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# 2-7

2-7

1. Plan

Using Measures
of Central Tendency

Lesson Preview
Lesson Preview

## Check Skills Youll Need

Lesson 1-4: Example 2
Exercises 524
Extra Practice, p. 702

Real Numbers

and mode

OBJECTIVE

## To make and use

stem-and-leaf plots

. . . And Why
To analyze real-world
employment data, as in
Example 1

Lesson1-6: Example 5
Exercises 4047
Extra Practice, p. 702

Write the numbers in each group in order from least to greatest. 2. 58, 72, 98, 144,
1. 2.4, 9.8, 3.6, 7.5, 1.9 1.9, 2.4, 3.6, 7.5, 9.8 2. 144, 235, 98, 72, 58, 195 195, 235
3. -12, 14, -3, -8, 7, 0
12, 8, 3, 0, 7, 14
Use mental math to simplify.

4. 2 12 , 2 3 23 , 2 4 38 , 6 14 , 2 2 58 , 4 12

5. 3 1 4 1 55 1 6 1 7 5

819
6. 5 1 6 1
7
4

Part
1 1 Finding Mean, Median, and Mode

Teaching Resources

## Reaching All Students

You must decide which measure of central tendency best describes a set of data.
Below is a review of mean, median, and mode, and where you would use each as
the measure of central tendency.

## Practice Workbook 2-7

Spanish Practice Workbook 2-7
Basic Algebra Planning Guide 2-7

Key Concepts

## Presentation Assistant Plus!

Transparencies
Check Skills Youll Need 2-7
Lesson Quiz 2-7
PH Presentation Pro CD 2-7

## Mean, Median, Mode

The median is the middle value in the set when the numbers are arranged in
order. For a set containing an even number of data items, the median is the
mean of the two middle data values.
Use the median to describe the middle of a set of data that does have
an outlier.

Technology
Resource Pro CD-ROM
Computer Test Generator CD
Prentice Hall Presentation Pro CD

The mode is the data item that occurs the most times. It is possible for a set of
data to have no mode, one mode, or more than one mode.
Use the mode when the data are nonnumeric or when choosing the most
popular item.

www.PHSchool.com

118

Review

## sum of the data items

Mean = total
number of data items
Use the mean to describe the middle of a set of data that does not have an
outlier. An outlier is a data value that is much higher or lower than the other
data values in the set. The mean is often referred to as the average.

Plus

## Interactive lesson includes instant

self-check, tutorials, and activities.

To understand a set of data, you need to organize and summarize the data
using a measure of central tendency. Mean, median, and mode are all
measures of central tendency.

## Practice, Reteaching, Enrichment

Student Site
Teacher Web Code: aek-5500
Graphing Calculator,
Procedure 21
Teacher Center
Lesson Planner
Resources

4 83 , 3 23 , 2 85 , 2 21 , 4 21 , 6 14

## New Vocabulary measures of central tendency mean outlier

median mode range stem-and-leaf plot

OBJECTIVE

Lesson Resources

OBJECTIVE

118

## Ongoing Assessment and Intervention

Before the Lesson

## Diagnose prerequisite skills using:

Check Skills Youll Need

## Monitor progress using:

Check Understanding
Standardized Test Prep

## Assess knowledge using:

Lesson Quiz
Computer Test Generator CD

Real-World

EXAMPLE

2. Teach

Problem Solving

Wages Find the mean, median, and mode of the data in the line plot below. Which
measure of central tendency best describes the data?

## Students may know how to

calculate mean, median, and
mode, but they may not be
familiar with the concept that
each of these single numbers
may be used to represent the
central tendency of a collection
of numbers, or data. They will
encounter them in everyday
surveys and samples, and must
understand their limitations.

