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Cometography
A Catalog of Comets
Volume 4: 19331959

Cometography is a multi-volume catalog of every comet observed throughout


history. It uses the most reliable orbits known to determine the distances from
the Earth and Sun at the time a comet was discovered and last observed, as
well as the largest and smallest angular distance to the Sun, most northerly and
southerly declination, closest distance to the Earth, and other details to enable
the reader to understand the physical appearance of each well-observed comet.
Volume 4 provides a complete discussion of each comet seen from 1933 to 1959.
It includes physical descriptions made throughout each comets apparition. The
comets are listed in chronological order, and each listing includes complete references to publications relating to the comet. This book is the most complete and
comprehensive collection of comet data available, and provides amateur and
professional astronomers, and historians of science, with a definitive reference
on comets through the ages.
Gary Kronk has held a life-long passion for astronomy, and has been researching historical information on comets ever since sighting Comet Kohoutek in
1973/74. His work has been published in numerous magazines, and in two
previous books Comets: A Descriptive Catalog (1984) and Meteor Showers: A
Descriptive Catalog (1988). Kronk holds positions in various astronomical societies, including Coordinator of the Comet Section of the Association of Lunar
and Planetary Observers, and Consultant for the American Meteor Society. The
International Astronomical Union (IAU) named minor planet 48300 Kronk, in
honor of the extensive research Gary Kronk has done in cometography.

Cometography
A Catalog of Comets
volume 4: 19331959

Gary W. Kronk

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, So Paulo


Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK
Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York
www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521585071
G. Kronk 2009
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the
provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part
may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published in print format 2008

ISBN-13

978-0-511-50818-9

eBook (NetLibrary)

ISBN-13

978-0-521-58507-1

hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy


of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication,
and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain,
accurate or appropriate.

Contents

vii

Introduction

xi

Acknowledgments

Catalog of Comets

589

Appendix 1: Uncertain Objects

602

Appendix 2: Periodical and Book Abbreviations

604

Person Index

615

Comet Designation Index

Introduction

The period of 193359 brought forth several improvements in the study of


comets, which led to more discoveries and longer periods of visibility. The
greatest advances came in the area of telescopes and photography.

Comet discoveries
The USA continued its dominance in discovering comets during this period,
with amateur and professional astronomers being given official credit for 60
discoveries. Following the USA were South Africa (24 discoveries), Slovakia
(19 discoveries), Japan (9 discoveries), Russia (8 discoveries), and Finland
(7 discoveries).
The most prolific comet discoverer of this period was A. Mrkos (Slovakia),
who found 11 new comets. Next in line were M. Honda (Japan) and L. C.
Peltier (USA), who each found 7 new comets, M. J. Bester (South Africa), who
found 6, and R. Burnham Jr. (USA) and D. du Toit (South Africa), who each
found 5. Honda and Peltier were both amateur astronomers, while Burnham
discovered comets as both an amateur and a professional astronomer.
Another important point concerning comets discovered during this
period was that many were found during surveys. The most successful were
the National GeographicPalomar Observatory Sky Survey, which found 11
comets during the period of 194955, and the Skalnate Pleso binocular comet
search program, which found 19 comets during the period of 194859.

Comet observations
Several very active comet observers mentioned in Cometography volume
3 continued to observe during most, if not all, of the period covered by
this volume. The most notable include G. van Biesbroeck, H. M. Jeffers, and
M. Beyer. The most notable observers to make their first observations during
these years were H. L. Giclas, A. F. A. L. Jones, and E. Roemer.
The most common type of observation remained those that are visual.
Visual observers usually provided estimates of the total magnitude, coma
diameter, and tail length, all of which are important when studying a comets
development. Although a few photographic observers obtained exposures
that were long enough to reveal these same parameters, most obtained short
exposures that enabled a comets position to be precisely measured. This
is why the reader will notice photographic observers frequently providing
fainter magnitudes, smaller coma diameters, and shorter tail lengths for the
brighter comets than the visual observers.
Although the Bobrovnikoff method of estimating comet magnitudes
was still being used, a new method was gaining in popularity. S. K.
vii

introduction

Vsekhsvyatskij (Russia) and W. H. Steavenson (England) had independently come up with a new technique. Where the Bobrovnikoff method
had the observer defocus both the comet and the star until they were about
the same size, the VsekhsvyatskijSteavenson method had the observer
memorize the brightness and diameter of the comet and then defocus stars
until they matched the memorized parameters. In other words, the new
method compared the focused comet with defocused stars. The method
was popularized by J. B. Sidgwick in his 1955 book Observational Astronomy
for Amateurs (Faber and Faber, London) and the technique became officially
known as the Sidgwick method.
As with previous volumes of Cometography, some observers provided
magnitude estimates of the nucleus. These magnitude estimates can vary
widely from one observer to the next, because the true nucleus is not really
being observed. Instead, the observers were seeing a compact condensation,
with the compactness varying according to the telescope type, telescope size,
and magnification being used.
The reflector was making a bigger impression during this period primarily because of the invention of the Schmidt camera. Bernhard Schmidt built
the first Schmidt camera in 1930 and it was used at Hamburg Observatory
(Germany). Schmidts camera was a mirror system, similar to the usual
reflector; however, it used a correcting lens and allowed very fast focal
ratios. The result was a telescope that could take wide-field photographs,
which would reveal faint objects during rather short exposures. Observatories around the world began installing Schmidt cameras, with some of
the largest being the 122-cm Samuel Oschin Schmidt Telescope (Palomar
Observatory, California, USA) in 1948, the 61-cm Curtis Schmidt Telescope
(University of Michigans Portage Lake Observatory, USA) in 1950, and the
80-cm Hamburg Schmidt Telescope (Hamburg Observatory) in 1954.
Of course, the Schmidt cameras would not have performed as well as
they did without good photographic plates. The films of choice at many
observatories became Kodaks 103aO and 103aE during the 1940s, which
were sensitive to blue and red, respectively. When used in conjunction with
the 122-cm Samuel Oschin Schmidt Telescope at Palomar Observatory, these
photographic plates allowed astronomers to obtain images of stars down
to about magnitude 1920. Several comets were found using this telescope
during the National GeographicPalomar Observatory Sky Survey of the
early 1950s. In fact, astronomers are still finding comet images on these old
survey plates at the present time!

Astronomical periodicals
The most dominant astronomical periodicals during the period covered
by this volume were the Astronomische Nachrichten, the Monthly Notices of
the Royal Astronomical Society, and the Astronomical Journal. Each published
articles and papers concerning comets in nearly every issue.
viii

introduction

The dissemination of news concerning comet discoveries was mostly handled by the Bureau Central Astronomique Circulaire, which was published in
Copenhagen (Denmark); however, two other publications played smaller
roles. These were the British Astronomical Association Circulars (England) and
the Astronomicheskij Tsirkulyar (Russia). Most of what the British Astronomical
Association Circulars published came from the Bureau Central Astronomique
Circulaire, however, much of what the Astronomicheskij Tsirkulyar published
rarely made it to other, more accessible, publications.

The most interesting comets from 1933 to 1959


Although this period enjoyed several naked-eye comets, exceptionally
bright comets did not appear until the 1940s. So, during the 1930s, observers
had to be content with C/1936 K1 (Peltier), C/1937 N1 (Finsler), and C/1939
H1 (JurlofAchmarofHassel), all of which peaked at magnitude 3.03.5.
C/1940 R2 (Cunningham) raised the hopes of observers when early calculations revealed the comet might attain a maximum magnitude of 2.6;
however, the comets rate of brightening began slowing about a month
before perihelion and it peaked at only magnitude 3.5, or about 6 magnitudes fainter than predicted!
Comet C/1941 B2 (de KockParaskevopoulos) became the brightest
comet since 1931. It was discovered about 2 weeks prior to passing closest to the sun and Earth. Several observers reported magnitudes around 2.5
during late January, while the maximum tail length attained 56.
The dearth of spectacular comets finally ended in the late 1940s and during
the next decade no less than four comets appeared that attained a maximum
brightness of 1 or possibly brighter.
Comet C/1947 X1 (Southern Comet) was independently discovered by
many people in the Southern Hemisphere during 1947 December 7 and 8. It
was then in evening twilight, about 14 from the sun. Magnitude estimates
ranged from 5 to +2, with most around 1, while the tail length eventually
reached 2530.
During the total solar eclipse of 1948 November 1, people located in Africa
saw a comet 2 from the sun with a tail pointing toward the horizon. Following the few minutes of totality, the comet remained hidden in the suns
glare for the next three days before it finally emerged in the morning sky.
The magnitude estimates at this time ranged from 4 to 2 and after a few
more days the tail attained a length of 1520.
The most spectacular comet discussed in this volume has to be C/1956
R1 (ArendRoland). The comet was discovered 5 months prior to passing
perihelion. Following the comets passing just 5 from the sun on 1957 April
16, it passed closest to Earth on April 20. During the next couple of days,
observers reported the magnitude was near 1, while the main tail extended
at least 15. Most interesting was the appearance of a sunward-pointing tail,
or anti-tail, that was about 1015 long. Photographs revealed an even more
ix

introduction

impressive display with the main tail 2530 long and the anti-tail about
15 long.
The last really bright naked-eye comet of the 1950s was C/1957 P1
(Mrkos). Appearing barely 3 months after the spectacular appearance of
C/1956 R1 (ArendRoland), there were numerous independent discoveries
around the time the comet was passing perihelion. The maximum brightness was then generally estimated as between magnitude 1 and 2. Maximum
visual tail lengths were around 25, while photographs revealed a tail at
least 16 long.
Periodic comet 7P/PonsWinnecke deserves attention, not because of a
bright naked-eye appearance, but because of an especially close approach to
Earth of 0.11 AU on 1939 July 1. Most visual observers reported a maximum
magnitude around 8 and a coma diameter of 34 during late June and
early July, using binoculars and telescopes; however, M. Beyer (Germany)
used a wide-field telescope to determine a maximum magnitude of 7 and a
maximum coma diameter of 10 , while F. de Roy (Belgium) saw the comet
with the naked-eye at magnitude 6 and noted a coma 2124 across.

Cometography
The format of this volume of Cometography is essentially the same as with
volume 3, except for one alteration. As mentioned in volume 3, a change was
going to be made in terms of how the full moon dates would be handled for
the annual comets. Although I had stated that a limit would be placed on
these dates, I opted to just not calculate them at all for these comets because
it really served no point. The comets affected included 29P/Schwassmann
Wachmann 1 and 39P/Oterma. As a couple of amateur and professional
astronomers pointed out, these two comets generally remained faint so that
observations were generally never made when the moon was in the sky.
Something that I have neglected to explain in previous volumes was how
I chose the orbits to display for each comet. The selection was simple, as
I tended to use either the most recent orbit or the one with the smallest
residuals. I converted all of the orbits to equinox 2000.0 myself. In looking
through B. G. Marsdens various editions of his Catalogue of Cometary Orbits,
I noticed that, in a few cases, he adjusted the orbit calculated by another
astronomer to a standard epoch. Since I was not interested in competing
with Marsdens excellent work, I decided not to include the epoch dates
in Cometography. Consequently, all of the orbits presented are as originally
published, with the exception of the conversion to equinox 2000.0.

Acknowledgments

I would like to express my gratitude to those individuals who played important roles in helping me finish this fourth volume of Cometography.
Thanks go to the librarians who assisted me at Linda Hall library (Kansas
City, Missouri, USA), Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois, USA),
St. Louis University (Missouri, USA), and Washington University (St. Louis,
Missouri, USA).
Thanks go to several people who helped me acquire sources. Antonio
Giambersio and Giovanni Sostero (Italy), Jonathan Shanklin (England),
Sebastian F. Hoenig, Gernot Burkhardt, and Wolfram Kollatschny
(Germany), Alex Scholten (Netherlands), Junichi Watanabe (Japan), Krisztian Sarneczky (Hungary), Kazimieras Cernis (Lithuania), Klim I. Churyumov (Kiev, Ukraine), Lucy Yeko (South African Astronomical Observatory,
South Africa), and Brian Skiff (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA).
Special thanks go to Reiner Stoss (Astronomisches Rechen-Institut,
Heidelberg, Germany) for copying and sending many important issues of
the IAU Circulars and the Astronomicheskij Tsirkulyar.
Special thanks go to Syuichi Nakano, who has promptly answered every
question I have ever sent to him and quite unexpectedly photocopied and
mailed a couple hundred issues of the Nakano Notes to me from the 1970s
and 1980s!
Special thanks go to Shireen Davies, librarian at the South African Astronomical Observatory. Over the last few years, Shireen e-mailed scans of
documents that I needed to properly cover the contributions made by both
the Union and Royal Observatories in South Africa. Sometimes, the answer
to my questions involved her prying into the observing logs of the Royal
Observatory.
Special thanks go to Maik Meyer, an amateur astronomer in Germany.
Maik was able to acquire numerous articles that I needed in order to fill
in key points within the manuscript. Our correspondence also proved very
valuable when evaluating observations and dates. He also translated several
key articles from German to English, as well as Russian to English.
Special thanks go to my friend Eric Young and the members of the River
Bend Astronomy Club for occasionally pulling me away from this very
time-consuming project for a few hours of relaxation doing what we all
enjoy as a group stargazing. This was the original inspiration for my
desire to learn more about comets, and it was always a nice break to bring
things back into perspective. Eric also continues to provide the cover art for
Cometography.
Of course, my most heartfelt thanks go to my family. My wife, Kathy,
never stops encouraging me in everything I do. My teenage sons, David

xi

acknowledgments

and Michael, never stop keeping my life interesting. My step-daughters,


Laura Davis and Mary Teissier du Cros, are two wonderful ladies who
have accepted me into their lives as if I was their father. I now sort of
know what it is like to have daughters and it is great! In addition, Mary
is a translator working in Bordeaux (France) and provided many excellent
French translations for me!

xii

Catalog of Comets

C/1933 D1 Discovered: 1933 February 16.1 ( = 0.60 AU, r = 1.01 AU, Elong. = 75)
(Peltier) Last seen: 1933 April 14.21 ( = 1.52 AU, r = 1.49 AU, Elong. = 68)
Closest to the Earth: 1933 February 23 (0.5575 AU)
1933 I = 1933a Calculated path: CEP (Disc), CAS (Feb. 17), PER (Feb. 23), TAU (Mar. 8), ORI
(Mar. 18)
L. C. Peltier (Delphos, Ohio, USA) was involved in a routine cometsweeping session on 1933 February 16.1, when he came across an object of
magnitude 8.6 at = 22h 48m , = +62. He immediately wired G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) for confirmation, but cloudy
skies were prevalent. Peltier sent a telegram to Harvard College Observatory (Massachusetts, USA) the next morning announcing his discovery.
Confirmation came on February 17.05, when van Biesbroeck detected the
comet in hazy skies. He described it as 9th magnitude, with a round centrally
condensed coma 5 across. H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA)
independently confirmed the comet with the 30-cm refractor on February
17.23. He estimated the magnitude as 9, and said the centrally condensed
coma was 2 across, but contained no stellar nucleus. Additional confirmation came on February 17.81, when R. Carrasco (Madrid Observatory,
Spain) estimated the photographic magnitude as 8. The comet attained its
most northerly declination of +62 on February 17. The comet was discovered a few days after it had passed perihelion, but was approaching
Earth.
On February 18, the magnitude was given as 8.6 by Peltier, 8.7 by van
Biesbroeck, 9 by P. Chofardet (Besancon, France), and 9.0 by M. Mundler

(Konigstuhl

Observatory, Heidelberg, Germany). Van Biesbroeck added


that the coma was 6 in diameter and extended mostly to PA 10. Chofardet said the centrally condensed coma was 1.5 across. On the 19th, the
magnitude was given as 8.1 by Peltier, 9 by C. D. Boyd and L. E. Cunningham (Harvard College Observatory, Massachusetts, USA) and Jeffers, 9.4
by van Biesbroeck, 10 by H. E. Burton (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, USA), and 10.0 by F. C. A. Schwassmann (Hamburg Observatory,
Bergedorf, Germany) and F. Kaiser (Wiesbaden, Germany). Jeffers said the
centrally condensed coma was 2 across, but contained no stellar nucleus.
Burton described the comet as diffuse. Kaiser noted a coma about 30 across.
On the 20th, the magnitude was given as 10.5 by R. R. E. Schorr (Hamburg
1

catalog of comets

Observatory) and 11 by Mundler.

Schorr noted the coma was 3 across,


while Mundler

estimated the nuclear magnitude as about 13. On the 21st,


the magnitude was given as 8.8 by Peltier and 10.5 by van Biesbroeck. Van
Biesbroeck said the coma was 30 across. On the 22nd, the magnitude was
given as 8.8 by Peltier and 9.4 by van Biesbroeck. Van Biesbroeck added that
the coma was 4 across and contained a well-condensed starlike nucleus of
magnitude 13. On February 23, the magnitude was given as 10 by B. Meyermann (Gottingen,

Germany) and 10.5 by H. Krumpholz (Vienna University


Observatory, Austria). Jeffers observed with the 30-cm refractor and noted
that the brightness was only slightly less than on the 19th. Krumpholz said
the coma was 2 across, with a distinct condensation. Jeffers added that the
centrally condensed coma was 2 across, but contained no stellar nucleus.
The comet was moving away from both the sun and Earth for the remainder of its apparition. On February 24, the magnitude was given as 8.4 by
van Biesbroeck, 8.7 by Peltier, 910 by Chofardet, and 11.0 by E. J. Delporte
(Uccle, Belgium). Burton said the comet was diffuse and barely visible in a
13-cm finder. Chofardet said the coma was 1.5 across, with a central condensation. Van Biesbroeck noted that the coma had expanded to 6 , while
a stellar nucleus shone at magnitude 13. On the 25th, the magnitude was
given as 10 by Chofardet and 10.5 by Kaiser. Chofardet said the nucleus was
poorly defined. Kaiser said the coma was 3 across, with a central condensation. On the 27th, M. Beyer (Hamburg, Germany) determined the magnitude
as 8.73. He said the coma was about 2 across. On February 28, the magnitude was given as 8.80 by Beyer, 9.2 by van Biesbroeck, 9.5 by Peltier and
Schwassmann, brighter than 10 by E. Warmbier (Poznan, Poland), and 11
by Krumpholz. Jeffers observed with the 30-cm refractor and noted that
the brightness was only slightly fainter than on the 19th. Beyer said the
nuclear magnitude was 11.8 and the coma diameter was 2.2 . Krumpholz
said the coma diameter was 1.5 . Warmbier noted a coma 3 across. He saw
no nucleus, but did see a faint central condensation. Jeffers added that the
centrally condensed coma was 2 across, but contained no stellar nucleus.
Moonlight interfered with observations during the first half of March. On
March 1, the magnitude was given as 8.98 by Beyer, 9.5 by Peltier, and 10 by
van Biesbroeck. Beyer noted the coma was about 2 across and exhibited a
nuclear magnitude of 12.3. Van Biesbroeck simply described the comet as a
well-condensed coma. The comet attained a maximum solar elongation of
82 on March 7. On the 13th, the magnitude was given as 9.97 by Beyer, 11
by Krumpholz, and 12 by Schwassmann. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude
was 12.7 and the coma was about 2 across. Krumpholz said the coma was
2 across, with little condensation. On March 15, the magnitude was given
as 10.5 by van Biesbroeck and 12 by Chofardet. Biesbroeck said the round
coma was 2 across and contained a nearly stellar nucleus of magnitude 13.
Chofardet said the nucleus was uncertain.
The comet seemed to fade more quickly during the last half of March.
On March 17, the magnitude was given as 10.2 by Peltier and 10.5 by van
2

catalog of comets

Biesbroeck. On the 20th, Beyer determined the total magnitude as 10.54 and
the nuclear magnitude as 13.0. On the 21st, Beyer gave the magnitude as
10.35 and Chofardet gave it as 12. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was
13.0 and the coma diameter was about 3 . On the 22nd, the magnitude was
given as 10.48 by Beyer, while photographic magnitudes of 13 and 14.5 were
provided by Jeffers and Schorr, respectively. Beyer said the coma diameter
was 2.5 . Jeffers said the comet was round and somewhat condensed in
the middle. On the 24th, the magnitude was given as 10.78 by Beyer, 12
by van Biesbroeck, and 13.0 by Kaiser. Krumpholz was no longer able to
see the comet in the 30-cm refractor. Beyer said the coma diameter was 1.8 .
Van Biesbroeck said the coma was 1 across and contained a sharp nucleus.
Kaiser noted the halo was about 30 across. On the 25th, Beyer gave
the magnitude as 11.06 and noted a coma 1.6 across. On the 26th, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 11.00. He said the nuclear magnitude was brighter
than 13.2, while the coma was 1.7 across. On the 27th, Beyer gave the visual
magnitude as 11.48, while Schorr provided a photographic magnitude of 14.
Beyer said the coma was 1.4 across. On March 28, van Biesbroeck estimated
the magnitude as 13.5. He said the round coma was 50 across and contained
a well-defined nucleus.
The last two detections of the comet came on April 14.18 and April 14.21,
when Jeffers obtained 30-minute exposures with the 91-cm Crossley reflector at Lick Observatory. He gave the position on the latter date as = 5h
59.6m , = 1 28 . Jeffers estimated the magnitude as 16.
The first orbits were published on February 20. C. M. Anderson Jr. and
A. B. Wyse used precise positions obtained on February 17 and 18, and
found a perihelion date of 1933 February 7.63. At the same time F. L. Whipple and L. E. Cunningham used three precise positions obtained between
February 17 and 19, and revealed a perihelion date of February 9.19. C.
Bergen used the same positions as the Harvard astronomers and found a
perihelion date of February 9.22. M. Davidson and A. C. D. Crommelin independently took positions from February 17, 18, and 19, and determined perihelion dates of February 6.98 and February 6.96, respectively. Among all of
these, the orbit by Davidson and Crommelin was closest. J. Lindgren calculated three orbits that gave perihelion dates ranging from February 6.49 to
February 6.77.
The only astronomers to use positions spanning the entire period of visibility were Anderson and Wyse. They took seven positions, reduced them
to three Normal places, and determined the perihelion date as February
6.70. This orbit is given below.
T
1933 Feb. 6.6990 (UT)

135.9874

 (2000.0)
312.4663

i
86.6786

q
1.000691

e
1.0

absolute magnitude: H0 = 9.9, n = 3.39 (Beyer, 1933); H10 = 10.2 (V1964)


full moon: Feb. 10, Mar. 12, Apr. 10, May 9

catalog of comets
sources: H. M. Jeffers, C. M. Anderson Jr., and A. B. Wyse, LOB, 16 (1933), p. 114,
11718; L. C. Peltier and G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 257 (1933 Feb. 17); C. M.
Anderson Jr., A. B. Wyse, F. L. Whipple, and L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 258
(1933 Feb. 20); R. Carrasco, G. van Biesbroeck, C. D. Boyd, L. E. Cunningham, and
C. Bergen, HAC, No. 259 (1933 Feb. 20); L. C. Peltier, R. Carrasco, M. Mundler,

F. C. A. Schwassmann, C. M. Anderson Jr., and A. B. Wyse, BZAN, 15 (1933 Feb.


21), p. 12; C. Bergen and G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 260 (1933 Feb. 23); C. M.
Anderson Jr. and A. B. Wyse, AN, 248 (1933 Feb. 24), p. 77; M. Mundler,

F. Kaiser,
R. R. E. Schorr, B. Meyermann, and H. Krumpholz, BZAN, 15 (1933 Feb. 27),
p. 13; C. M. Anderson Jr. and A. B. Wyse, HAC, No. 261 (1933 Feb. 27); L. C.
Peltier, G. van Biesbroeck, C. M. Anderson Jr., and A. B. Wyse, PA, 41 (1933 Mar.),
pp. 1656; L. C. Peltier, M. Davidson, A. C. D. Crommelin, C. M. Anderson Jr.,
and A. B. Wyse, The Observatory, 56 (1933 Mar.), p. 101; E. J. Delporte, F. Kaiser, M.
Beyer, F. C. A. Schwassmann, and E. Warmbier, BZAN, 15 (1933 Mar. 8), p. 15; M.
Beyer and F. C. A. Schwassmann, BZAN, 15 (1933 Mar. 20), p. 17; M. Beyer and
F. Kaiser, BZAN, 15 (1933 Mar. 30), p. 22; L. C. Peltier and G. Van Biesbroeck, PA,
41 (1933 Apr.), p. 217; H. M. Jeffers, HAC, No. 266 (1933 Apr. 3); R. R. E. Schorr,
BZAN, 15 (1933 Apr. 5), p. 24; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 43 (1933 Jun. 22), pp. 18,
21, 24; J. Lindgren, AN, 249 (1933 Aug. 12), p. 307; M. Beyer, AN, 250 (1933 Nov.
4), pp. 23346; P. Chofardet, JO, 17 (1934 Mar.), pp. 49, 51; H. Krumpholz, AN,
251 (1934 Mar. 3), pp. 199202; R. R. E. Schorr, AN, 251 (1934 Mar. 5), p. 212; H. E.
Burton, AJ, 50 (1942 Aug. 13), p. 26; V1964, p. 72.

7P/Pons Prerecovery: 1933 February 18.33 ( = 1.12 AU, r = 1.58 AU, Elong. = 97)
Winnecke Recovered: 1933 March 24.12 ( = 0.76 AU, r = 1.32 AU, Elong. = 97)
Last seen: 1933 September 22.92 ( = 1.01 AU, r = 1.90 AU, Elong. = 140)
1933 II = 1933b Closest to the Earth: 1933 May 14 (0.5416 AU)
Calculated path: SER (Pre), HER (Feb. 25), OPH (Mar. 9), AQL (Apr. 6), DEL
(Apr. 27), AQR (May 2), CET ( Jun. 12), SCL (Jul. 26), FOR (Aug. 5), SCL
(Aug. 16)
Using an orbit computed for the 1927 apparition, A. C. D. Crommelin
applied perturbations by Jupiter and integrated the comets motion forward. He predicted the comet would next arrive at perihelion on 1933 May
18.21. He noted an approach to within 0.5 AU of Jupiter. V. Guth also started
with the 1927 orbit and predicted the comet would arrive at perihelion on
May 19.00. Using Guths ephemeris, R. R. E. Schorr (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) photographed the comets predicted position on
March 2, but found nothing near it.
A. A. Wachmann (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) recovered this comet on 1933 March 24.12. He gave the position as = 17h 44.0m ,
= +9 27 , and estimated the magnitude as 14. The recovery was confirmed
on March 25.09, when F. C. A. Schwassmann and D. Werner-Starke (Hamburg Observatory) photographed the comet at magnitude 14.5. Shortly
after the announcement, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) rechecked his photographic plates exposed in his search for this
comet and identified an image far from the center of a plate exposed on
4

catalog of comets

March 24.45. The magnitude was 14.5. In addition, he found images near
the corner of plates exposed on February 18.33 and February 18.35. The
magnitude was then 15. The comet was found a little less than 2 months
from perihelion and its closest approach to Earth.
Van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector on
March 28. He gave the magnitude as 14.5 and noted a round coma about
15 across. On April 26, the magnitude was given as 13.0 by G. Adamopoulos
(National Observatory, Athens, Greece) and 14.5 by R. R. E. Schorr (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany). Schorr also gave the magnitude as
14.5 on the 27th and 14 on the 28th. On April 29, van Biesbroeck estimated
the photographic magnitude as 13 using the reflector. He said the coma was
described as well condensed and round.
The comet passed closest to both the sun and Earth during May. On
May 4, van Biesbroeck obtained a photographic magnitude of 12 using
the reflector. He said the coma was round with a central condensation. On
May 22, the comet reached a minimum elongation of 85. On the 23rd, van
Biesbroeck estimated the photographic magnitude as 11. He said the coma
was diffuse and 2 across, while the nucleus was well defined and exhibited
a jet extending 1 in PA 40. On May 27, E. L. Johnson (Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) photographed the comet using the 25-cm
FranklinAdams Star Camera and estimated the magnitude as 10.0.
The comet was moving away from both the sun and Earth as June began.
On June 2, van Biesbroeck gave the visual magnitude as 11 using the 102-cm
refractor. The coma was very diffuse and contained a nucleus measuring
more than 10 in diameter. On the 21st, van Biesbroeck found the comet
diffuse with a photographic magnitude of 10. On the 23rd, Johnson gave the
photographic magnitude as 9.5. He wrote that the comet was large, round,
diffuse with no stellar nucleus. On June 27, van Biesbroeck estimated the
photographic magnitude as 11.5, and said the coma was diffuse with hardly
any condensation.
The comet steadily faded during the remainder of its apparition. On July
3, van Biesbroeck photographed it using the 61-cm reflector and gave the
magnitude as 12. He also noted that the coma was faintly visible to a diameter of 2 , while the nucleus was very poorly defined and about 20 across.
On the 3rd and 17th, Johnson gave the photographic magnitude as 10.0. On
July 22, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 13. He said the
coma was very poorly defined and about 20 across. Johnson gave the photographic magnitude as 11.0 on August 2 and 13.0 on August 21. On August
25, Adamopoulos estimated the magnitude as 13.0. He said the comet was
30 across and exhibited ill-defined edges. On September 16, Johnson gave
the photographic magnitude as 13.5.
The comet was last detected on September 22.92, when Johnson estimated
the magnitude as 13.5. He gave the position as = 0h 59.8m , = 37 15 .
Both Crommelin and Guth used the early positions to correct their predicted orbits. Crommelin gave the perihelion date as May 18.68 and the
5

catalog of comets

period as 6.09 years. Guth gave the perihelion date as May 18.27. During October and November, Crommelin deduced orbits based exclusively
on positions obtained during this apparition. These gave perihelion dates
between May 18.78 and May 18.81, and periods between 6.10 and 6.16 years.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by B. G. Marsden (1968),
L. Y. Ananeva and E. A. Reznikov (1974), and Reznikov (1978). These
included perturbations by all nine planets. They gave the perihelion date as
May 18.7818.79 and the period as 6.09 years. Marsdens orbit is given below.
The nongravitational terms were given as A1 = +0.01 and A2 = +0.0024 by
B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans (1973).
T
1933 May 18.7803 (TT)

 (2000.0)
169.2593
97.5377

i
20.1146

q
e
1.101818 0.669664

absolute magnitude: H10 = 10.4 (V1964)


full moon: Feb. 10, Mar. 12, Apr. 10, May 9, Jun. 8, Jul. 7, Aug. 5, Sep. 4, Oct. 3
sources: A. C. D. Crommelin, BAA Handbook for 1933 (1932), p. 26; V. Guth, AN,
247 (1933 Feb. 8), p. 443; V. Guth, IAUC, No. 422 (1933 Feb. 14); V. Guth, The
Observatory, 56 (1933 Mar.), p. 102; R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN, 15 (1933 Mar. 8), p. 15;
A. A. Wachmann, F. C. A. Schwassmann, and D. Werner-Starke, BZAN, 15 (1933
Mar. 27), p. 21; A. A. Wachmann, HAC, No. 265 (1933 Mar. 27); A. A. Wachmann, The Observatory, 56 (1933 Apr.), p. 136; G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 266
(1933 Apr. 3); A. C. D. Crommelin and V. Guth, IAUC, No. 434 (1933 Apr. 8);
R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN, 15 (1933 Apr. 27), p. 27; R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN, 15 (1933
May 10), p. 32; The Observatory, 56 (1933 Jul.), pp. 2423; G. van Biesbroeck, PA,
41 (1933 Aug.Sep.), p. 405; G. Adamopoulos, IAUC, No. 450 (1933 Sep. 10);
A. C. D. Crommelin, The Observatory, 56 (1933 Oct.), p. 319; E. L. Johnson, BZAN,
15 (1933 Oct. 27), p. 68; A. C. D. Crommelin, JBAA, 44 (1933 Nov.), p. 39; E. L.
Johnson, UOC, No. 91 (1934 Jan. 29), p. 10; A. A. Wachmann, G. van Biesbroeck,
and A. C. D. Crommelin, MNRAS, 94 (1934 Feb.), pp. 3267; G. Adamopoulos,
JO, 17 (1934 Mar.), pp. 512; R. R. E. Schorr, AN, 251 (1934 Mar. 5), p. 212; G.
van Biesbroeck, AJ, 44 (1934 Aug. 31), pp. 1, 3, 5; V1964, p. 72; B. G. Marsden,
AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 3701; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 9 (1968 Sep.), pp. 31415;
B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.), p. 214; L.
Ya. Ananeva and E. A. Reznikov, QJRAS, 15 (1974 Dec.), pp. 4523, 459; E. A.
Reznikov, QJRAS, 19 (1978 Mar.), pp. 823, 88.

21P/Giacobini Recovered: 1933 April 23.08 ( = 1.64 AU, r = 1.51 AU, Elong. = 65)
Zinner Last seen: 1933 October 18.44 ( = 1.59 AU, r = 1.63 AU, Elong. = 74)
Closest to the Earth: 1933 June 30 (1.2365 AU)
1933 III = 1933c Calculated path: PEG (Rec), AND (May 31), PSC (Jun. 8), TRI (Jun. 19), ARI
(Jun. 28), TAU (Jul. 9), ORI (Aug. 6), TAU (Aug. 9), ORI (Aug. 11), MON
(Aug. 20), CMi (Sep. 4), MON (Sep. 13), HYA (Oct. 3), PUP (Oct. 14), HYA
(Oct. 15)
The comets recovery during this apparition began with a prediction by
F. R. Cripps (1932). He applied perturbations by Jupiter to a previously
6

catalog of comets

published orbit and predicted the comet would next reach perihelion on
1933 July 16.33. R. R. E. Schorr (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany)
recovered the comet on 1933 April 23.08. He gave the position as = 21h
34.1m , = +15 18 , and estimated the magnitude as 15.5. Schorr confirmed
the recovery on April 26.06, when he again estimated the magnitude as 15.5.
Calculations showed the comet was 1 day earlier than predicted by Cripps.
The comet was 2 months from its closest approach to Earth and nearly
3 months from perihelion.
On April 29, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA)
obtained a 5-minute exposure with the 61-cm reflector and simply described
the comet as quite vague. On May 21, Schorr gave the magnitude as 15. On
the 23rd, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 13.5. He described the
coma as round and noted a faint tail extending 3 in PA 255. On the 25th, van
Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 13.5 and saw a slender tail extending
4 in PA 260. On May 28, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 13.
On June 1, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 13.5. He noted a
small, ill-defined nucleus and a narrow tail extending over 5 in PA 262.
The comet attained its most northerly declination of +28 on June 17. On
the 21st, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 12.5. He said the coma was
25 in diameter and contained a fairly well-condensed nucleus. A faint tail
extended over 5 in PA 265. On the 27th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude
as 12 and observed a well-defined nucleus. On June 28 and 30, H. M. Jeffers
(Lick Observatory, California, USA) visually observed the comet using the
91-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 12.5. He said the coma was 0.3
across and well condensed, but with no stellar nucleus. Jeffers added that
the coma extended about 2 toward the west.
On July 3, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 11.5. He added that there
was a sharp nucleus and the very faint tail extended toward PA 265. On
the 22nd, Jeffers observed with the 91-cm refractor and said the comet was
slightly brighter than in June. He noted the coma was 0.3 across and well
condensed, but with no stellar nucleus. Jeffers added that the coma extended
about 2 toward the west. The comet attained a minimum elongation of
51 on July 24. On July 25 and 26, P. Finsler (Zurich,

Switzerland) visually
estimated the magnitude as 12.
On September 18, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 16.5. The
coma was quite diffuse, and the tail extended 1 in PA 270. On the 21st,
Jeffers photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and
gave the magnitude as 15.5. He said the well-condensed coma was about
0.3 across, with a small extension toward the west. On September 21 and
23, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 17. He said the coma was round
and 15 across, while the tail was hardly visible.
The comet was last detected on October 18.44, when van Biesbroeck photographed it with the 61-cm reflector at Yerkes Observatory. The comet
appeared as a tiny round coma of about magnitude 18. Van Biesbroeck
initially said that identity with this comet was somewhat doubtful,
7

catalog of comets

but orbital calculations proved this was definitely an observation of


P/GiacobiniZinner. The position was determined as = 8h 29.2m , =
12 36 .
Using positions from April and July, A. C. D. Crommelin calculated an
approximate elliptical orbit which gave the perihelion date as July 15.15
and the period as 6.60 years.
Calculations using multiple apparitions and planetary perturbations
were published by Y. V. Evdokimov (1956, 1958, 1972) and Yeomans (1972,
1986). These revealed a perihelion date of July 15.15 and a period of 6.60
years. Yeomans orbit is given below. Yeomans (1972) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.06584 and A2 = +0.010911. In the 1986 book
ESA Proceedings of the 20th ESLAB Symposium on the Exploration of Halleys Comet, Yeomans gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.4090 and
A2 = +0.0324.
T
1933 Jul. 15.1475 (TT)

 (2000.0)
171.7655 196.9463

i
30.6777

q
e
0.999529 0.715984

absolute magnitude: H10 = 12.1 (V1964)


full moon: Apr. 10, May 9, Jun. 8, Jul. 7, Aug. 5, Sep. 4, Oct. 3, Nov. 2
sources: F. R. Cripps, BAA Handbook for 1933 (1932), p. 28; R. R. E. Schorr, HAC,
No. 269 (1933 Apr. 26); R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN, 15 (1933 Apr. 27), p. 27; R. R. E.
Schorr, IAUC, No. 435 (1933 Apr. 27); R. R. E. Schorr, The Observatory, 56 (1933
May), p. 169; The Observatory, 56 (1933 Jun.), p. 204; R. R. E. Schorr and G. van
Biesbroeck, PA, 41 (1933 Jun.Jul.), p. 323; P. Finsler, BZAN, 15 (1933 Jul. 27),
p. 47; P. Finsler, BZAN, 15 (1933 Aug. 18), p. 52; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 17 (1934),
p. 5; R. R. E. Schorr, F. R. Cripps, and A. C. D. Crommelin, MNRAS, 94 (1934
Feb.), pp. 3267; R. R. E. Schorr, AN, 251 (1934 Mar. 5), p. 212; G. van Biesbroeck,
AJ, 44 (1934 Aug. 31), pp. 1, 3, 56; Y. V. Evdokimov, MNRAS, 116 (1956), pp. 226
7; Y. V. Evdokimov, MNRAS, 118 (1958), pp. 3967; V1964, p. 72; Y. V. Evdokimov
and D. K. Yeomans, IAUS, No. 45 (1972), pp. 173, 185; D. K. Yeomans, ESA Proceedings of the 20th ESLAB Symposium on the Exploration of Halleys Comet. Volume
2: Dust and Nucleus (1986), p. 424; D. K. Yeomans, QJRAS, 27 (1986 Mar.), p. 116.

