

2O(l)
The sum of the molecular masses of the reactants is 642.6 g/mol,
so theoretically a cell can produce two faradays of charge
(192,971 coulombs) from 642.6 g of reactants, or 83.4 amperehours per kilogram (or 13.9 ampere-hours per kilogram for a 12volt battery).7] For a 2 volts cell, this comes to 167 watt-hours per
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kilogram of reactants, but a leadacid cell in practice gives only


3040 watt-hours per kilogram of battery, due to the mass of the
water and other constituent parts. [10]

CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN METHODOLOGY


3.1 Project specification
This is the implementation of a bipolar lead acid battery which is
used in cars, inverters, solar energy, UPS system, ATM Machines
etc
3.2 Concept review
This design was gotten from an already existing system, which
from there we picked some information that we developed it to
suit the present requirements.
3.3 Analysis of operations of battery workability
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Sulfated plates from my 12 V 4.5 Ah battery


Leadacid batteries lose the ability to accept a charge when
discharged for too long due to sulfation, the crystallization of lead
sulfate.[3]
Batteries have three parts, an anode (-), a cathode (+), and the
electrolyte. The cathode and anode (the positive and negative
sides at either end of a traditional battery) are hooked up to an
electrical circuit.

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The chemical reactions in the battery causes a buildup of


electrons at the anode. This results in an electrical difference
between the anode and the cathode. You can think of this
difference as an unstable build-up of the electrons. The electrons
wants to rearrange themselves to get rid of this difference. But
they do this in a certain way. Electrons repel each other and try to
go to a place with fewer electrons.
In a battery, the only place to go is to the cathode. But, the
electrolyte keeps the electrons from going straight from the
anode to the cathode within the battery. When the circuit is closed
(a wire connects the cathode and the anode) the electrons will be
able to get to the cathode. In the picture above, the electrons go
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through the wire, lighting the light bulb along the way. This is one
way of describing how electrical potential causes electrons to flow
through the circuit.
However, these electrochemical processes change the chemicals
in anode and cathode to make them stop supplying electrons. So
there is a limited amount of power available in a battery.
When you recharge a battery, you change the direction of the
flow of electrons using another power source, such as solar
panels. The electrochemical processes happen in reverse, and the
anode and cathode are restored to their original state and can
again provide full power.

CHAPTER FOUR: DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING


4.1 Design procedures

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4.1.1 Information gathering


The knowledge of how to design a Bipolar lead acid battery did
not just came from anywhere even due a lot of information came
through inspirations of different ways (bio devices: Magxim
Electronics journal on Electronics & psychological effects 3 Edition
2012 for things to be down there is a source of information via
knowledge which is not only on teachings but also with metal
physical inspiration). Different sources where visited in other to
get the clear view of how to design a lead acid bipolar battery,
this ways include internet sites where a lot of information of
different designs can be archived. Come to school premises where
the knowledge is being passed from teachers to students. Others
include pea groups and book reading etc.

4.1.2 Project resource centers


This includes:
a.
b.
c.
d.

internet resource centers


experimental aids and observation
Teachers and lectures
And lead design by Wikipedia encyclopedia

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4.3 Bi-Polar Battery Construction ( February

13, 2011 by Ted Dillard in

Uncategorized. )

Bipolar

and

monopolar

designs

share

the

same

lead-acid

chemistry, they differ in that in bipolar batteries, the cells are


stacked in a sandwich construction so that the negative plate of
one cell becomes the positive plate of the next cell. The cells are
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separated from each other by the bipolar plate* which allows


each cell to operate in isolation from its neighbor.

Monopolar 4V

Fig 4.1

Stacking these cells next to one another (Figure above) allows the
Paste potential of the battery to be built up in 2 volt increments.
Since the cell wall becomes the connection element between
cells, bipolar plates have a shorter current path and a larger
surface area compared to connections in conventional cells. This
construction reduces the power loss that is normally caused by
the internal resistance of the cells. At each end of the stack,

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single plates act as the final anode and cathode. This simpler
construction leads to reduced weight since there are fewer plates
and bus bars are not needed to join cells together. The net result
is a battery design with higher power than conventional
monopolar lead-acid batteries.
Bi-polar battery technology is not limited to the lead battery field

As you can see here, in a typical prismatic cell, the current has to
go through the entire plate. This creates resistance and, thus,
heat. Think of this as a kind of bucket brigade within the
battery- every bit of energy has to travel through the entire path.
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The bi-polar design uses the entire surface area between each cell
to transfer the current from cell to cell.