## Hourly Wages of Employees

at a Local Restaurant

\$6.25

\$6.50

\$6.75

Wage per hour

\$7.75

\$8.00

\$8.25

OBJECTIVE

## T 5(6.25) is a shortcut for adding 6.25 + 6.25 + 6.25 + 6.25 + 6.25.

5(6.25) 1 3(6.50) 1 7.00 1 8.25
Mean:
= 6.6
10
c total number of employees

Median: 6.25 6.25 6.25 6.25 6.25 6.50 6.50 6.50 7.00 8.25

1
1

## List data in order. 6.25

and 6.50 are the two
middle data values.

## The median of an even number of data items is the mean

of the two middle data values.

2

## Mode: 6.25 the data item that occurs most often

Check Understanding

The mean is \$6.60, the median is about \$6.38, and the mode is \$6.25. The mean is
greater than the salary of 8 workers. The mode is the salary of the 5 workers with
the lowest salary. The median best describes the data.
1 a. Wages The employee who earns \$8.25 per hour resigns. She is replaced by an
employee earning \$7.50 per hour. Find the mean, median, and mode of the data.
b. Critical Thinking Which measure best describes the data? Explain why.
Median; the mean is still larger than 8 of 10 wages.
Students often ask, What grade do I need on the next test to bring up my
average? The example below shows you how to solve that kind of problem.

EXAMPLE

Solving an Equation

need on your next exam to have a 90 average on the four exams?
Mean (average): 80 1 93 41 91 1 x = 90 Let x = the grade on the fourth exam.
264 1 x = 90
Simplify the numerator.
4
4 Q 264 41 x R = 4(90)

Teaching Notes

EXAMPLE

Teaching Tip

## To determine which measure of

central tendency best describes
the data, you do not have to
calculate any of them. Look at the
frequency graph. There is an
outlier at \$8.25. The median is
usually used to describe data that
have an outlier.

1 Find the mean, median, and
mode of the data below. Which
measure of central tendency best
describes the data?
14 10 2 13 16 3 12 11
mean 10.125; median 11.5;
mode none; The median best
describes the data.
science exams are 82, 94, and 89.
What grade do you need on your
next exam to have an average of
90? 95

264 + x = 360

Simplify.

x = 96

Math Background

## Subtract 264 from each side.

Simplify.

Your grade on the next exam must be 96 for you to have an average of 90.
Lesson 2-7 Using Measures of Central Tendency

119

## Reaching All Students

Below Level Challenge students to
create a data set of seven consecutive
integers where the median is equal to
the mean and there is no mode.

in a discussion of other situations
where the mode, the median, or
the mean would be the best
measure of central tendency.

English Learners
See note on page 120.

Error Prevention
See note on page 123.

119

3 Find the range and mean of

Check Understanding

## each set of data. Use the range to

compare the spread of the two
sets of data.
45 47 34 36 38 and
56 35 27 47 35
1st set: range 13, mean 40;
2nd set: range 29, mean 40;
The first set clusters nearer the
mean.
OBJECTIVE

2
4

Teaching Notes

EXAMPLE

English Learners

## Draw a stem and its leaves on the

board and label the parts.
Pronounce the words stem, leaf,
and leaves. Ask: Which is the main
part? the stem Which is attached
to the main part? the leaves
Relate the drawing to the stemand-leaf plot.

4 Make a stem-and-leaf plot for

2 Critical Thinking If 100 is the highest possible score on the fourth exam, is it
possible to raise your average to 92? Explain.
No; you would need at least a 104 to have a 92 average.
The range of a set of data is the difference between the greatest and least data
values. The range gives you a measure of the spread of the data.

## Finding the Range and Mean of Data

Find the range and mean of each set of data. Use the range to compare the spread
of the two sets of data.
3.
Maine:

mean 0.4F;
range 13F
Michigan: mean 4.4F;
range 34F
On average, Maine was
colder. The temperatures
for Michigan were more

Check Understanding

25 30 30 47 28

34 28 31 36 31

Range: 47 - 25 = 22

Range: 36 - 28 = 8

1 47 1 28
Mean: 25 1 30 1 30
5

1 36 1 31
Mean: 34 1 28 1 31
5
160 = 32
5

160 = 32
5

Both sets of data have a mean of 32. The range of the rst set of data is 22, and the
range of the second set of data is 8. The second set of data is less spread out.
3 For the rst ve days in February, the low temperatures in northern Maine were
78F, 48F, -38F, -68F, and 08F. During the same time period, the low temperatures in
northern Michigan were 248F, 158F, -28F, -108F, and -58F. Find the mean and
range of the temperatures. Compare the spreads of the temperature data.
See above left.