14P/Wolf Recovered: 1933 July 25.27 ( = 2.00 AU, r = 2.85 AU, Elong. = 140)
Last seen: 1934 December 11.36 ( = 2.21 AU, r = 3.09 AU, Elong. = 148)
1934 I = 1933e Closest to the Earth: 1933 August 17 (1.9497 AU)
Calculated path: SGE (Rec), AQL (Sep. 1), DEL (Oct. 31), EQU (Nov. 24), AQR
(Nov. 29), PEG (Jan. 19), PSC (Jan. 28), ARI (Apr. 29), TAU (Jun. 21), ORI
(Aug. 11), ERI (Dec. 7)
Using an orbit computed by G. Merton and A. C. D. Crommelin for the
1925 apparition, W. P. Henderson and J. D. McNeile applied perturbations
by Jupiter and Saturn and predicted the comet would next arrive at perihelion on 1934 February 28.63. They wrote that the comet would be too close
to the sun for observations after January 1934. M. Kamienskis extensive
8

catalog of comets

investigations in the orbital motion of this comet predicted a perihelion


date of February 27.86.
Using an ephemeris calculated by Kamienski, H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) recovered this comet with the 91-cm Crossley reflector on 1933 July 25.27, at = 20h 07.9m , = +20 40 . He described the
comet as not quite stellar with a magnitude of about 18.5. Additional exposures on July 25.36 and July 25.43, confirmed the recovery. Jeffers obtained
another photographic observation on July 29.35, and again noted a magnitude of about 18.5. The indicated correction to Kamienskis prediction was
0.1 day.
On August 25, Jeffers successfully photographed the comet with the
91-cm Crossley reflector, and N. U. Mayall determined the magnitude
as 18.4 0.2, based upon a comparison with the polar sequence. Jeffers
obtained additional photographs of the comet on September 16, November
10, and November 11, before it moved into the glare of the sun. The comet
attained a southerly declination of +2 on December 23, before turning
northward.
The comet passed slightly over 2 from the sun on 1934 April 9 and
attained a northerly declination of +13 on June 21, before once again beginning its trek southward. Following its conjunction with the sun, the comet
was recovered on September 7 and confirmed on September 10, when Jeffers
obtained exposures ranging from 65 to 70 minutes using the 91-cm Crossley reflector. Jeffers obtained another photograph on September 14, from
which Mayall was able to determine the magnitude as 19.1, using the polar
sequence. A 60-minute exposure by Jeffers on October 15 also showed the
comet.
The last two detections of the comet were on December 11.30 and December 11.36, when Jeffers obtained 80-minute exposures with the 91-cm Crossley reflector. He gave the comets position as = 5h 05.0m , = 8 49 .
Jeffers noted that conditions were unusually favorable and described the
comet as round and about 3 across.
Kamienski and M. Bielicki (1934) calculated a revised orbit for this comet
based on Jeffers observations and found the perihelion date to be February
27.77. They added that the fact that the comet was 2 magnitudes fainter than
expected suggested it was undergoing dissipation and would possibly not
be observed at many more returns.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by Kamienski (1959),
D. K. Yeomans (1975, 1978), and E. I. Kazimirchak-Polonskaya (1977, 1978,
1982) and these revealed a perihelion date of February 27.76 and a period of
8.33 years. Yeomans (1975) and Kazimirchak-Polonskaya (1977) said nongravitational effects were apparently no longer active. Yeomans orbit is
given below.
T
1934 Feb. 27.7593 (TT)

 (2000.0)
160.8108 205.1150

i
27.2575

q
e
2.450275 0.403654

catalog of comets
absolute magnitude: H10 = 12.4 (V1964)
full moon: Jul. 7, Aug. 5, Sep. 4, Oct. 3, Nov. 2, Dec. 2, Dec. 31, 1934 Jan. 30,
Mar. 1, Mar. 31, Apr. 29, May 28, Jun. 27, Jul. 26, Aug. 24, Sep. 23, Oct. 22, Nov.
21, Dec. 20
sources: G. Merton and A. C. D. Crommelin, MNRAS, 86 (1926 Feb.), p. 226;
W. P. Henderson and J. D. McNeile, BAA Handbook for 1933 (1932), p. 29; H. M.
Jeffers, HAC, No. 272 (1933 Jul. 26); H. M. Jeffers, BZAN, 15 (1933 Jul. 27), p. 47;
M. Kamienski, BZAN, 15 (1933 Aug. 1), p. 48; H. M. Jeffers, HAC, No. 273 (1933
Aug. 7); M. Kamienski, AN, 249 (1933 Sep. 11), p. 419; H. M. Jeffers, PA, 41 (1933
Oct.), p. 440; H. M. Jeffers and N. U. Mayall, PASP, 45 (1933 Oct.), pp. 2601;
H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 17 (1934), p. 6; H. M. Jeffers and M. Kamienski, The Observatory, 57 (1934 Jan.), p. 38; M. Kamienski and M. Bielicki, BZAN, 16 (1934 Jan. 5),
p. 1; M. Kamienski and M. Bielicki, MNRAS, 94 (1934 Feb.), pp. 3267; H. M.
Jeffers, PASP, 46 (1934 Apr.), pp. 11011; M. Kamienski, The Observatory, 57
(1934 Apr.), pp. 13940; H. M. Jeffers and N. U. Mayall, HAC, No. 310 (1934
Sep. 24); H. M. Jeffers, BZAN, 16 (1934 Oct. 11), p. 61; H. M. Jeffers, PA, 42 (1934
Nov.), p. 508; H. M. Jeffers, The Observatory, 57 (1934 Nov.), p. 351; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 17 (1935), p. 123; M. Kamienski, MNRAS, 95 (1935 Feb.), pp. 3867;
M. Kamienski, AcA, 9 (1959), pp. 6672; V1964, p. 73; D. K. Yeomans, PASP,
87 (1975 Aug.), pp. 6356; E. I. Kazimirchak-Polonskaya, SvA, 21 (1977 Jan.
Feb.), pp. 10712; D. K. Yeomans and E. I. Kazimirchak-Polonskaya, QJRAS, 19
(1978 Mar.), pp. 523, 57; E. I. Kazimirchak-Polonskaya, CCO, 4th ed. (1982),
pp. 20, 52.

36P/1933 U1 Discovered: 1933 October 15.27 ( = 1.64 AU, r = 2.54 AU, Elong. = 149)
(Whipple) Last seen: 1935 March 28.30 ( = 3.47 AU, r = 4.04 AU, Elong. = 119)
Closest to the Earth: 1933 November 3 (1.5913 AU)
1933 IV = 1933f Calculated path: TAU (Disc), CET (Oct. 26), TAU (1934 Feb. 11), ORI (Apr. 14),
TAU (May 22), ORI (May 29), GEM (Jun. 19), CMi (Aug. 12), CNC (Aug.
20), HYA (Nov. 3), CNC (1935 Feb. 10)
F. L. Whipple (Harvard College Observatorys Oak Ridge Station, Massachusetts, USA) discovered this comet on the edge of a photograph exposed
with the 41-cm Metcalf telescope on 1933 October 15.27, at a position of
= 3h 25.3m , = +10 02 . The magnitude was estimated as 13, while a
tail was 3 long. He confirmed the comet on October 21.12 and October
21.40. Whipple estimated the magnitude as 13 and noted a tail 3 long on
all of these photographs. At the time of the discovery, the comet was over 2
months past perihelion, but was nearing its closest approach to Earth.
On October 22, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA)
described the comet as a small, round coma of magnitude 14, with a faint
tail extending over 3 in PA 280. F. C. A. Schwassmann and A. A. Wachmann (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) estimated the magnitude as 13.0. On the 24th, E. J. Delporte (Uccle, Belgium) noted a nucleus of
magnitude 15.0. On the 25th, P. C. Keenan (Yerkes Observatory) gave the
magnitude as 14.2. On October 31, Whipple and L. E. Cunningham gave the
magnitude as 13.5.
10

catalog of comets

As November began, the comet was passing closest to Earth and, thereafter, moved away from both the sun and Earth. On November 9, F. Kaiser
(Wiesbaden, Germany) gave the magnitude as 13.0. On November 10, the
comet attained a maximum elongation of 170. On the 11th and 13th, L. S.
Barnes and C. H. Barthelman (Harvard College Observatorys Oak Ridge
Station) gave the magnitude as 13.5. On the 15th and 16th, van Biesbroeck
gave the magnitude as 13.5 and noted the coma was round, while a tail was
still faintly visible on the preceding side. On the 18th, van Biesbroeck and
Keenan gave the magnitude as 14.5. On November 19, Kaiser estimated the
magnitude as 13.0.
The comets southward motion took it to a declination of +5 on December 16 and then it began moving northward again. On the 16th, R. R. E.
Schorr (Hamburg Observatory) gave the magnitude as 14. On the 18th, van
Biesbroeck described the comet as a round coma with a magnitude of 15.
On December 22, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 14.5 and said
the coma was 20 across, with a fairly sharp nucleus.
Only a few observatories maintained observations during 1934. On January 11, 16, and 17, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 15. The coma
was well defined, but the tail was no longer visible. On January 18, Barnes
and Barthelman estimated the magnitude as 15.0. On January 19, Barnes
and Barthelman estimated the magnitude as 15.0. On February 10 and 13,
van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 16. The coma was more diffuse
than in January and exhibited a broad extension in the fourth quadrant.
On March 5, H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) estimated the
magnitude as 16.5, using the 91-cm Crossley reflector. On March 10 and
11, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 16.5, while the coma was ill
defined and 10 across. On March 16, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 17, and described the coma as round and 8 across. On March
19, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 17. The coma was simply
described as tiny, containing a central condensation. The comet attained its
most northerly declination of +16 on June 7 before turning southward. It
passed 8 from the sun on July 3. Jeffers obtained observations on October
10 and 12 and gave the magnitude as 18 on each date. On November 5 and 7,
Jeffers estimated the magnitude as about 18. The comets southerly motion
again took it to a declination of +5 by December 23.
As Earth swung around its orbit, the distance between it and the comet
decreased to 2.897 AU on 1935 January 24. The comets elongation was also
increasing and it attained a maximum of 169 on February 2.
The comet was last detected on March 28.30, when Jeffers obtained a 120minute exposure with the 91-cm Crossley reflector which showed a weak
object of magnitude 19. C. D. Swanson gave the position as = 8h 22.9m ,
= +9 55 . Jeffers obtained a 90-minute exposure of the comets position
with the reflector on April 25, but the comet was not detected.
The first orbit calculated for this comet was an elliptical one by Whipple
and Cunningham. They took three positions from October 15, 21, and 22,
11

catalog of comets

and determined the perihelion date as 1933 July 8.43 and the period as 8.23
years. A few days later, A. D. Maxwell used the same positions to determine
a perihelion date of July 2.99 and a period of 8.53 years. Using positions from
October 15, 22, and 31, Whipple and Cunningham calculated a revised orbit
with a perihelion date of August 2.59 and a period of 7.49 years. They added
that the comet had apparently passed about 0.3 AU from Jupiter in May of
1922. Their orbit proved a very good representation of the true orbit, as
shown by the orbits of M. Davidson (1934), Maxwell (1934, 1936), and C. M.
Anderson Jr. and P. S. Riggs (1934).
Multiple apparition orbits were calculated by B. G. Marsden (1968, 1969,
1986), S. Nakano (2000), and P. Rocher (2005). All of these included planetary perturbations, while those published from 1969 onwards also solved for
nongravitational forces. The result was a perihelion date of August 1.44 and
a period of 7.50 years. Marsden (1968) noted a very slight secular acceleration. Marsden (1969) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.60516
and A2 = 0.062093. Nakano (2000) gave the nongravitational terms as
A1 = +0.332 and A2 = 0.05283. Rocher (2005) gave the nongravitational
terms as A1 = +0.49054 and A2 = 0.04709. Nakanos orbit is given below.
The comets close approach to Jupiter was examined by R. N. Thomas
(1948) and K. Kinoshita (2005). Thomas said the comet passed 0.26 AU from
Jupiter on 1922 June 14, while Kinoshita said it passed 0.2519 AU from
the planet on June 20. Thomas said the comets pre-encounter orbit had a
perihelion distance of 3.9 AU and a period of 10.3 years. Kinoshita said the
pre-encounter orbit had a perihelion distance of 4.23 AU and a period of
11.01 years.
T
1933 Aug. 1.4370 (TT)

 (2000.0)
190.5471 189.5088

i
10.2064

q
e
2.496923 0.348190

absolute magnitude: H10 = 8.0 (V1964)


full moon: Oct. 3, Nov. 2, Dec. 2, Dec. 31, 1934 Jan. 30, Mar. 1, Mar. 31, Apr. 29,
May 28, Jun. 27, Jul. 26, Aug. 24, Sep. 23, Oct. 22, Nov. 21, Dec. 20, 1935 Jan. 19,
Feb. 18, Mar. 20, Apr. 18
sources: F. L. Whipple, HAC, No. 283 (1933 Oct. 21); F. L. Whipple, L. E. Cunningham, and G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 284 (1933 Oct. 23); F. L. Whipple,
F. C. A. Schwassmann, A. A. Wachmann, and L. E. Cunningham, BZAN, 15 (1933
Oct. 27), p. 68; A. D. Maxwell, HAC, No. 286 (1933 Oct. 30); F. L. Whipple and
L. E. Cunningham, The Observatory, 56 (1933 Nov.), p. 350; F. L. Whipple and L. E.
Cunningham, HAC, No. 287 (1933 Nov. 3); F. L. Whipple and L. E. Cunningham,
The Observatory, 56 (1933 Nov.), p. 350; E. J. Delporte, BZAN, 15 (1933 Nov. 1),
p. 70; F. Kaiser, BZAN, 15 (1933 Nov. 17), p. 76; F. Kaiser, BZAN, 15 (1933 Nov. 25),
p. 78; F. L. Whipple and L. E. Cunningham, The Observatory, 56 (1933 Dec.), p. 378;
F. L. Whipple and L. E. Cunningham, AN, 250 (1933 Dec. 4), p. 363; H. M. Jeffers,
C. M. Anderson, Jr., and P. S. Riggs, LOB, 17 (1934), pp. 6, 335; G. van Biesbroeck,
PA, 42 (1934 Jan.), p. 49; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 42 (1934 Feb.), p. 86; M. Davidson, The Observatory, 57 (1934 Feb.), p. 75; G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory,

12

catalog of comets
57 (1934 Mar.), p. 106; R. R. E. Schorr, AN, 251 (1934 Mar. 5), p. 212; L. S. Barnes,
C. H. Barthelman, and H. M. Jeffers, HAC, No. 297 (1934 Apr. 3); H. M. Jeffers,
The Observatory, 57 (1934 May), p. 170; M. Davidson and A. D. Maxwell, The
Observatory, 57 (1934 Jun.), p. 202; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 44, (1934 Aug. 31),
pp. 1, 4, 6; H. M. Jeffers, HAC, No. 316 (1934 Nov. 26); H. M. Jeffers, BZAN,
16 (1934 Dec. 18), p. 76; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 17 (1935), p. 124; H. M. Jeffers, The
Observatory, 59 (1936 Jan.), p. 27; H. M. Jeffers, MNRAS, 96 (1936 Feb.), p. 345;
A. D. Maxwell, MNRAS, 97 (1937 Feb.), pp. 3345; A. D. Maxwell, MNRAS, 98
(1938 Feb.), pp. 3489; R. N. Thomas, AJ, 53 (1948 May), pp. 18891; V1964, p. 73;
B. G. Marsden, AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 370, 374; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 74 (1969 Jun.),
pp. 7256; B. G. Marsden, CCO, 5th ed. (1986), pp. 20, 54; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS,
27 (1986 Mar.), p. 116; S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 711 (2000 May 12); personal
correspondence from P. Rocher (2005).

2P/Encke Recovered: 1934 July 6.45 ( = 1.93 AU, r = 1.43 AU, Elong. = 46)
Last seen: 1934 September 3.19 ( = 1.26 AU, r = 0.46 AU, Elong. = 20)
1934 III = 1934a Closest to the Earth: 1934 August 28 (1.2481 AU)
Calculated path: TAU (Rec), AUR (Jul. 22), GEM (Aug. 11), CNC (Aug. 21),
LEO (Aug. 31)
A. C. D. Crommelin (1933) prepared an assumed set of elements for the
upcoming 1934 apparition. He predicted perihelion would occur between
1934 September 15 and 17. During the first half of 1934, L. Matkiewicz and
N. I. Idelson independently computed orbits for this comet and predicted
perihelion would occur on September 15.20 and September 15.23, respectively.
H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) tried to recover this
comet during the first half of July 1934. On 1934 July 6.45, the photographic
plate exposed with the 91-cm Crossley reflector had been fogged by moonlight and dawn, but a suspicious object was found at = 3h 34.6m , = +26
50 . This object was just visible as an uncondensed diffuse object of magnitude 16 and measured 0.2 in diameter. A plate exposed on July 9 was
centered just east of the ephemeris position and failed to show the object;
however, on July 10.44, Jeffers definitely found the comet at a position of
= 3h 48.8m , = +27 44 . The magnitude was estimated as 15, while the
coma was diffuse and measured 0.2 in diameter. Some condensation was
noted on this latter date. Another photograph was obtained by Jeffers on July
11.44, and showed the comet at magnitude 15, with a coma 0.2 across and
containing a not very sharp nucleus. Upon receiving Jeffers announcement, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) re-examined
a pair of photographic plates exposed with a 61-cm reflector on July 8.35,
and found the comet as a round diffuse coma about 15 across. The magnitude was estimated as 15.5, while only a slight trace of condensation was
noted.
Comet Encke remained at an elongation of 4047 during June 12August
13 (maximum elongation came on July 17) and it is obvious that it was
13

catalog of comets

detected almost as soon as its steadily increasing brightness permitted. On


July 15, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 15. He said the very
diffuse coma was about 25 in diameter. On the 18th, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 14.5. The coma was described as better defined (though
without a nucleus) and 20 across. On July 21, Jeffers gave the magnitude as
13 (91-cm Crossley reflector). He said the coma was 0.7 across and contained
a nonstellar nucleus eccentrically situated in the southwest portion.
The occurrence of a full moon on July 26 put a damper on observations
during the last week of July and during the first two weeks of August, but
observations resumed shortly before mid-August. The comet had attained
its most northerly declination of +31 on August 5. On August 9, D. Kotsakis
(National Observatory, Athens, Greece) described the comet as very diffuse
and irregular, with a total magnitude of 13. G. Adamopoulos (National
Observatory) observed using the 40-cm refractor and said the coma was
irregular, without a nucleus. He noted the condensation was elongated
toward the west-southwest. On the 10th, Adamopoulos gave the magnitude as 12 and noted a coma 80 across. On the 11th, Adamopoulos gave
the magnitude as 11.5 and noted it was visible in the 8-cm finder. Kotsakis
gave the magnitude as 11 on the 12th, 10.5 on the 13th, and 10 on the 14th.
He noted a distinct condensation on the 13th. On the 15th, Kotsakis said the
round coma contained a very distinct condensation. He added that from
time to time a weak nucleus was visible in the center of the condensation.
The comet continued to brighten during the last half of August. On
August 17, the magnitude was independently given as 9.5 by Adamopoulos
and van Biesbroeck. Adamopoulos said the coma was 80 across, while a
stellar nucleus was occasionally seen that was eccentric toward the westnorthwest. Van Biesbroeck described the comet as exhibiting a coma 20
in diameter, with a diffuse central condensation of magnitude 10.5, and a
broad tail extending about 3 in PA 80. On the 18th, van Biesbroeck noted the
coma was quite bright in central part, with a magnitude of 9.0, a nucleus
of magnitude 10, and a tail extending to PA 75. On the 20th, Kotsakis gave
the magnitude as 9.5. On the 21st, the magnitude was given as 8.5 by van
Biesbroeck and 9.2 by Adamopoulos. Van Biesbroeck determined the coma
diameter as 20 and said, The axis of the broad tail is in 75 degrees. The
nuclear magnitude was given as 9. Adamopoulos said the stellar nucleus
was magnitude 11.5 and eccentric toward the west-northwest. On the 22nd,
Adamopoulos gave the magnitude as 9.0 and said the coma was 70 across.
On the 28th and 29th, Adamopoulos gave the magnitude as 9.0. On the
former date, he noted a nucleus of magnitude 10.010.5. On the 30th, van
Biesbroeck found twilight too bright to allow photography, but visually saw
the comet and noted a well-defined nucleus and a magnitude that equalled
the star 79 Cancri (magnitude about 6.3). On August 31, Adamopoulos
observed using the 40-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 8.5.
The comet was last detected on September 3.19, when R. Carrasco (Madrid
Observatory, Spain) photographed it in morning twilight. He gave the
14

catalog of comets

position as = 9h 37.6m , = +18 26 . The comet was at a minimum elongation of 1 on September 17.
M. G. Sumner (1934) took positions from August 17, 23, and 29, and calculated an orbit with a perihelion date of September 15.26 and a period of
3.41 years.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by S. Y. Luchich (1958),
B. G. Marsden (1969, 1970), N. A. Bokhan and Y. A. Chernetenko (1974),
and Marsden and Z. Sekanina (1974). All of these orbits included planetary
perturbations, while those from 1969 and later also included the effects
of nongravitational terms. The result was a perihelion date of September
15.28 and a period of 3.28 years. Marsden and Sekanina (1974) gave the
nongravitational terms as A1 = 0.09 and A2 = 0.01144.
T
1934 Sep. 15.2835 (TT)

 (2000.0)
184.9229 335.6024

i
12.5678

q
e
0.331865 0.849813

absolute magnitude: H10 = 11.6 (V1964)


full moon: Jun. 27, Jul. 26, Aug. 24, Sep. 23
sources: A. C. D. Crommelin, BAA Handbook for 1934 (1933), p. 20; The Observatory, 56 (1933 Dec.), p. 379; H. M. Jeffers, HAC, No. 304 (1934 Jul. 11); H. M.
Jeffers, BZAN, 16 (1934 Jul. 13), p. 40; H. M. Jeffers and G. van Biesbroeck, HAC,
No. 305 (1934 Jul. 16); H. M. Jeffers, AN, 252 (1934 Jul. 31), p. 387; H. M. Jeffers,
PASP, 46 (1934 Aug.), pp. 2345; H. M. Jeffers, G. van Biesbroeck, L. Matkiewicz,
and N. I. Idelson, The Observatory, 57 (1934 Aug.), p. 260; H. M. Jeffers and G.
van Biesbroeck, PA, 42 (1934 Aug.Sep.), p. 391; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 42 (1934
Oct.), p. 464; H. M. Jeffers, PASP, 46 (1934 Oct.), pp. 2834; G. Adamopoulos, The
Observatory, 57 (1934 Oct.), p. 314; M. G. Sumner, JBAA, 45 (1934 Nov.), p. 49;
G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 57 (1934 Nov.), pp. 3501; G. Adamopoulos,
JO, 17 (1934 Dec.), pp. 1956; D. Kotsakis, AN, 254 (1934 Dec. 21), pp. 634; R.
Carrasco, Boletin Astronomico del Observatorio de Madrid, 2 (1935), p. 1; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 17 (1935), p. 124; L. Matkiewicz and N. I. Idelson, MNRAS, 95 (1935
Feb.), pp. 3867; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 45 (1935 Dec. 4), pp. 1719; [Madrid
Observatory], VJS, 71 (1936), p. 46; S. Y. Luchich, MNRAS, 119 (1959), pp. 4423;
V1964, p. 73; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 74 (1969 Jun.), pp. 7256, 72830; B. G. Marsden,
QJRAS, 11 (1970 Sep.), pp. 2323; N. A. Bokhan and Y. A. Chernetenko, QJRAS,
15 (1974 Dec.), pp. 4523, 459; B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina, AJ, 79 (1974 Mar.),
pp. 41319.

30P/1934 V1 Recovered: 1934 November 5.41 ( = 1.52 AU, r = 2.38 AU, Elong. = 142)
(Reinmuth 1) Last seen: 1935 April 7.10 ( = 1.85 AU, r = 1.87 AU, Elong. = 75)
Closest to the Earth: 1934 December 24 (1.2243 AU)
1935 II = 1934b Calculated path: ORI (Rec), TAU (Dec. 21), ORI (Mar. 28), GEM (Apr. 2)
The recovery of this comet began when J. T. Foxell and A. E. Levin (1934)
took the orbit for the 1928 apparition, applied perturbations by Jupiter and
Saturn, and predicted the next perihelion date would occur on 1935 May
15

catalog of comets

1.42. H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) recovered this comet


on 60-minute exposures obtained with the 91-cm Crossley reflector on 1934
November 5.41 and November 5.45. The position on the former date was
given as = 5h 11.8m , = +11 47 . He initially estimated the magnitude
as 16, but later revised it to 15, and noted a small extension of the coma
towards the west. The recovery was confirmed by Jeffers on November
7.35. The comet was described as fairly well condensed and 6 across. The
magnitude was also initially estimated as 16, but was later revised to 15.
Foxell and Levins predicted perihelion date proved to have been 0.36 days
too early.
On November 12, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin,
USA) obtained the first of several photographs of this comet using the
61-cm reflector. He estimated the magnitude as 16.5. The coma diameter
was 12 , while there was a little indication of an extension towards the
west. On November 15, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 16.
On December 2, the comet attained its most southerly declination of +11.
Jeffers then obtained two 40-minute exposures using the 91-cm Crossley
reflector, which revealed a magnitude of 13.5. He noted that the comet was
larger and rounder than in November. A 20-minute exposure was obtained
by van Biesbroeck, using the 61-cm reflector on December 11. He estimated
the magnitude as 15.5. Van Biesbroeck added that the coma was 15 across
and fanned out toward PA 260 where a tail extended 20 .
On 1935 January 3 and 4, van Biesbroeck said the comet was very diffuse, with a coma diameter of 20 and a magnitude of 15. On January 24,
van Biesbroeck said the coma was round with a magnitude of 15.5. On January 24 and 31, Jeffers examined 20-minute exposures obtained by C. D.
Swanson, while using the 91-cm Crossley reflector. Jeffers estimated the
magnitude as 13.5 and noted the comet was larger and rounder than in
November. On February 6, R. R. E. Schorr (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) estimated the photographic magnitude as 16. On February
26, van Biesbroeck estimated the photographic magnitude as 15, while a
faint indication of a tail was noted to PA 100. On February 27, van Biesbroeck estimated the photographic magnitude as 15. The coma was round,
20 across, and a faint broad tail extended 1.5 in PA 110. On March 5, Schorr
estimated the photographic magnitude as 16. On March 29, van Biesbroeck
estimated the photographic magnitude as 16.
The comet was last detected on April 7.10, when van Biesbroeck obtained
a 20-minute exposure with the 61-cm reflector. He described it as 12 in
diameter, with a little indication of tail in the following side. The magnitude was 16.5. The position was determined as = 6h 07.3m , = +23 09 .
The moon was full on April 18.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by S. Kanda and H. Hirose
(1936), F. R. Cripps (1949), G. Merton (1949), and B. G. Marsden (1979). The
perihelion date was given as April 29.77 by Kanda and Hirose, April 29.87 by
Cripps, April 29.91 by Merton, and April 29.90 by Marsden. Marsdens orbit
16

catalog of comets

was the first to use more than five positions from the first two apparitions,
as well as perturbations by all nine planets. His orbit is given below.
T
1935 Apr. 29.8992 (TT)

8.8400

 (2000.0)
125.8266

i
8.0615

q
e
1.855917 0.503541

absolute magnitude: H10 = 11.5 (V1964)


full moon: Oct. 22, Nov. 21, Dec. 20, 1935 Jan. 19, Feb. 18, Mar. 20, Apr. 18
sources: J. T. Foxell and A. E. Levin, BAA Handbook for 1935 (1934), p. 23; H. M.
Jeffers, HAC, No. 313 (1934 Nov. 6); H. M. Jeffers, BZAN, 16 (1934 Nov. 9), p. 68;
H. M. Jeffers, HAC, No. 316 (1934 Nov. 26); H. M. Jeffers, PA, 42 (1934 Dec.),
p. 593; H. M. Jeffers, J. T. Foxell, and A. E. Levin, The Observatory, 57 (1934 Dec.),
p. 391; H. M. Jeffers, BZAN, 16 (1934 Dec. 18), p. 76; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 17
(1935), p. 124; H. M. Jeffers, The Observatory, 58 (1935 Jan.), pp. 301; J. T. Foxell
and A. E. Levin, MNRAS, 95 (1935 Feb.), pp. 3867; R. R. E. Schorr, AN, 254 (1935
Feb. 14), p. 247; R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN, 17 (1935 Feb. 17), p. 11; R. R. E. Schorr, The
Observatory, 58 (1935 Mar.), p. 99; R. R. E. Schorr, IAUC, No. 524 (1935 Mar. 9);
R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN, 17 (1935 Mar. 11), p. 17; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 43 (1935
Apr.), p. 256; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 43 (1935 May), p. 306; G. van Biesbroeck,
AJ, 45 (1935 Dec. 4), pp. 17, 19; R. R. E. Schorr, AN, 262 (1937 Mar. 8), p. 33; S.
Kanda and H. Hirose, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 1089, 112; F. R. Cripps and G.
Merton, MNRAS, 109 (1949), pp. 2545; V1964, p. 73; B. G. Marsden, CCO, 3rd
ed. (1979), pp. 24, 51; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 26 (1985 Mar.), p. 79.

31P/1934 X1 Recovered: 1934 December 11.11 ( = 2.05 AU, r = 2.76 AU, Elong. = 126)
(Schwassmann Last seen: 1936 June 10.29 ( = 2.31 AU, r = 2.87 AU, Elong. = 113)
Wachmann 2) Closest to the Earth: 1936 March 24 (1.5938 AU)
Calculated path: PSC (Rec), CET (Jan. 29), ARI (Feb. 11), TAU (Mar. 26), ORI
1935 III = 1934c (Jun. 5), GEM (Jun. 10), CNC (Jul. 30), LEO (Sep. 3), VIR (Nov. 8)
F. K. Zweck (1934) computed the perturbations for the period of 192935.
He determined the likely perihelion date as 1935 August 17.9. During 1934
November, H. Q. Rasmusen took the 1929 orbit computed by S. Kanda and
applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn. He predicted the next perihelion would occur on 1935 August 31.39. P. J. Harris and J. D. McNeile (1934)
applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn to an orbit computed for the
1929 apparition and predicted the comet would next arrive at perihelion on
August 24.1.
Using a search ephemeris published by Zweck, A. A. Wachmann found
an object within 2 of the predicted position on 1934 August 15.03. It was
described as stellar and, with a magnitude of 12, it was 2 magnitudes
brighter than expected. The object was confirmed by L. E. Cunningham on
August 16.32 and 17.25, who described it as perfectly stellar, with a magnitude of 11. Cunningham was at once suspicious of the object and calculated
a circular orbit based on his two positions and found a very close agreement
with the asteroid Nysa (44). A comparison with the predicted position and
17

catalog of comets

motion of that asteroid immediately confirmed this finding and the search
for P/SchwassmannWachmann 2 continued.
Using an ephemeris computed by Rasmusen, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes
Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) recovered this comet on 1934 December 11.11,
at = 1h 43.4m , = +5 22 . It was photographed with the 61-cm reflector
and was described as fuzzy, with a magnitude of 16. Van Biesbroeck
confirmed the observation on December 12.11, and described the comet
as round and diffuse, with a magnitude 16.5. The coma was 8 across. On
December 13.24, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 16. A welldefined, broad tail extended over 1 in PA 35. The comets perihelion date
ended up being 2.6 days earlier than predicted.
This was not a particularly favorable apparition for the comet as perihelion occurred on the opposite side of the sun from Earth, meaning that the
comet was lost in the suns glare when at its brightest. It therefore remained
a faint object during this apparition and was only visible to the larger telescopes in the world. Photographs by van Biesbroeck on 1935 January 3 and
4 revealed a round coma about 20 across, with a magnitude of 15.4. There
was also a faint tail extending toward PA 50. On the 24th, van Biesbroeck
obtained another image which revealed the comet was fairly well defined
and magnitude 15.5. The short tail extended toward PA 70. On January 31,
H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) photographed the comet
using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 14. He noted
that 20- and 30-minute exposures showed a trace of a tail extending 0.2
towards the east.
On February 6, R. R. E. Schorr (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) photographed the comet using the 100-cm reflector and estimated
the magnitude as 15. On February 27, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as
15.5. He said the round coma was about 15 across, while the tail extended
about 2 in PA 80. Van Biesbroeck considered the tail a rather unexpected
feature for so faint an object.
The comet was last observed before entering twilight on March 5.84, when
Schorr estimated the magnitude as 16.5. The comet was in conjunction with
the sun throughout the spring and summer months. It attained its most
northerly declination of +22 on June 17 and passed about 1 from the sun
on July 7. The comet finally emerged from the suns glare in November, when
van Biesbroeck photographed it on the 23rd. He said the coma was round
and magnitude 15, while the tail extended 3 in PA 300. It was photographed
by Jeffers on November 28, at which time the magnitude was given as 15
and the tail extended 23 toward the west. Van Biesbroeck again photographed the comet on December 2. He estimated the magnitude as 15.5,
and noted a short tail extending toward PA 305.
On 1936 January 24, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 16 and
said a 20-minute exposure hardly revealed the tail. On January 28, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 16 and noted a faint indication
of a tail extending to PA 310. Van Biesbroeck photographed the comet
18

catalog of comets

on February 1 and gave the magnitude as 16. He said the coma was well
defined and the tail extended 2 in PA 305. The comet attained its most
southerly declination of 5 on February 7. Van Biesbroeck photographed
it on March 18 and gave the magnitude as 15. He said the round coma was
about 20 across. On April 12, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 14.5. He said the coma was 25 in diameter and extended to PA 170.
There was also a well-defined nucleus. On April 15, van Biesbroeck gave
the photographic magnitude as 14, while the coma was described as over
40 across under very transparent skies. Jeffers photographed the comet
on April 16 and gave the magnitude as 16. He said a 20-minute exposure
hardly revealed the tail. Van Biesbroeck photographed the comet on April
17 and 18 and gave the magnitude as 14.5. On the first date, van Biesbroeck
said the coma was centrally condensed, while, on the second date, he noted
the round coma was about 30 across. On April 22, van Biesbroeck gave the
photographic magnitude as 15 and the coma diameter as 20 across. Van
Biesbroeck photographed the comet on May 14 and 17 and gave the magnitude as 16.5. On May 20, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude
as 17.5 and the hardly measurable diffuse coma as about 30 across.
The last two observations of the comet came on June 10.26 and June 10.29,
when Jeffers obtained 30- and 40-minute exposures with the 91-cm Crossley
reflector. For the latter date, he gave the position as = 12h 52.4m , =
0 37 . Jeffers estimated the magnitude as 17.5, and described the comet as
diffuse, with a diameter of a few seconds of arc. Jeffers obtained a 1-hour
exposure with the 91-cm Crossley reflector on July 17, but the comet was
not found.
Very similar orbits have been computed by a number of astronomers
during the last few decades. While the comet was still in the sky, Rasmusen
(1935) did an elaborate investigation of the comets motion back to 1920.
He noted the comet passed only 0.179 AU from Jupiter on 1926 March 26,
but even more remarkable was the fact that the comet stayed within 2 AU
of Jupiter from 1921 March until 1928 March. Prior to this encounter the
comets orbit had a perihelion distance of 3.55 AU and an orbital period of
9.31 years. Multiple apparition orbits were computed by Rasmusen (1953),
B. G. Marsden (1968, 1969, and 1973), and G. Forti (1983), which gave the
perihelion date as August 28.63 and the period as 6.42 years. The 1973 orbit
of Marsden and that of Forti included the effects of nongravitational forces,
with Fortis terms being A1 = +0.76 and A2 = 0.1863.
T
1935 Aug. 28.6272 (TT)

 (2000.0)
358.0700 126.9131

i
3.7241

q
e
2.094649 0.393889

absolute magnitude: H10 = 9.9 (V1964)


full moon: Dec. 20, 1935 Jan. 19, Feb. 18, Mar. 20, Apr. 18, May 18, Jun. 16, Jul.
16, Aug. 14, Sep. 12, Oct. 12, Nov. 10, Dec. 10, 1936 Jan. 8, Feb. 7, Mar. 8, Apr. 6,
May 6, Jun. 5

19

catalog of comets
sources: P. J. Harris and J. D. McNeile, BAA Handbook for 1935 (1934), p. 25; A. A.
Wachmann, BZAN, 16 (1934 Aug. 15), p. 46; A. A. Wachmann, HAC, No. 306 (1934
Aug. 15); L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 307 (1934 Aug. 20); F. K. Zweck and A. A.
Wachmann, The Observatory, 57 (1934 Sep.), pp. 2867; L. E. Cunningham, BZAN,
16 (1934 Sep. 6), p. 52; A. A. Wachmann and L. E. Cunningham, The Observatory,
57 (1934 Oct.), p. 313; A. A. Wachmann, PA, 42 (1934 Oct.), pp. 4645; H. Q.
Rasmusen, AN, 253 (1934 Nov. 13), pp. 42730; G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 317
(1934 Dec. 12); G. van Biesbroeck, BZAN, 16 (1934 Dec. 18), p. 76; H. M. Jeffers,
LOB, 17 (1935), p. 124; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 43 (1935 Jan.), pp. 601; G. van
Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 58 (1935 Jan.), p. 30; G. van Biesbroeck, BZAN, 17
(1935 Jan. 7), p. 1; L. E. Cunningham, G. van Biesbroeck, H. Q. Rasmusen, P. J.
Harris, and J. D. McNeile, MNRAS, 95 (1935 Feb.), pp. 3867; R. R. E. Schorr, AN,
254 (1935 Feb. 14), p. 247; R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN, 17 (1935 Feb. 17), p. 11; R. R. E.
Schorr, The Observatory, 58 (1935 Mar.), p. 99; R. R. E. Schorr, IAUC, No. 524
(1935 Mar. 9); R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN, 17 (1935 Mar. 11), p. 17; G. van Biesbroeck,
PA, 43 (1935 Apr.), p. 256; G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 355 (1935 Nov. 27); G.
van Biesbroeck, PA, 43 (1935 Dec.), p. 654; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 45 (1935 Dec.
4), pp. 1819; G. van Biesbroeck, BZAN, 17 (1935 Dec. 23), p. 74; H. M. Jeffers,
LOB, 17 (1936), p. 193; G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 59 (1936 Jan.), p. 27;
G. van Biesbroeck, BZAN, 18 (1936 Jan. 6), p. 1; H. Q. Rasmusen, MNRAS, 96
(1936 Feb.), pp. 3457; G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 59 (1936 May), p. 175;
H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 18 (1937), pp. 85; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 46 (1937 Jan. 2),
pp. 1, 35; R. R. E. Schorr, AN, 262 (1937 Mar. 8), p. 33; H. Q. Rasmusen, MNRAS,
113 (1953), pp. 3901; H. Q. Rasmusen, MNRAS, 116 (1956), pp. 2267; H. Q.
Rasmusen, QJRAS, 1 (1960 Dec.), pp. 2323; V1964, p. 73; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 73
(1968 Jun.), pp. 373, 375; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 9 (1968 Sep.), pp. 31415; B. G.
Marsden, QJRAS, 10 (1969 Sep.), pp. 2523; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 74 (1969 Jun.),
pp. 7214; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 14 (1973 Dec.), pp. 4045; G. Forti, AAP, 126
(1983), pp. 30710.

