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# Lecture 26

Shunt-series Feedback
Objectives:
1. Develop approach to deal with shunt-series topology.
2. Discuss characteristics of shunt-series topology
3. Develop a systematic procedure to calculate the closed loop gain of shunt-series
topology
4. Explain how to find the closed loop input and output resistances of shunt-series
topology
5. Give demonstrating examples.
At the end of this lecture you will be able to:
1. Understand the basic structure of shunt-series feedback
2. Recognize the effect of shunt-series feedback on amplifier circuit
characteristics
3. Analyze and design shunt-series topology
The practical structure of the shunt-series topology is shown in Fig. 1. The output current
is sampled and part of it is feedback as a voltage at the input port.

## Fig. 1 Shunt-series feedback amplifier (from Feedback1)

Circuit-A and circuit- can be derived from the shunt-series amplifier as follows:
(a) Ideally, port-2 will be represented by short circuit since current is sensed. This will be
achieved after neglecting the dependent source at port-2. Therefore, R22 at port-2
must be series resistor.
(b) The topology is current sampling current mixing. This implies that the dependent
source of port-1 should be current dependent current source. Hence the associated
resistance of this current source R11 must be connected in parallel.
Circuit-A of the shunt-series topology is shown in Fig. 2(a) after R11 is slide back in
shunt with the basic amplifier and R22 is connected back in series with the load. The

input to circuit-A should be current Iia and the desired output is current Ioa. By definition
A=Ioa/Iia.

Fig. 2: Rules for finding Circuit-A and circuit- for the shunt-series topology
R11 is found with port-2 open while R22 is obtained with port-1 short as shown in Fig.
2(b) and Fig. 2(c), respectively.
The feedback factor is calculated by applying a test current at port-2 and finding its
short circuit current response at port-1 as shown in Fig. 2 (d). Be careful with the
direction of If.
Ria
.
The input resistance of the shunt-series topology is expected to decrease Rif =
1 + A
Whereas, the output resistance will increase Rof = Roa (1 + A ) .
Example 1: Find A, , closed-loop gain, input and output resistances for the circuit of
Fig. 3. Assume o= 100, ro= 100k, Q-point for Q1:(IC1=1mA,
VCE1=1.13 V), Q-point for Q2:(IC2=1mA, VCE2=2.7V)

## Fig.3: Shunt-series Feedback amplifier based on BJTs

Important observations before the solution:
1. The feedback is emitter of Q2 to base of Q1. Since there is 180 phase difference
between the positive input of the amplifier (base of Q1) and the input of feedback
network, the feedback is negative. In other words, Iin of the amplifier and If are of
opposite direction).
2. The feedback is shunt-series topology. This can be explained as follows. It is clear
that when RL is shorted, Iout still flowing and IE2 0 which means that the feedback still
sustains (i.e. current sampling). When Vs and Rs are opened there is still feedback, this
means current mixing).
Solution:
1. Draw the small signal equivalent circuit and use source transformation to change the
input voltage to current source as shown in Fig. 4.

## Fig. 4: Small signal equivalent circuit of the amplifier of Fig. 3

2. Observe that the emitter current of Q2 is sampled and feedback as current at the base
of Q1. This means base of Q1 and emitter of Q2 are port-1 and port-2 of the feedback
network, respectively. With port-1 short, the value of the feedback current depends on
both resistors RE2 and Rf which form the feedback network.
3. Find R11. Use the rule and open port-2 to get R11=Rf+RE2.
4. Find R22. Use the rule and short port-1 to get R22= Rf||RE2.
5. Slide back R11 in parallel with input current source (R11 becomes between port-1 and
ground)
6. Slide back R22 in parallel (It becomes connected between port-2 and ground).
7. With the help of the previous three steps, circuit-A is formed as shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5: Circuit-A (Fig. 8.25 c) (Add current source Iia as input no need for Ii, Add Ioa at
the emmiter of Q2, Change Ri to Ria, Ro to Roa and Vpi to vbe, Rf+RE2 to R11,
Rf//Re2 to R22))
Apply a test voltage Iia and determine Ioa as follows:
By ohms law:
vbe1 = r 1 & RB & R11 & Rs I ia (1)
Apply RRR to R22 to becomes (1+o)R22 in series with r 2 .
Again by ohms law:
vb 2 = g m1vbe1[r 2 + (1 + o ) R22 ] & RC1 & ro1 (2)
By VDR:

(1 + o ) R22
vb 2 (3)
r 2 + (1 + o ) R22
By ohms law and using equations (1) to (3):
v
I oa = e 2
R22
ve 2 =

(1 + o ) R22
1
{ g m1[r 2 + (1 + o ) R22 ] & RC1 & ro1}( r 1 & RB & R11 & Rs ) I ia
R22 r 2 + (1 + o ) R22

## With gm1=40IC1=40mA/V, gm2=40IC2=40mA/V, r 1 = o / g m1 = 2.5k , and

r 2 = o / g m 2 = 2.5k , the open loop current gain becomes:
Ioa
= 426.9 A / A
A=
Iia
RC 2
Iout =
Ic2 =
RC 2 + RL
RC 2
Ic2 8
Iout

=
= (0.84) = 0.75mA / V
Vs
RC 2 + RL Vs 9

7. To find , short circuit port-1 and apply test current It. Find the short circuit feedback
current If from the circuit shown in Fig. 6 as follows:
By CDR:
I
1.3
RE 2
f =
=
= 0.115
11.3
I t R f + RE 2
Note that both A and are negative such that their multiplication will be positive. Hence
the feedback is negative.

Fig. 6: Circuit-
8. The required closed loop gain can be obtained as follows:
Io
A
426.9
Af = =
=
= 8.52 A / A
Is 1 + A
50.1
Ic 2 I o

0.99

=
=
Af = (
)(8.52) = 0.84mA / V
Vs I s Rs Rs
10k
The collector current Ic2 is divided between RC2 and RL.
9. The input resistance can be obtained as follows:
(a) Find input resistance of circuit-A: Ria = r 1 & RB & R11 & Rs 1.5k
Ria
1.5k
(b) Apply feedback equation for shunt at the input: Rif =
=
= 29.9
1 + A 50.1
(c) Extract the effect of Rs

Rin =

1
1
1

Rif Rs

= 30

## 10. Finally, the output resistance is found as follows:

(a) Find output resistance of circuit-A between Y-Y.
Open circuit Iia. This makes vbe1=0 and the dependent current source gm1vbe1
open-circuit. Then, applying IRRR to Q2 gives:
Roa =

RB 2
+ R 22 where RB 2 = (ro1 & RC1) + r 2
1 + o

## Roa = 0.11 + 1.15 = 1.26k

(b) Apply feedback equation for series at the output:
Rof = Roa (1 + A ) = 63.3k

(c) Rof is the feedback resistance in the emitter of Q2 but the required output
resistance should be calculated as seen from collector of Q2. Thus, we may use the
result of Example in the lecture about the series-series topology which
is Rout ro 3 (1 +

g m 3 r 3 Rof
r 3 + Rof + RC 2

## This equation becomes for this example as:

Rout ro 2 (1 +

g m 2 r 2 Rof
r 2 + Rof + ro1 & RC1

) = 8.55M