OBJECTIVE

Part
Plot
1 2 Stem-and-Leaf Plots

the data.
56 44 63 58 51 59 47 51 67 50 65
49 66 63
4
5
6

EXAMPLE

## You can use a stem-and-leaf plot to organize data. A stem-and-leaf plot is a

display of data made by using the digits of the values. To make a stem-and-leaf
plot, separate each number into a stem and a leaf. This is the stem and leaf for
the number 1.54.

4 7 9
0 1 1 6 8 9
3 3 5 6 7

all digits
to the left of
last digit

44 means 44

1.5 4

## 5 Find the mean of the city

mileage and highway mileage for
16 new cars.

stem leaf

(in mi/gal)
City
Highway
8 7 1
6 4 1 0 2 2 4
8 6 3 0 0 2 3 8
4 3

## Ask: When should the mean be

used to describe data and when
should the median be used?
Use the mean when there is
not an outlier. Use the median
when there is an outlier.
What measure(s) are easy to
find from a stem-and-leaf plot?
The mode is easiest to find.

120

EXAMPLE

2 8 8
4
6
5
3 3 5
0

4 3 means 4.3

## Use the first two

digits for the stems.

## means 36 630 means 30

city: 25 mi/gal;
highway: 31.5 mi/gal

Closure

4. 0
1
2
3
4
6

last
digit

1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8

4 5 8
3 7
3 7
3

## Use the corresponding last digits

for the leaves. Arrange the numbers
in order.

## 1.8 3 means 1.83

Check Understanding
120

## 4 Make a stem-and-leaf plot for the data below. See above.

4.5 4.3 0.8 3.5 2.6 1.4 0.2 0.8 4.3 6.0

## You can nd the measures of central tendency of data displayed in a stem-and-leaf

plot. The stem-and-leaf plot in the next example is a back-to-back stem-and-leaf
plot. The stem is between the two bars, and the leaves are on each side. Leaves are
in increasing order from the stems.

EXAMPLE

3. Practice
Assignment Guide

## Using a Stem-and-Leaf Plot

Find the mean of the city mileage and highway mileage for nine new cars.

Objective
A B Core 113, 2023,
2528

l
New Car Mileage
(mi/gal)
Highway
City

9 1
98330 2 78
411 3 022788

Extension 3031

Objective
A B Core 1419, 24
C Extension 29

4 1
means 20 mi/gal

0 2 7

means 27 mi/gal

## Mixed Review 3744

1 29 1 31 1 31 1 34 = 26.4 mi/gal
Mean City Mileage: 19 1 20 1 23 1 23 1 28
9
1 37 1 38 1 38 1 41 = 33.6 mi/gal
Mean Highway Mileage: 27 1 28 1 30 1 32 1 32
9

Check Understanding

EXERCISES

## Exercises 14 Suggest to students

5 a. Find the median of the city mileage and of the highway mileage.
b. Find the mode(s) of the city mileage and of the highway mileage.
c. Find the range of the city mileage and of the highway mileage.
a. city: 28 mi/gal; highway: 32 mi/gal
b. city: 23 mi/gal; 31 mi/gal; highway: 32 mi/gal; 38 mi/gal
c. city: 15 mi/gal; highway: 14 mi/gal

## that they look for an outlier.

Exercises 912 Suggest to
students that they circle the
greatest and the least data values
if they do not put them in order.

## For more practice, see Extra Practice.

Teaching Tip

Practiceand
andProblem
ProblemSolving
Solving
Practice
Practice by Example
Example 1
(page 119)

Example 2
(page 119)

## that arranging the leaves in

ascending order makes a stemand-leaf plot easier to use.