C/1935 A1 Discovered: 1935 January 7.78 ( = 1.11 AU, r = 1.22 AU, Elong. = 70)
(Johnson) Last seen: 1935 May 24.27 ( = 1.48 AU, r = 1.71 AU, Elong. = 84)
Closest to the Earth: 1935 February 11 (0.8530 AU)
1935 I = 1935a Calculated path: PHE (Disc), SCL (Jan. 18), CET (Jan. 28), PSC (Feb. 13), AND
(Mar. 5), CAS (Mar. 17), CEP (Apr. 9), DRA (May 4), UMi (May 16)
E. L. Johnson (Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) was using
the 25-cm FranklinAdams Star Camera for the purpose of filling some
of the remaining gaps in a series of star charts of the Southern Hemisphere.
On the evening of 1935 January 7, he exposed two photographs, one centered
at = 0h 45m , = 52, and the other centered at = 1h 15m , = 52. The
first plate was exposed for 30 minutes, while the second, being interrupted
by clouds, was exposed for 22.5 minutes. The following morning the plates
were developed and examined. Johnson discovered a short, diffuse trail on
the first photograph exposed on 1935 January 7.78. The position was given
= 0h 59.6m , = 52 05 , and the comets image appeared large and faint,
without a nucleus, and with a magnitude of 10.0. Due to some overlap
20

catalog of comets

between the two plates, the comet also appeared on the second plate, so
that the possibility of a false object was immediately ruled out. Johnson
confirmed the comet on January 8.77. It was described as diffuse, with a
magnitude of 10. He then announced the discovery to the Central Bureau in
Copenhagen (Denmark). At the time of discovery, the comet was heading
toward both the sun and Earth.
On January 9 and 12, H. E. Wood (Union Observatory) gave the magnitude as 10. He described the comet as large, rather faint, and without
a nucleus. Johnson visually saw the comet through a 23-cm telescope on
January 24 and gave the magnitude as 9. He said the comet was large,
diffuse, without a stellar nucleus. On the 30th, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes
Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) gave the magnitude as 9.7. He added that
the coma was constructed of a bright inner portion about 20 across surrounded by a much fainter outer portion measuring 34 across. There was
no nucleus or tail. On January 31, K. Graff (Arenal, Spain) gave the magnitude as 9.2. He said the comet appeared washed out, with no nucleus. He
added that the coma was 2 across.
The comet was closest to Earth near mid-February. On February 1, Johnson visually observed with the 15-cm telescope and estimated the magnitude as 9. He said the comet was large and diffuse, with no nucleus. Van
Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.8 on the 4th and noted the brighter
portion of the coma had increased to 30 , but there was still no nucleus. On
February 6, Graff gave the magnitude as 9.1, while R. R. E. Schorr (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) said the coma was 1.5 across and
contained no nucleus. On February 7, the magnitude was given as 8.5 by
van Biesbroeck and 9.0 by F. Kaiser (Wiesbaden, Germany). Van Biesbroeck
said the comet seemed more condensed. H. Krumpholz (Vienna, Austria)
said the round coma was 3 across and contained a small condensation, but
no nucleus. Kaiser said the coma was diffuse and 2 across, but exhibited
no tail. A. A. Wachmann (Hamburg Observatory) described the comet as
diffuse, 23 across, without a nucleus. Johnson saw the comet on February
8, using a 15-cm refractor. He estimated the magnitude as 8.5 and described
the comet as large and diffuse, with no nucleus. On February 9 and 11, S. I.
Beljawsky (Simeis Observatory, Crimea, Ukraine) estimated the magnitude
as 9.0. Also on the 11th, H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA)
observed the comet in moonlight with the 30-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 10.5. He said the comet was faint, diffuse, and about 0.8 across. On
the 12th, Johnson gave the magnitude as 8.5. He said the coma was round
and more condensed, but still contained no nucleus. On February 14, A.
Schmitt (Alger, now al-Jazair, Algeria) said the comet was diffuse, without
a nucleus, and 45 across. Schmitt gave the coma diameter as 1 on the 15th
and 17th.
The comet passed perihelion near the end of February. On February 19,
Krumpholz gave the magnitude as 9.5. He noted a distinct condensation,
but no nucleus. Schmitt said the round coma was 1 across, but contained
21

catalog of comets

no nucleus. On the 20th, G. Adamopoulos (National Observatory, Athens,


Greece) gave the magnitude as 8.7. He said the coma was round and 1 across,
while there was a central condensation, and a possible stellar nucleus. P.
Chofardet (Besancon, France) said the round coma was 2 across. J. Franz
(Bautzen, Germany) said the comet was easily visible in the 13-cm comet
seeker as a condensed nebulosity. On the 21st, the magnitude was given as
8.8 by van Biesbroeck and 9.3 by N. Rudsky (Kiev, Ukraine). Van Biesbroeck
said the coma seemed smaller and more condensed, but there was still
no nucleus. Schmitt said the round coma was 1 across, but contained no
nucleus. On the 22nd, the magnitude was given as 8.59.0 by Adamopoulos
and 9.0 by Rudsky. Adamopoulos said the coma was 1.5 across, with a
condensation 20 across. There was also a stellar nucleus of magnitude 12.0
12.5, which was eccentrically situated towards the east-northeast. Jeffers
said the comet appeared diffuse in the 30-cm refractor. On the 24th, the
magnitude was given as 8.6 by Rudsky, 9.0 by C. Fedtke (Konigsberg,

now
Kaliningrad, Russia), and 9.2 by A. D. Dubiago (University Observatory,
Kazan, Russia). The coma was described as round and 1.5 across by Schmitt
and condensed and 3 across by Fedtke. Fedtke saw no nucleus. On February
25 and 28, Adamopoulos gave the magnitude as 8.8. He said the coma was
2 across, while the condensation was 25 across. The stellar nucleus was
situated just east of the condensations center and was magnitude 11.011.5.
On the 26th, the magnitude was given as 8.4 by van Biesbroeck, 8.55 by
Graff, and 8.78 by M. Beyer (Hamburg, Germany). Beyer said the coma was
round and 3 across. On the 27th, the magnitude was given as 8.6 by van
Biesbroeck, 9.2 by Krumpholz, and 9.5 by Dubiago. Schmitt said the round
coma was 1.5 across. Van Biesbroeck said a 20-minute exposure showed a
diffuse outer coma 2.8 across, while the central, brighter part was about 1
across. A minute stellar nucleus was occasionally suspected. A threadlike
filament extended from the nucleus to PA 60. It widened at 10 from the
nucleus and was about 35 long. On February 28, van Biesbroeck gave the
magnitude as 9.0. He said the coma diameter was 2.1 , while the tail noted
on the previous night had become fainter. The nucleus was more sharply
defined to PA 60, or at the root of the tail, while it was more diffuse in
the opposite direction. He noted that this gave the nucleus a slightly pearshaped appearance.
The comet was moving away from both the sun and Earth as March began.
On March 2, the visual magnitude was given as 8.7 by van Biesbroeck,
while the photographic magnitude was estimated as 10.5 by P. Vocca. Van
Biesbroeck said the coma diameter was 1.5 . The threadlike tail extended 4
in PA 51, but instead of gradually widening or diffusing to invisibility, it
just abruptly stopped. On the 3rd, Beyer and Fedtke independently gave
the magnitude as 8.8 and the coma diameter as 3 . Beyer said the coma was
round, while Fedtke noted a strong central condensation. On the 4th, the
magnitude was given as 8.8 by Fedtke and 8.85 by Beyer. Beyer said the
coma was round and 3 across. On the 5th, the magnitude was given as 8.6
22

catalog of comets

by Fedtke, 8.77 by Beyer, and 9.0 by Dubiago. Beyer said the coma was 3
in diameter. On the 7th, the magnitude was given as 8.5 by Fedtke and 9.0
by Kaiser. Schmitt said the coma was 45 across, while Kaiser and Fedtke
noted it was 3 across. Kaiser and Fedtke both reported a strong central
condensation. On the 8th, the magnitude was given as 8.6 by Fedtke and
8.9 by Beyer. Fedtke noted the coma was 3 across, with a strong central
condensation. On the 9th, the magnitude was given as 8.6 by Fedtke, 8.79
by Beyer, 8.8 by Rudsky, and 8.9 by van Biesbroeck. The coma diameter was
given as 1.5 by van Biesbroeck and 3 by Beyer. The coma was described
as round by S. D. Tscherny (Kiev), Beyer, and Chofardet. Wachmann noted
a faint nucleus. During the period of March 920, H. Fischer (Innsbruck,
Austria) photographed the comet and estimated the magnitude as 9. He
also noted the round coma was about 1 across and exhibited no nucleus.
On the 10th, Fedtke gave the magnitude as 8.6 and noted the coma was
3 across, with a strong central condensation. On the 11th, Beyer gave the
magnitude as 8.83. Jeffers observed with the 30-cm refractor and said the
comet was diffuse with a magnitude of 10.511. On the 12th, van Biesbroeck
gave the magnitude as 8.8. Jeffers estimated it as 10.511, while R. M. Aller
(Pontevedra, Spain) gave it as 11. Van Biesbroeck said the coma diameter
was 1.4 . Jeffers described the comet as diffuse. On the 13th, Beyer gave the
magnitude as 8.93. He said the coma was round, with a diameter of 3 . On
the 14th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 9.02 and the nuclear magnitude as
fainter than 11.5. On March 15, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.3.
The comet faded more rapidly during the last half of March. On March 18,
van Biesbroeck observed in moonlight and gave the magnitude as 9.2. On
the 21st, Adamopoulos and Dubiago independently gave the magnitude as
11.0 in moonlight. Adamopoulos said it was feeble, with the condensation
situated east-northeast of the comas center. On the 23rd, Dubiago gave the
magnitude as 11.0 in moonlight. On the 24th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.7 and noted the very diffuse coma was 2.5 across. On the 25th,
the magnitude was given as 11 by Krumpholz and Chofardet, while Schmitt
said it was 12, but these probably represented the condensation. Krumpholz
said there was a small condensation, but no nucleus. Chofardet said the
round coma was 1 across. On the 26th, Chofardet gave the magnitude as
11 and the coma diameter as 2 . On the 27th, Beyer gave the magnitude as
9.70. He said the coma was round, with a diameter of 2 and a nucleus of
magnitude 11.8. On the 29th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 10. He
added that the coma was less condensed, very diffuse, and about 3 across.
There was no longer a trace of a tail. Adamopoulos said the coma was 1.8
across, with an almost central condensation. On March 30, Beyer gave the
magnitude as 9.81. He said the coma was 2 in diameter, with a nucleus of
magnitude 12.0.
The comet faded rapidly during April. On April 2 and 3, Adamopoulos
gave the magnitude as 11.0. He said the coma was 1.8 across, with an almost
central condensation. On the 6th, the magnitude was given as 10.23 by
23

catalog of comets

Beyer and 10.5 by Wachmann. Beyer said the coma was 2 in diameter with
a nucleus fainter than magnitude 12. Van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude
as about 11 on the 7th and described the comet as extremely diffuse and
about 3 in diameter. On the 11th, Schmitt gave the magnitude as 13 and
said the coma was 0.5 across. On the 13th, van Biesbroeck said the comet
was poorly condensed, with a diameter of 4 and a magnitude near 12. Van
Biesbroeck described the comet as much fainter on the 21st and gave the
magnitude as 14.5. He noted the coma was diffuse and 1 across. On the
22nd, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 15. He described the comet
as very diffuse, with a round coma 45 across. On April 30, van Biesbroeck
gave the magnitude as 15. A faint central condensation was about 30 across,
while the round coma was about 1 across.
On May 4, van Biesbroeck described the comet as a hardly measurable
hazy coma, with a magnitude near 16.5. On the 6th, Kaiser gave the magnitude as 12.0 and noted a coma 2 across. He noted that the position was
over 11 from what was predicted. On May 8, the comet attained its most
northerly declination of +81. On May 11, van Biesbroeck photographed
the comet as a vague, diffuse coma of about magnitude 17.
The comet was last detected on May 24.27, when van Biesbroeck obtained
a 20-minute exposure with the 61-cm reflector. The comet appeared as a
small round coma with a magnitude near 17.5. The position was given as
= 16h 14.2m , = +74 58 . Schorr reported that J. Larink obtained photographic positions on May 27.96 and May 28.98. The comet was described as
weak and diffuse, with a magnitude of 15.
S. K. Vsekhsvyatskij (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia)
photographed the spectrum of this comet on March 6 and 14 using a 15-cm
prismatic camera. He noted strong bands of cyanogen and diatomic carbon,
as well as a weak band of triatomic carbon.
The first published orbit was calculated by J. P. Moller

and H. Q. Rasmusen. They took three positions from January 7, 9, and 12, and determined the perihelion date of the resulting parabolic orbit as 1935 March
1.08. Shortly thereafter, H. E. Wood took positions from January 8, 12, and
16, and determined the perihelion date as February 25.61. M. Davidson calculated a very similar orbit to Woods using positions from January 7, 16,
and 30. He gave the perihelion date as February 26.34.
The first elliptical orbit was calculated by A. D. Maxwell. Published on
February 21, the orbit revealed a perihelion date of February 26.51 and
a period near 750 years. Around mid-March, Maxwell revised this orbit,
giving the perihelion date as February 26.5 and the period as 896 years.
This last orbit proved an excellent representation, according to the later
calculations of Davidson (1935) and Maxwell (1936). Maxwells orbit is given
below.
T
1935 Feb. 26.4688 (UT)

24

18.3970

 (2000.0)
92.4469

i
65.4250

q
e
0.811148 0.991301

catalog of comets
absolute magnitude: H0 = 9.50, n = 3.04 (Beyer, 1937); H10 = 10.0 (V1964)
full moon: Dec. 20, 1935 Jan. 19, Feb. 18, Mar. 20, Apr. 18, May 18, Jun. 16
sources: H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 17 (1935), p. 125; E. L. Johnson, HAC, No. 322 (1935
Jan. 9); E. L. Johnson, BZAN, 17 (1935 Jan. 14), p. 3; J. P. Moller,

H. Q. Rasmusen,
and H. E. Wood, BZAN, 17 (1935 Jan. 30), p. 7; G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 326
(1935 Jan. 30); E. L. Johnson, The Observatory, 58 (1935 Feb.), p. 62; H. E. Wood,
BZAN, 17 (1935 Feb. 6), p. 8; H. Krumpholz and F. Kaiser, BZAN, 17 (1935 Feb.
11), p. 10; R. R. E. Schorr, AN, 254 (1935 Feb. 14), p. 247; R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN,
17 (1935 Feb. 17), p. 11; A. A. Wachmann, BZAN, 17 (1935 Feb. 21), p. 12; A. D.
Maxwell, HAC, No. 329 (1935 Feb. 21); K. Graff and M. Davidson, AN, 254 (1935
Feb. 27), p. 311; S. I. Beljawsky, J. Franz, and C. Fedtke, BZAN, 17 (1935 Feb.
28), p. 13; H. E. Wood, J. P. Moller,

H. Q. Rasmusen, A. D. Maxwell, and G. van


Biesbroeck, PA, 43 (1935 Mar.), p. 188; M. Davidson and F. Kaiser, The Observatory,
58 (1935 Mar.), pp. 989; K. Graff, BZAN, 17 (1935 Mar. 6), p. 15; P. Vocca, IAUC,
No. 524 (1935 Mar. 9); S. D. Tscherny and F. Kaiser, BZAN, 17 (1935 Mar. 11),
p. 17; M. Davidson, IAUC, No. 525 (1935 Mar. 15); S. K. Vsekhsvyatskij, IAUC,
No. 526 (1935 Mar. 19); A. A. Wachmann and M. Beyer, BZAN, 17 (1935 Mar.
20), p. 19; E. L. Johnson, AN, 255 (1935 Mar. 21), pp. 1316; G. van Biesbroeck
and A. D. Maxwell, PA, 43 (1935 Apr.), pp. 2546; S. D. Tscherny, N. Rudsky,
and C. Fedtke, BZAN, 17 (1935 Apr. 5), p. 23; M. Beyer, BZAN, 17 (1935 Apr.
10), p. 25; R. M. Aller, AN, 255 (1935 Apr. 20), p. 187; A. A. Wachmann, BZAN,
17 (1935 Apr. 24), p. 26; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 43 (1935 May), p. 306; F. Kaiser,
BZAN, 17 (1935 May 11), p. 29; H. Fischer, AN, 255 (1935 May 17), p. 379; G.
van Biesbroeck, PA, 43 (1935 Jun.Jul.), p. 356; P. Chofardet, JO, 18 (1935 Jul.),
pp. 1234; G. Adamopoulos, AN, 257 (1935 Oct. 9), p. 63; E. L. Johnson and M.
Davidson, JASSA, 4 (1935 Nov.), pp. 314, 40; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 45 (1935
Dec. 5), pp. 1820; E. L. Johnson, UOC, No. 95 (1936 Jan. 25), pp. 1978; A. D.
Maxwell, AJ, 45 (1936 Jan. 31), pp. 4954; A. D. Maxwell, MNRAS, 96 (1936 Feb.),
pp. 344, 3467; H. Krumpholz, AN, 259 (1936 Jun. 25), p. 331; J. Larink, AN, 262
(1937 Mar. 8), p. 33; A. D. Dubiago, AN, 262 (1937 Mar. 16), p. 67; M. Beyer, AN,
262 (1937 Apr. 22), pp. 21728; A. D. Maxwell, MNRAS, 98 (1938 Feb.), pp. 3489;
A. Schmitt, JO, 21 (1938 Apr.), pp. 58, 60; V1964, p. 73.

C/1935 M1 Discovered: 1935 June 3.97 ( = 3.25 AU, r = 4.26 AU, Elong. = 172)
(Jackson) Last seen: 1935 August 5.1 ( = 4.19 AU, r = 4.59 AU, Elong. = 107)
Closest to the Earth: 1934 August 6 (2.7077 AU)
1934 II = 1935b Calculated path: OPH (Disc), SCO (Jul. 4), LIB (Aug. 6)
C. V. Jackson (Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) discovered
this comet during his regular systematic search for minor planets. He
obtained two plates of the same area of the sky on the evening of 1935 June
3 and, upon examining the plates the next day with the Zeiss Stereocomparator, he immediately noted an object moving faster than a minor planet
and nebulous in appearance. The first plate had been exposed on 1935 June
3.97, at which time the comet was at = 17h 14.0m , = 18 42 . He estimated the magnitude as 13. Due to the comets faintness, Jackson needed
additional confirmation before announcing his discovery. The comet was
25

catalog of comets

again photographed by him on June 8.06, June 11.03, and June 19.73, before
being announced as a new comet. The magnitude was estimated as 13 on
each date. The comet had passed perihelion about 9 months earlier and had
made its closest approach to Earth 10 months earlier.
Although fading, the large perihelion distance allowed the comet to be
followed for a few more months. On June 21, A. W. Recht and P. C. Keenan
(Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) estimated the magnitude as 14. On
the 24th, F. L. Whipple and L. E. Cunningham (Harvard College Observatory, Massachusetts, USA) photographed the comet and described it as diffuse, with a magnitude not brighter than 15.0. On June 26, Cunningham
and W. A. Johnson estimated the comets magnitude as 15. A total lunar
eclipse was visible across a large part of North America on July 16. G. van
Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory) then estimated the comets magnitude
as 16, while the round diffuse coma was not more than 10 across. The
comet was virtually unchanged when van Biesbroeck observed the comet on
July 21.
The comet was last observed on August 5.1, when van Biesbroeck
observed it low in the southwestern sky, not long after the end of evening
twilight. He described it as a small coma with a magnitude of 16. As the
comet continued moving away from the sun, it passed within 0.84 AU of
Jupiter on 1935 October 27. Around that time, S. Kanda and Simidu calculated an ephemeris for this comet covering the 2 years prior to its discovery.
They remarked that the comet would have been brighter during the summer
of 1934 than at any time during 1935 possibly as bright as 11.7. Unfortunately, no prediscovery observations were revealed.
The first orbit was calculated by Whipple. He took three positions spanning the period of June 2126 and determined a perihelion date of 1934
September 8.38. As it turned out, this date was only about 1.5 days later
than the actual date, which is quite an accomplishment considering the short
arc and the large perihelion distance of about 3.5 AU! Additional parabolic
orbits were calculated by A. D. Maxwell and H. E. Wood. A hyperbolic orbit
was calculated by M. Davidson, which gave a perihelion date of September
8.29 and an eccentricity of 1.01046. Woods orbit is given below.
T
1934 Sep. 6.9205 (UT)

124.3132

 (2000.0)
74.2111

i
q
141.9494 3.485700

e
1.0

absolute magnitude: H10 = 4.4 (V1964)


full moon: May 18, Jun. 16, Jul. 16, Aug. 14
sources: C. V. Jackson, HAC, No. 335 (1935 Jun. 20); C. V. Jackson, IAUC, No. 541
(1935 Jun. 20); A. W. Recht, P. C. Keenan, F. L. Whipple, and L. E. Cunningham,
HAC, No. 336 (1935 Jun. 25); L. E. Cunningham, W. A. Johnson, and F. L. Whipple,
HAC, No. 337 (1935 Jun. 27); A. D. Maxwell, HAC, No. 338 (1935 Jun. 28); C. V.
Jackson, F. L. Whipple, and L. E. Cunningham, BZAN, 17 (1935 Jun. 29), p. 39;
C. V. Jackson, AN, 256 (1935 Jul. 12), p. 187; L. E. Cunningham and W. A. Johnson,

26

catalog of comets
BZAN, 17 (1935 Jul. 19), p. 43; H. E. Wood, AN, 256 (1935 Aug. 22), p. 331; C. V.
Jackson, G. Van Biesbroeck, F. L. Whipple, L. E. Cunningham, and A. D. Maxwell,
PA, 43 (1935 Aug.Sep.), p. 454; C. V. Jackson and H. E. Wood, The Observatory, 58
(1935 Sep.), p. 27980; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 43 (1935 Oct.), p. 541; C. V. Jackson
and M. Davidson, JASSA, 4 (1935 Nov.), pp. 334; S. S. Kanda and Simidu, PA,
43 (1935 Nov.), p. 608; C. V. Jackson, UOC, No. 95 (1936 Jan. 25), pp. 1989; H. E.
Wood, MNRAS, 96 (1936 Feb.), pp. 3447; V1964, p. 73.

32P/1935 P1 Prerecovery: 1935 August 9.38 ( = 2.51 AU, r = 1.86 AU, Elong. = 40)
(Comas Sola)
Recovered: 1935 August 12.48 ( = 2.49 AU, r = 1.86 AU, Elong. = 42)
Last seen: 1936 July 16.23 ( = 3.21 AU, r = 3.04 AU, Elong. = 71)
1935 IV = 1935c Closest to the Earth: 1936 February 21 (1.3163 AU)
Calculated path: GEM (Pre), CNC (Sep. 10), LEO (Oct. 9), COM (Dec. 17), LEO
(Apr. 7), COM (Jun. 1), VIR (Jun. 4)
The recovery of this comet began with the calculations of J. M. Vinter Hansen
(1934, 1936). She calculated a definitive orbit for the 1927 apparition, applied
perturbations spanning the period of 192735, and predicted the comet
would next arrive at perihelion on 1935 October 8.38. G. van Biesbroeck
(Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) exposed search photographs using
the 61-cm reflector on 1935 August 9.38 and August 11.40. The comet was
then at a low altitude and nothing was found. H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) exposed a search photograph using the 91-cm Crossley reflector on August 10 and also failed to locate the comet. Jeffers exposed
his next photograph on August 12.48 and located the comet at a position
of = 6h 32.2m , = +25 09 . He described the comet as diffuse, with a
magnitude of 14 and a coma 0.3 across. A faint tail extended 1.5 towards
the west. Jeffers confirmed the recovery on August 13.49. L. E. Cunningham compared the comets position with that predicted by Vinter Hansen
in the 1935 Handbook of the British Astronomical Association and found the
actual perihelion date to be about 1.8 days earlier than predicted. Following the announcement, van Biesbroeck re-examined his search photographs
from the 9th and 11th and located the comet on both. On the first date, the
comet appeared as a very diffuse coma, with a magnitude of 15. The image
was better defined on the second date and exhibited a diffuse coma, with a
magnitude of 14.5.
The comet remained a rather faint object through the rest of 1935. On
August 24, van Biesbroeck described the comet as a round diffuse coma 25
across, with a magnitude of 14. On September 5 and 6, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 13.5. The round, diffuse coma exhibited a faint, broad
tail extending about 2 in PA 290. On the 24th, van Biesbroeck gave the
magnitude as 13.5. The coma was round and small, while the tail was slender
and extended to PA 300. On September 28, A. Schmitt (Alger, now al-Jazair,
Algeria) gave the magnitude as 13. Schmitt described the comet as diffuse.
The comet was moving away from the sun after October 6. On October 7,
27

catalog of comets

van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 13. The round coma was 12 across,
while the tail was narrow and extended 10 in PA 290. On October 24,
A. A. Wachmann (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) gave the
magnitude as 13.0. On November 21, Jeffers gave the magnitude as 13. He
said a 30-minute exposure using the 91-cm Crossley reflector showed a
sharp condensation and a tail extending 7 in PA 300. On November 22,
van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as not more than 13.5. There was
still a well marked tail pointing away from the sun. On December 21, van
Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as about 13.5, while a faint tail continued
to point away from the sun. On December 27, van Biesbroeck gave the
magnitude as 13. The coma was diffuse and the tail extended 10 in PA 300.
After moving southward since its recovery, the comet reached a declination
of +18 on December 28 and then began moving northward.
The comet was moving away from the sun as 1936 began, but it was still
approaching Earth. On 1936 January 20, van Biesbroeck described the comet
as a diffuse nebulosity with a magnitude of 14. A short tail extended towards
the north-preceding direction. On the 23rd, S. Kanda (Tokyo, Japan) gave
the magnitude as 12.5. On the 24th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as
13.5. He said a fairly well-defined nucleus shone at magnitude 14. Jeffers
photographed the comet with the 91-cm Crossley reflector on that same date
and said the coma was 8 across and exhibited a tail extending 3 in PA 300.
On the 25th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 14. The coma was about
20 across and the tail was fainter. On January 28, van Biesbroeck gave the
magnitude as 14 and said the tail extended to PA 300.
On February 18, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 15, while a short
faint tail extended in the direction opposite to the sun. On the 22nd, van
Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 14.5. There was a sharp, eccentric nucleus
and the tail extended to PA 275. On February 28, van Biesbroeck gave the
magnitude as 14.5 and noted a sharp nucleus and a tail extending 1 in
PA 275.
The comet was moving away from both the sun and Earth as March began.
On March 13, F. Kaiser (Wiesbaden, Germany) gave the magnitude as 13.
On the 16th, R. R. E. Schorr (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany)
gave the magnitude as 13.0. On March 16 and 18, van Biesbroeck gave the
magnitude as 14. The coma diameter was nearly 1 across, but it extended
slightly eccentrically from the nucleus to PA 260, suggesting a foreshortened tail in that direction. On the 17th, Kaiser gave the magnitude
as 12.8. After generally moving northward since late December, the comet
attained a declination of +23 on March 19 and then began moving southward again. On March 20, the magnitude was given as 12.5 by Schorr, as
well as Wachmann and K. Muller

(Hamburg Observatory). On March 25,


Kaiser gave the magnitude as 13.0 and noted a coma 1 across.
The comet steadily faded in the following months. On April 9, J. O. Stobbe
(Kiel, Germany) gave the magnitude as 12.5. He described the comet as diffuse and 1 across, with a stellar nucleus of magnitude 14.5. On the 12th, van
28

catalog of comets

Biesbroeck said the coma was 20 in diameter, while the tail extended about
30 in PA 150. On the 14th, the magnitude was given as 13 by Wachmann,
Muller,

and Schorr. On the 15th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 14.5.
The tail extended to PA 160. On the 16th, Jeffers photographed the comet
with the 91-cm Crossley reflector and said the coma was 5 across and had
become more diffuse. On April 17, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as
14.5. On May 14, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 15.5 and said the
diffuse coma was 40 in diameter. On the 18th, Schorr gave the magnitude
as 1516. On the 19th, Schorr gave the magnitude as 15.516. On May 20,
van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 16. He said the coma was extremely
diffuse. On June 10, Jeffers gave the magnitude as 17.
The comet was last detected on July 16.23, when Jeffers found it on a 60minute exposure obtained with the 91-cm Crossley reflector. He gave the
position as = 12h 30.4m , = +6 21 . He estimated the magnitude as 18.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by B. G. Marsden (1968,
1972) and G. Forti (1983). They included perturbations by all nine planets, as
well as nongravitational effects. The result was a perihelion date of October
6.58 and a period of 8.53 years. Marsden (1968) noted a very slight secular
deceleration. Marsden, Z. Sekinina, and D. K. Yeomans (1973) gave the
nongravitational terms as A1 = +1.04 and A2 = +0.0015. Forti gave the
nongravitational terms as A1 = +1.12 and A2 = +0.0106. Fortis orbit is
given below.
T
1935 Oct. 6.5759 (TT)

38.8135

 (2000.0)
66.3790

i
13.7246

q
e
1.777142 0.574447

absolute magnitude: H10 = 9.6 (V1964)


full moon: Jul. 16, Aug. 14, Sep. 12, Oct. 12, Nov. 10, Dec. 10, 1936 Jan. 8, Feb.
7, Mar. 8, Apr. 6, May 6, Jun. 5, Jul. 4, Aug. 3
sources: J. M. Vinter Hansen, The Observatory, 56 (1933 Jul.), p. 243; J. M. Vinter
Hansen, BAA Handbook for 1935 (1934), p. 27; H. M. Jeffers, L. E. Cunningham,
J. M. Vinter Hansen, HAC, No. 341 (1935 Aug. 14); H. M. Jeffers, BZAN, 17 (1935
Aug. 16), p. 49; G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 342 (1935 Aug. 19); H. M. Jeffers,
The Observatory, 58 (1935 Sep.), p. 280; PASP, 47 (1935 Oct.), p. 286; H. M. Jeffers
and G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 43 (1935 Oct.), p. 541; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 43
(1935 Nov.), p. 608; A. A. Wachmann, BZAN, 17 (1935 Nov. 5), p. 64; G. van
Biesbroeck, PA, 43 (1935 Dec.), p. 654; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 17 (1936), pp. 1934;
H. M. Jeffers and J. M. Vinter Hansen, MNRAS, 96 (1936 Feb.), pp. 3457; G. van
Biesbroeck, PA, 44 (1936 Feb.), p. 102; G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 59
(1936 Feb.), p. 66; S. Kanda, BZAN, 18 (1936 Feb. 24), p. 15; G. van Biesbroeck,
PA, 44 (1936 Mar.), p. 151; G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 59 (1936 Mar.),
p. 102; F. Kaiser, BZAN, 18 (1936 Mar. 18), p. 20; F. Kaiser, A. A. Wachmann, and
K. Muller,

BZAN, 18 (1936 Mar. 30), p. 21; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 44 (1936 Apr.),
p. 211; G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 59 (1936 Apr.), p. 142; J. O. Stobbe,
BZAN, 18 (1936 Apr. 15), p. 25; A. A. Wachmann and K. Muller,

BZAN, 18 (1936
Apr. 24), p. 27; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 44 (1936 May), p. 268; R. R. E. Schorr and

29

catalog of comets
J. O. Stobbe, The Observatory, 59 (1936 May), p. 175; R. R. E. Schorr, AN, 259 (1936
Jul. 7), p. 361; R. R. E. Schorr and J. O. Stobbe, AN, 260 (1936 Aug. 11), p. 157;
H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 18 (1937), p. 85; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 46 (1937 Jan. 2), pp. 1,
34; J. O. Stobbe and G. van Biesbroeck, MNRAS, 97 (1937 Feb.), p. 334; R. R. E.
Schorr, AN, 262 (1937 Mar. 8), p. 33; A. Schmitt, JO, 21 (1938 Apr.), pp. 58, 60;
V1964, p. 73; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 36970; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS,
9 (1968 Sep.), pp. 31415; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 13 (1972 Sep.), pp. 4301; B. G.
Marsden, Z. Sekinina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.), pp. 213, 21516; G.
Forti, AAP, 126 (1983), pp. 30710.