Heres a painfully

undetailed illustration from the NiLar site, but you get the idea.
The EV World guys put it best, I think:
As Puester explained it, this type of construction means electrons
have to follow an energy robbing, heat-producing circuitous path
that his bipolar approach avoids.
Think of the NiLar cell as a lasagna, multiple alternating layers
where the tab isnt a little slip of metal, but as an entire sheet

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that runs the length and breadth of the cell, as illustrated by the
different colored layers in the cutaway. The advantage of this
approach is it allows for more efficient flow of energy through the
battery, as well as much easier and therefore less costly
manufacturing.
Id add to that, the energy transfers more evenly across the
surface of the plates. You get less heat buildup concentrated in
specific areas. Less concentrated heat ultimately adds up to less
heat overall, because of more efficient heat dissipation. The crux
of the bi-polar design is, if I understand correctly, that the plates
are used as conductors for both cells, that is, each plate serves as
the anode for one cell, and since its the divider between the
cells, is the cathode for the next cell.

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CHAPTER FIVE: RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION


5.1 Summary
Batteries seem to advance slowly and this is especially apparent
when comparing batteries to the rapid developments of other
technologies. This is not idleness on part of the research
engineers but overcoming insurmountable technical hurdles to
meet

the

requirements

of

long

life,

high

specific

energy

(capacity), safe operation, minimal maintenance and low price. In


addition, the battery must work at hot and cold temperatures,
deliver

high

power

on

demand,

charge

quickly

and

be

environmentally friendly. No battery meets all criteria and


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manufacturers

optimize

the

characteristics

to

meet

user

demands. As long as the battery is based on the electrochemical


process, limitations will remain.
5.5 Conclusion
Reference
1. Weinberg, Steven (2003). The Discovery of Subatomic
Particles Revised Edition. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 81. ISBN 978-0-521-82351-7. Retrieved 18 February
2015.
2. Faraday, Michael (1834). "On Electrical Decomposition".
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Archived
from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2010-01-17. In
this article Faraday coins the words electrode, anode,
cathode, anion, cation, electrolyte, and electrolyze.
3. Durst, R., Baumner, A., Murray, R., Buck, R., & Andrieux,
C.,

"Chemically

modified

electrodes:

Recommended

terminology and definitions (PDF)", IUPAC, 1997, pp 1317


1323.
4. PowerSonic,

PS

and

PSG

General

Specifications, retrieved January 2014

22

Purpose

Battery

5. "Trojan Product Specification Guide" (PDF). Retrieved


January 2014.
6. PowerSonic, Technical Manual (PDF), p. 19, retrieved
January 2014
7. Cowie, Ivan (13 January 2014). "All About Batteries, Part 3:
Lead-Acid Batteries". UBM Canon. Retrieved 3 November
2015.
8. PowerSonic, PS-260 Datasheet (PDF), retrieved January
2014
9. Crompton, Thomas Roy (2000), Battery Reference Book,
Newnes
10. Linden,

David;

Reddy,

Thomas

B.,

eds.

(2002).

Handbook Of Batteries (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.


p. 23.5. ISBN 0-07-135978-8.
11.
http://lead-acid.com/lead-acid-battery-history.shtml
"The History of the Lead Acid Battery" retrieved 2014 Feb
22
12. "Gaston

Plant (1834-1889)", Corrosion-doctors.org;

Last accessed on Jan 3, 2007


13. For one example account of the importance of battery
SG to submariners, see Ruhe, William J. (1996). War in the
Boats: My World War II Submarine Battles. Brassey's.
p. 112. ISBN 1-57488-028-4.

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14.

http://www.windsun.com/Batteries/Battery_FAQ.htm#B

attery%20Voltages Battery voltages


a. "Recommended voltage settings for 3 phase charging of
flooded lead acid batteries.", Rolls Battery, Retrieved on 17
April 2015.
b. "Preventive Maintenance, Charging and Equalization", Rolls
Battery, Retrieved on 17 April 2015.
a. "Handbook for stationary lead-acid batteries (part 1:
basics, design, operation modes and applications), page
65",

GNB

Industrial

Power,

division

Technologies, Edition 6, February 2012

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of

Exide