Find the mean, median, and mode. Which measure of central tendency best
describes the data?
1. weights of textbooks in ounces
12 10 9 15 16 10
12; 11; 10; median
3. time spent on Internet in min/day
75 38 43 120 65 48 52
63; 52; none; median

## 2. ages of students on math team

14 14 15 15 16 15 15 16
15; 15; 15; any
4. weights of channel catsh in pounds
4.8 5 2.3 4.5 4.8 5.2
4.4; 4.8; 4.8; median or mode

Enrichment 2-7
Reteaching 2-7
Practice 2-7
Name

Practice 2-7

## Write and solve an equation to nd the value of x. 58. See margin.

5. 3.8, 4.2, 5.3, x; mean 4.8

(page 120)

Date

## 1. number of cars sold in the past 10 days

1 5 3 2 1 0 4 2 6 1

## 2. utility bills for the past 6 months

\$90 \$120 \$140 \$135 \$112 \$126

## 3. prices of a sweater in 5 different stores

\$31.25 \$27.50 \$28.00 \$36.95 \$32.10

## 4. scores on a 10-point quiz

7 9 10 8 4 2 6 10 8

5. hourly wages
\$7.25 \$6.75 \$8.10 \$9.56 \$7.10 \$7.75

## 6. ages of students on the quiz team

15 15 14 16 17 16 16 15

Example 3

Class

## 8. 40, 98, 94, 102, 21, x; mean 88

10. 25.6, 19.3, 19, x, mean 24

11. In his eight games against Boston, a baseball pitcher threw the following
number of strikeouts: 1, 2, 4, 2, 1, 3, 3, and 0. In his ve games against
St. Louis, he recorded strikeouts as follows: 3, 1, 2, 3, and 2. Did the
pitcher average more strikeouts against Boston or against St. Louis?
12. Randy had grades of 85, 92, 96, and 89 on his last four math tests. What
grade does he need on his next test to have an average of 92?

## Find the range.

9. 12 15 17 28 30 18

13. To test the exhaust fumes of a car, an inspector took six samples. The
exhaust samples contained the following amounts of gas in parts per
million (ppm): 8, 5, 7, 6, 9, and 5. If the maximum allowable mean is 6
ppm, did the car pass the test? Explain.

## 11. -12 -15 5 3 -2 0 -7 20

12. 2 12 3 13 2 5 34 83 3 58 9 38

13. For each list of data, nd the range and the mean.
List 1 43; 52.2
Use the range to compare the spread of the data.
List 2 14; 52.2
List 1
List 2
The second set of data
64 43 55 28 71
48 53 61 47 52 is less spread out.

## 14. A coffee machine is considered reliable if the range of amounts of

coffee that it dispenses is less than 2 uid ounces ( oz). In eight tries,
a particular machine dispensed the following amounts: 7.1, 6.8, 7.6, 7.1,
7.4, 6.8, 7, and 6.7 oz. Is the machine reliable? Explain.
15. According to its producer, an off-Broadway show would make a prot if
an average of at least 1100 tickets were sold per show. For the past 12
shows, the number of tickets sold was as follows: 1000, 800, 1600, 900,
1200, 900, 800, 1700, 900, 1200, 1000, and 1200. Using the mean as the
average, did the show make a prot for these 12 shows?
16. a. A bakery collected the following data about the number of loaves of
fresh bread sold on each of 24 business days. Make a stem-and-leaf
plot for the data.
43
39
17
38
50
42
34
28
37
72
36
45
21
29
44
41
37
40
b. Find the mean, median, mode, and range of the data.
17. a. The following numbers of calls were made to the police department
in the last 24 days. Make a stem-and-leaf plot for the data.
32
42
35
52
58
52
46
61
52
63
39
41
48
62
61
58
34
49
b. Find the mean, median, mode, and range of the data.