C/1935 Q1 Prediscovery: 1935 July 3.90 ( = 3.87 AU, r = 4.83 AU, Elong. = 157)
(van Biesbroeck) Discovered: 1935 August 21.14 ( = 3.74 AU, r = 4.62 AU, Elong. = 146)
Last seen: 1938 January 26.2 ( = 6.09 AU, r = 6.49 AU, Elong. = 110)
1936 I = 1935d Closest to the Earth: 1935 August 4 (3.6988 AU), 1936 August 6 (3.6236 AU)
Calculated path: CAP (Pre), SGR (Jul. 27), AQL (Oct. 11), DEL (1936 Jan. 30),
EQU (Feb. 25), PEG (Mar. 20), CYG (May 13), CEP (1937 Feb. 15), LAC (Feb.
21), CEP (Feb. 24), LAC (Feb. 27), CEP (Mar. 4), CAS (Mar. 18), CEP (Mar.
23), CAS (Mar. 28), CEP (May 1), CAS (May 2), CAM (Jul. 14), CEP (Jul. 15),
CAM (Jul. 16), CEP (Oct. 23)
The discovery of this comet is quite interesting and begins in July 1935,
when G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) was exposing plates with the 61-cm reflector in order to detect the Trojan asteroid
Odysseus (1143). These photographs showed the presence of a faint new
asteroid. He continued to follow this object in order to secure enough positions to establish its orbit. On 1935 August 21.14, photographs continued to
show the asteroid, but they also showed a diffuse, 14th-magnitude object 8
away. This proved to be a new comet and its position was given as = 19h
41.6m , = 17 23 . The comet was confirmed on August 22.10, when van
Biesbroeck visually observed it in the 102-cm refractor. The magnitude was
estimated as 14, while a stellar nucleus shone at magnitude 15. The coma
measured about 20 in diameter.
H. E. Wood (Union Observatory, South Africa) announced that prediscovery images were found on photographic plates exposed by E. L. Johnson (Union Observatory) on July 3.90, July 22.83, July 29.83, August 5.78,
and August 5.81. On the first date the magnitude was estimated as 13.0.
On the last date, the comet had been recognized, but its magnitude of 13.5,
as well as the small scale of the photographs, caused the nebulosity to be
overlooked and it was thought to be a minor planet. The comet had attained
a maximum solar elongation of 180 on July 23.
Although the comet was found about 9 months prior to passing perihelion, it changed little in appearance during the remainder of 1935 because of
the large perihelion distance of 4.04 AU. On August 23, H. M. Jeffers (Lick
Observatory, California, USA) visually observed the comet using the 91-cm
refractor and gave the magnitude as 14.5. He said the comet was small
30

catalog of comets

and round, with a central nucleus. On the 24th, the magnitude was given
as 14 by van Biesbroeck and 14.5 by Jeffers. Van Biesbroeck said the round
coma was 25 across. Jeffers said the comet was small and round, with a
central nucleus. On the 27th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 14. On
August 29, the magnitude was given as 14 by van Biesbroeck and 14.5 by
Jeffers. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was 30 in diameter. Jeffers said the
comet was small and round, with a central nucleus. On September 1
and 7, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 14.5. He said the coma was
25 across on the 1st and exhibited a central condensation on the 7th. On
September 24, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 15. He added that the
comet was well condensed centrally. On October 20, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 14.5. The coma was round, 20 across, and contained a
slight central condensation. On October 25, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 15. The central condensation shone at magnitude 15.5, while the
coma was 18 in diameter. On November 14, Jeffers photographed the comet
with the 91-cm Crossley reflector and said the comet was 7 across and
more diffuse. On November 23, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 15,
while the coma was 20 across. On December 20, van Biesbroeck gave the
magnitude as 15, while the diffuse round coma was about 20 across. On
December 21, van Biesbroeck obtained two 14-minute exposures of the
comet at low altitude and estimated the magnitude as 14. The comet was
then situated 36 from the sun.
The comet was lost in the suns glare as 1936 began and it passed 20 from
the sun on January 29. Van Biesbroeck recovered it on February 28, when 30
from the sun. He then gave the magnitude as 14.5 and noted a diffuse coma,
15 in diameter. Interestingly, although the comet was approaching both the
sun and Earth, it experienced a slight fading. Van Biesbroeck photographed
the predicted position of the comet on March 18, using the 61-cm reflector,
but found nothing. Longer exposures using the same telescope on March 25
revealed the comet was fainter than magnitude 16, which was 3 magnitudes
fainter than predicted. On April 16, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as
16 and noted a round coma 15 across. On April 18, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 16.5.
The comet passed perihelion on May 11, but was still approaching Earth.
On May 14, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 17 and said the coma
was hardly 10 across. On the 17th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as
16.5 and noted the coma was 15 across. On May 27 and 28, van Biesbroeck
gave the magnitude as 16. On June 15, 24, and 28, van Biesbroeck gave the
magnitude as 16 and said the coma was 20 across. On July 24 and 26, van
Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 16.
The comets distances from the sun and Earth were increasing shortly after
August began. On August 17 and 22, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude
as 15.5. The round coma was 15 across and contained a little condensation. The comet attained a maximum solar elongation of 113 on August 19.
On August 25, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 16 and said the coma
31

catalog of comets

was 10 across. After steadily moving in a northerly direction since its discovery, the comet attained a declination of +53 on September 3 and then
began moving southward. On September 17, Jeffers gave the magnitude as
16. His photograph using the 91-cm Crossley reflector revealed a tail extending about 0.5 toward the southeast. On September 19, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 16.5. The slightly condensed coma was 15 in diameter. On October 7, Jeffers photographed the comet with the reflector and
noted a tail extending about 0.5 toward the southeast. On December 3,
Jeffers gave the magnitude as 17.5. He noted a coma a few seconds of
arc in diameter, with a trace of tail. After generally moving southward
since September, the comet attained a declination of +49 on December
6 and then began moving northward again. On December 14, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 16.5 and noted the round coma was fairly well
defined.
On 1937 January 13, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 17. The coma
was round and was 8 across. On March 17, van Biesbroeck photographed
the comet as a quite vague image of magnitude 17. The comet attained a
minimum solar elongation of 55 on May 17. On July 17, Jeffers obtained 50and 90-minute exposures with the 91-cm Crossley reflector and described
the comet as very faint and diffuse. On August 6, 11, and 31, W. Dieckvoss and H.-U. Sandig (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) gave
the magnitude as 16. On September 10, Jeffers obtained 38- and 80-minute
exposures with the reflector and described the comet as very faint and diffuse. On October 7 and 10, Sandig gave the magnitude as 16. On October 9,
Jeffers obtained a 110-minute exposure with the reflector and described the
comet as very faint and diffuse. Dieckvoss and Sandig gave the magnitude
as 16.5 on November 2 and 17 on November 3. The comet was in opposition on November 9, with the distance from Earth then being 5.64 AU.
On November 9, 10, and 12, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 17 and
said the round coma was 10 across. The comet attained its most northerly
declination of +86 on November 18.
The final two observations of this comet were obtained by Jeffers on 1937
December 6.2 and 1938 January 26.2. In both instances, the comet was photographed with the 91-cm Crossley reflector, but the comet was so faint
that measures are scarcely worth while. The comet attained a maximum
elongation of 118 on 1937 December 19.
As the first orbits were computed it became obvious this comet had a
large perihelion distance. This made the perihelion date very difficult to pinpoint with so few observations. Using the three precise positions obtained
between August 21 and 23, van Biesbroeck computed a parabolic orbit
which gave the perihelion date as 1935 December 9.13. From the same
positions, Swanson and Popper computed a parabolic orbit showing the
perihelion date as November 25.07. L. E. Cunningham published his computations on August 28, which were based on three positions obtained between
August 23 and 27. The perihelion date was 1935 June 10.21.
32

catalog of comets

A better representation of the orbit came to light on September 16, when


Swanson and Popper published a hyperbolic orbit using three observations obtained between August 23 and September 4. The perihelion date
was given as 1936 May 26.78 and the eccentricity was 1.03101. Van Biesbroeck published an orbit on September 18, which generally confirmed the
orbit given by Swanson and Popper. He used three observations obtained
between August 21 and September 7, and found the perihelion date to be
May 12.90. Although this was a parabolic orbit, he commented that a general orbit calculation produced an eccentricity of 1.025. During the next
few months, additional orbits were calculated by H. E. Wood and van Biesbroeck, with the latter astronomer finding an eccentricity of 1.003525.
G. van Biesbroeck (1940) used 125 positions obtained between 1935 July
3 and 1937 October 10, applied perturbations by Venus to Neptune, and
computed a hyperbolic orbit with a perihelion date of May 11.63 and an
eccentricity of 1.00197. He also applied perturbations by Venus to Neptune
and moved the orbit backwards to 1916. He found the orbit was then elliptical with a period of about 341 thousand years.
B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina (1973) used 107 positions obtained
between 1935 July 3 and 1937 November 10, as well as perturbations by
all nine planets, and computed a hyperbolic orbit with a perihelion date of
May 11.64 and an eccentricity of 1.002045. This orbit is given below. The
original orbit was elliptical with a period of about 12 million years and the
future orbit is hyperbolic with an eccentricity of about 1.001136.
T
1936 May 11.6361 (TT)

44.8957

 (2000.0)
300.5614

i
66.1122

q
e
4.043409 1.002045

absolute magnitude: H10 = 5.4 (V1964)


full moon: Jun. 16, Jul. 16, Aug. 14, Sep. 12, Oct. 12, Nov. 10, Dec. 10, 1936 Jan.
8, Feb. 7, Mar. 8, Apr. 6, May 6, Jun. 5, Jul. 4, Aug. 3, Sep. 1, Sep. 30, Oct. 30, Nov.
28, Dec. 28, 1937 Jan. 26, Feb. 25, Mar. 26, Apr. 25, May 25, Jun. 23, Jul. 23, Aug.
22, Sep. 20, Oct. 19, Nov. 18, Dec. 17, 1938 Jan. 16, Feb. 14
sources: G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 343 (1935 Aug. 22); G. van Biesbroeck,
HAC, No. 344 (1935 Aug. 23); Swanson and Popper, HAC, No. 345 (1935 Aug.
26); L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 346 (1935 Aug. 28); G. van Biesbroeck, BZAN,
17 (1935 Sep. 2), p. 51; Swanson and Popper, HAC, No. 349 (1935 Sep. 16); G.
van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 350 (1935 Sep. 18); G. van Biesbroeck, Swanson, and
Popper, PA, 43 (1935 Oct.), pp. 5413; G. van Biesbroeck and A. D. Maxwell, PA,
43 (1935 Nov.), p. 606; G. van Biesbroeck and H. E. Wood, The Observatory, 58
(1935 Nov.), p. 341; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 43 (1935 Dec.), p. 653; H. M. Jeffers,
LOB, 17 (1936), p. 194; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 44 (1936 Jan.), p. 51; E. L. Johnson,
UOC, No. 95 (1936 Jan. 25), pp. 199200; G. van Biesbroeck and H. E. Wood,
MNRAS, 96 (1936 Feb.), pp. 3457; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 44 (1936 Mar.), p. 151;
G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 367 (1936 Mar. 9); G. van Biesbroeck, BZAN, 18 (1936
Mar. 30), p. 21; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 44 (1936 Apr.), p. 212; G. van Biesbroeck,
The Observatory, 59 (1936 Apr.), p. 142; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 44 (1936 May),

33

catalog of comets
pp. 2689; G. van Biesbroeck, BZAN, 18 (1936 May 6), p. 29; G. van Biesbroeck,
The Observatory, 59 (1936 Jun.), pp. 2012; G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory,
59 (1936 Nov.), p. 356; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 18 (1937), p. 85; H. M. Jeffers, PASP,
49 (1937 Feb.), p. 36; W. Dieckvoss and H.-U. Sandig, BZAN, 19 (1937 Aug. 30),
p. 52; W. Dieckvoss and H.-U. Sandig, AN, 263 (1937 Sep. 6), p. 367; G. van
Biesbroeck, AJ, 46 (1937 Sep. 14), pp. 1415; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 18 (1938), p. 163;
W. Dieckvoss and H.-U. Sandig, AN, 265 (1938 Feb. 2), p. 1; G. van Biesbroeck,
AJ, 47 (1938 Nov. 21), pp. 161, 163; G. van Biesbroeck, PYO, 8, Pt. IV (1940 Jul.),
pp. 11321; G. van Biesbroeck, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 1089, 112; V1964, p. 73;
B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina, AJ, 78 (1973 Dec.), pp. 111920; B. G. Marsden
and Z. Sekanina, QJRAS, 15 (1974 Dec.), pp. 4523, 459.

C/1936 K1 Discovered: 1936 May 15.2 ( = 1.55 AU, r = 1.40 AU, Elong. = 62)
(Peltier) Last seen: 1936 October 22.02 ( = 1.88 AU, r = 1.95 AU, Elong. = 78)
Closest to the Earth: 1936 August 4 (0.1720 AU)
1936 II = 1936a Calculated path: CEP (Disc), CAS (Jul. 5), CEP (Jul. 11), CAS (Jul. 12), AND
(Jul. 22), LAC (Jul. 23), PEG (Jul. 29), AQR (Aug. 3), CAP (Aug. 4), MIC
(Aug. 7), IND (Aug. 10), TEL-PAV (Aug. 13), OCT (Oct. 10), PAV (Oct. 19)
L. C. Peltier (Delphos, Ohio, USA) was routinely sweeping the sky for new
comets with his 15-cm telescope when he found this object on 1936 May 15.2,
at = 23h 59m , = +74. In a telegram immediately sent to G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) he described the comet as 9th
magnitude, with an extremely slow motion. Van Biesbroeck confirmed the
discovery on May 16.17 and estimated the magnitude as 9.8. He added that
the coma contained a well-condensed nucleus and exhibited a tail extending 5 toward PA 310. Van Biesbroeck immediately telegraphed the news
of the discovery to Harvard College Observatory (Massachusetts, USA),
where the comet was photographed by F. L. Whipple and L. E. Cunningham on May 16.34. The comet had attained its most northerly declination of
+79 on March 28. The comet was heading toward both the sun and Earth
when discovered.
On May 17, the magnitude was given as 8.9 by F. Kaiser (Wiesbaden, Germany), 9 by van Biesbroeck and A. A. Wachmann (Hamburg Observatory,
Bergedorf, Germany), and 10 by R. R. E. Schorr (Hamburg Observatory) and
H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA). Kaiser said a 40-minute
exposure revealed a coma 1 across and a tail extending 2 toward PA 335.
Van Biesbroeck said a 2-minute exposure using the 61-cm reflector shows
the sharp nucleus surrounded by a diffuse coma streaming out into a tail
some 10 long in a direction nearly opposite to that of the Sun. E. Przybyllok
(Konigsberg,

now Kaliningrad, Russia) said the coma was about 3 across,


with a stellar nucleus of magnitude 1112, and a tail towards the southeast.
Jeffers said the comet was moderately condensed, with a short tail. On May
17 and 18, P. Bourgeois and E. Vandekerkhove (Royal Observatory, Uccle,
Belgium) photographed the comet and noted a nebulous nucleus of magnitude 1213. G. B. Lacchini (Triest, Italy) estimated the magnitude as 11.0.
34

catalog of comets

He noted the nucleus was elongated toward the sun. On May 18, the magnitude was given as 9.5 by S. Plakidis (National Observatory, Athens, Greece),
10 by M. Campa (Milan, Italy) and Przybyllok, and 10.5 by J. O. Stobbe
(University Observatory, Kiel, Germany). Plakidis said the coma was 1
across, with a distinct condensation and a stellar nucleus. P. S. Riggs (Lick
Observatory) obtained a 30-minute exposure and noted a faint, broad tail
extending 2.53 in PA 320. On May 18 and 19, Wachmann gave the magnitude as 9.5. On May 19, the magnitude was given as 10 by H. L. Giclas (Lowell
Observatory, Arizona, USA), A. Schmitt (Alger, now al-Jazair, Algeria), and
D. Kotsakis (National Observatory). Stobbe said the coma was 2.5 across
and exhibited an elongated nucleus. He noted the tail extended 3 toward
the northwest. Kotsakis said a tail extended towards the southeast, while
the nucleus was eccentrically situated towards the northwest portion of the
coma. Schmitt said the comet appeared diffuse, with a central condensation.
J. Dick (Berlin-Babelsberg Observatory, Germany) said the tail extended
2 toward PA 305.
On May 20, the magnitude was given as 9.53 by M. Beyer (Hamburg,
Germany) and 10 by Kotsakis. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was 11.0,
the coma diameter was 3 , and the tail was about 1 long. Kotsakis said a tail
extended towards the southeast, while the nucleus was eccentrically situated towards the northwest portion of the coma. On May 21, the magnitude
was given as 9 by G. N. Neujmin (Simeis Observatory, Crimea, Ukraine), 9.5
by H. Krumpholz (Vienna University Observatory, Austria) and van Biesbroeck, and 10 by Przybyllok. Van Biesbroeck said the coma diameter was
1.3 , while the nucleus was elongated in the direction of the tail and measured 0.8 by 2 . The tail extended over 6 in PA 305. W. K. Green (Amherst,
Massachusetts, USA) obtained a 3-hour exposure with an 11-cm Ross lens
and found the tail to extend 5 in PA 335. He added that the tail was 4
across at its end. Przybyllok said there was a nucleus of magnitude 10.8.
Krumpholz said the condensation was distinctly elongated and a broad tail
extended to PA 310. On May 22, the magnitude was given as 9.4 by van Biesbroeck, 9.62 by Beyer, and 10 by Giclas and Stobbe. Beyer said the nuclear
magnitude was 11.5, the coma diameter was 2.5 , and the tail extended about
1 . Van Biesbroeck said the tail extended over 8 in PA 310. On May 23, N.
Rudski (Kiev, Ukraine) gave the magnitude as 9.2, while Kotsakis estimated
it as 10.5. Kotsakis said there was a distinct tail.
On May 24, K. Graff (Vienna, Austria) gave the magnitude as 8.62 and
Campa estimated it as 9.5. On May 24 and 25, F. Schembor (Vienna University Observatory, Austria) said the coma measured 4 2 , with the
longest axis directed to PA 320. The comet attained a minimum solar elongation of 62 on May 25. That same night, the magnitude was given as 9.35
by Beyer and 10 by J. Stein (Vatican Observatory, Castel Gandolfo, Italy).
On the 26th, the magnitude was given as 9.4 by van Biesbroeck, 9.5 by P.
Chofardet (Besancon, France), 10 by Plakidis, and 11.2 by P. P. Parenago
(Moscow, Russia). Van Biesbroeck said the tail was fan-shaped and covered
35

catalog of comets

PA 291335. The brightest portion extended 10 in PA 303. Chofardet said


the nucleus was elongated and the tail extended 2 towards the northwest.
Plakidis said the coma was spindle-shaped. On the 27th, Beyer gave the
magnitude as 9.13. He said the coma diameter was 2 , and the tail extended
3 in PA 315. Schmitt said the comet was round, with a central condensation. On the 28th, Graff gave the magnitude as 8.46 and Stobbe estimated it
as 9.5. On the 29th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.3 in moonlight.
He said the tail extended to PA 297. On the 30th, Parenago gave the magnitude as 10.4. On May 31, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.61. He said the
coma diameter was 2 , and the tail extended 5 in PA 331.
On June 1, the magnitude was given as 8.53 by Beyer and 9.0 by Stobbe.
Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was 11.0, the coma diameter was 1.5 , and
the tail extended 4 in 319. G. R. Miczaika (Berlin-Neutempelhof, Germany)
observed using a 5-cm refractor and said the tail extended 2 toward PA 315.
On the 4th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 8.8. The coma contained
a stellar nucleus and the tail extended to PA 290. On the 5th, the magnitude
was given as 8.46 by Beyer and 8.5 by Stobbe. Schmitt said the coma was
slightly elongated, with a central condensation. On June 6, Beyer gave the
magnitude as 8.47. Kotsakis said the stellar nucleus was eccentrically placed
in the northwest portion of the coma. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was
11.0, the coma diameter was 1.0 , and the tail extended 2.5 in 304.
On June 8, the magnitude was given as 8.38 by Beyer, 8.8 by Stobbe and van
Biesbroeck, and 9.0 by Campa. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was 11.05,
the coma diameter was 1 , and the tail extended 4 in 311. Van Biesbroeck
said, From the stellar nucleus emanates a vase-shaped bright streamer
in angle 103; it extends to about 50 where it bends back into the broad
tail some 15 . . .. The tail extended to PA 283. On the 9th, J. Franz and
F. Knappe (Bautzen, Germany) gave the magnitude as 8.6 using a 13-cm
comet seeker. They noted a short tail extending toward about PA 315. On
the 11th, the magnitude was given as 8 by van Biesbroeck and Giclas, 8.5
by S. D. Tscherny (Kiev, Ukraine), and 8.8 by G. Loreta (Bologna, Italy).
Tscherny noted a nucleus and tail. On the 12th, the magnitude was given as
7.8 by van Biesbroeck, 8 by Giclas, 8.17 by Beyer, and 8.7 by Loreta. Beyer
said the nuclear magnitude was 10.7, the coma diameter was 1.5 , and the
tail extended 4 in 302. On the 13th, the magnitude was given as 8.16 by
Beyer, 8.5 by Loreta, and 8.97 by K. Himpel (Wiesbaden, Germany). Beyer
said the nuclear magnitude was 10.5, the coma diameter was 1.5 , and the
tail extended towards 295. On June 14, the magnitude was given as 8.2 by
Rudski and 8.5 by Loreta.
On June 15, the magnitude was given as 8.0 by Kaiser, and 8.5 by Loreta,
Kotsakis, and Tscherny. Kaiser observed with an 8-cm telescope and noted
the centrally condensed coma was 3 across, while the tail extended 4 toward
PA 300. Van Biesbroeck obtained a 20-minute exposure which showed a
narrow streamer extending over 20 in PA 270. The brighter part of the
tail was shorter and extended to PA 279. On the 16th, the magnitude was
36

catalog of comets

within the range of 7.78.5, according to van Biesbroeck, Stobbe, Himpel,


Beyer, Rudski, Loreta, and Tscherny. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was
10.71, the coma diameter was 1.5 , and the tail extended 8 in 288. Van Biesbroeck said the tail extended to PA 277. On the 17th, the magnitude was
within the range of 7.68.5, according to G. Archenhold (Berlin-Treptow),
P. Ahnert (Wittgendorf, Germany), Tscherny, Himpel, Rudski, Beyer, and
Loreta. Ahnert said the tail extended 5 . Beyer said the nuclear magnitude
was 10.4, the coma diameter was 1.5 , and the tail extended 11 in 285. On
the 18th, the magnitude was within the range of 7.68.0, according to C.
Fedtke (Konigsberg,

now Kaliningrad, Russia), Loreta, Campa, and Beyer.


Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was 10.3, the coma diameter was 2 , and
the tail extended 10 in 291. Fedtke noted a very diffuse elongated coma
which exhibited a tail extending 4 toward PA 305. On the 19th, the magnitude was within the range of 7.48.5, according to Loreta, Beyer, Chofardet,
Schmitt, and Himpel. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was 10.0, the coma
diameter was 2 , and the tail extended 8 in 284. Chofardet said the coma
was round and 3 across. Schmitt said the coma was slightly elongated. M.
Schurer

(Berlin-Babelsberg Observatory, Germany) observed with the 65cm refractor and said a weak tail extended 2 toward PA 266. On the 20th,
the magnitude was within the range of 7.48.5, according to Stobbe, Himpel, Beyer, Loreta, Miczaika, and Franz. Beyer said the coma diameter was
2 , and the tail extended 8 in 281. On June 21, the magnitude was within
the range of 7.48.4, according to Loreta, Himpel, Beyer, and Fedtke. Beyer
said the nuclear magnitude was 9.8, and the coma was 2 across.
On June 22, the magnitude given as 7.5 by Loreta and Fedtke, 7.7 by
Rudski, and 7.9 by Franz. Fedtke noted a very diffuse elongated coma which
exhibited a tail extending 4 toward PA 305. On the 23rd, Tscherny gave
the magnitude as 8.0. On the 24th, the magnitude was within the range
of 7.28.0, according to Tscherny, van Biesbroeck, Beyer, Chofardet, Franz,
and Loreta. Van Biesbroeck estimated the nucleus as less than 0.3 across.
He added, A broad fan-shaped ejection extends from the nucleus between
position-angle 45 and 125 to a distance of 1 , where it melts away in the
head which has a diameter of 6 . The tail extends at least 30 , with the
brightest portion in PA 265. Chofardet said the round coma was 3 across,
with a well-defined central nucleus, and a tail extending 15 towards the
west-northwest. On the 25th, the magnitude was given as 7.5 by Schmitt
and Rudski, 7.6 by Franz, and 8 by Tscherny. Schmitt said the tail extended
10 in PA 270. On the 26th, the magnitude was within the range of 78,
according to Stobbe, Loreta, Beyer, Krumpholz, Rudski, Schmitt, Fedtke,
and Tscherny. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was 10.30, the coma was
2 across, and the tail extended 10 in 273. Schmitt said the tail extended
10 in PA 270. On the 27th, the magnitude was given as 7.17 by Beyer and
8 by Tscherny. Tscherny noted a nucleus and a tail. Beyer said the nuclear
magnitude was 10.0, the coma diameter was 2.5 , and the tail extended 8 in
275. On the 28th, the magnitude was within the range of 78, according to
37

catalog of comets

Tscherny, Rudski, Chofardet, Fedtke, and Loreta. Rudski gave the nuclear
magnitude as 9.2. Chofardet said the round coma was 3 across, with a
central nucleus, and a straight tail pointing to the west. Van Biesbroeck
obtained a 30-minute exposure which showed the tail extending 90 in PA
252. The brightest portion of the tail extended to PA 265. On the 29th,
the magnitude was within the range of 6.88.0, according to Krumpholz,
Rudski, Beyer, Himpel, Campa, Graff, Fedtke, and Loreta. Graff noted a
distinct nucleus and a short tail. Rudski gave the nuclear magnitude as 9.1.
Krumpholz said the coma was 23 across, with a very distinct, nearly stellar
nucleus. The tail extended 20 in PA 265. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude
was 10.0, the coma diameter was 2.5 , and the tail extended 10 in 265. On
June 30, the magnitude was given as 7.0 by Loreta, 7.3 by Fedtke, and 7.89
by Himpel. Van Biesbroeck observed under hazy skies and estimated the
nuclear magnitude as 9.
On July 1, the magnitude was given as 6.8 by Loreta, 6.87 by Graff, and
7.3 by Fedtke. Przybyllok said the coma was elliptical. On the 2nd, the
magnitude was given as 6.7 by van Biesbroeck, 7.2 by Fedtke, and 7.6 by
Rudski in moonlight. Rudski said the nuclear magnitude was about 9.0.
On the 3rd, the magnitude was given as 6.51 by Beyer, and 6.6 by van
Biesbroeck and Loreta. Van Biesbroeck said the tail extended to PA 254.
Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was 9.5, the coma diameter was 2.5 , and
the tail extended 10 in 264. On the 4th, the magnitude was given as 6.78
by Graff, 7.6 by Rudski, and 7.8 by A. D. Dubiago (University Observatory,
Kazan, Russia). Rudski said the nuclear magnitude was 8.1 in moonlight.
On the 5th, the magnitude was given as 6.57 by Beyer, 6.7 by Fedtke, and
6.73 by Graff. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was 9.68, the coma diameter
was 3.0 , and the tail extended 14 in 255. On the 6th, the magnitude was
within the range of 6.46.6, according to van Biesbroeck, Beyer, Fedtke, and
Graff. Van Biesbroeck said the stellar nucleus shone at magnitude 8. The
tail extended to PA 245. Beyer said the coma diameter was 3.5 , and the
tail extended 13 in 254. On July 7, the magnitude was within the range of
6.46.8, according to van Biesbroeck, Rudski, Fedtke, and Graff.
The comet passed closest to the sun on July 8, but, although it moved
away thereafter, it was still approaching Earth and continued to brighten.
The magnitude was then placed within the range of 6.26.7, according to
D. N. Davis (Lick Observatory), Rudski, Beyer, Loreta, and van Biesbroeck.
Van Biesbroeck said the tail extended to PA 244. Rudski said the nuclear
magnitude was 7.2. Beyer said the tail extended 20 in 255. On the 9th, the
magnitude was given as 6.2 by van Biesbroeck and Loreta, 6.6 by Fedtke, and
7 by Chofardet and Ahnert. Ahnert said the tail was 15 long. Chofardet said
the round coma was 4 across, with a central nucleus, and a tail extending
1520 towards the southwest. On the 10th, the magnitude was given as
6.1 by van Biesbroeck, 6.31 by Beyer, and 6.5 by Campa and Tscherny. Van
Biesbroeck said the tail extended to PA 244. On the 11th, the magnitude
was given as 5.8 by van Biesbroeck, 5.90 by Beyer, 6.5 by Tscherny, and 6.6
38

catalog of comets

by Rudski. Van Biesbroeck said the tail extended to PA 243. Rudski said
the nuclear magnitude was 7.2. Beyer said the tail extended 35 in 250. On
the 12th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.84 and said the tail extended 30
in PA 249. Van Biesbroeck said the coma diameter was 4 across, while the
tail was over 2 long. The tail covered an angle of 20 when first leaving
the coma, but it was reduced to a narrow streamer at a distance of 20 from
the nucleus. It became more diffuse further out in PA 243. On the 13th,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.79 and said the tail extended 35 in PA 248.
Van Biesbroeck said the tail was broad and diffuse near the coma, with a
bright, threadlike streamer traveling up the middle for 1 in PA 236. This
streamer broadened and diffused further out from the nucleus. The coma
was 5 across. On July 14, the magnitude was within the range of 5.36.0,
according to van Biesbroeck, Graff, Beyer, and Loreta. Van Biesbroeck said
the tail extended to PA 240. Beyer reported the nuclear magnitude was
8.74, the coma was 5 across, and the tail extended 35 in PA 244.
On July 15, the magnitude was given as 5.2 by van Biesbroeck, 5.5 by
Loreta, and 5.78 by Graff. Graff said the tail was 20 long. Ahnert said the
tail extended about 40 . L. Dezso (Budapest-Svabhegy) obtained a 95-minute
exposure using the 7-cm astrocamera and noted a tail extending 30 toward
PA 235. On the 16th, the magnitude was within the range of 4.95.6, according to Loreta, Graff, Krumpholz, van Biesbroeck, Beyer, and Chofardet. Rudski said the tail extended less than 45 , while the nucleus was 23 across
and shone at magnitude 7.5. Van Biesbroeck said the tail extended to PA
238.5. Beyer said the coma diameter was 6 , and the tail extended 40 in PA
235. Krumpholz said the tail extended 1.5 in PA 230. Chofardet said the
round coma was 5 across, with a tail 2530 long. On the 17th, the magnitude was within the range of 4.95.7, according to J. Witkowski (Poznan,
Poland), Graff, Beyer, Krumpholz, Fedtke, and Loreta. Graff said the tail
was 30 long. Rudski said the nuclear magnitude was 7.5. Beyer said the
nuclear magnitude was 8.53, and the tail extended 50 in PA 239. On the
18th, the magnitude was within the range of 5.15.8, according to J. Gadomski (Warszawa, Poland), E. Buchar (Prague, Czech Republic), W. T. Gayfer
(England), Witkowski, Tscherny, Loreta, Campa, and Fedtke. Rudski said
the nuclear magnitude was 7.3. On the 19th, the magnitude was within
the range of 4.95.4, according to Gadomski, Krumpholz, Buchar, Beyer,
Tscherny, and Loreta. Rudski said the nuclear magnitude was 6.7. Beyer
said the tail extended 45 in PA 237. On the 20th, the magnitude was within
the range of 4.95.3, according to Loreta, van Biesbroeck, Buchar, Beyer, and
Gadomski. Beyer said the tail extended 65 in PA 235. Van Biesbroeck said
the tail extended to PA 222. He added, The fan-shaped emanation from
the stellar nucleus extends from position-angle 2 to 86 and has sharply
defined edges. On July 21, the magnitude was within the range of 4.75.1,
according to T. Kumon (Kwasan Observatory, Kyoto, Japan), Witkowski,
Beyer, Tscherny, and Loreta. Rudski said the nuclear magnitude was 7.0.
Beyer said the tail extended 45 in PA 238.
39

catalog of comets

On July 22, the magnitude was within the range of 4.65.5, according to T.
Takagi (Kwasan Observatory, Kyoto, Japan), Graff, Chofardet, Fedtke, and
Loreta. Chofardet said the round coma was 6 across, with a central stellar
nucleus, and a tail pointing to the southwest. On the 23rd, the magnitude
was within the range of 4.34.9, according to Loreta, Beyer, Tscherny, Przybyllok, Fedtke, and Rudski. Rudski said the nuclear magnitude was 7.6.
Beyer said the tail extended 65 in PA 221. On the 24th, the magnitude
was within the range of 4.35.0, according to Witkowski, Przybyllok, Graff,
Krumpholz, Gadomski, Fedtke, and Loreta. Van Biesbroeck said the tail
was broad and diffuse, and extended only about 1 in PA 224. The coma
was 8 in diameter. G. Peisino (Trieste, Italy) observed a distinct nucleus
and a tail about 30 long. Graff said the tail was 1.5 long. On the 25th, the
magnitude was within the range of 4.15.0, according to B. H. Dawson (La
Plata Observatory, Argentina), van Biesbroeck, Krumpholz, Beyer, Buchar,
Gadomski, and Loreta. Rudski said the tail was greater than 1 long and the
nuclear magnitude was 6.9. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was 7.11, the
coma diameter was 10 , and the tail extended 75 in PA 231. On the 26th,
the magnitude was within the range of 3.94.5, according to Kamesima
(Kwasan Observatory, Kyoto), Dawson, Beyer, Rudski, Krumpholz, Graff,
Witkowski, Tscherny, Loreta, Buchar, and van Biesbroeck. Dawson said the
tail extended 45 in PA 220. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was 9 across
and the broad tail extended about 50 in PA 229. Beyer said the coma was
11 across, and the tail extended 80 in PA 225. Krumpholz said the tail
extended 1. Chofardet said the round coma was 10 across, with a tail
extending towards the southwest. He added that the well-defined nucleus
was situated at the apex of a V-shaped formation within the coma, which
extended towards the northeast. On July 27, the magnitude was within the
range 3.74.2, according to van Biesbroeck, Loreta, Beyer, Tscherny, Fedtke,
and Buchar. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was 7.30, the coma diameter
was 11 , and the tail extended 80 in 225.
On July 28, the magnitude was within the range of 3.24.2, according to
A. A. Wachmann (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany), van Biesbroeck, Witkowski, Graff, Tscherny, Buchar, Loreta, Parenago, and Fedtke.
Van Biesbroeck said the tail extended to PA 250. He added, The emanation
from the nucleus covers the angle between 350 and 92 but it is dissymmetrical in intensity, being brightest between 0 and 40. Chofardet said
the coma was 1015 across, with a tail 34 long.
On July 29, the magnitude was within the range of 3.34.1, according to
Dawson, Gadomski, Tscherny, Himpel, Parenago, Fedtke, and Buchar.
On July 30, the magnitude was within the range 3.14.0, according to
van Biesbroeck, Loreta, Kumon, Witkowski, Fedtke, and Beyer. Van Biesbroeck said the broad, structureless tail extended about 45 in PA 221. The
coma was measured as 22 in diameter on a 20-minute exposure, while the
emanation from the nucleus had widened and covered the angle from 351
to 100. M. Schurer

(Berlin-Babelsberg Observatory) estimated the nuclear


40

catalog of comets

magnitude as 5. Przybyllok obtained a photograph which showed a sharp


nucleus and coma extensions to PA 342, 51, and 106. Beyer said the nuclear
magnitude was 7.34, the coma diameter was 12 , and the tail extended 80
in 226.
The comet was observed in moonlight on July 31. The magnitude was
within the range 3.04.0, according to van Biesbroeck, Przybyllok, Tscherny,
Loreta, Fedtke, and Himpel. H. E. Houghton and G. E. Ensor (Pretoria, South
Africa) said the comet was barely visible to the naked eye.
The comet was probably at its brightest as August began, as it passed closest to Earth on the 4th, although moonlight was still a factor that hampered
observations. On August 1, the magnitude was within the range 2.94.1 ,
according to Loreta, van Biesbroeck, Ahnert, and Tscherny. Ahnert said the
nuclear magnitude was 6.9. On the 3rd, the magnitude was given as 3.0 by
Tscherny, 3.7 by Rudski, and 3.9 by Buchar. On the 4th, the magnitude was
given as 3.0 by Tscherny, 3.1 by Dawson, and 3.5 by Himpel. Chofardet said
the nucleus still exhibited the V-shaped formation. On the 5th, the magnitude was given as 2.9 by Dawson, 3.5 by Buchar, 3.7 by Loreta, and 3.8
by Fedtke. A. F. I. Forbes (Cape Town, South Africa) observed with a 20-cm
reflector and said the nucleus was very small, sharp, and bright, and seemed
to be surrounded by a narrow border of light which appeared to be caused
by the light of the nucleus lighting up the misty coma. He noted that the
coma was round and was of an almost uniform degree of mistiness though
at times one seemed to get a slight suggestion of lamination on the side next
to the Sun. Forbes estimated the tail length as 6. On August 6, the comet
attained a maximum solar elongation of 174. Beyer gave the magnitude as
3.46. Dawson said the tail extended to PA 326 and was 6 long in binoculars and 4.5 long with the naked eye. J. W. Hutchings (Wellington, New
Zealand) said a photograph showed an elliptical coma, with a sharp stellar
center, measuring 21 by 15 . The broad, straight tail extended about 3.5 in
PA 320.
On August 7, the magnitude was given as 3.5 by Houghton and Ensor,
3.6 by Buchar, and 4.0 by Campa. Dawson observed with the naked eye and
said the tail extended 3 in PA 339. A. W. Long (South Africa) observed
with an 11-cm refractor and reported a very large coma, with a very bright,
clear-cut nucleus, and a faint tail extending at least 5. Houghton and Ensor
said binoculars showed a broad, diffuse tail extending about 34. On the
9th, Houghton and Ensor gave the magnitude as 4. Dawson said the tail
extended 5 in PA 354 in binoculars, while it extended only 1.5 with the
naked eye. On the 10th and 11th, Dawson gave the magnitudes as 4.0 and
3.8, respectively. On the 12th, Houghton and Ensor gave the magnitude as
5. Hutchings obtained a 2-hour exposure which showed a faint secondary
tail, in addition to the primary one. On the 13th, Houghton and Ensor gave
the magnitude as 5.5 and noted the comet was hard to see with the naked
eye. On the 15th, Hutchings said the comets tail was barely 1 long, while
the coma was about 8 across. On August 16 and 17, Dawson gave the
41

catalog of comets

magnitude as 5.1. On the 17th, Houghton and Ensor gave the magnitude
as 6. Long said the comet was still visible to the naked eye. On the 18th,
R. Watson (Somerset West, South Africa) said the nucleus was bright, but
not quite stellar. Forbes saw the comet on the 19th with the naked eye,
but noted it was a difficult observation. On the 21st, Houghton and Ensor
gave the magnitude as 7. Forbes said the comet was still visible with the
naked eye, but only after first finding its position in binoculars. On the 22nd,
Dawson gave the magnitude as 5.9. On August 24, Hutchings estimated the
magnitude as 7.
On September 4, Houghton and Ensor estimated the magnitude as about
9. On September 6, Watson said the tail extended 20 and possibly even 40 .
Watson noted the tail was 17 long on the 10th. On September 19, Watson
gave the magnitude as 1011, while Houghton and Ensor estimated it as
about 11. Watson said the tail was 5 long, and about 2.5 wide.
Dawson obtained seven photographs of the comet during the period spanning October 111. He described it as a fairly compact, faint nebulosity, with
no nucleus. On October 19, the comet was photographed for the final time
by astronomers at Union Observatory (Johannesburg, South Africa) using
the 25-cm Franklin-Adams Star Camera.
The comet was last detected on October 22.02, when J. Tretter (Cordoba)

found it on a 45-minute exposure made with a 75-cm reflector. The position


was given as = 19h 30.4m , = 74 50 .
Several spectra of this comet were obtained. A. B. Wyse (Lick Observatory)
obtained a 2.75-hour exposure on May 21, using the low-disperson spectrograph and the 91-cm refractor. A weak spectrum was visible, in which the
only recognizable feature was a bright band of cyanogen. D. M. Popper
obtained a denser spectrogram on June 18, using a spectrograph attached
to the 91-cm Crossley reflector and an exposure of 1 hour. The most conspicuous molecule was cyanogen, while fainter bands of diatomic carbon
and triatomic carbon were also visible. D. Belorizky (Marseille Observatory,
France) photographed the spectrum of the comet on July 23, 25, 26, and 30.
He detected cyanogen and diatomic carbon.
The first parabolic orbits were calculated using positions from May 16, 17,
and 18. Whipple and Cunningham used Harvard photographic positions
and determined the perihelion date as 1936 July 4.85. F. Koebcke took a
different set of positions and determined the perihelion date as April 14.52.
Whipple and Cunningham added that the comet would pass close to Earth
at the end of July, so that it may be expected to attain naked eye brilliancy.
Using positions from May 16, 18, and 19, A. D. Maxwell and H. R. J. Grosch
determined the perihelion date as July 7.28. As May progressed, calculations
by M. Davidson, J. P. Moller,

P. Herget, and Whipple and Cunningham eventually established the perihelion date as July 8.9. Later parabolic orbits were
calculated by Moller

and Maxwell during early June.


The first elliptical orbit was calculated by J. Bobone. Using positions from
May 16, June 19, and July 29, he gave the perihelion date as July 8.97 and
42

catalog of comets

the period as about 2018 years. Shortly thereafter, Davidson determined the
perihelion date as July 8.96 and the period as about 1769 years.
A definitive orbit was calculated by Bobone (1947). He took 636 positions
spanning the entire period of visibility and determined the perihelion date
as July 8.96 and the period as about 1542 years. This orbit is given below.
T
1936 Jul. 8.9551 (UT)

 (2000.0)
148.4754 134.9408

i
78.5447

q
e
1.099870 0.991760

absolute magnitude: H0 = 6.13, n = 7.87 (Beyer, 1937); H10 = 6.9 (V1964)


full moon: May 6, Jun. 5, Jul. 4, Aug. 3, Sep. 1, Sep. 30, Oct. 30
sources: P. S. Riggs, LOB, 17 (1936), p. 196; L. C. Peltier and G. van Biesbroeck,
HAC, No. 373 (1936 May 16); L. C. Peltier, G. van Biesbroeck, and R. R. E. Schorr,
BZAN, 18 (1936 May 18), p. 33; F. L. Whipple and L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No.
374 (1936 May 18); F. L. Whipple, L. E. Cunningham, A. A. Wachmann, R. R. E.
Schorr, and E. Przybyllok, BZAN, 18 (1936 May 19), p. 34; F. L. Whipple and L. E.
Cunningham, HAC, No. 375 (1936 May 19); G. van Biesbroeck, A. D. Maxwell,
and H. R. J. Grosch, HAC, No. 376 (1936 May 21); G. B. Lacchini, F. Kaiser, A. A.
Wachmann, J. O. Stobbe, and J. Dick, BZAN, 18 (1936 May 25), p. 35; G. N. Neujmin, K. Graff, and J. O. Stobbe, BZAN, 18 (1936 May 29), p. 36; L. C. Peltier, F. L.
Whipple, L. E. Cunningham, F. Koebcke, and M. Davidson, The Observatory, 59
(1936 Jun.), p. 201; L. C. Peltier, Time, 27 (1936 Jun. 1); J. O. Stobbe, K. Graff, and
G. R. Miczaika, BZAN, 18 (1936 Jun. 2), p. 38; W. K. Green, HAC, No. 377 (1936
Jun. 3); P. Herget, HAC, No. 378 (1936 Jun. 3); F. L. Whipple and L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 379 (1936 Jun. 4); L. C. Peltier, G. van Biesbroeck, J. P. Moller,

P. Bourgeois, and E. Vandekerkhove, AN, 259 (1936 Jun. 9), p. 267; J. Franz, F.
Knappe, and M. Beyer, BZAN, 18 (1936 Jun. 16), p. 39; A. D. Maxwell, HAC,
No. 382 (1936 Jun. 25); F. Kaiser, G. Archenhold, G. R. Miczaika, and C. Fedtke,
BZAN, 18 (1936 Jun. 26), p. 42; F. Schembor, J. Stein, M. Schurer,

and S. D. Tscherny, AN, 259 (1936 Jun. 30), p. 347; L. C. Peltier, G. van Biesbroeck, F. L. Whipple,
and L. E. Cunningham, PA, 44 (1936 Jun.Jul.), pp. 3245; J. P. Moller

and G. van
Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 59 (1936 Jul.), pp. 2345; M. Beyer, K. Graff, J. Franz,
C. Fedtke, and S. D. Tscherny, BZAN, 18 (1936 Jul. 8), p. 44; K. Graff, BZAN, 18
(1936 Jul. 19), p. 48; L. Dezso and C. Fedtke, BZAN, 18 (1936 Jul. 22), p. 49;
L. C. Peltier, D. N. Davis, A. D. Maxwell, A. B. Wyse, and D. M. Popper, PASP, 48
(1936 Aug.), pp. 2225; W. T. Gayfer, The Observatory, 59 (1936 Aug.), p. 261; C.
Fedtke, BZAN, 18 (1936 Aug. 7), p. 53; C. Fedtke, BZAN, 18 (1936 Sep. 8), p. 60;
J. O. Stobbe, S. D. Tscherny, R. R. E. Schorr, A. A. Wachmann, M. Schurer,

and G.
Peisino, AN, 260 (1936 Aug. 11), p. 159; G. van Biesbroeck and A. D. Maxwell,
PA, 44 (1936 Aug.Sep.), pp. 38992; S. Plakidis, D. Kotsakis, and J. Bobone, AN,
260 (1936 Sep. 17), pp. 3214; T. Kumon, T. Takagi, and Kamesima, AN, 260 (1936
Sep. 30), p. 391; J. W. Hutchings, PASP, 48 (1936 Oct.), pp. 2701; G. Loreta, P.
Ahnert, K. Himpel, J. Witkowski, J. Gadomski, and E. Buchar, AN, 260 (1936 Oct.
12), pp. 4258; S. D. Tscherny, AN, 260 (1936 Oct. 19), pp. 42934; D. Belorizky
and P. Chofardet, JO, 19 (1936 Dec.), pp. 2014; E. Przybyllok and M. Campa,
AN, 261 (1936 Dec. 17), pp. 219, 225; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 18 (1937), pp. 856; G.
van Biesbroeck, AJ, 46 (1937 Jan. 2), pp. 12, 46; [Union Observatory], UOC,

43

catalog of comets
No. 97 (1937 Jan. 27), pp. 3067; M. Davidson and L. C. Peltier, MNRAS, 97 (1937
Feb.), pp. 3345; H. E. Houghton, G. E. Ensor, A. W. Long, A. F. I. Forbes, and R.
Watson, JASSA, 4 (1937 Mar.), pp. 7981; K. Graff, AN, 262 (1937 Mar. 1), p. 13;
Astrophysik, 13 (1937
R. R. E. Schorr, AN, 262 (1937 Mar. 8), p. 33; Zeitschrift fur
Mar. 9), pp. 18695; A. D. Dubiago, AN, 262 (1937 Mar. 16), p. 69; N. Rudski,
AN, 262 (1937 Mar. 19), pp. 8992; M. Beyer, AN, 262 (1937 Apr. 22), pp. 217
28; B. H. Dawson, AJ, 46 (1937 May 10), pp. 579; J. Tretter, AN, 263 (1937 Jul.
13), pp. 1636; H. Krumpholz, AN, 264 (1937 Oct. 12), pp. 214; P. P. Parenago,
AJSU, 15 (1938), pp. 1734; A. Schmitt, JO, 21 (1938 Apr.), pp. 58, 60; H. L.
Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 62; J. Bobone, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 1089, 112;
V1964, p. 73.

C/1936 O1 Discovered: 1936 July 17.49 ( = 0.98 AU, r = 0.52 AU, Elong. = 30)
(KahoKozikLis) Last seen: 1936 November 24.51 ( = 1.62 AU, r = 2.42 AU, Elong. = 136)
Closest to the Earth: 1936 June 25 (0.3708 AU)
1936 III = 1936b Calculated path: LMi (Disc), LYN (Sep. 19), GEM (Nov. 13)
S. Kaho (Sappora, Japan) discovered this comet on 1936 July 17.49, at = 10h
03.6m , = +34 26 . He described it as magnitude 6, with a nucleus and
a short tail. S. Kozik (Ashkhabad Geophysical Observatory, Turkmanian
Republic, Soviet Union) independently found the comet nearly 7 hours later
on July 17.73, and described it as magnitude 6, with a very faint, straight, and
narrow tail extending about 1.5. W. Lis (Astronomical Station of Cracow
Observatory, Mount Lubomir, Poland) independently discovered the comet
on July 17.86, and gave the nuclear magnitude as 8.0. The comet had been
situated at a minimum elongation of about 18 from the sun on June 29
and moved out to a maximum elongation of 31 by July 14. The comet was
moving away from both the sun and Earth at the time of discovery.
On July 18, the magnitude was given as 45 by F. Quenisset (Juvisy Observatory, France), 6 by G. N. Neujmin (Simeis Observatory, Crimea, Ukraine),
and 6.0 by S. Herrick and D. N. Davis (Lick Observatory, California, USA).
T. Banachiewicz (Cracow) said the comet and tail were faintly visible to
the naked eye in twilight. The tail length was given as 1 by Banachiewicz
and over 2 by Quenisset. Banachiewicz also reported an oval nucleus of
magnitude 8 was visible in a 12-cm refractor.
On July 19, the magnitude was given as 5 by Davis and H. M. Jeffers
(Lick Observatory), 5.0 by Kozik, 5.9 by G. Loreta (Bologna, Italy), and 6
by Neujmin. Neujmin noted a nucleus and tail. Davis and Jeffers obtained
a 3-minute exposure using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and said the tail
extended 0.5 toward the east.
The comet faded slightly during the remainder of July. On the 20th, the
magnitude was given as 5 by G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) and 6 by L. E. Cunningham (Harvard College Observatory,
Massachusetts, USA). Van Biesbroeck said the tail extended over 1. On the
21st, the magnitude was given as 5.5 by van Biesbroeck and 6.0 by Loreta.
On the 22nd, the magnitude was given as 5.0 by M. Campa (Milan, Italy), 5.5
44

catalog of comets

by E. J. Delporte (Uccle, Belgium), and 6.0 by Loreta. Delporte said the tail
was less than 1 long, while there was a central condensation. On the 23rd,
Loreta gave the magnitude as 6.3. On the 24th, the magnitude was given as
5 by H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory) and van Biesbroeck, 6.0 by Campa,
and 6.4 by Loreta. On the 25th, Jeffers said an 8-minute exposure with the
91-cm Crossley reflector showed a tail extending over 0.5 with structure
suggesting a bright central filament inside a less conspicuous envelope. On
the 26th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 5.5. On the 28th, the magnitude was given as 5.5 by van Biesbroeck, 6.5 by A. Bohrmann (Konigstuhl

Observatory, Heidelberg, Germany), and 7.0 by Campa. Van Biesbroeck said


the coma was 50 across and contained a sharp nucleus. The tail was much
fainter and extended to PA 51. The comet attained its most northerly declination of +37 on July 30, at which time van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude
as 5.8. On July 31, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 6.5, and said the
tail was no longer visible in evening twilight.
The last observation before the comets conjunction with the sun was
made by Bohrmann on August 6.85, when he gave the magnitude as 8.7.
The elongation was then 22. On August 10, the comet reached a minimum
solar elongation of 21.
The first observation of this comet following its conjunction with the sun
came on August 29.40, when van Biesbroeck found it in morning twilight
and described it as a round, centrally condensed coma, with a magnitude
of 12. The elongation was then 29.
On September 18, Jeffers gave the magnitude as 12.5, using the 30-cm
refractor. He said the comet seemed quite diffuse. The comet attained
its most southerly declination of +33 on October 6. On October 24, van
Biesbroeck described the comet as a diffuse coma 40 in diameter, with a
magnitude of 15.5. On October 26, Jeffers photographed the comet using
the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 17.5. He said a
60-minute exposure revealed the coma was moderately condensed, with
a diameter of 5 , and contained a far from stellar nucleus. After moving very slowly northward for about a month, the comet attained a declination of +34 on November 14 and then began moving southward
again.
The last two detections of this comet came on November 24.45 and
November 24.51, when Jeffers obtained two 1-hour exposures with the 91cm Crossley reflector at Lick Observatory. B. P. Riggs gave the comets position on the latter date as = 7h 11.9m , = +33 52 . Jeffers described the
comet as a mere fleck of nebulosity with a magnitude of 18. The moon
was full on November 28.
The first orbital calculation was made by F. L. Whipple and Cunningham
and was published on July 21. Using positions obtained on July 18, 19, and
20, they found a perihelion date of 1936 July 13.70. Large residuals for the
first date led them to state that the orbit was uncertain due to observational
inconsistency.
45

catalog of comets

Cunningham revised his orbital calculations using observations made up


through July 27, and published them on August 6. He found the perihelion
date was July 15.83. J. P. Moller

used a similar set of positions and determined the perihelion date as July 15.80. A. D. Maxwell and H. R. J. Grosch
published a parabolic orbit on August 28, which was based on four precise
positions obtained between July 19 and 30. The perihelion date was July
15.84. Using three observations obtained between July 18 and 30, H. Hirose
computed a parabolic orbit. The perihelion date was determined as July
15.84.
I. Nikoloff (1952) used 65 positions obtained between July 18 and November 24, and computed an elliptical orbit with a perihelion date of July 15.82
and a period of about 887 years. This orbit is given below.
T
1936 Jul. 15.8203 (UT)

45.8496

 (2000.0)
i
q
e
265.0062 121.9417 0.518403 0.994389

absolute magnitude: H10 = 8.4 (V1964)


full moon: Jul. 4, Aug. 3, Sep. 1, Sep. 30, Oct. 30, Nov. 28
sources: S. Kaho, S. Kozik, and G. N. Neujmin, BZAN, 18 (1936 Jul. 19), p. 48; S.
Kaho, S. Herrick, D. N. Davis, H. M. Jeffers, S. Kozik, L. E. Cunningham, and G.
van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 383 (1936 Jul. 20); F. L. Whipple and L. E. Cunningham,
HAC, No. 384 (1936 Jul. 21); W. Lis, S. Kozik, G. N. Neujmin, G. Loreta, F. L.
Whipple, and L. E. Cunningham, BZAN, 18 (1936 Jul. 22), p. 49; S. Kaho, F. L.
Whipple, and L. E. Cunningham, The Observatory, 59 (1936 Aug.), p. 261; G. van
Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 385 (1936 Aug. 3); L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 386 (1936
Aug. 6); S. Kaho, S. Kozik, W. Lis, and J. P. Moller,

AN, 260 (1936 Aug. 17),


p. 171; A. Bohrmann, BZAN, 18 (1936 Aug. 19), p. 56; A. D. Maxwell and H. R. J.
Grosch, HAC, No. 387 (1936 Aug. 28); S. Kaho, S. Kozik, F. L. Whipple, and L. E.
Cunningham, PA, 44 (1936 Aug.Sep.), p. 393; L. E. Cunningham and J. P. Moller,

The Observatory, 59 (1936 Sep.), p. 296; W. Lis and T. Banachiewicz, AN, 260 (1936
Sep. 1), p. 271; A. Bohrmann, AN, 260 (1936 Sep. 7), p. 287; A. Bohrmann, AN, 260
(1936 Sep. 17), p. 323; G. Loreta, A. Bohrmann, and E. J. Delporte, AN, 260 (1936
Sep. 30), p. 389; W. Lis, A. D. Maxwell, H. R. J. Grosch, and G. van Biesbroeck,
PA, 44 (1936 Oct.), p. 451; G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 59 (1936 Nov.),
p. 356; S. Kaho, S. Kozik, and W. Lis, PASP, 48 (1936 Dec.), p. 316; S. Kaho, S.
Kozik, W. Lis, A. D. Maxwell, and H. R. J. Grosch, PASP, 48 (1936 Dec.), p. 339;
M. Campa, AN, 261 (1936 Dec. 17), p. 225; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 18 (1937), pp. 86,
88; S. Kaho, S. Kozik, W. Lis, F. Quenisset, A. D. Maxwell, and H. R. J. Grosch,
MNRAS, 97 (1937 Feb.), pp. 3345; PASP, 49 (1937 Feb.), p. 36; G. van Biesbroeck,
The Observatory, 60 (1937 Feb.), p. 55; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 46 (1937 Sep. 14),
pp. 141, 1435; H. Hirose, JJAG, 15 (1938), p. 24; H. L. Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.),
p. 62; I. Nikoloff, MNRAS, 112 (1952), pp. 3423; V1964, p. 73.

58P/1936 S1 Prediscovery: 1936 September 9.92 ( = 0.48 AU, r = 1.49 AU, Elong. =
(JacksonNeujmin) 173)
Discovered: 1936 September 15.86 ( = 0.48 AU, r = 1.48 AU,
1936 IV = 1936c Elong. = 167)
46

catalog of comets

Last seen: 1936 November 5.27 ( = 0.68 AU, r = 1.51 AU, Elong. = 128)
Closest to the Earth: 1936 September 16 (0.4788 AU)
Calculated path: AQR (Pre), CET (Oct. 27)
This comet was independently discovered on plates taken in the course of
routine minor planet surveys. The initial discovery was made by C. V. Jackson (Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) on 1936 September
20, while examining one of the plates exposed using the FranklinAdams
Star Camera on September 15.86. The position was then given as = 22h
54.4m , = 10 41 . Jackson rephotographed the region on September 20.84
to confirm the discovery. A visual observation with the 66-cm telescope
showed a diffuse, 12th-magnitude object, without a central condensation or
nucleus. The daily motion was determined as +1m 05s in and 25 in . An
independent discovery of this comet was made by G. N. Neujmin (Simeis
Observatory, Crimea, Ukraine) on September 21.82. He also estimated the
magnitude as 12. Near the end of November, F. Rigaux (Royal Observatory,
Uccle, Belgium) announced the finding of a prediscovery image on a photographic plate exposed on September 9.92. The comet was near its closest
distance to Earth when discovered, but was still approaching the sun.
On September 22, the magnitude was given as 12 by Neujmin, 12.5 by
H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA), and 13 by G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA). Van Biesbroeck described
the comet as a round, centrally condensed coma, with a diameter of 30 .
On the 23rd, the photographic magnitude was given as 11 by H. L. Giclas
(Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA), 12 by J. Bobone (National Observatory, Cordoba,

Argentina) and Neujmin, 12.5 by A. A. Wachmann (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany), and 13 by van Biesbroeck. On the
24th and 25th, Bobone gave the magnitude as 12. On September 25, van
Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 13. He added that the coma was round,
centrally condensed, and measured 25 across.
The comet was closest to the sun at the beginning of October and was
moving away from both the sun and Earth thereafter. On October 8, van
Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 13.5. The coma was extremely diffuse and
35 across. On the 12th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 14. He added
that the coma was diffuse with hardly any condensation, and measured
30 across. On the 14th, Jeffers visually observed the comet using the 91-cm
refractor and gave the magnitude as 15.5. He simply described it as a small
fleck of nebulosity. On the 16th, van Biesbroeck simply described the comet
as extremely diffuse with a magnitude of 15. On the 21st, Jeffers obtained
a photograph with the 91-cm Crossley reflector and noted a coma 1015
across, with a moderately condensed nucleus. The comet attained its most
southerly declination of 20 on October 27.
The last two detections of the comet came on November 5.23 and November 5.27, when Jeffers obtained photographs with the 91-cm Crossley reflector. B. P. Riggs gave the comets position on the latter date as = 0h 09.4m ,
47

catalog of comets

= 20 07 . Jeffers said the comet was a small, well-defined object of magnitude 17.5.
The first orbit was computed by L. E. Cunningham and published on
September 26. Using van Biesbroecks precise positions from September 22,
23, and 25, he found an elliptical orbit with a perihelion date of 1936 October
4.79 and a period of 6.83 years. This orbit indicated the comet had passed
about 0.5 AU from Jupiter in the spring of 1934. Jackson took positions from
September 15, 20, and 26, and determined the perihelion date as October
2.50 and the period as 9.52 years. Despite these elliptical orbits, two teams
of astronomers independently calculated parabolic orbits a few days after
Jackson and using the same positions. S. Herrick, G. E. Kron, and Miss Hill
determined the perihelion date as September 30.81, while A. D. Maxwell and
H. R. J. Grosch determined it as October 5.58.
The comets orbit was virtually pinpointed about mid-October. Cunningham used three positions determined by van Biesbroeck during the
period September 22October 8. He gave the perihelion date as October
3.67 and the period as 8.53 years. Herrick, Kron, and Hill computed an
elliptical orbit using eight precise positions spanning the period September
22October 7, and found a perihelion date of October 3.39 and a period
of 8.54 years. Using positions from September 15, October 4, and 19, Jackson determined the perihelion date as October 3.24 and the period as 8.06
years. Following the announcement of the prediscovery position of September 9, Cunningham used it, plus positions from September 23 and October 21, to determine a perihelion date of October 3.45 and a period of
8.53 years.
The comet was not found at its next three apparitions. B. G. Marsden (1960,
1961, 1969) subsequently published orbits which indicated the period was
slightly longer: 8.57 years. These orbits led to the comets recovery in 1970.
Thereafter, Marsden (1975) and G. Forti (1989) computed multiple apparition orbits using both gravitational and nongravitational effects. Fortis orbit
is given below. It used 41 positions obtained during the observed apparitions of 19361978, as well as perturbations by all nine planets and nongravitational terms of A1 = +0.00 and A2 = 0.2595, and determined the
perihelion date as October 3.37.
The suggestion was made on several occasions during the discovery
apparition that this comet might be comet Swift of 1895 (D/1895 Q1), which
was shown to have an orbit of 7.2 years, but was not seen again after its discovery apparition. Later computations have shown the link is not possible.
T
1936 Oct. 3.3680 (TT)

 (2000.0)
197.2803 165.1350

absolute magnitude: H10 = 13.3 (V1964)


full moon: Sep. 1, Sep. 30, Oct. 30, Nov. 28

48

i
13.2898

q
e
1.462680 0.650596

catalog of comets
sources: C. V. Jackson, BZAN, 18 (1936 Sep. 22), p. 67; G. van Biesbroeck, HAC,
No. 389 (1936 Sep. 23); G. van Biesbroeck and L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 390
(1936 Sep. 26); S. Herrick, G. E. Kron, Miss Hill, A. D. Maxwell, and H. R. J.
Grosch, HAC, No. 391 (1936 Sep. 29); G. N. Neujmin and A. A. Wachmann,
BZAN, 18 (1936 Sep. 30), p. 68; C. V. Jackson, The Observatory, 59 (1936 Oct.),
p. 322; G. N. Neujmin, BZAN, 18 (1936 Oct. 7), p. 71; L. E. Cunningham and
G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 394 (1936 Oct. 13); S. Herrick, G. E. Kron, Miss
Hill, and G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 395 (1936 Oct. 14); C. V. Jackson, BZAN,
18 (1936 Oct. 19), p. 73; L. E. Cunningham, S. Herrick, G. E. Kron, Miss Hill,
IAUC, No. 627 (1936 Oct. 29); C. V. Jackson, L. E. Cunningham, S. Herrick, G. E.
Kron, Miss Hill, and G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 44 (1936 Nov.), p. 494; C. V. Jackson, The Observatory, 59 (1936 Nov.), pp. 3556; F. Rigaux and G. N. Neujmin,
IAUC, No. 628 (1936 Nov. 3); H. A. Kobold, AN, 261 (1936 Nov. 10), p. 85; C. V.
Jackson, IAUC, No. 629 (1936 Nov. 10); C. V. Jackson, AN, 261 (1936 Nov. 17),
p. 101; L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 401 (1936 Dec. 2); J. Bobone, AN, 261 (1936
Dec. 17), p. 225; G. N. Neujmin, PA, 44 (1936 Dec.), p. 573; H. M. Jeffers and
L. E. Cunningham, PASP, 48 (1936 Dec.), pp. 33940; C. V. Jackson and G. van
Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 59 (1936 Dec.), p. 383; C. V. Jackson, UOC, No. 97
(1937 Jan. 27), pp. 3078; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 18 (1937), p. 86; L. E. Cunningham,
The Observatory, 60 (1937 Jan.), p. 28; C. V. Jackson, G. N. Neujmin, F. Rigaux,
and L. E. Cunningham, MNRAS, 97 (1937 Feb.), p. 336; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 46
(1937 Sep. 14), pp. 141, 1445; L. E. Cunningham, VJS, 73 (1938), pp. 601; H. L.
Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 62; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 1 (1960 Dec.), pp. 2323;
B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 2 (1961 Oct.), pp. 1579; V1964, p. 73; B. G. Marsden,
QJRAS, 10 (1969 Sep.), pp. 2523; B. G. Marsden, CCO, 2nd ed. (1975), pp. 24, 50;
B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 19 (1978 Mar.), pp. 523, 57; G. Forti, AAP, 215 (1989),
pp. 3812, 384.

33P/1937 B1 Recovered: 1937 January 31.43 ( = 1.23 AU, r = 1.54 AU, Elong. = 87)
(Daniel) Last seen: 1937 April 1.85 ( = 1.77 AU, r = 1.67 AU, Elong. = 68)
Closest to the Earth: 1936 November 12 (0.8836 AU)
1937 I = 1937a Calculated path: ARI (Rec), TAU (Feb. 27), PER (Mar. 8), AUR (Mar. 22)
Following this comets discovery in 1909, it was missed at its next three
apparitions. For the 1916 apparition, a prediction of May 23.92 was
provided by S. Einarsson and M. Harwood (1916), while J. Krassowski
(1916) determined it as May 22.26. Although these indicated the comet was
unfavorably placed for observation, Einarsson and Harwood noted that
the predicted positions may be considerably in error due to the fairly close
approach to Jupiter. They found that the comet was within 0.7 AU from
Jupiter during the period spanning 1911 December and 1912 March. A
prediction for the next apparition came from C. H. Hall Jr. and E. L. Kinsey
(1922). They began with the orbit determined for the 1909 apparition and
found that the comet would next arrive at perihelion on 1922 October 18.
A. D. Dubiago (1923, 1924) predicted the comet would pass perihelion
around the middle of 1923. F. R. Cripps (1929, 1930) provided a prediction

49

catalog of comets

for the third missed apparition. He carefully calculated the perturbations


from 1909 to 1930 and predicted the comet would next arrive at perihelion
on 1930 April 7.52. He noted the comet was not well placed, being low in
the west during evening twilight.
S. Kanda suggested to H. Hirose (1937) that a search ephemeris for the
1937 apparition should be computed. Hirose took Dubiagos orbit for the
unobserved 1923 apparition and computed the perturbations from Jupiter
for the period of 192336. He noted that the upcoming return of 1937 would
be favorable for recovery, and predicted a perihelion date of 1937 January
28.59.
The comet was recovered by S. Shimizu (Simada, Japan) with an 8-cm
astrograph on 1937 January 31.43. The comet was then at a position of = 2h
18.8m , = +17 36 , and was found after an extensive search around the
positions predicted by Hirose. Shimizu said it appeared as a 13th-magnitude
diffuse object, without a nucleus. Confirming photographic observations
were obtained by Shimizu on February 2.43 and February 3.43, with the
magnitude being estimated as 12.5. Hiroses prediction needed a correction
of only 0.710 day. The comet was found as it was moving away from both
the sun and Earth.
On February 9, Kanda (Tokyo Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka Station,
Japan) observed the comet. On the 12th, L. E. Cunningham (Harvard College Observatorys Oak Ridge Station, Massachusetts, USA) described the
comets photographic appearance as a poorly defined, diffuse splotch
measuring about 15 across. The magnitude was 14.6 on a plate exposed
with the 30-cm telescope at Cambridge, while it was 15.2 on a plate exposed
with the 41-cm telescope at the Oak Ridge Station.
On March 2, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA)
described the comet as possessing a very faint coma 20 in diameter and
gave the magnitude as 14.5. He added that a sharply defined nucleus measured 6 in diameter and shone at magnitude 15.5. On the 7th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 15 and the coma as about 25 across. On
March 8 and 16, W. Dieckvoss (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany)
gave the magnitude as 16.
This comet was last detected on April 1.85, when L. Volta (Pino Torinese
Observatory, Turin, Italy) photographed it using the 20-cm astrograph and
estimated the magnitude as 14.5. He gave the position as = 5h 07.5m ,
= +36 09 .
Hirose took the recovery positions and corrected his predicted orbit from
the previous year. The result was a perihelion date of January 27.94.
Multiple apparition orbits were calculated by B. G. Marsden (1968, 1970,
1986), and L. M. Belous (1985), which established a perihelion date of January 27.85 and a period of 6.83 years. Marsden (1968) said the results
were not very satisfactory, but that there was evidently secular deceleration, but the precise value is hard to estimate. Using positions spanning 193764, the nongravitational terms were given as A1 = +0.86734
50

catalog of comets

and A2 = +0.054463 by Marsden (1970), A1 = +1.1 and A2 = +0.073 by


Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans (1973), and A1 = +1.14 and
A2 = +0.0785 by Marsden (1986). The orbit of Marsden (1986) is given
below.
T
1937 Jan. 27.8455 (TT)

6.0611

 (2000.0)
71.1593

i
19.8261

q
e
1.535656 0.573200

absolute magnitude: H10 = 12.1 (V1964)


full moon: Jan. 26, Feb. 25, Mar. 26, Apr. 25
sources: S. Einarsson and M. Harwood, LOB, 9 (1916), p. 14; J. Krassowski,
AN, 203 (1916 Nov. 23), p. 357; C. H. Hall Jr. and E. L. Kinsey, HCOB, No. 768
(1922 May 19); C. H. Hall Jr. and E. L. Kinsey, PA, 30 (1922 Jun.), p. 368; A. D.
Dubiago, BZAN, 5 (1923 Mar. 5), p. 10; A. D. Dubiago, VJS, 59 (1924), pp. 2326;
F. R. Cripps, MNRAS, 89 (1929 Feb.), pp. 3623; F. R. Cripps, BAA Handbook for
1930 (1930 Jan.), pp. 289; H. Hirose, S. Kanda, A. D. Dubiago, and S. Shimizu,
PIAJ, 13 (1937), pp. 1567; S. Shimizu, BZAN, 19 (1937 Feb. 11), p. 6; S. Shimizu,
HAC, No. 402 (1937 Feb. 11); L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 405 (1937 Feb. 19);
L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 640 (1937 Mar. 2); H. Hirose and S. Shimizu,
IAUC, No. 646 (1937 Mar. 15); A. D. Dubiago, H. Hirose, and S. Shimizu, PA,
45 (1937 Mar.), pp. 1567; S. Shimizu and H. Hirose, The Observatory, 60 (1937
Mar.), p. 83; L. E. Cunningham, BZAN, 19 (1937 Mar. 5), p. 11; S. Shimizu and
H. Hirose, The Observatory, 60 (1937 Apr.), p. 115; L. Volta, IAUC, No. 652 (1937
Apr. 8); L. Volta, BZAN, 19 (1937 Apr. 9), p. 19; W. Dieckvoss, AN, 262 (1937 Apr.
12), p. 197; G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 60 (1937 May), p. 146; G. van
Biesbroeck, AJ, 46 (1937 Sep. 14), pp. 1445; L. Volta and H. Hirose, MNRAS,
98 (1938 Feb.), pp. 3479; W. Dieckvoss, AN, 265 (1938 Feb. 2), p. 1; H. Hirose,
JJAG, 15 (1938), pp. 245; V1964, p. 73; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 372,
374; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 9 (1968 Sep.), pp. 31415; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 75 (1970
Feb.), pp. 812; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 11 (1970 Sep.), pp. 2323; B. G. Marsden,
Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.), p. 213; L. M. Belous, QJRAS,
26 (1985 Mar.), pp. 11314; B. G. Marsden, CCO, 5th ed. (1986), pp. 21, 55, 66;
B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 27 (1986 Mar.), p. 116.