Algebra 1 Chapter 2

## 7. 100 1 121 1 10561 113 1 108 1 x 5 112 ; 125

6. 99 1 86 1 576 1 95 1 x 5 91; 99

42
35

40
51

33
54

63
47

81
49

61
31

121

121

4. Assess

Example 4
(page 120)

## Lesson Quiz 2-7

1. Find the mean, median,
and mode. Which measure
of central tendency best
describes the data?
49 52 53 56 62 61 55 52
mean 55; median 54;
mode 52; The mean best
describes the data.
2. Make a stem-and-leaf plot
for the data above.
4
5
6

Example 5
(page 121)

## 18. Class A 60.75,

59.5, 54, 35
Class B 60.35, 59,
52 and 79, 38

Find the mean, median, mode, and range of each side of the stem-and-leaf plot.
1819. See left.
18.
19.
Growth of Two Varieties
Time Spent on
of Tulip Plants
Homework
(inches/day)
(minutes/day)
Type A
Class B
Type B
Class A

6643 4 11457
986444 5 02224
5210 6 4589
876642 7 367999
3 4 1

means 41

633 2
3211 3 112
1 4 358
5 24

means 0.33

3 3 1

means 0.31

## Find the mean, median, mode, and range.

22. 42.1 46.4 58.2 67.3 49.1 40.2 22.3 46.6 46.525, 46.5, none, 45.0
23. Critical Thinking The mean of a set of data is 7.8, the mode is 6.6, and the
median is 6.8. What is the least possible number of data values? Explain.
See margin.
24. Wildlife Management A wildlife manager
Crocodile Lengths
working at the Everglades National Park in
(meters)
Florida measured and tagged adult male
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.3
crocodiles. The data he collected are at the right.
2.8
2.4
2.3
2.4
a. What are the mean and median lengths of
2.1
2.2
2.5
2.7
the crocodiles? 2.425, 2.4
b. The wildlife manager captured another crocodile. Its length was 3.3 m. What
is the mean with this new piece of data? What is the median? Round to the
nearest tenth. 2.5; 2.4
25. Manufacturing Two manufacturing
Width of Steel
plants create sheets of steel for medical
(millimeters)
instruments. The back-to-back stemManufacturing Manufacturing
and-leaf plot at the right shows data
Plant A
Plant B
collected from the two plants.
4 359
a. Find the mean, median, mode, and
87442 5 27
range of each set of data.
b. Which measure of central tendency best
431 6 34
describes each set of data? Explain.
7 2
c. Reasoning Which plant has the better
means 6.1 1 6 3 means 6.3
quality control? Explain.
a-c. See margin p. 123.
26. Open-Ended Give an example of a set of data for which the mode best
represents the data. Explain. Answers may vary. Sample: 50, 62, 64, 64,
64, 65, 65, 85
27. Sports The median height of the 21 players on a girls soccer team is 5 ft 7 in.
What is the greatest possible number of girls who are less than 5 ft 7 in. tall? 10

## pages 121123 Exercises

0 5 5 8
2 5 8
5 6
0 means 10

28. Writing How does an outlier affect the mean of a set of data?
An outlier can skew the mean of a set of numbers enough
that it is not a reliable measure of central tendency.

122

122

## Group students in pairs. Give each

pair two number cubes. Each
student rolls a number cube. The
results on the number cubes are
combined to make a 2-digit
number, which is recorded.
Repeat nine more times for a
total of ten 2-digit numbers. Have
each pair make a stem-and-leaf
plot of their numbers. Then, have
them find the mean, median,
mode, and range of their data.

5 6
4 6
3 means 15.3

## 16. 785 776 788 761 768 768 785

20. 9.8 7.2 6.3 8.7 5.8 9.4 5.1 6.2 7.3125, 6.75, none, 4.7

Alternative Assessment

3 7

## 15. 18.6 18.4 17.6 15.7 15.3 17.5

means 43

9
2 2 3 5 6
1 2

86, and 91. What grade do
you need to earn on your
next test to have an
average of 90? 96

15. 15
16
17
18
15

14. 18 35 28 15 36 10 25 22 15

## 19. Type A 0.30, 0.31,

0.23 and 0.31, 0.18
Type B 0.4175,
0.44, 0.31, 0.24

49 means 49

14. 1
2
3
1

Make a stem-and-leaf plot for each set of data. 1417. See margin.