C/1937 C1 Prediscovery: 1937 February 4.40 ( = 1.76 AU, r = 2.44 AU, Elong. = 122)
(Whipple) Discovered: 1937 February 7.38 ( = 1.72 AU, r = 2.41 AU, Elong. = 123)
Last seen: 1937 October 28.74 ( = 2.65 AU, r = 2.40 AU, Elong. = 64)
1937 IV = 1937b Closest to the Earth: 1937 June 26 (1.2690 AU)
Calculated path: CVn (Pre), UMa (Mar. 10), BOO (Mar. 19), UMa (Mar. 29),
DRA (May 19), BOO (Jun. 2), CrB (Jul. 15), SER (Jul. 25), HER (Aug. 4),
SER-HER (Aug. 9), OPH (Aug. 28), SER (Sep. 30), SCT (Oct. 18), SGR
(Oct. 19)
On 1937 February 14, F. L. Whipple (Harvard College Observatory) was
examining a photographic plate exposed on February 7.38, when he discovered the image of a comet at a position of = 13h 19.5m , = +35 26 .
It was described as a diffuse object of magnitude 11.5, with a nucleus and a
51

catalog of comets

tail, The daily motion was given as +1m 18s in and +22 in . On February
15.22, Whipple and L. E. Cunningham estimated the magnitude as 11.0.
On February 15.47, H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) visually observed the comet with the 30-cm refractor and estimated the magnitude as 10. Around this same time, a prediscovery image was found by
Whipple on a photographic plate exposed on February 4.40. The magnitude
was then estimated as 11.5. The comet was approaching both the sun and
Earth.
On February 17, the magnitude was given as 10.5 by G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA), A. M. Vergnano (Pino Torinese Observatory, Turin, Italy), and G. Adamopoulos (National Observatory, Athens, Greece). Van Biesbroeck said a well-condensed nucleus was
observed in the diffuse coma, and a tail extended 12 in PA 250. Adamopoulos said the round coma was 61 across, with a weak condensation, but a
stellar nucleus of magnitude 12.5. Jeffers said the nucleus was nearly stellar.
On the 20th, E. Vandekerkhove (Royal Observatory, Uccle, Belgium) estimated the nuclear magnitude as 12. On the 23rd, van Biesbroeck gave the
magnitude as 10. He noted a sharp nucleus and said a tail was faintly visible in the third quadrant. On February 26, van Biesbroeck observed under
a nearly full moon and simply described the comet as faint.
On March 1, Jeffers gave the magnitude as 10 and noted a stellar nucleus.
On March 2 and 3, Vandekerkhove gave the nuclear magnitude as 12. On
the 4th, L. Boyer (Alger, now al-Jazair, Algeria) photographed the comet
and gave the magnitude as 11.6. On the 5th, Boyer gave the photographic
magnitude as 11.7. On the 6th, H. Fischer (Innsbruck, Austria) said the coma
was 1 across, with a weak central condensation. Vandekerkhove said there
was a central condensation and a tail extended to PA 320. On the 7th, F.
Schembor (Vienna University Observatory, Austria) gave the photographic
magnitude as 8. On the 8th, the visual magnitude was given as 9.94 by M.
Beyer (Hamburg, Germany), while the photographic magnitude was given
as 8 by W. Dieckvoss (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany). Beyer
said the coma was 1.9 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 12.4. He added
that a tail extended 3 in PA 272. On the 9th, Adamopoulos gave the magnitude as 10.0. He said the coma was 55 across, with a distinct nucleus of
magnitude 11.5, and a tail extending 3 in PA 261. On the 10th, Beyer gave
the magnitude as 9.89. He said the coma was 2.3 across, with a nucleus of
magnitude 11.8. He added that a tail extended 4 in PA 251. On the 11th, van
Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.8. Adamopoulos said the coma was 65
across, with a tail extending 3.5 in PA 262. On the 12th, the magnitude was
given as 9.3 by van Biesbroeck and 9.5 by W. H. Steavenson (West Norwood,
England). Van Biesbroeck noted a stellar nucleus and a very broad tail that
covered PA 200270. Steavenson said a faint tail extended 10 in PA 260. On
the 13th, the magnitude was given as 9.5 by H. Krumpholz (Vienna, Austria) and 10.0 by A. D. Dubiago (University Observatory, Kazan, Russia).
Fischer said the coma was 1 across, with a weak central condensation.
52

catalog of comets

Krumpholz said the comet exhibited a very distinct condensation and a


broad tail extending to PA 220. On the 14th, the magnitude was given as 9.2
by van Biesbroeck, 9.55 by Beyer, and 10.2 by Dubiago. Van Biesbroeck said
the main axis of the broad tail extended to PA 240. Beyer said the coma was
2 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 12.4. He added that a tail extended
5 in PA 262. On March 15, Boyer gave the photographic magnitude
as 11.0.
Moonlight interfered with observations during the latter half of March. On
the 16th, the magnitude was given as 9.39 by Beyer and 9.5 by Adamopoulos. Beyer said the coma was 2 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 11.9. He
added that a tail extended 5 in PA 261. On the 18th, Steavenson gave the
magnitude as 9.5. U. S. Lyons (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC) photographed the comet using the 102-cm reflector and said the comet exhibited
a starlike nucleus and a short tail. Beyer gave the magnitude as 9.57 on the
22nd. On March 26, 28, and 30, van Biesbroeck noted a round coma and
a well-defined nucleus. On the 29th, the magnitude was given as 9.31 by
Beyer and 10 by Steavenson. Beyer said the coma was 2.5 across, with a
nucleus of magnitude 12.0. He added that a tail extended 5 in PA 255. On
the 30th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 9.36. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was 11.8, the coma diameter was 2.5 , and the tail extended 5 in PA
262. Lyons said the comet exhibited a starlike nucleus of magnitude 10.5.
On March 31, Beyer gave the magnitude as 9.44. He said the coma was 2.5
across, with a nucleus of magnitude 12.2. He added that a tail extended 5
in PA 253.
On April 1, Steavenson gave the magnitude as 10. On the 2nd, the magnitude was given as 9.26 by Beyer and 9.4 by van Biesbroeck. Van Biesbroeck
said the tail was only faintly visible, but there was still a sharp nucleus. Beyer
said the coma was 2.2 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 11.5. Beyer added
that a tail extended 7 in PA 248. On the 4th, Steavenson gave the magnitude as 9.5. On the 7th, the magnitude was given as 9.19 by Beyer and 9.2 by
van Biesbroeck. Van Biesbroeck said the nucleus was almost stellar, while
the broad tail extended over 8 in PA 202260. Beyer said the coma was
2.8 across, with a tail extending 6 in PA 253. On the 9th, the magnitude
was given as 8.5 by van Biesbroeck and 8.97 by Beyer. Beyer said the coma
was 2.8 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 11.87. He added that a tail
extended 10 in PA 257. On the 11th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.84, yet
van Biesbroeck commented that the comet was unquestionably fainter
and gave the magnitude as 9.5. Van Biesbroeck said the main axis of the tail
extended to PA 210 and the nucleus was near the apex of the paraboloid
coma. Beyer said the coma was 2.8 across, with a nucleus of magnitude
12.17. Beyer added that a tail extended 8 in PA 256. On the 12th, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 8.82. He said the coma was 2.3 across and the tail
extended 9 toward PA 256. On April 12 and 13, C. Fedtke (Konigsberg,

now Kaliningrad, Russia) gave the magnitude as 9.0. On the 13th, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 8.81. He said the coma was 2.5 across and the tail
53

catalog of comets

extended 10 toward PA 253. On the 14th, Fedtke gave the magnitude as
8.9. He noted a stellar nucleus of magnitude 9.6 and a tail extending 34 . On
April 15, M. Campa (Milan, Italy) gave the magnitude as 10.0, using a 22-cm
refractor. Jeffers photographed the comet with the 91-cm Crossley reflector
and said the faint, broad tail extended at least 5 toward the southwest.
On April 17, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.87. He said the coma was 2.5
across, with a tail extending 10 in PA 252. On the 20th, the magnitude was
given as 8.8 by Fedtke and 9.0 by van Biesbroeck. Van Biesbroeck said the
tail was only faintly visible in moonlight. On the 25th, van Biesbroeck said
the coma was very faint, although a sharp nucleus was still visible. On the
28th, the magnitude was given as 8.3 by F. Kaiser (Wiesbaden, Germany)
and 8.64 by Beyer. Beyer said the coma was 2.8 across, with a tail extending
10 in PA 244. Kaiser added that a 35-minute exposure revealed a coma 3
across and a fan-shaped tail extending 9 toward PA 240. On the 29th, the
magnitude was given as 8.60 by Beyer and 9.8 by Campa. Beyer said the
coma was 2.3 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 11.8. He added that a
tail extended 8 in PA 244. On the 29th and 30th, G. Loreta (Bologna, Italy)
gave the magnitude as 8.6. On April 30, the magnitude was given as 8.58
by Beyer and 8.7 by K. Himpel (Wiesbaden). Beyer said the coma was 2.0
across, with a nucleus of magnitude 12.01. He added that a tail extended 9
in PA 243.
The comet attained its most northerly declination of +60 on May 1. The
magnitude was then given as 8.53 by Beyer and 8.6 by Himpel. Beyer said
the coma was 2.8 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 12.07. He added that
a tail extended 10 in PA 247. Jeffers photographed the comet with the 91cm Crossley reflector and found a faint, broad tail extending 10 towards
the southwest. The coma was small, but bright. On the 2nd, the magnitude
was given as 8.48 by Beyer and 8.6 by Himpel. Beyer said the coma was 3.0
across, with a nucleus of magnitude 12.12. He added that a tail extended
10 in PA 250. On the 3rd, the magnitude was given as 8.47 by Beyer, 8.5
by Fedtke, and 8.6 by Loreta. Fedtke noted it was very diffuse, with a tail
extending toward PA 230. E. Przybyllok (Konigsberg,

now Kaliningrad,
Russia) observed with a 33-cm refractor and described the comet as diffuse,
with a granular center. On the 4th, Lyons said the coma and nucleus were
elongated. On the 5th, the magnitude was given as 8.49 by Beyer and 8.5 by
Himpel. Beyer said the coma was 2.8 across, with a tail extending 10 in PA
249. On the 7th, Loreta gave the magnitude as 8.6. On the 8th, Fedtke gave
the magnitude as 8.2 and said the comet was diffuse, with a tail toward PA
230. Loreta gave the magnitude as 8.4 on the 9th. On the 10th, the magnitude
was given as 8.4 by van Biesbroeck and 8.5 by Adamopoulos. Van Biesbroeck
noted a stellar nucleus and a coarse tail extending to PA 200. Adamopoulos said the nuclear magnitude was 11.5. On the 11th, Himpel gave the
magnitude as 8.4. D. Kotsakis (National Observatory, Athens, Greece) said
the coma extended towards the southwest, while a magnitude-11.5 nucleus
was eccentrically situated towards the north. On the 12th, Fedtke gave the
54

catalog of comets

magnitude as 8.2 and the comet was very diffuse, with a tail toward PA
230. Lyons said the comet exhibited a sharp nucleus and a tail 1 long.
Adamopoulos said the coma was 70 across, with a tail 2 long. On the 13th,
the magnitude was given as 8.30 by Beyer and 8.5 by Himpel. Beyer said the
coma was 3.0 across, with a tail extending 10 in PA 240. Kotsakis said the
coma was 1 across, with a nucleus eccentrically situated towards the northeast and a weak tail pointing to the southwest.
On May 16, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.27. He said the coma was 3.0
across, with a tail extending 10 in PA 222. On the 17th, Adamopoulos gave
the nuclear magnitude as 11.0. He added that the nucleus was not in the
center of the coma but was situated towards the southwest, while the tail
extended 2 towards the southwest. On the 18th, Himpel gave the magnitude
as 8.4. On the 20th, Kotsakis said a weak tail pointed to the southwest. On
the 23rd, van Biesbroeck observed under a nearly full moon and simply
described the comet as a well-condensed coma with a stellar nucleus. On
the 27th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.66. He said the coma was 3.0 across,
with a tail extending 10 in PA 217. On the 28th, the magnitude was given
as 8.5 by Himpel and 8.67 by Beyer. Beyer said the coma was 3.0 across,
with a nucleus of magnitude 11.91. He added that a tail extended 10 in
PA 214. On the 29th, Campa gave the magnitude as 9.2. On the 30th, the
magnitude was given as 8.7 by Loreta and 8.9 by Fedtke. Fedtke noted a tail
extending toward PA 190. On May 31, the magnitude was given as 8.46 by
Beyer and 8.5 by Adamopoulos. Beyer said the coma was 3.0 across, with a
tail extending 8 in PA 203. Adamopoulos said the nuclear magnitude was
10.511.0, and the tail extended 6 towards the southwest.
On June 1, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.52. He said the coma was 3.5
across, with a tail extending 8 in PA 213. Kotsakis said there was a strong
condensation, with a starlike nucleus. On the 2nd, the magnitude was given
as 8.41 by Beyer, 8.6 by Adamopoulos, and 8.7 by Loreta. Jeffers said the
comet was barely visible in the 10-cm finder. Beyer said the coma was 3.0
across, with a tail extending 8 in PA 218. Adamopoulos said the coma was
175 across, with a condensation 22 across, and a tail extending 3 towards
the southwest. On the 3rd, the magnitude was given as 8.7 by Himpel and
9.2 by Campa. On the 5th, the magnitude was given as 8.19 by Beyer, 8.5
by Loreta, and 8.8 by Himpel. On the 6th, the magnitude was given as 8.40
by Beyer, 8.6 by Loreta, and 8.9 by Fedtke. Beyer said the coma was 3.0
across, with a nucleus of magnitude 12.03. He added that a tail extended
9 in PA 237. Fedtke noted a tail extending toward PA 190. Przybyllok
said the nucleus was starlike. On the 7th, Loreta and Adamopoulos gave
the magnitude as 8.6. Adamopoulos said the nuclear magnitude was 10.5
11.0. On the 8th, Loreta gave the magnitude as 8.6. Kotsakis said the comet
appeared diffuse, but did not contain a starlike nucleus. On the 9th, the
magnitude was given as 8.4 by Adamopoulos, 8.54 by Beyer, 8.7 by Loreta,
and 8.9 by Fedtke. Beyer said the coma was 3.0 across, with a tail extending
9 in PA 221. On the 10th, the magnitude was given as 8.50 by Beyer and 9.0
55

catalog of comets

by van Biesbroeck. Beyer said the coma was 3.0 across, with a tail extending
10 in PA 224. Van Biesbroeck said the broad tail covered the angle between
PA 150 and PA 240 and was diffuse and stubby; however, several longer
jets were visible, especially in PA 175 (4 long) and PA 150 (7 long). The
nucleus was well condensed, but not stellar. On the 11th, Adamopoulos
gave the magnitude as 8.7 and noted a tail toward PA 215. On the 12th,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.68. On the 13th, the magnitude was given
as 8.85 by Beyer, 8.9 by Fedtke, and 9.0 by Loreta. Beyer said the coma was
2.9 across, with a tail extending 7 in PA 189. On June 14, Campa gave the
magnitude as 9.0.
The comet passed closest to the sun and Earth during the last half of June.
On the 16th, the magnitude was given as 8.8 by Adamopoulos and 9.0 by
Campa. Adamopoulos said the nucleus was occasionally seen. On the 17th,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.70. He said the coma was 2.9 across, with a
tail extending 8 in PA 202. On the 18th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.61.
He said the coma was 3.0 across, with a tail extending 8 in PA 227. On the
21st, Fedtke gave the magnitude as 9.0 in bright twilight and moonlight.
On the 27th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.98. He said the coma was 2.8
across, with a nucleus of magnitude 11.84. On the 28th, Adamopoulos gave
the magnitude as 9.0. On the 29th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 9.03. He
said the coma was 3.0 across, with a tail extending 7 in PA 190. On June
30, Adamopoulos gave the magnitude as 9.0.
The comet was moving away from both the sun and Earth as July began.
On the 2nd, the magnitude was given as 8.4 by van Biesbroeck, 9.0 by Himpel, and 9.12 by Beyer. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was 4 in diameter and
the broad tail extended about 6 in PA 210. The nucleus was well condensed,
but not stellar. On the 3rd, the magnitude was given as 8.9 by Himpel, 9.11
by Beyer, and 9.2 by Fedtke. Beyer said the coma was 3.0 across, with a
nucleus of magnitude 11.73. The tail extended 7 in PA 206. Fedtke noted a
very diffuse, short tail extending toward PA 180. On the 5th, Adamopoulos gave the magnitude as 8.7. He said the coma was 100 across, while
the nuclear magnitude was 12.0. Adamopoulos added that the nucleus was
eccentrically situated towards the northeast side of the coma. On the 7th,
Adamopoulos gave the magnitude as 8.8. He said the nuclear magnitude
was 12.513.0, and the tail extended towards the southeast. On the 9th and
12th, Adamopoulos said the coma was 90 across, and the nuclear magnitude was 13.0. On the 13th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.56 and said the
coma was 2.8 across. On July 15, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 8.80,
while A. A. Wachmann (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) gave
the photographic magnitude as 9.5. Wachmann noted the comet was very
diffuse, with a faint nucleus. On the 18th, the magnitude was given as 8.63
by Beyer and 9.1 by van Biesbroeck. Kaiser said the diffuse coma was 2
across. On the 19th, Fedtke gave the magnitude as 9.5. He noted a nucleus
of magnitude 12.0 and a tail extending 1 toward PA 170. On July 30, Jeffers
obtained a 30-minute exposure with the 91-cm Crossley reflector and said
56

catalog of comets

the centrally condensed coma was about 3 across. He added that a faint tail
extended 20 in PA 300.
On August 1, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.2. He said the coma
was about 5 across, while the sharp nucleus exhibited a little fan-shaped
extension in the direction of the sun. On the 2nd, the magnitude was given
as 9.9 by Himpel and 10 by Dieckvoss and H.-U. Sandig (Hamburg Observatory). On the 3rd, P. Chofardet (Besancon, France) gave the magnitude
as 1011. He said the round coma was 1 across, with a central nucleus. On
the 4th, the magnitude was given as 9.61 by Beyer, 10 by Dieckvoss and
Sandig, and 10.1 by Himpel. Beyer said the coma was 3 across. On the 5th,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 9.43. He said the coma was 3 across, while
Chofardet noted a central nucleus. On the 6th, the magnitude was given as
9.61 by Beyer and 10 by Dieckvoss and Sandig. Beyer said the coma was 3
across. On the 9th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 9.27. Adamopoulos said
the coma was 85 across. On the 11th, the magnitude was given as 9.70 by
Beyer and 10 by Dieckvoss and Sandig. On the 12th, Adamopoulos said the
coma was 85 across, with a short tail extending to PA 95. On the 24th,
Adamopoulos described the comet as very faint, centrally condensed, but
without a nucleus. On the 29th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 10.18 and
noted a coma 2 across. On August 31, the magnitude was given as 10 by
Sandig and 10.39 by Beyer. Beyer said the coma was 2 across.
Few physical descriptions were made of the comet during its last two
months of visibility. At the beginning of September, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 11 and said the diffuse coma contained a bright central
nucleus. Beyer gave the magnitude as 10.51 on the 6th and 10.94 on the 9th.
On September 10, Beyer gave the magnitude as 10.79. He said the coma
was 1.5 across, with a nucleus less than magnitude 12.5. On October 8, van
Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 14.5. The stellar nucleus was centrally
located within a coma measuring about 25 in diameter.
The comet was last detected on October 28.74, when it was photographed at Union Observatory (Johannesburg, South Africa) using the
FranklinAdams Star Camera. The position was given as = 18h 37.8m ,
= 17 51 .
S. K. Vsekhsvyatskij (Pulkovo Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia) photographed the spectrum of this comet on April 4, 6, and 14 using an objective
prism camera. He noted very faint bands of cyanogen and carbon, as well
as a bright continuous spectrum of the nucleus.
The first orbit was calculated by Whipple and Cunningham using the
Harvard photographs spanning the period February 415. The perihelion
date was given as 1937 June 22.07. A couple of days later, A. D. Maxwell and
H. R. J. Grosch took the Harvard positions from February 4 and 7, as well
as the Lick position from February 15 and determined the perihelion date
as June 22.77. Improved orbits were calculated during the next few months
by Maxwell and Grosch, M. Davidson, P. Bakulin, and G. Chis, which gave
the perihelion date as June 20.1. Although most were parabolic, Davidson
57

catalog of comets

actually published a hyperbolic orbit in March and an elliptical orbit in


April. The hyperbolic orbit used positions through March 12 and revealed
an eccentricity of 1.009143. The elliptical orbit used positions from February
4, March 2, and April 1, and revealed a period of over 300 thousand years.
An elliptical orbit published by J. Febrer and S. Ribot revealed a perihelion
date of June 20.13 and a period of 17933 years.
Definitive orbits have been calculated by Chis (1953) and Z. Sekanina
and B. G. Marsden (1975, 1978). Chis took 381 positions covering the period
February 18October 18 and calculated a hyperbolic orbit with a perihelion
date of June 20.06 and an eccentricity of 1.000160. Sekanina and Marsden
used 136 positions obtained between February 4 and October 25, as well as
perturbations by all nine planets, and determined a hyperbolic orbit with
a perihelion date of June 20.06 and an eccentricity of 1.0001374. They also
took this orbit and derived an elliptical original orbit with an orbital period
of about 2 million years, and an elliptical future orbit with an orbital period
of about 19 thousand years. The orbit of Sekanina and Marsden is given
below.
T
1937 Jun. 20.0624 (TT)

 (2000.0)
107.7345 128.6082

i
41.5515

q
e
1.733791 1.000137

absolute magnitude: H10 = 6.0 (V1964)


full moon: Jan. 26, Feb. 25, Mar. 26, Apr. 25, May 25, Jun. 23, Jul. 23, Aug. 22,
Sep. 20, Oct. 19, Nov. 18
sources: H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 18 (1937), pp. 867; F. L. Whipple and H. M. Jeffers,
HAC, No. 403 (1937 Feb. 15); F. L. Whipple and L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No.
404 (1937 Feb. 16); F. L. Whipple and L. E. Cunningham, BZAN, 19 (1937 Feb.
18), p. 9; A. D. Maxwell and H. R. J. Grosch, HAC, No. 406 (1937 Feb. 23); F. L.
Whipple, L. E. Cunningham, A. D. Maxwell, H. R. J. Grosch, and G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 45 (1937 Mar.), pp. 1578; F. L. Whipple, The Observatory, 60 (1937
Mar.), p. 83; A. M. Vergnano and E. Vandekerkhove, BZAN, 19 (1937 Mar. 1),
p. 10; E. Vandekerkhove, IAUC, No. 639 (1937 Mar. 1); A. D. Maxwell and H. R. J.
Grosch, IAUC, No. 645 (1937 Mar. 12); E. Vandekerkhove and W. H. Steavenson,
IAUC, No. 646 (1937 Mar. 15); W. H. Steavenson, IAUC, No. 648 (1937 Mar. 24);
P. Bakulin, IAUC, No. 649 (1937 Mar. 31); G. van Biesbroeck and A. D. Maxwell,
PA, 45 (1937 Apr.), pp. 2245; W. H. Steavenson and M. Davidson, IAUC, No.
650 (1937 Apr. 2); F. Schembor and E. Vandekerkhove, AN, 262 (1937 Apr. 5),
p. 143; W. H. Steavenson, IAUC, No. 651 (1937 Apr. 6); W. Dieckvoss and H.
Fischer, AN, 262 (1937 Apr. 12), pp. 197200; C. Fedtke and M. Beyer, BZAN, 19
(1937 Apr. 19), p. 23; M. Davidson, The Observatory, 60 (1937 May), pp. 1456; C.
Fedtke and F. Kaiser, BZAN, 19 (1937 May 4), p. 26; G. Loreta, BZAN, 19 (1937
May 10), p. 28; M. Beyer, BZAN, 19 (1937 May 14), p. 29; C. Fedtke, BZAN, 19
(1937 May 20), p. 30; H. M. Jeffers, PASP, 49 (1937 Jun.), p. 162; J. Febrer and S.
Ribot, The Observatory, 60 (1937 Jun.), p. 175; S. K. Vsekhsvyatskij, IAUC, No. 659
(1937 Jun. 2); C. Fedtke, BZAN, 19 (1937 Jun. 11), p. 35; G. Loreta, BZAN, 19 (1937
Jun. 24), p. 37; C. Fedtke, BZAN, 19 (1937 Jul. 9), p. 40; A. A. Wachmann and F.
Kaiser, BZAN, 19 (1937 Jul. 30), p. 45; C. Fedtke, BZAN, 19 (1937 Aug. 4), p. 47;

58

catalog of comets
H. Krumpholz, AN, 264 (1937 Oct. 12), pp. 214; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 45 (1937
Oct.), p. 439; K. Himpel, AN, 264 (1937 Nov. 27), p. 215; P. Chofardet, JO, 20 (1937
Dec.), pp. 2034; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 18 (1938), pp. 1634; [Union Observatory],
UOC, No. 99 (1938), p. 423; M. Campa, AN, 264 (1938 Jan. 12), p. 341; M. Beyer,
AN, 264 (1938 Jan. 27), pp. 4016; W. Dieckvoss, K. Muller,

and H.-U. Sandig,


AN, 265 (1938 Feb. 2), p. 1; E. Przybyllok, AN, 265 (1938 Feb. 17), p. 77; L. Boyer,
JO, 21 (1938 Jul.), p. 100; D. Kotsakis, AN, 266 (1938 Aug. 30), pp. 33740; G. van
Biesbroeck, AJ, 47 (1938 Nov. 21), pp. 157, 159, 1612; G. Adamopoulos, JO, 22
(1939 Aug.), pp. 14951; A. D. Dubiago, AN, 270 (1940 Apr.), p. 100; U. S. Lyons,
AJ, 52 (1946 Aug.), pp. 768; G. Chis, MNRAS, 113 (1953), pp. 3901; V1964, p. 73;
Z. Sekanina and B. G. Marsden, CCO, 2nd ed. (1975), pp. 24, 50; Z. Sekanina and
B. G. Marsden, AJ, 83 (1978 Jan.), pp. 66, 68; Z. Sekanina and B. G. Marsden,
QJRAS, 19 (1978 Mar.), pp. 523.

C/1937 D1 Discovered: 1937 February 27.77 ( = 0.84 AU, r = 0.63 AU, Elong. = 39)
(Wilk) Last seen: 1937 May 12.3 ( = 1.05 AU, r = 1.63 AU, Elong. = 104)
Closest to the Earth: 1937 March 31 (0.5738 AU)
1937 II = 1937c Calculated path: PSC (Disc), PEG (Mar. 1), PSC (Mar. 4), AND (Mar. 9), PER
(Mar. 19), CAS (Mar. 24), CAM (Mar. 28), UMa (Apr. 10)
A. Wilk (Cracow, Poland) discovered this comet on 1937 February 27.77,
at a position of = 0h 35.3m , = +19 22 . He estimated the magnitude
as 7, and said the comet appeared diffuse, without a central condensation
or nucleus. A few hours later, L. C. Peltier (Delphos, Ohio, USA) independently discovered the comet at = 0h 35m , = +20. He also estimated
the magnitude as 7. L. E. Cunningham (Harvard College Observatory, Massachusetts, USA) confirmed the comet on February 27.98, and described it
as exhibiting a coma 1 across and a slender tail 30 long. The magnitude was
7, while a stellar nucleus shone at magnitude 10. G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes
Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) confirmed the comet on February 28.09, and
roughly estimated the magnitude as 7. The comet was then at a low altitude,
but a faint tail was still detected in the first quadrant. Independent confirmations were obtained by H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA)
on February 28.17, S. L. Piotrowski (Cracow Observatory, Poland) on February 28.76 (estimated magnitude of 8.5), and L. Orkisz (Warszawa, Poland)
on February 28.77 (estimated magnitude of 8). The comet was then moving
away from the sun, but was still approaching Earth.
On March 1, the magnitude was given as 7 by Cunningham and F. L.
Whipple (Harvard College Observatory) and 7.1 by van Biesbroeck. Van
Biesbroeck said a fuzzy nucleus was surrounded by a coma measuring
about 2 across, and a faint tail extended over 10 in PA 44. On the 2nd,
the magnitude was given as 67 by P. Chofardet (Besancon, France), 7 by
A. Fresa (Pino Torinese Observatory, Turin, Italy), and 8 by Orkisz. Chofardet said the round coma was 3 across, with a central condensation, but
no tail. Fresa described the comet as diffuse, with a central condensation.
Van Biesbroeck photographed the comet with the 61-cm reflector and found
59

catalog of comets

a narrow, well-defined tail more than 1 long. On the 3rd, the magnitude
was given as 7 by F. Rigaux (Uccle, Belgium), 7.5 by Piotrowski, 7.7 by C.
Fedtke (Konigsberg,

now Kaliningrad, Russia), 7.8 by F. Koebcke (Poznan


Observatory, Poland), 8 by K. Liebermann (Danzig, now Gdansk, Poland),
and 8.0 by M. Campa (Milan, Italy). Fedtke said the coma was 34 across
and exhibited a strong condensation, but no nucleus or tail. Liebermann
noted the comet was elliptical, with no tail. E. Przybyllok (Konigsberg,

now
Kaliningrad, Russia) said the comet appeared washed out, with a coma
45 across, but no nucleus. Lyons said the tail was 5 long. On the 4th, Jeffers obtained a 24-minute exposure with the 91-cm Crossley reflector and
noted a coma about 6 across and a slender tail extending over 0.5. On the
5th, A. D. Dubiago (University Observatory, Kazan, Russia) gave the magnitude as 7.5. Jeffers obtained a 22-minute exposure with the reflector and
noted the multiple structure of the tail. The tail was about 0.5 long, but
extended beyond the edge of the plate. He noted the tail was not visible
when the comet was visually examined with the 30-cm refractor. On
March 6, the magnitude was given as 7 by E. J. Delporte (Uccle, Belgium),
7.4 by van Biesbroeck, and 8.0 by Campa. Van Biesbroeck said a tail
extended to PA 53.
On March 8, the magnitude was given as 7 by W. Dieckvoss (Hamburg
Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany), 7.62 by M. Beyer (Hamburg), and 8 by W.
Malsch (Schwbisch Hall, Germany). Beyer said the coma was 2.5 across,
with a nucleus of about magnitude 12. A tail extended 4 in PA 48. On
the 9th, Jeffers photographed the tail and noted the tail was only a single
streamer. On the 10th, the magnitude was given as 7.98 by Beyer, 8 by
Chofardet, and 8.1 by G. Loreta (Bologna, Italy). Beyer said the coma was 3
across, with a nucleus of magnitude 12.4. Beyer added that a tail extended
4 in PA 22. Chofardet said the coma was round with a condensation. H.
Fischer (Innsbruck, Austria) said the coma was 1.3 across, with a starlike
central condensation. On the 11th, the magnitude was given as 8.4 by Fedtke
and 8.6 by H. Krumpholz (Vienna, Austria). Krumpholz said the round coma
was 3 across and contained a weak condensation. Liebermann noted a small
coma and a possible tail beginning toward the north-northeast. On the 12th,
Fedtke gave the magnitude as 8.5. On the 13th, the magnitude was given
as 8.1 by Liebermann and Loreta, 8.5 by Krumpholz, and 8.6 by Fedtke.
Liebermann noted a stellar nucleus, but no tail. Fischer said the coma was
1.3 across, with a starlike central condensation. On the 14th, the magnitude
was given as 8.1 by van Biesbroeck, 8.2 by Loreta, and 8.8 by Dubiago. Van
Biesbroeck said the nucleus was not stellar and the coma was about 6
across. The tail was only faintly visible. On March 15, the magnitude was
given as 8 by Campa, 8.2 by Loreta, and 89 by Chofardet. Chofardet said
the coma was 3 across, with a condensation.
On March 16, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.19. He said the coma was 3
across, with a nucleus of about magnitude 12. A possible short tail extended
towards about 348. Fischer said the coma was 1.3 across, with a starlike
60

catalog of comets

central condensation. On the 21st, the magnitude was given as 8.4 by Loreta
and 9.5 by van Biesbroeck and Dubiago. Van Biesbroeck said the coma exhibited a diffuse central condensation. On the 22nd, Beyer gave the magnitude
as 8.34 and said the coma was about 3 across. On the 24th, Fedtke gave the
magnitude as 10.5 in moonlight. On the 27th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 10 in moonlight. He said the coma appeared very diffuse, with
a diameter of nearly 5 . On the 29th, the magnitude was given as 8.54 by
Beyer and 9.2 by van Biesbroeck. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was large
and diffuse, with hardly any condensation. On the 30th, Beyer gave the
magnitude as 8.58 and said the coma was 4.3 across. On the 30th and 31st,
Fedtke noted a round, diffuse coma 2 across. On March 31, the magnitude
was given as 8.80 by Beyer and 10 by J. Stobbe (Kiel, Germany). Beyer said
the coma was 4.5 across. Stobbe described the comet as diffuse, 2 across,
without a nucleus. Przybyllok said there was no nucleus.
As April began, the comet was now moving away from both the sun
and Earth. On the 1st, Przybyllok said there was no nucleus. On the 2nd,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 9.07. He said the coma was 4.3 across, with
a nucleus of magnitude 12.0. Van Biesbroeck said the comet was extremely
diffuse. The comet attained its most northerly declination of +71 on April
5. On the 7th, the magnitude was given as 9.41 by Beyer and 11 by van
Biesbroeck. Beyer said the coma was 4.5 across. Van Biesbroeck said the
round coma was 3 across, with only a vague condensation. On the 9th, the
magnitude was given as 10.05 by Beyer and 11 by van Biesbroeck. Beyer
said the coma was 4.1 across. Van Biesbroeck said the comet was extremely
diffuse. He said the coma diameter was about 10 and he stated that there was
so little condensation that under high power the object became invisible.
On the 11th, the magnitude was given as 9.86 by Beyer and 10 by van
Biesbroeck. Beyer said the coma was 4.5 across. Van Biesbroeck said the
comet was distinctly brighter than two nights earlier. He noted the coma
was 10 across and extremely diffuse. F. Kaiser (Wiesbaden, Germany) said
the diffuse coma was 3 across. On the 12th, the magnitude was given as 9.94
by Beyer and 11.5 by van Biesbroeck. Beyer said the coma was 4.4 across.
Van Biesbroeck said the comet was evidently fainter than on the previous
night and noted the coma was 6 across. On the 13th, Beyer gave the visual
magnitude as 10.52, while Stobbe gave the photographic magnitude as 13.0.
On the 14th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 12. On the 17th, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 10.72 and the coma diameter as 3.5 . On the 29th,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 11.47 and the coma diameter as 2.5 . On April
30, Beyer gave the magnitude as 11.58, while the coma was about 2 across.
On May 1, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 11.43 and Dieckvoss gave
the photographic magnitude as 14. Beyer said the coma was 2.5 across.
Jeffers said photographs made with the 91-cm Crossley reflector showed
only a faint, diffuse spot. On the 2nd, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as
11.65, while the photographic magnitude was given as 13 by Stobbe and 14
by Dieckvoss. Beyer said the coma was 2.5 across. On the 4th, Beyer gave
61

catalog of comets

the magnitude as 12.18. He said the coma was very weak and 3 across.
On May 6, van Biesbroeck said the comet was extremely diffuse, with a
magnitude of 15.
The last two precise positions of this comet were obtained on May 8.13
and May 8.15, when van Biesbroeck obtained 26-minute exposures with the
61-cm reflector. He measured the position on the latter date as = 11h 18.1m ,
= +38 02 . Van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 15.5, and said the coma
was round and diffuse, with a diameter of 25 and little condensation. The
comet was last detected on May 12.3, when Jeffers photographed it with the
91-cm Crossley reflector. He noted only a diffuse trace of the comet, and
no measurement was made.
A. B. Wyse (Lick Observatory) obtained an 80-minute exposure of the
spectrum on March 3, using the two-prism nebular spectrograph on the
91-cm Crossley reflector. He detected the Swan bands of carbon, as well
as three cyanogen bands. Wyse also noted the extreme faintness of the
continuous spectrum.
The first orbit was calculated by Whipple and Cunningham using three
positions from February 27 and 28. The result was a perihelion date of February 21.03. This orbit proved just half a day from the true orbit. Additional
parabolic orbits were calculated by Whipple and Cunningham, C. H. Smiley and L. H. Aller, Koebcke and S. Wierzbinski, J. Febrer and S. Ribot, A. D.
Maxwell, and A. C. D. Crommelin. Maxwell used positions from February
28, March 5, and March 10. He noted that rather large residuals probably indicate a departure from the parabolic solution. Crommelin said a
parabola based on three positions gave a large residual in the middle position so that there is clear evidence of ellipticity, but the period is still uncertain. Crommelin said comets observed in 1532, 1661, and 1779 have orbits
similar to this comet.
The first elliptical orbit was calculated by G. F. Kellaway. He took three
positions spanning the period of March 1May 2 and determined a perihelion date of February 21.71 and a period of 589 years. Kellaways orbit
satisfied astronomers for about four decades, but W. Landgraf (1980, 1981)
decided to reexamine this comets motion. His first orbit used 71 positions
spanning the period February 28May 8. It revealed a perihelion date of
February 21.54 and a period of 195.4 years. His second orbit used 108 positions spanning the period February 27May 8, as well as perturbations by
the planets Mercury to Neptune and the dwarf planet Pluto. He determined
the perihelion date as February 21.53 and the period as 187.4 years. His last
orbit is given below.
T
1937 Feb. 21.5341 (TT)

31.4751

 (2000.0)
58.2580

absolute magnitude: H10 = 10.4 (V1964)


full moon: Feb. 25, Mar. 26, Apr. 25, May 25

62

i
26.0205

q
e
0.618937 0.981098

catalog of comets
sources: H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 18 (1937), p. 87; A. Wilk, BZAN, 19 (1937 Mar. 1),
p. 10; A. Wilk, L. E. Cunningham, and F. L. Whipple, HAC, No. 407 (1937 Mar. 1);
A. Wilk, IAUC, No. 639 (1937 Mar. 1); F. L. Whipple and L. E. Cunningham, HAC,
No. 408 (1937 Mar. 2); L. Orkisz, F. L. Whipple, and L. E. Cunningham, IAUC,
No. 641 (1937 Mar. 3); A. Fresa, IAUC, No. 642 (1937 Mar. 4); F. L. Whipple and
L. E. Cunningham, BZAN, 19 (1937 Mar. 5), p. 11; F. Koebcke and S. Wierzbinski,
IAUC, No. 643 (1937 Mar. 5); C. H. Smiley, L. H. Aller, A. D. Maxwell, and L. C.
Peltier, HAC, No. 409 (1937 Mar. 8); S. L. Piotrowski, L. Orkisz, P. Chofardet, F.
Koebcke, F. Rigaux, and M. Campa, IAUC, No. 644 (1937 Mar. 8); F. Rigaux, AN,
262 (1937 Mar. 11), p. 61; C. Fedtke, BZAN, 19 (1937 Mar. 12), p. 13; E. J. Delporte,
IAUC, No. 645 (1937 Mar. 12); P. Chofardet, IAUC, No. 646 (1937 Mar. 15); A. D.
Maxwell, IAUC, No. 647 (1937 Mar. 17); K. Liebermann, BZAN, 19 (1937 Mar.
19), p. 15; C. H. Smiley and A. D. Maxwell, HAC, No. 410 (1937 Mar. 20); L. C.
Peltier and M. Campa, IAUC, No. 648 (1937 Mar. 24); A. D. Maxwell, IAUC, No.
649 (1937 Mar. 31); A. Wilk, L. C. Peltier, F. L. Whipple, L. E. Cunningham, C. H.
Smiley, and A. D. Maxwell, PA, 45 (1937 Apr.), pp. 2223; A. B. Wyse and H. M.
Jeffers, PASP, 49 (1937 Apr.), p. 129; A. Wilk, L. C. Peltier, A. D. Maxwell, and
L. E. Cunningham, The Observatory, 60 (1937 Apr.), p. 116; E. J. Delporte, AN, 262
(1937 Apr. 5), p. 143; J. Stobbe and C. Fedtke, BZAN, 19 (1937 Apr. 6), p. 17; G.
Loreta, BZAN, 19 (1937 Apr. 9), p. 19; W. Dieckvoss and H. Fischer, AN, 262 (1937
Apr. 12), pp. 197200; J. Stobbe, BZAN, 19 (1937 Apr. 14), p. 21; F. Kaiser, J. Stobbe,
and M. Beyer, BZAN, 19 (1937 Apr. 19), p. 23; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 45 (1937
May), p. 265; A. D. Maxwell, The Observatory, 60 (1937 May), p. 146; J. Stobbe,
BZAN, 19 (1937 May 4), p. 26; M. Beyer, BZAN, 19 (1937 May 14), p. 29; H. M.
Jeffers, PASP, 49 (1937 Jun.), p. 162; J. Febrer and S. Ribot, IAUC, No. 660 (1937
Jun. 7); G. F. Kellaway, JBAA, 47 (1937 Jul.), p. 338; G. F. Kellaway and A. C. D.
Crommelin, The Observatory, 60 (1937 Jul.), pp. 2023; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 46
(1937 Sep. 14), pp. 141, 1445; H. Krumpholz, AN, 264 (1937 Oct. 12), pp. 214;
P. Chofardet, JO, 20 (1937 Dec.), pp. 2034; M. Campa, AN, 264 (1938 Jan. 12),
p. 341; M. Beyer, AN, 264 (1938 Jan. 27), pp. 4068; A. Wilk, L. C. Peltier, J. Febrer,
and S. Ribot, MNRAS, 98 (1938 Feb.), pp. 3489; W. Dieckvoss, AN, 265 (1938
Feb. 2), p. 1; E. Przybyllok, AN, 265 (1938 Feb. 17), p. 77; A. D. Dubiago, AN, 270
(1940 Apr.), p. 100; V1964, p. 73; W. Landgraf, MPC, No. 5411 (1980 Jul. 1); W.
Landgraf, MPC, No. 6099 (1981 Jul. 1).

26P/Grigg Prerecovery: 1937 March 29.07 ( = 0.87 AU, r = 1.20 AU, Elong. = 80)
Skjellerup Recovered: 1937 April 30.06 ( = 0.69 AU, r = 0.97 AU, Elong. = 67)
Last seen: 1937 July 2.16 ( = 0.40 AU, r = 1.08 AU, Elong. = 88)
1937 III = 1937e Closest to the Earth: 1937 June 22 (0.3835 AU)
Calculated path: ORI (Pre), MON (Apr. 13), CMi (May 1), CNC (May 14), LEO
(Jun. 1), LMi (Jun. 12), UMa (Jun. 15), COM (Jun. 22), CVn (Jun. 30)
The prediction for this comets return was calculated by P. J. Harris and
W. P. Henderson (1936) and indicated the comet would next arrive at perihelion on 1937 May 22.51. Using their ephemeris, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes
Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) searched for this comet on several occasions
during the early months of 1937. His photographic search during early and
late March failed to detect the comet, and an intensive visual search on
63

catalog of comets

April 11 was also unsuccessful. The comet was finally recovered on April
30.06 by L. E. Cunningham (Harvard College Observatorys Oak Ridge Station, Massachusetts, USA). His photograph exposed with the 115-cm refractor revealed the comet at a position of = 6h 59.0m , = +7 53 . The comet
was then described as consisting of a faint coma some 40 in diameter, with a
condensation about 10 across. The magnitude was 13.4. The position indicated the prediction by Harris and Henderson needed a correction of +0.54
day. Shortly after Cunninghams announcement, van Biesbroeck found prerecovery images on two photographic plates exposed on March 29.07. The
comet then appeared as a very diffuse image, with a magnitude of 15.5 and
was about 30 across. Additional search plates exposed during February
and early March showed absolutely no trace of the comet, thus indicating
it was still too faint for observation.
On May 2 and 4, S. Shimizu (Simada, Japan) estimated the photographic
magnitude as 12. On the 6th, the magnitude was given as 13 by A. M.
Vergnano (Pino Torinese Observatory, Turin, Italy) and 13.5 by van Biesbroeck. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was about 50 across and was somewhat elongated in . On May 30, van Biesbroeck obtained a 6-minute exposure with the 61-cm reflector and found the comet quite faint. On June
7, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 13. He said the coma was round,
centrally condensed, and 45 across. On the 8th, Vergnano gave the magnitude as 12.4. The comet attained its most northerly declination of +31 on
June 26.
The comet was last detected on July 2.16, when van Biesbroeck visually
observed it with the 102-cm refractor. The magnitude was estimated as 13,
and the position was given as = 13h 31.9m , = +30 35 . W. Dieckvoss
and H.-U. Sandig (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) reported
to have photographed the comet on August 2.95. The magnitude was
then estimated as 15. However, this was probably not P/GriggSkjellerup.
Only one plate was obtained, no additional observations were made,
and the reported position was somewhat off from the comets expected
location.
M. G. Sumner (1938) took positions from March 29, May 4, and June 9,
and determined the perihelion date as May 22.99 and the period as 5.04
years. A. C. D. Crommelin noted the period as probably 5 days too long.
Multiple apparition orbits were calculated by B. G. Marsden and Z.
Sekanina (1972), G. Sitarski (1991), and S. Nakano (1997). Applying planetary perturbations and nongravitational forces, they gave the perihelion date as May 23.06 and the period as 5.02 years. Marsden and
Sekanina (1973) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = 0.04 and A2 =
0.0010. Nakano gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = 0.007 and A2 =
0.00170.
T
1937 May 23.0605 (TT)

64

 (2000.0)
355.3025 216.4409

i
17.4611

q
e
0.907875 0.690526

catalog of comets
absolute magnitude: H10 = 15.0 (V1964)
full moon: Mar. 26, Apr. 25, May 25, Jun. 23
sources: P. J. Harris and W. P. Henderson, BAA Handbook for 1937 (1936), p. 32;
G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 45 (1937 Apr.), p. 225; L. E. Cunningham, P. J. Harris, and
W. P. Henderson, HAC, No. 414 (1937 Apr. 30); G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 415
(1937 May 19); G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 45 (1937 May), p. 265; L. E. Cunningham,
BZAN, 19 (1937 May 4), p. 26; A. M. Vergnano, BZAN, 19 (1937 May 14), p. 29;
A. M. Vergnano, The Observatory, 60 (1937 Jun.), p. 175; S. Shimizu, IAUC, No. 659
(1937 Jun. 2); A. M. Vergnano, BZAN, 19 (1937 Jun. 24), p. 37; L. E. Cunningham
and G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 45 (1937 Jun.Jul.), pp. 3223; G. van Biesbroeck
and S. Shimizu, JBAA, 47 (1937 Jul.), p. 339; G. van Biesbroeck and S. Shimizu,
The Observatory, 60 (1937 Jul.), p. 203; L. E. Cunningham, G. van Biesbroeck, P. J.
Harris, and W. P. Henderson, MNRAS, 98 (1938 Feb.), pp. 3489; W. Dieckvoss
and H.-U. Sandig, AN, 265 (1938 Feb. 2), p. 1; M. G. Sumner, JBAA, 48 (1938
May), p. 293; M. G. Sumner and A. C. D. Crommelin, The Observatory, 61 (1938
May), pp. 1423; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 47 (1938 Nov. 21), pp. 157, 15960, 162;
V1964, p. 73; B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina, QJRAS, 13 (1972 Sep.), pp. 4301;
B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina, AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.), pp. 214, 216; G. Sitarski, AcA,
41 (1991), p. 252; S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 700o (1997 Dec. 12).

C/1937 N1 Discovered: 1937 July 4.02 ( = 1.51 AU, r = 1.16 AU, Elong. = 50)
(Finsler) Last seen: 1937 December 30.29 ( = 2.76 AU, r = 2.35 AU, Elong. = 55)
Closest to the Earth: 1937 August 9 (0.5485 AU)
1937 V = 1937f Calculated path: PER (Disc), CAM (Jul. 20), DRA (Aug. 4), UMa (Aug. 9), CVn
(Aug. 12), BOO (Aug. 19), VIR (Aug. 29), LIB (Oct. 19), HYA (Nov. 18), CEN
(Dec. 13)
P. Finsler (Zurich,

Switzerland) was routinely examining the sky with a large


pair of binoculars when he discovered a faint nebulous spot on 1937 July
4.02 at = 3h 06.1m , = +38 27 . He gave the magnitude as 7. The first
confirmation of the comet was made by C. Fedtke (Konigsberg,

now Kaliningrad, Russia), who gave the magnitude as 7.1. He described the comet
as exhibiting a strong condensation, but no tail. J. P. Moller

(Copenhagen,
Denmark) independently confirmed the object on July 4.99, using the 36-cm
refractor, when the magnitude was given as 7, and the comet was simply
described as diffuse. The comet was approaching both the sun and Earth.
On July 5, K. Graff (Vienna, Austria) gave the magnitude as 6.9 and noted
a possible beginning of a tail. On the 6th, the magnitude was given as 7.0
by M. Campa (Milan, Italy) and 7.3 by G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA). Van Biesbroeck added that a well-defined nucleus
was situated within a coma 2 across and a slender tail extended 20 in PA
265. L. E. Cunningham and Johnson (Harvard College Observatory, Massachusetts, USA) observed with the 30-cm refractor and said the comet was
diffuse, with a nucleus, and a tail less than 1 long. H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) said the comet was round, diffuse, and 3 across,
with a nucleus of magnitude 10. On July 7, the magnitude was given as 6.8
65

catalog of comets

by Fedtke, and 7.0 by G. Loreta (Bologna, Italy) and Campa. Fedtke said the
coma was 2 across. Jeffers said the comet was diffuse, with a nucleus.
On July 8, the magnitude was given as 6.0 by W. Malsch (Schwbisch
Hall, Germany) and A. Bohrmann (Konigstuhl

Observatory, Heidelberg,
Germany), 6.9 by Loreta, and 7.2 by van Biesbroeck. Malsch said the coma
was round and diffuse, with a diameter of 1 . There was no tail. On the 9th,
the magnitude was given as 6.5 by Graff and 7.0 by F. Kaiser (Wiesbaden,
Germany). Graff reported a possible short tail. Kaiser said the centrally
condensed coma was 4 across, but noted there was no tail. P. Chofardet
(Besancon, France) said the coma was round. Malsch said the coma was
about 3 across, while the nucleus was about 40 across. On the 10th, the
magnitude was given as 6.8 by P. Ahnert (Wittgendorf, Germany), and 7.0
by Campa and Loreta. On the 11th, the magnitude was given as 6.9 by
Loreta and 7.07 by K. Himpel (Wiesbaden). On the 12th, the magnitude
was given as 6.8 by Loreta and Campa, and 7.1 by Fedtke. A. H. Mikesell
(US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, USA) photographed the comet
using the 102-cm reflector and estimated it as fainter than 7. Fedtke said the
coma was 2 across. Mikesell said the diffuse coma was 2.5 across, while
the tail extended 3 . On the 13th, the magnitude was given as 5.99 by M.
Beyer (Hamburg, Germany) and 6.0 by Malsch. On July 14, the magnitude
was given as 6.0 by Fedtke, 6.5 by J. Franz (Bautzen, Germany), and 6.7 by
Ahnert. Fedtke noted a round coma 3 across, and a starlike nucleus. Jeffers
observed with the 91-cm Crossley reflector and said the coma was 4 across
and contained a stellar nucleus of magnitude 10. Jeffers said a 10-cm finder
showed a faint, barely visible, tail extending toward the west.
On July 15, the magnitude was given as 5.9 by van Biesbroeck, 6.1 by J.
Hopmann (Leipzig, Germany), 6.4 by Franz, and 6.8 by Campa. Hopmann
said the coma was 3 across. On the 16th, the magnitude was given as 5.7 by
van Biesbroeck and Graff, 5.8 by Fedtke, 5.9 by H. Krumpholz (Vienna University Observatory, Austria), and 5.97 by Beyer. Graff noted a tail extending
about 45 toward PA 275. G. Hartwig (Astrophysical Observatory, Potsdam,
Germany) said a photograph using the 15-cm refractor revealed a tail 4050
long. Krumpholz added that the coma was 4 across, with a condensation,
and a tail extending 20 in PA 274. Mikesell said the tail was 4 long, while
the nucleus was divided. On the 17th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.73.
U. S. Lyons (US Naval Observatory) said the tail was rather short, while
the nucleus was large and divided. On the 18th, the magnitude was given
as 5.4 by G. Hartwig, 5.6 by van Biesbroeck, and 5.8 by Kaiser. Hartwig said
the comet would be seen with the naked eye using averted vision. Kaiser
said the centrally condensed coma was 6 across, with a tail extending about
0.5 toward PA 270. N. Richter (Sonneberg, Germany) photographed a tail
extending 2.3. S. D. Tscherny (Kiev Astronomical Observatory, Ukraine)
described the comet as a round nebulosity, with a central condensation. On
July 19, the magnitude was given as 5.4 by van Biesbroeck, 5.7 by Fedtke,
6.2 by Loreta, and 6.4 by Franz. Malsch noted a faint tail extending toward
66

catalog of comets

PA 135. Fedtke noted a round coma 3 across, with a starlike nucleus. Hopmann said the coma was 6 across. On the 20th, the magnitude was given as
5.4 by E. Buchar (Prague, Czech Republic), 5.5 by Fedtke and Krumpholz, 5.6
by J. Gadomski (Warszawa, Poland), 5.8 by J. Classen (Pulsnitz, Germany),
5.95 by Himpel, and 6.4 by Franz. Fedtke noted a short tail extending toward
PA 270. Chofardet said the round coma was 5 across. On a photograph,
Krumpholz found the coma was 5 across and the tail extended 4.5 in PA
270.5. Van Biesbroeck photographed the comet with the 61-cm reflector and
found a tail extending over 1 which was composed of a complex bundle
of streamers coming out of the nucleus. On July 21, the magnitude was
given as 5.5 by Buchar and 6.1 by Franz and Loreta.
On July 22, Loreta gave the magnitude as 6.2. Tscherny said the comet
appeared as a round nebulosity, with a condensation and a nucleus. On
the 23rd, the magnitude was given as 5.19 by Beyer, 5.4 by Fedtke, 5.5 by
Classen, and 6.0 by Loreta. Malsch saw no tail. On the 24th, Loreta gave the
magnitude as 6.0. On the 25th, the magnitude was given as 5.2 by Buchar
and Hopmann, 5.3 by Fedtke and Classen, and 6.0 by Loreta. On the 26th,
the magnitude was given as 5.3 by Gadomski, 5.9 by Loreta, and 6.3 by
H. Knochel

(Danzig, now Gdansk, Poland). Knochel

added that the coma


contained a condensation and a nucleus. On the 27th, the magnitude was
given as 4.9 by Fedtke, 5.1 by van Biesbroeck, and 5.7 by Loreta. On July 28,
the magnitude was given as 5.28 by Himpel and 5.6 by Loreta.
On July 29, the magnitude was given as 4.7 by van Biesbroeck, 4.8 by
Fedtke, 5.2 by Loreta and Buchar, and 5.69 by M. Viaro (Florence, Italy).
Kaiser said the coma was 9 across, with two tails: one extending 1.3 toward
PA 292 and the other extending 10 toward PA 237. Fedtke noted the
coma was 4 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 9.0 and a tail extending 15 toward PA 300. J. O. Stobbe (Kiel, Germany) said the tail pointed
to PA 290.
On July 30, the magnitude was given as 4.7 by Fedtke and Buchar,
5.0 by J. Witkowski (Poznan, Poland), 5.06 by Himpel, 5.1 by Gadomski,
and 5.7 by Hopmann. Fedtke said the tail extended 30 toward PA 315.
R. Brandt (Sonneberg, Germany) estimated the tail length as 3.5 using
10 50 binoculars. Hopmann said the coma was 9 across. Richter photographed a tail extending 4.0. Chofardet said the round coma was 5 across,
with a well-defined central nucleus, and a short tail extending towards the
northwest.
On July 31, the magnitude was given as 4.33 by Beyer, 4.6 by Buchar, 4.7 by
Witkowski and Hopmann, 4.8 by Classen and Gadomski, 4.90 by Himpel,
and 5.1 by Franz. Beyer said the coma was 13 in diameter, while a tail
extended to PA 294. Franz noted a distinct tail extending about 45 toward
PA 310. Brandt estimated the tail length as 3 using 10 50 binoculars.
On August 1, the magnitude was given as 4.4 by van Biesbroeck and
Buchar, 4.5 by Witkowski and Hopmann, 4.6 by Loreta, and 4.8 by Hartwig.
Witkowski noted the tail was 4 long. Brandt estimated the tail length as
67

catalog of comets

44.5 using 10 50 binoculars. Stobbe photographed the comet with a


12-cm refractor and said the tail pointed to PA 312. Van Biesbroeck added
that a stellar nucleus was visible. Kaiser said the tail extended 7 toward
PA 304.
On August 2, the magnitude was given as 4.38 by Himpel, 4.5 by Loreta,
4.6 by Fedtke, 4.7 by Hartwig, and 4.8 by Franz. Fedtke noted the tail
extended 1.25 toward PA 320. Stobbe said the coma was 15 across. He
photographed the comet with a 12-cm refractor and said the coma was 23
across, while the tail extended 7.3 in PA 326. There were short streamers
extending 2 in PA 331 and 1 in PA 323. Brandt estimated the tail length
as 4 using 10 50 binoculars. Hopmann said the coma was 13 across.
W. Dieckvoss and H.-U. Sandig (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) photographed the comet and noted a coma 12 across, a primary tail
extending 1.5 towards the northwest, and a ray extending 15 towards the
north-northwest.
The comet attained its most northerly declination of +78 on August 3.
According to ten observers viewing the comet by naked-eye, binocular,
and small telescope, the magnitude was within the range 4.15.8, with an
average of 4.8. Kaiser said the tail extended toward PA 341. Graff noted a
tail about 1.52 long. Franz noted the coma was about 8 across, the fanshaped tail extended 12 toward PA 309, and the narrow tail extended 1
toward PA 348. N. W. McLeod (Christine, North Dakota, USA) said the
coma was 12 across, with a central condensation 4 across. He added that
the main tail was about a degree long, while a secondary tail was about 20
long. Hopmann said the coma was 12 across. W. Malsch (Schwbisch Hall,
Germany) said binoculars revealed a tail 0.33 long. F. Quenisset (Juvisy,
France) photographed the comet and, in addition to the main tail, he found
a lateral appendage suggesting a discarded tail. J. Ellsworth (Lyon Observatory, France) observed a portion of the comets tail recede 18 from the coma
in 1.25 hours, which suggested a speed of about 100 kilometers per second.
On August 4, 15 observers made a total of 16 magnitude estimates while
viewing the comet by naked eye, binoculars, and/or small telescopes. The
result was a range of 4.05.4, with an average of 4.5. Franz said the tail
extended 2 toward PA 3. Brandt said the tail was 5 long in 10 50 binoculars. Krumpholz said the coma was 7 across, with a stellar nucleus. Hopmann said the coma was 12 across. McLeod added that a semi-stellar
nucleus shone at magnitude 8, while the coma diameter was 13 , with a
central condensation 4 across. The main tail extended about 2.5 and was
8 wide, but the secondary tail was much fainter and not measurable. Lyons
said the nucleus was starlike. Fedtke said the tail extended 1.25 toward
PA 0, while a 45-minute exposure using the 30-cm refractor revealed four
streamers extending into the tail. Kaiser said a 54-minute exposure revealed
the tail extending 4 toward PA 348, while a streamer extended 1 toward
PA 333. He noted the main tail was 5 across at the coma and 20 across at
the end. Kaiser added that the coma was 15 across in the direction of the
68

catalog of comets

tail and 20 across perpendicular to that axis. Beyer obtained photographs
of the comet and said the coma was 16 across, while the tail showed some
complexity. The primary tail extended over 7 in PA 6, and contained rays
extending 2 in PA 352, and 0.4 in PA 15. A secondary tail extended 0.3
in PA 318. Stobbe photographed the comet with a 12-cm refractor and said
the coma was 19 across, while the tail extended 5.2 in PA 346. He said the
streamers extended 1.5 toward PA 348 and 1 toward PA 0.
On August 5, 15 observers made visual magnitude estimates which fell
within the range 4.05.4. The average was 4.4. McLeod said the coma was 10
across with a stronger condensation than the previous night and a nucleus
of magnitude 7.6. He added that the tail was 2 long and slightly fainter than
on the previous night, with 9th- and 10th-magnitude stars visible through
it. Hopmann said the coma was about 17 across. Chofardet said the round
coma was 8 across with a central nucleus. He added that the tail was divided
into two branches, one extending towards the north-northeast, and the other
extending towards the north-northwest. Van Biesbroeck said the long tail
had a lateral bend at half a degree from the nucleus. He added that a
coarse and shorter tail was situated about 50 from the axis of the main tail
and gave the coma an unsymmetrical appearance. Tscherny said the nucleus
and tail were easily visible. Dieckvoss and Sandig photographed the comet
and noted a tail extending 4. Stobbe photographed the comet with a 12-cm
refractor and said the coma was 26 across, while the tail extended 6.2 in PA
28. Beyer obtained photographs of the comet and said the coma diameter
was 17 on photographs, while the tail still showed complex structure. The
primary tail extended more than 7 in PA 28, with rays extending 4 in PA
22, 1.6 in PA 35, and 1.4 in PA 10. A secondary tail extended 0.3 in PA
341. H. Fischer (Innsbruck) photographed a tail 2.0 long, as well as two
secondary tails. A photograph by Classen showed a tail 17 long.
On August 6, 14 observers provided visual magnitudes within the range
3.75.0. The average was 4.3. E. J. Meyer (Wolfersdorf, Germany) used a
photometer and obtained six magnitude determinations, the average of
which was 5.04. McLeod said the nucleus was about magnitude 7.6, the
coma was 10 across, and the tail was 2 long. Fedtke said the coma was blue
and that the tail extended 2 in PA 30. A secondary tail extended to PA 330.
Franz said the tail extended 2.5 in PA 40. Chofardet said the tail extended
45 towards the north-northeast. Van Biesbroeck said photographs showed
the long tail no longer showed the bend present on the previous night,
while the secondary tail was still just as prominent. Stobbe photographed
the comet with a 12-cm refractor and said the coma was 27 across, while the
tail extended 7.5 in PA 39. Beyers photographs showed a coma diameter
of 16 . The primary tail extended more than 8 in PA 37, with rays extending
0.9 in PA 52 and 1.3 in PA 21. A secondary tail extended 0.4 in PA 345. G.
Kulin (Konkoly Observatory, Budapest, Hungary) obtained a photograph
which showed a tail extending 7 in PA 312, 5 in PA 310, and 1 in PA
315. There was an emanation to PA 270. Fischer obtained a 100-minute
69

catalog of comets

photograph which showed the main tail extending 4.2, while a secondary
tail extended 0.2. Witkowski said the tail extended 5 in PA 33, while a
photograph showed tails extending to PA 32 and PA 52. A photograph by
Classen showed a tail 17 long.
On August 7, 15 observers gave 16 magnitude estimates of the comet.
These estimates were within the range 3.74.8, with an average of 4.2. Meyer
used a photometer and obtained 10 magnitude determinations, the average
of which was 5.26. McLeod said the coma was 10 across and contained a
bright central condensation about 5 in diameter. He added that the tail was
about 2.5 long and was more spread out than on previous nights. Brandt
said the tail was 44.5 long in 10 50 binoculars. G. R. Miczaika (Grunberg,

Germany) said the tail was 1.5 long. Franz added that the tail extended 3 in
PA 52. Stobbe photographed the comet with a 12-cm refractor and said the
coma was 23 across, while the tail extended 7.6 in PA 49. Beyer obtained
another photograph on this date and found the coma diameter was 16 . The
primary tail extended more than 7 in PA 52, with rays extending 3.4 in
PA 37, 0.2 in 69, and 0.4 in PA 25. A secondary tail extended 0.5 in PA
355. A photograph by Classen showed a tail about 17 long. Kulin obtained
a photograph which showed the main tail extending 7 in PA 322, while
a secondary tail extended to PA 318. There was an emanation to PA 270.
Witkowski said a photograph showed the main tail extending 3 in PA 32,
while a secondary tail extended to PA 52.
On August 8, 13 observers provided magnitude estimates, which fell
within the range 3.34.5. The average was 4.1. Meyer used a photometer
and obtained five magnitude determinations, the average of which was
5.23. Witkowski said the tail was 6 long in binoculars. K. Liebermann
(Danzig) said the coma was oblong and measured 5 by 8 . He added that
a stellar nucleus was present and the tail was 4 long. Brandt said the tail
was 8 long in 10 50 binoculars. Franz said the tail extended 4 in PA
53. A photograph by Classen showed a tail 17.5 long. Kulin obtained a
photograph which showed the primary tail extending 7 in PA 320323,
while a secondary tail extended 3 in PA 315. There was still an emanation
to PA 270.
The comet was closest to Earth on August 9. The magnitude was given as
3.6 by McLeod, 3.98 by Beyer, 4.0 by Buchar and Fedtke, 4.3 by C. W. L. M.
Ebell (Kiel, Germany), 4.4 by J. Gurtler

(Vienna, Austria), 4.42 by Himpel,


and 4.5 by Loreta. McLeod added that the coma was 10 across and the
slightly curved tail extended about 2.5. Hopmann said the coma was 9
across. Fedtke said the tail extended to PA 45. Brandt said the tail was
6.57 long in 10 50 binoculars. J. Balazs (Budapest) said the main tail
was 12 long, while the secondary tail extended 9. Krumpholz visually
observed the tail as 1.5 long in a 75-mm seeker, while a photograph with
another instrument showed the tail as extending 9 in PA 54. A photograph
by K. Walter (Potsdam) showed the main tail extending 3 in PA 4953,
while a secondary tail extended 1.6 in PA 43. The coma diameter was
70

catalog of comets

9 . K. Haidrich (Vienna, Austria) photographed the comet and described


it as possessing a coma 5.3 across and a tail 12.5 long. Kulin obtained
a photograph which showed the main tail extending 7.5 in PA 320325,
while a secondary tail extended 1.5. There was still an emanation to PA
270. Beyer obtained another photograph on this date and found the coma
diameter was 18 . The primary tail extended more than 7 in PA 54, and
contained rays extending 2.1 in PA 70 and 2.0 in PA 38. A secondary tail
extended 0.4 in PA 357.
On August 10, the magnitude was given as 4.0 by Franz and Fedtke, 4.2 by
Campa, 4.3 by Witkowski and Hartwig, and 4.5 by Gadomski. Meyer used
a photometer and obtained three magnitude determinations, the average
of which was 5.22. Fedtke said the primary tail extended 2.5 in PA 60,
while a secondary tail extended to PA 0. Using a magnification of 410, he
found a small, stellar nucleus with a magnitude of 9.0. Chofardet said the
round coma was 10 across, with a central condensation, and a straight tail
extending 8. Beyer obtained a photograph and found the coma diameter
was 15 . The primary tail extended more than 7 in PA 62, and contained
rays extending 1 in PA 77 and 0.8 in PA 47. A secondary tail extended
0.4 in PA 7. Stobbe photographed the comet with a 12-cm refractor and
said the coma was 29 across, while the tail extended 10.0 in PA 55.
On August 11, ten observers provided 13 magnitude estimates, with some
seeing the comet in both the morning and the evening sky. The magnitude
range was 3.94.9 and the average magnitude was 4.4. Meyer used a photometer and obtained two magnitude determinations, the average of which
was 5.43. McLeod said the coma was about 12 across, with a bright condensation. He added that the tail was about 4 long, about 13 wide at the
end, and bright on the following edge near the coma. Malsch said a tail
extended 1 in PA 290. Brandt said the tail was 7 long in 10 50 binoculars.
Chofardet said the round coma was 10 across, with a central condensation,
and a straight tail extending 8. H. A. Lower (Alpine, California, USA) used
a 20-cm Schmidt camera to photograph the comet. This showed the tail was
curved. Its length was at least 14 as it extended beyond the edge of the
photograph. Beyer obtained a photograph and found the coma diameter
was 16 . The primary tail extended more than 6 in PA 68, and contained
rays extending 1.0 in PA 80, 1.1 in PA 57, 2.3 in PA 74, and 2.3 in
PA 61. A secondary tail extended 0.4 in PA 9. Haidrich photographed the
comet and described it as possessing a coma 7.6 across, with a tail 13.5
long. Stobbe photographed the comet with a 12-cm refractor and said the
coma was 26 across, while the tail extended 10.3 in PA 67.
On August 12, 13 observers provided magnitude estimates, which fell
within the range 3.45.3. The average was 4.4. McLeod said the coma was
about 12 across, while the central condensation was not as conspicuous as
on the previous night. He added that the tail was about 3 long, somewhat
curved, and wider than on the previous night. E. Breson (Copenhagen)
added that the coma was 78 across. Hopmann said the coma was 7.6
71

catalog of comets

across. Krumpholz said the tail was about 3 long. Haidrich photographed
the comet and described it as possessing a coma 6.7 across, with a tail 9
long. Stobbe photographed the comet with a 12-cm refractor and said the
coma was 23 across, while the tail extended 9.7 in PA 70. Kulin obtained
a photograph which showed the main tail extending more than 7.5 in PA
341, while secondary tails extended 1 in PA 335, 2 in PA 338, and 3
in PA 345. An emanation extended to PA 290. Liebermann said the coma
was 6 across.
On August 13, the magnitude was given as 4.2 by McLeod, 4.29 by Beyer,
4.5 by Fedtke and Loreta, 4.6 by Ebell, 4.8 by Gadomski, 5.2 by P. P. Parenago
(Moscow, Russia), and 5.4 by Breson. McLeod said the coma was about 12
across, while the central condensation had continued to become weaker. He
added that the tail was 2 long, somewhat curved, and fairly wide. Fedtke
said the tail extended 2 in PA 70. Breson said the coma measured 78
across. Hopmann said the coma was 6.7 across.
On August 14, the magnitude was given as 4.5 by McLeod, 4.6 by Loreta,
4.8 by Miczaika, 5.1 by Hartwig, and 5.5 by L. Andrenko (Deuxi`eme Astronomical Observatory, Odessa, Ukraine). McLeod said the coma was 10
across, with a central condensation that had become more conspicuous than
on the previous night. Moonlight prevented the tail from being traced very
far. Andrenko added that the coma was round and diffuse, with a very
pronounced stellar condensation.
The comet passed perihelion on August 15. The magnitude was then given
as 4.8 by McLeod, 4.87 by Himpel, 5.4 by Breson, and 6.5 by Andrenko.
McLeod added that the coma was 10 across, but moonlight blocked all
traces of the tail. Breson added that the coma diameter was 78 . Andrenko
added that the coma was round and diffuse, with a very pronounced stellar
condensation.
The comet moved away from both the sun and Earth during the remainder
of August and moonlight interfered with observations for the first several
nights. On the 16th, the magnitude was given as 4.5 by Campa and 5.5
by Breson. Breson added that the coma diameter was 78 . Hopmann said
the coma was 7.5 across. On the 17th, the magnitude was given as 4.7
by Fedtke, 4.9 by Gadomski, 5.66 by Himpel, and 6.0 by Breson. Fedtke
said haze and moonlight allowed only a short tail to be detected, which he
estimated extended to PA 95. Breson added that the coma diameter was
78 . On the 18th, the magnitude was given as 4.56 by Beyer, and 4.8 by
Fedtke and Liebermann. Beyer said the tail extended to PA 84. Liebermann
added that the coma was 7 across. On the 19th, the magnitude was given as
4.76 by Beyer and 5.0 by Gadomski. Hopmann said the coma was 7 across.
On the 20th, Fedtke gave the magnitude as 5.0. On the 21st, Himpel gave
the magnitude as 5.80. The moon was full on the 22nd and Beyer gave the
magnitude as 4.95. On the 23rd, the magnitude was given as 5.17 by Beyer,
5.3 by Fedtke, and 5.5 by Campa. On the 24th, the magnitude was given as
5.28 by Beyer, 5.5 by Fedtke, and 5.88 by Himpel. On the 25th, the magnitude
72

catalog of comets

was given as 5.4 by Buchar and 5.97 by Himpel. On the 26th, the magnitude
was given as 5.26 by Beyer, 5.4 by Gadomski, 5.7 by Fedtke, and 5.83 by
Himpel. The magnitude was given as 5.7 by Fedtke on the 27th and 6.5
by Hopmann on the 28th. On the 29th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.73,
while Brandt said the tail was about 1 long in 10 50 binoculars. On the
30th, Fedtke gave the magnitude as 5.7. He added that the tail had become
weaker and shorter, and extended towards about PA 90. On August 31,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.92.
On September 1, the magnitude was given as 6.0 by Buchar and 6.5 by
Fedtke. Fedtke noted the round coma was 2 across. Tscherny added that
the comet was close to the horizon and appeared as a faint nebulosity, with
a condensation. On the 2nd, Buchar gave the magnitude as 6.1. Tscherny
added that he had observed the comet close to the horizon as a faint nebulosity, with a condensation. Hopmann said the coma was 2 across. On
the 3rd, Buchar gave the magnitude as 6.3. He added that he had observed
the comet close to the horizon as a faint nebulosity, with a condensation.
On the 4th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.01. On the 5th and 6th, Buchar
gave the magnitude as 6.2. On the 7th, Buchar gave the magnitude as 6.6.
On September 13, Krumpholz barely detected the comet at an altitude of
about 8.
Even though observers in the Northern Hemisphere were losing sight of
it due to low altitude, the comet continued to be observed in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Bobone (National Observatory, Cordoba,

Argentina)
obtained numerous photographic positions during the period August 23
October 1.
The comet was last detected on December 30.29, when Bobone obtained
a 60-minute exposure using the astrograph, which showed a faint, poorly
defined image. The position was given as = 14h 23.0m , = 33 02 .
Richter obtained a 65-minute exposure of the spectrum on July 15, using
the 17-cm Triplet. He detected four bands of diatomic carbon and two bands
of cyanogen. He also detected some unidentified bands within the range
39504100 , which were likely those of triatomic carbon. W. Strohmeier
(Astrophysical Observatory, Potsdam) photographed the spectrum using
the 30-cm reflector on July 16 and 17. He detected four bands of diatomic
carbon and one band of cyanogen.
The first orbits were independently calculated by Cunningham and
Moller.