16. 76
77
78
76

1 8 8
6
5 5 8
1 means 761

17. 0
1
2
3
4
0

2 8
4
2 6
5
3 5
2 means 0.2

## 23. 5; two values are 6.6, one

is 6.8, and two are greater
than 6.8.

## Standardized Test Prep

C

Challenge

29. Make a back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot of the data below. See left.

July
April
7 2 0 0 0 0
0 1
8 2
3
8 8 0 4 5 5
0 5 5 5
3 1 6 3 3 5 7
7
1 8 1 7 8
30.
9 4
10 7 8
means 0.40 d 0 | 4 | S 5 means 0.4531.

## A sheet of blank grids is available

in the Test-Taking Strategies with
Transparencies booklet. Give this
sheet to students for practice with
filling in the grids.

29.

## Daily Precipitation in Tropical Areas

(centimeters)
First Two Weeks of July

## First Two Weeks of April

Resources

0.28 0.48 0.02 0.63 0.81 0.10 0.40 1.08 0.94 0.88 1.07 0.45 0.45 0.65
0.07 0.61 0.50 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.67 0.55 0.87 0.63 0.81 0.55 0.63

Data Collection Record the high and low temperatures in your town for one
week. Make a back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot with the data you collect.
Check students work.
During the rst 6 hours of a trip, you average 44 mi/h. During the last 4 hours
of your trip, you average 50 mi/h. What is your average speed for the whole
trip? (Hint: First nd the total number of miles traveled.) 46.4 mi/h

Standardized
Standardized
Test Prep Test Prep
Gridded Response

## For additional practice with a

variety of test item formats:
Standardized Test Prep, p. 129
Test-Taking Strategies, p. 124
Test-Taking Strategies with
Transparencies

Error Prevention
Exercise 35 Some students may
focus on finding the mean, the
median, and the mode, and
forget to find their sum. Tell
students to write sum beside
the problem on their paper to
help them remember.

32. You have a mean score of 84 after taking five 100-point tests. What do you
need to score on the sixth 100-point test to have a mean score of 85? 90
33. Five runners on the track team have the following times in seconds for the
100-meter dash. What is the difference between the mean and the median
of the following times? 0.04
10.2
10.6
11.9
9.9
10.6
34. The average speeds of the winners of the
Daytona 500 from 1995 to 2000 are listed at the
right. What is the mean in miles per hour of the
given speeds rounded to the nearest tenth? 155.7
35. Find the sum of the mean, the median,
and the mode of the following data:
22, 18, 17, 18, 25, 24, 24, 18. 58.75

## Take It to the NET

Online lesson quiz at
www.PHSchool.com

## 36. The average low temperature for a 4-day

period in January for the city of Orlando,
Florida, was 588F. After the fifth day, the
5-day average was 598F. What was the low
temperature on the fifth day? 63

Daytona 500
Year

Average Speed

1995

141.7 mi/h

1996

154.3 mi/h

1997

148.3 mi/h

1998

172.7 mi/h

1999

161.6 mi/h

2000

155.7 mi/h

Mixed Mixed
ReviewReview
Lesson 2-6

37. y = x + 4
xy4

Lesson 2-1

38. y = -x + 3
x3y

39. y = 10x + 4
y24
x 10

40. y = 2x + 9
y29
x 2

14

43. -a = 23
23

44. 2 5 = -22
110

41. x8 = -18
144

## 25a. A5.79, 5.75, 5.4, 1.2

B 5.56, 5.45, none, 2.9

## b. A mean. There are no

outliers.
B median. The mean is
thrown off by high
outliers.

123

## c. Plant A has better

quality control because
there is a smaller range.

123