Cunningham specifically used positions from July 4, 6, and 7, and


determined the perihelion date as 1937 August 14.52. Moller

used positions spanning a similar period and determined the perihelion date as
August 12.44. Cunninghams perihelion date proved to be about a day
early. During the next few weeks, additional orbits were calculated by A. D.
Maxwell, M. Davidson, and B. Orloff. The perihelion date was established as
August 15.7.
The first elliptical orbit was calculated by Bobone. He took positions
spanning the period July 9August 25 and determined a period of about
73

catalog of comets

125 thousand years. During the next few weeks and months, further elliptical orbits were calculated by J. Febrer and G. F. Kellaway. Febrer gave the
period as 161 thousand years, while Kellaway gave it as 8618 years.
V. N. Klevetskij (1974) used 252 positions obtained between July 4 and
September 6, as well as perturbations by Venus to Saturn, and computed an
elliptical orbit with a perihelion date of August 15.67 and an orbital period
of nearly 38 thousand years.
B. G. Marsden (1974, 1978) used 212 positions obtained between July 4 and
December 30, as well as perturbations by all nine planets, and computed an
elliptical orbit with a perihelion date of August 15.67 and an orbital period
of nearly 14 million years. Marsden took this orbit and derived an elliptical
original orbit with an orbital period of about 724 thousand years, and an
elliptical future orbit with an orbital period of about 212 thousand years.
T
1937 Aug. 15.6658 (TT)

 (2000.0)
i
q
e
114.8366
59.4207 146.4156 0.862744 0.999985

absolute magnitude: H0 = 5.65, n = 1.52 (Beyer, 1938); H10 = 6.1 (V1964)


full moon: Jun. 23, Jul. 23, Aug. 22, Sep. 20, Oct. 19, Nov. 18, Dec. 17, 1938
Jan. 16
sources: P. Finsler and J. P. Moller,

BZAN, 19 (1937 Jul. 5), p. 39; P. Finsler, HAC,


No. 416 (1937 Jul. 6); J. P. Moller,

L. E. Cunningham, Johnson, and H. M. Jeffers,


HAC, No. 417 (1937 Jul. 7); G. van Biesbroeck and L. E. Cunningham, HAC,
No. 418 (1937 Jul. 8); J. P. Moller

and C. Fedtke, BZAN, 19 (1937 Jul. 9), p. 40;


A. D. Maxwell and G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 419 (1937 Jul. 12); W. Malsch,
F. Kaiser, and G. Loreta, BZAN, 19 (1937 Jul. 15), p. 41; C. Fedtke, W. Malsch, P.
Ahnert, J. Franz, K. Graff, N. Richter, G. Hartwig, and W. Strohmeier, BZAN, 19
(1937 Jul. 19), pp. 434; A. D. Maxwell, HAC, No. 421 (1937 Jul. 20); F. Kaiser, W.
Malsch, J. Franz, and G. Hartwig, BZAN, 19 (1937 Jul. 30), p. 45; P. Finsler and M.
Davidson, The Observatory, 60 (1937 Aug.), pp. 2278; P. Finsler, Time, 30 (1937
Aug. 2); C. Fedtke, F. Kaiser, J. Stobbe, J. Franz, G. Hartwig, and J. Witkowski,
BZAN, 19 (1937 Aug. 4), pp. 478; A. D. Maxwell and P. Finsler, HAC, No. 422
(1937 Aug. 4); S. D. Tscherny, BZAN, 19 (1937 Aug. 7), p. 49; P. Finsler, A. D.
Maxwell, B. Orloff, N. Richter, J. O. Stobbe, W. Dieckvoss, and H.-U. Sandig, AN,
263 (1937 Aug. 10), pp. 24952; C. Fedtke, S. D. Tscherny, F. Kaiser, K. Graff, R.
Brandt, J. Franz, and J. Stobbe, BZAN, 19 (1937 Aug. 11), pp. 501; P. Finsler, L. E.
Cunningham, J. P. Moller,

A. D. Maxwell, and G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 45 (1937


Aug.Sep.), pp. 37981; F. Quenisset, The Observatory, 60 (1937 Sep.), pp. 2512;
J. Classen, G. Hartwig, C. W. L. M. Ebell, G. Kulin, J. Balazs, J. Witkowski, G.
Loreta, H. Knochel,

K. Liebermann, J. Franz, W. Malsch, K. Haidrich, C. Fedtke,


L. Andrenko, E. Breson, K. Walter, G. R. Miczaika, G. Peisino, and E. J. Meyer,
AN, 263 (1937 Sep. 8), pp. 3718; C. Fedtke, BZAN, 19 (1937 Sep. 15), p. 57; J.
Febrer, IAUC, No. 685 (1937 Sep. 29); G. van Biesbroeck and N. W. McLeod, PA,
45 (1937 Oct.), pp. 43941; H. M. Jeffers, L. E. Cunningham, A. D. Maxwell, and
P. Finsler, PASP, 49 (1937 Oct.), p. 271; A. Bohrmann and H. Fischer, AN, 264
(1937 Oct. 4), p. 7; H. Krumpholz and J. Bobone, AN, 264 (1937 Oct. 12), pp. 21
4, 27; J. Gadomski, AN, 264 (1937 Oct. 21), p. 61; J. Ellsworth, AN, 264 (1937

74

catalog of comets
Oct. 26), p. 79; R. Brandt and J. Gurtler,

AN, 264 (1937 Oct. 28), pp. 97100;


G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 60 (1937 Nov.), p. 303; J. Hopmann, AN,
264 (1937 Nov. 24), pp. 18996; K. Himpel, AN, 264 (1937 Nov. 27), p. 215; P.
Chofardet, JO, 20 (1937 Dec.), pp. 2034; M. Viaro, AN, 264 (1937 Dec. 21), p. 295;
P. P. Parenago, AJSU, 15 (1938), pp. 1734; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 18 (1938), pp. 1645;
M. Campa, AN, 264 (1938 Jan. 12), p. 341; G. F. Kellaway, MNRAS, 98 (1938 Feb.),
pp. 34950; W. Dieckvoss and H.-U. Sandig, AN, 265 (1938 Feb. 2), p. 1; M. Beyer,
AN, 265 (1938 Feb. 4), pp. 3746; E. Buchar, AN, 265 (1938 Mar. 1), pp. 97100;
J. Bobone, AN, 265 (1938 Mar. 17), pp. 15760; J. P. Moller,

AN, 265 (1938 Apr.


14), p. 271; J. O. Stobbe, AN, 265 (1938 May 5), pp. 3216; S. D. Tscherny, AJ, 47
(1938 Jun. 9), pp. 756; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 47 (1938 Nov. 21), pp. 157, 160,
162; A. H. Mikesell and U. S. Lyons, AJ, 52 (1946 Aug.), pp. 768; V1964, p. 73;
B. G. Marsden and V. N. Klevetskij, QJRAS, 15 (1974 Dec.), pp. 4523, 459; B. G.
Marsden, AJ, 83 (1978 Jan.), pp. 66, 68.

C/1937 P1 Discovered: 1937 August 4.49 ( = 2.62 AU, r = 3.56 AU, Elong. = 152)
(Hubble) Last seen: 1937 October 28.16 ( = 3.80 AU, r = 4.28 AU, Elong. = 112)
Closest to the Earth: 1936 April 2 (2.4182 AU)
1936 VI = 1937g Calculated path: AQR (Disc) [Did not leave this constellation]
E. P. Hubble (Mount Wilson Observatory, California, USA) discovered this
comet on 1937 August 4.49, at a position of = 22h 49.3m , = 21 00 .
It was described as diffuse, with a magnitude of 13.5, and a coma 2030
across. The daily motion was given as 30s in and 5.5 in . Confirmation
of the discovery came on August 5.40, when H. M. Jeffers and B. Adams
(Lick Observatory, California, USA) photographed the comet with the 91cm Crossley reflector. They estimated the magnitude as 13, and described
the comet as diffuse, 20 across, with no nucleus. Hubble independently
confirmed the discovery on August 5.40. The comet was discovered about
9 months after passing perihelion and 16 months after its closest approach
to Earth.
On August 6, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA)
photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 13.5. He said the comet appeared very diffuse on the plate exposed
through hazy skies. W. Dieckvoss and H.-U. Sandig (Hamburg Observatory,
Bergedorf, Germany) photographed the comet on August 6, 7, 8, and 12, and
gave the magnitude as 13. On the 7th, van Biesbroeck visually observed the
comet using the 102-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 13.5. He noted
a round coma 25 across, with little condensation. On the 11th, Jeffers gave
the photographic magnitude as 14. Van Biesbroeck visually observed the
comet with the refractor on the 17th, when it was at a low altitude under
hazy skies. On August 29 and 31, Sandig gave the photographic magnitude
as 12.
On September 7, Jeffers photographed the comet and described it as a
round nebulosity, with a fairly sharp central nucleus and a magnitude of
14.5. On September 14, van Biesbroeck described the comet as a small diffuse
75

catalog of comets

nebula of magnitude 14. The comet attained its most southerly declination
of 24 on September 28.
The last two detections of this comet came on October 28.13 and October
28.16, when Jeffers and Adams obtained photographs with the 91-cm Crossley reflector. Jeffers gave the position on the latter date as = 22h 14.9m ,
= 23 21 .
The first orbital calculations were independently made by L. E. Cunningham and A. D. Maxwell and were published on August 9. The two
astronomers used three precise positions obtained on August 5, 6, and
7. Unfortunately, there was an error in the second position and both
astronomers produced incorrect orbits indicating a perihelion date between
1937 December 11.56 and December 6.10. After Jeffers published his August
11 observation, Cunningham published a new orbit on August 16, which
revealed a perihelion date of 1936 November 10.46.
Astronomers still found it difficult to pinpoint the perihelion date. J. P.
Moller

used three precise positions obtained at Bergedorf between August


6 and 12, and found a perihelion date of November 19.92. Maxwell took
positions from August 4, 11, and 18, and determined it as November
22.47. Maxwell later revised his calculations using positions from August
5, September 7, and October 2. He gave the perihelion date as November
16.38. He said a slight deviation from a parabola was indicated.
The first elliptical orbit was calculated by H. Duborg (1938). He gave the
perihelion date as November 21.76 and the period as 2500 years. A. Przybylski (1952) computed a definitive orbit with a perihelion date of November
14.16 and a period of about 600 years. Przybylskis orbit is given below.
T
1936 Nov. 14.2456 (UT)

 (2000.0)
147.4924
97.7957

i
11.5806

q
e
1.953657 0.972499

absolute magnitude: H10 = 5.5 (V1964)


full moon: Aug. 22, Sep. 20, Oct. 19
sources: E. P. Hubble, HAC, No. 423 (1937 Aug. 5); E. P. Hubble, W. Dieckvoss,
and H.-U. Sandig, BZAN, 19 (1937 Aug. 7), p. 49; H. M. Jeffers, B. Adams, G. van
Biesbroeck, L. E. Cunningham, and A. D. Maxwell, HAC, No. 424 (1937 Aug. 9);
L. E. Cunningham, W. Dieckvoss, and H.-U. Sandig, BZAN, 19 (1937 Aug. 11),
p. 51; H. M. Jeffers and L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 425 (1937 Aug. 16); A. D.
Maxwell, HAC, No. 426 (1937 Aug. 24); E. P. Hubble, L. E. Cunningham, and
J. P. Moller,

The Observatory, 60 (1937 Sep.), p. 251; E. P. Hubble, A. D. Maxwell,


W. Dieckvoss, and H.-U. Sandig, AN, 263 (1937 Sep. 8), p. 379; E. P. Hubble and
A. D. Maxwell, PA, 45 (1937 Oct.), pp. 4378; E. P. Hubble, A. D. Maxwell, L. E.
Cunningham, and H. M. Jeffers, PASP, 49 (1937 Oct.), p. 272; A. D. Maxwell,
The Observatory, 60 (1937 Oct.), p. 275; A. D. Maxwell, HAC, No. 434 (1937 Oct.
28); A. D. Maxwell, The Observatory, 60 (1937 Dec.), p. 335; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 18
(1938), p. 165; A. D. Maxwell and H. Duborg, MNRAS, 98 (1938 Feb.), pp. 34850;
W. Dieckvoss and H.-U. Sandig, AN, 265 (1938 Feb. 2), p. 1; G. van Biesbroeck,

76

catalog of comets
AJ, 47 (1938 Nov. 21), pp. 1578, 160, 163; A. Przybylski, MNRAS, 112 (1952),
pp. 3423; V1964, p. 73.

2P/Encke Recovered: 1937 September 3.39 ( = 1.29 AU, r = 1.98 AU, Elong. = 118)
Last seen: 1937 December 6.75 ( = 0.41 AU, r = 0.62 AU, Elong. = 21)
1937 VI = 1937h Closest to the Earth: 1937 November 14 (0.2712 AU)
Calculated path: ARI (Rec), TRI (Sep. 5), AND (Oct. 3), LAC (Nov. 2), CYG
(Nov. 7), VUL (Nov. 15), SGE (Nov. 21), AQL (Nov. 22), HER (Nov. 23), OPH
(Nov. 25)
A. C. D. Crommelin (1936) relied on this comets 59.5 year cycle of orbital
motion for his 1937 prediction. He said, It reproduces the Jupiter and Saturn perturbations very closely, and generally gives [the perihelion date]
correctly within a day. The resulting prediction for the time of perihelion
passage was 1937 December 27.25.
H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) decided to begin searching for this comet during August 1937. He used an ephemeris published
by Crommelin in the 1937 handbook of the British Astronomical Association, which showed the comet would be very faint, but the uncertainty in
the position would be less than it would be later. Assisted by B. Adams,
an uncertain image was obtained on August 14.47, very near the position extrapolated from Crommelins ephemeris. The magnitude was estimated as 19. Jeffers said the first two photographs in September partially
confirmed the image noted on August 14, but the author finds Jeffers
measured position was somewhat off the path indicated by the September
positions.
Jeffers obtained a 110-minute exposure with the 91-cm Crossley reflector
on 1937 September 3.39. He found an image at a position of = 2h 19.1m ,
= +27 10 . The magnitude was estimated as 18 and the comet was simply described as very small, with a sharp nucleus. Confirmation came
on September 4.48, when Jeffers made another photographic observation
which showed the expected motion of this comet and again showed the
magnitude to be 18. He noted a sharp nucleus within a faint coma. Jeffers
obtained another photographic observation on September 7.47, with the
magnitude being estimated as 17, and the coma several seconds across.
The comets actual perihelion date of December 27.76 was only 0.49 day
later than predicted by Crommelin, and 0.11 day later than that predicted
by L. Matkiewicz.
The comet was recovered as it was approaching both the sun and Earth.
On October 7, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) visually observed the comet using the 102-cm refractor and gave the magnitude
as 15. He said the comet was a fairly well-condensed, round coma about
18 in diameter. H.-U. Sandig (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany)
photographed the comet using the reflector on the 7th and 8th, and gave
the magnitude as 8.5. On the 9th, Jeffers photographed the comet with
77

catalog of comets

the reflector and noted a fan-shaped tail 0.8 long extending to the northwest and a magnitude of 16. Sandig gave the photographic magnitude as
8 on the 11th. The comet attained a maximum elongation of 149 on October 15. On the 25th, W. H. Steavenson (West Norwood, England) gave the
visual magnitude as 13. He described the comet as exhibiting a faint diffuse coma 1.5 across and a nearly stellar nucleus of magnitude 14. On the
27th, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet using the 102-cm refractor and found a perfectly stellar nucleus of magnitude 14 located inside
a coma extending 1 in PA 310. The total magnitude had then brightened
to 13.8. M. Beyer (Hamburg, Germany) visually observed the comet using a
14-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 9.53. He said the coma was 4.5
across. W. Dieckvoss and Sandig gave the total photographic magnitude
as 7.5. On the 28th, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 9.47 and noted a
coma 4 across. The comet attained its most northerly declination of +44 on
October 29.
On November 2, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 8.67, while Dieckvoss and Sandig gave the photographic magnitude as 7. Beyer said the
coma was 6 across. On the 3rd, van Biesbroeck detected the comet in a 10cm finder and gave the magnitude as 12. Van Biesbroeck said the nuclear
magnitude was 13, while a fan-shaped coma covered a angle of 70 and was
directed to PA 280. The nucleus was then at the very apex of the coma.
On the 4th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.17 using the 14-cm refractor,
while van Biesbroeck gave it as 11 using a 10-cm finder. Beyer said that the
coma diameter was 6 , while a short tail extended towards about PA 314.
Van Biesbroeck said the nucleus was almost detached from the coma.
The fan-shaped coma was then directed to PA 270. On the 6th, A. Schaumasse (Nice Observatory, France) observed using the 40-cm refractor and
said the comet was diffuse, about 5 across, and without condensation. On
the 7th, A. M. Vergnano (Pino Torinese Observatory, Turin, Italy) gave the
magnitude as 11.5. On the 9th, the magnitude was given as 7.54 by Beyer
and 11 by van Biesbroeck. Beyer said the coma diameter was 6 , while a tail
extended towards about PA 290. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was eccentric toward the sun. On the 10th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as
10. He added that a tiny stellar nucleus shone at magnitude 13 and was
situated within a very eccentric fan-shaped coma which extended about
6 in PA 265 or towards the sun. No material was visible on the side
of the nucleus normally occupied by a tail. On November 14, Schaumasse
observed in moonlight and noted the comet was very diffuse and about
4 across.
As the second half of November began, the comet was moving away from
Earth, but was still approaching the sun. On the 20th, C. Fedtke (Konigsberg,

now Kaliningrad, Russia) gave the magnitude as 7.1. He described the comet
as a very diffuse, triangle-shaped nebulosity, with a tail extending about 2.5
toward PA 240. On the 20th and 25th, Schaumasse said the comet was very
diffuse and about 6 across, with an extension toward the sun. On the 21st,
78

catalog of comets

Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.59. He added that a tail extended towards
about 253. On the 22nd, Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.25. He noted that
the coma diameter was 5 , while a tail extended towards about 272. On
the 23rd, Fedtke gave the magnitude as 6.6. On the 24th, van Biesbroeck
gave the magnitude as 7.6. He noted the stellar nucleus had vanished and
was replaced by a fuzzy condensation on the following side of the coma.
The tail extended to PA 260. On the 25th, F. Kaiser (Wiesbaden, Germany)
gave the magnitude as 6.5. He noted a centrally condensed, diffuse coma
about 5 across. On the 26th, Fedtke gave the magnitude as 6.5. Schneider
and Dolderer (Stuttgart, Germany) noted the coma was 3 across, while the
condensation was 1 across. On the 27th, the magnitude was given as 5.91
by Beyer and 7 by A. Kwiek (Poznan, Poland). Beyer added that the coma
diameter was 6 , while a tail extended towards about 255. On the 28th, the
visual magnitude was given as 5.99 by Beyer, 7.0 by G. Loreta (Bologna,
Italy), and 7.2 by van Biesbroeck. J. O. Stobbe (Kiel, Germany) gave the
photographic magnitude as 6.0. Beyer said the coma diameter was 6 and
the tail extended towards about 258. Van Biesbroeck simply described the
comet as diffuse. Stobbe obtained a 36-minute exposure and noted a diffuse
nucleus of magnitude 9.5 surrounded by a nearly circular coma 8 across,
but shifted about 2 toward PA 230. Stobbe created a diagram showing
isophote contours. The brighter isophotes were farthest from the nucleus
towards the southwest, or nearly in the direction of the sun, while the fainter
ones were mainly to the northwest. All of the isophotes showed little extension in the direction almost exactly opposite the sun. On the 29th, the visual
magnitude was given as 6.9 by Loreta and the photographic magnitude was
given as 6 by F. Quenisset (Juvisy Observatory, France). Quenisset obtained
a 20-minute exposure and noted envelopes were present on the sunward
side of the coma. Schaumasse noted the comet had considerably brightened
since the 25th, but there was no condensation visible in the 40-cm refractor.
On November 30, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 6.0, while the tail
extended to PA 260.
The comet quickly dropped into twilight as December began. On December 2, C. Popovici (Bucharest, Romania) said it was difficult to measure
the comets position because it was so diffuse. On the 3rd, W. T. Gayfer
(England) was able to obtain a position, but no description was given. On
December 5, the magnitude was given as 5 by Quenisset, 6.2 by Fedtke, and
7.5 by L. Orkisz (Warszawa, Poland). Quenisset said the comet was very
bright, despite being low over the horizon. Fedtke described it as a diffuse
nebulosity, without a nucleus.
The comet was last detected on December 6.75, when Quenisset estimated
the magnitude as 5. The comet stayed relatively close to the sun during the
weeks that followed. After reaching a minimum solar elongation of 12 on
December 15, the comet drifted out to a maximum elongation of 20 by
December 31 and then moved back to within 18 of the sun by 1938 January
18. The comet attained its most southerly declination of 28 on January 16.
79

catalog of comets

The spectrum of this comet was observed by van Biesbroeck and L. G.


Henyey (1937) at Yerkes Observatory. They piggybacked a 9-cm Schmidt
camera with two 60 quartz prisms to the 102-cm refractor and obtained
an exposure of 3 hours 45 minutes on November 4. The resulting spectrum
revealed bands of diatomic carbon and cyanogen, as well as a possible band
of N2 . They also detected a possible band of triatomic carbon at 4056 , as
well as bands at 3160 and 3103 , which may have been those of the
hydroxyl radical. The authors believed this was the first time the last two
bands had ever been detected in a comet.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by S. G. Makover (1956),
S. Y. Luchich (1958), B. G. Marsden (1969, 1970), N. A. Bokhan and Y. A.
Chernetenko (1974), and Marsden and Z. Sekanina (1974). All of these
orbits included planetary perturbations, while those from 1969 and later
also included the effects of nongravitational terms. The result was a perihelion date of December 27.75 and a period of 3.29 years. Marsden and
Sekanina (1974) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = 0.05 and A2 =
0.00822.
T
1937 Dec. 27.7540 (TT)

 (2000.0)
184.9293 335.5866

i
12.5546

q
0.332410

e
0.849603

absolute magnitude: H0 = 9.96, n = 5.95 (Beyer, 1938); H10 = 10.4 (V1964)


full moon: Aug. 22, Sep. 20, Oct. 19, Nov. 18, Dec. 17
sources: A. C. D. Crommelin, BAA Handbook for 1937 (1936), p. 34; H. M. Jeffers,
BZAN, 19 (1937 Sep. 7), p. 56; H. M. Jeffers and L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 428
(1937 Sep. 7); H. M. Jeffers and B. Adams, HAC, No. 433 (1937 Oct. 19); A. C. D.
Crommelin and H. M. Jeffers, PASP, 49 (1937 Oct.), pp. 2723; H. M. Jeffers, PA,
45 (1937 Oct.), p. 438; H. M. Jeffers, The Observatory, 60 (1937 Oct.), p. 275; H. M.
Jeffers, L. Matkiewicz, and W. H. Steavenson, JBAA, 48 (1937 Nov.), p. 39; A. M.
Vergnano, BZAN, 19 (1937 Nov. 18), p. 71; G. van Biesbroeck and L. G. Henyey,
APJ, 86 (1937 Dec.), pp. 6223; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 45 (1937 Dec.), p. 567; The
Observatory, 60 (1937 Dec.), p. 335; C. Fedtke, F. Kaiser, and J. O. Stobbe, BZAN,
19 (1937 Dec. 1), p. 75; A. Kwiek and G. Loreta, BZAN, 19 (1937 Dec. 8), p. 77;
C. Fedtke, Schneider, and Dolderer, BZAN, 19 (1937 Dec. 14), p. 79; L. Orkisz,
BZAN, 19 (1937 Dec. 21), p. 81; F. Quenisset, BSAF, 52 (1938), p. 28; H. M. Jeffers,
LOB, 18 (1938), p. 165; The Observatory, 61 (1938 Jan.), p. 30; W. T. Gayfer and F.
Quenisset, JBAA, 48 (1938 Jan.), pp. 1323; C. Fedtke, BZAN, 20 (1938 Jan. 8),
p. 1; C. Popovici, BZAN, 20 (1938 Jan. 28), p. 5; H. M. Jeffers, L. Matkiewicz, F.
Quenisset, MNRAS, 98 (1938 Feb.), pp. 34850; H.-U. Sandig and W. Dieckvoss,
AN, 265 (1938 Feb. 2), p. 2; M. Beyer, AN, 265 (1938 Feb. 4), pp. 458; J. O. Stobbe,
AN, 265 (1938 May 5), pp. 32530; J. O. Stobbe, JBAA, 48 (1938 Jun.), pp. 3256; A.
Schaumasse, JO, 21 (1938 Nov.), pp. 1812; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 47 (1938 Nov.
21), pp. 158, 161, 163; S. G. Makover, TrITA, 6 (1956), pp. 6979; S. Y. Luchich,
MNRAS, 119 (1959), pp. 4423; V1964, p. 73; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 74 (1969 Jun.),
pp. 7256, 72830; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 11 (1970 Sep.), pp. 2323; N. A. Bokhan
and Y. A. Chernetenko, QJRAS, 15 (1974 Dec.), pp. 4523, 459; B. G. Marsden and
Z. Sekanina, AJ, 79 (1974 Mar.), pp. 41319.

80

catalog of comets

34D/1938 J1 Recovered: 1938 May 1.24 ( = 0.42 AU, r = 1.35 AU, Elong. = 137)
(Gale) Last seen: 1938 July 29.89 ( = 0.41 AU, r = 1.31 AU, Elong. = 128)
Closest to the Earth: 1938 June 7 (0.2531 AU)
1938 = 1938a Calculated path: SER (Rec), SGR (May 7), MIC (Jun. 4), GRU (Jun. 12), PHE
(Jul. 3)
M. G. Sumner (1936) computed an orbit for the upcoming apparition of this
comet which included perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn. The resulting
prediction for the date of perihelion was 1938 April 19.61. Ephemerides
were given for the end of 1937 for perihelion dates of March 18.61 and April
19.61. J. G. Porter (1937) utilized Sumners orbit and computed ephemerides
for 1938, but only used the April 19.61 perihelion date, and an assumed perihelion date of April 20.61. A. C. D. Crommelin (1938) said Sumners computations were checked by a second computation with the result agreeing
almost exactly. However, Crommelin pointed out that this period may be in
error by almost a month so that Porters variation between the ephemerides
based on April 19 and 20 perihelion dates should be multiplied by 30 and
applied both before and after the April 19 date. Early in April of 1938, W. F.
Gale (Sydney, Australia) reported that he had searched on 20 mornings for
this comet, but found nothing.
L. E. Cunningham published a definitive orbit in April of 1938, based on
observations obtained during the 1927 apparition. By applying perturbations calculated by Sumner and Crommelin, he predicted the comet would
be at perihelion on May 16.90; however, due to uncertainties, he not only
gave an ephemeris based on his predicted perihelion date, but also for dates
15 days and 30 days before and after his prediction. He said there was a 99%
probability that the comets true perihelion would be within the range of
30 days before and after his predicted date.
Cunningham (Harvard College Observatory, Oak Ridge Station, Massachusetts, USA) recovered the comet on 1938 May 1.24 on photographs
made with the 20-cm refractor. He described it as magnitude 10, with a central condensation 30 across and a faint coma 100 in diameter. He gave the
position as = 17h 24.0m , = 13 05 , which indicated a perihelion date
32.6 days later than he had predicted. The published predictions by Sumner
and Crommelin were 59.9 days too early. The comet was approaching both
the sun and Earth.
On May 6, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA)
obtained a 5-minute photograph using the 61-cm reflector and gave the
magnitude as 11. He added that a well-defined nucleus of about magnitude 12 was situated within an eccentric coma that extended to 2 in PA
255. On the 7th, J. E. Willis (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, USA)
detected the comet visually and photographically with the 102-cm reflector. He visually observed a starlike condensation surrounded by diffuse
material that seemed to extend toward about PA 240. On a photograph,
the comet appeared 12 in diameter. On the 9th, B. H. Dawson (La Plata
81

catalog of comets

Observatory, Argentina) described the comet as diffuse, with a magnitude


of 11. On the 10th, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet using the
102-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 11. He added that a sharp stellar
nucleus of about magnitude 12 was situated at the apex of a broad coma
extending 2 in PA 265. On the 28th, G. Adamopoulos (National Observatory, Athens, Greece) estimated the magnitude as 11. On May 31, A. M.
Vergnano (Pino Torinese Observatory, Turin, Italy) estimated the magnitude
as 13.
On June 3, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 12 and the round
coma as about 3 across. On the 4th, E. L. Johnson (Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) estimated the magnitude as 9.5. He said the comet
was large and diffuse, with no nucleus. On the 8th, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 12. The very diffuse coma was 2 in diameter and
contained little condensation. On the 10th, Adamopoulos gave the photographic magnitude as 9.5. On the 16th, A. F. I. Forbes (Cape Town, South
Africa) described the comet as very diffuse, with a magnitude of 9. On the
19th, Johnson estimated the photographic magnitude as 10.0. On June 23,
Gale estimated the magnitude as between 10 and 11. Gale said the coma
was circular, with a diameter of about 1.25 and no nucleus.
The comet attained its most southerly declination of 41 on July 1. On
July 5, Johnson estimated the magnitude as 10.5. On July 20, Johnson estimated the magnitude as 8.5.
The comet was last detected on July 29.89, when Johnson obtained a photograph with the 25-cm FranklinAdams Star Camera showing the magnitude as 9.5. He determined the position as = 0h 12.5m , = 39 56 . Longexposure plates were made by Johnson on August 16 and 18, but no trace
of the comet was found.
Cunningham calculated two orbits using the positions from this apparition. Using three precise positions obtained between May 7 and June 3, he
computed an orbit with an assumed semimajor axis of 4.944 AU. The perihelion date was June 18.47, while the period was 10.99 years. He later took
12 observations spanning 27 days and determined the same values.
Orbits using positions from 1927 and 1938 have been calculated by F. R.
Cripps (1948), B. G. Marsden (1968), S. Nakano (1991, 2001), P. Rocher (1995),
and K. Kinoshita (2003). Where Cripps applied perturbations by Jupiter
and Saturn, the remaining astronomers applied perturbations by at least
Mercury to Neptune and frequently included the larger minor planets. In
general, the perihelion date was given as June 18.4718.48 and the period
as 10.9911.00 years. Nongravitational terms were given as A1 = +1.961
and A2 = +0.75891 by Nakano (1993), A1 = +1.961 and A2 = +0.75891
by Nakano (2001), A1 = +1.85093 and A2 = +0.88741 by Rocher, and
A1 = +2.0492 and A2 = +0.5596 by Kinoshita (2003). The orbit of Nakano
(2001) is given below.
Despite two apparitions, the comet has not been seen again (as of
2008). Predictions were calculated for the 1949 and 1960 apparitions by
82

catalog of comets

C. Dinwoodie, for the 1970 and 1992/1993 apparitions by B. G. Marsden,


for the 1981, 1992/1993, and 2004 apparitions by Nakano, for the 2004
apparition by Kinoshita, and for the 2004 apparition by K. Muraoka. For
the 1992/1993 apparition, the predicted perihelion dates of Marsden and
Nakano differed by nearly 4 weeks. For the 2004 apparition, the predicted
perihelion dates of Nakano, Kinoshita, and Muraoka differed by more than
2 months. For the 1949 apparition, searches for this comet were reported by
H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA), van Biesbroeck (Goethe
Link Observatory, Indiana, USA, and Yerkes Observatory), and Johnson, as
well as Bosque Alegre Observatory (Cordoba,

Argentina), Lowell Observatory (Arizona, USA), and Harvard College Observatory (Boyden Station,
Bloemfontein, South Africa). Jeffers simply noted that his search was without result. Van Biesbroeck said he was visiting Goethe Link Observatory
on March 7 and requested F. Edmondson to expose a pair of plates using
the 25-cm Cooke lens on Dinwoodies predicted position. Van Biesbroeck
said the exposures should have found the comet if it was as faint as magnitude 16. The photographic plates covered the area 3 in and 4 in
. Van Biesbroeck also exposed some photographic plates using the 61-cm
reflector at Yerkes Observatory. Johnson said he photographically searched
for the comet on March 1, 25, and April 7, but it was not found on the 25cm FranklinAdams Star Camera plates. The apparitions of 1960 and 1970
were not favorable for observations, with the comet arriving at perihelion
around the time that it was on the far side of the sun from Earth, and no
observations were apparently attempted at either return. There also do not
appear to have been any searches in 1981, 1992/1993, and 2004.
T
1938 Jun. 18.4757 (TT)

 (2000.0)
209.1493
67.9236

i
11.7272

q
e
1.182900 0.760744

absolute magnitude: H10 = 12.0 (V1964)


full moon: Apr. 14, May 14, Jun. 12, Jul. 12, Aug. 11
sources: M. G. Sumner, BAA Handbook for 1937 (1936), p. 37; M. G. Sumner, The
Observatory, 59 (1936 Mar.), p. 103; M. G. Sumner and J. G. Porter, BAA Handbook
for 1938 (1937), pp. 245; A. C. D. Crommelin, The Observatory, 61 (1938 Feb.),
p. 63; L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 444 (1938 Apr. 26); W. F. Gale and L. E. Cunningham, JBAA, 48 (1938 May), pp. 2934; L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 445
(1938 May 5); L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 711 (1938 May 5); L. E. Cunningham, BZAN, 20 (1938 May 9), p. 23; B. H. Dawson, HAC, No. 447 (1938 May
10); B. H. Dawson, BZAN, 20 (1938 May 27), p. 26; L. E. Cunningham, The Observatory, 61 (1938 Jun.), pp. 1701; J. E. Willis, HAC, No. 450 (1938 Jun. 6); B. H.
Dawson, G. Adamopoulos, and A. M. Vergnano, IAUC, No. 713 (1938 Jun. 7);
A. M. Vergnano, BZAN, 20 (1938 Jun. 8), p. 27; L. E. Cunningham and G. van
Biesbroeck, PA, 46 (1938 Jun.Jul.), pp. 3245; A. F. I. Forbes, JBAA, 48 (1938 Jul.),
p. 368; A. F. I. Forbes, The Observatory, 61 (1938 Jul.), p. 199; L. E. Cunningham,
HAC, No. 452 (1938 Jul. 19); G. Adamopoulos, IAUC, No. 715 (1938 Jul. 23); E. L.
Johnson, IAUC, No. 716 (1938 Jul. 27); L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 717 (1938

83

catalog of comets
Jul. 30); W. F. Gale, The Observatory, 61 (1938 Aug.), p. 225; L. E. Cunningham,
The Observatory, 61 (1938 Sep.), p. 256; E. L. Johnson, AN, 267 (1938 Sep. 26),
p. 51; E. L. Johnson, BZAN, 20 (1938 Sep. 27), p. 41; E. L. Johnson, JBAA, 48 (1938
Oct.), p. 414; E. L. Johnson, IAUC, No. 725 (1938 Oct. 3); G. van Biesbroeck, AJ,
47 (1938 Nov. 21), pp. 158, 161, 163; W. F. Gale, L. E. Cunningham, and A. F. I.
Forbes, MNRAS, 99 (1939 Feb.), p. 409; E. L. Johnson, UOC, 5 (1939 Feb. 3), p. 9;
L. E. Cunningham and F. R. Cripps, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 11012; C. Dinwoodie, BAA Handbook for 1949 (1948 Nov.), pp. 501; G. van Biesbroeck and F.
Edmondson, PA, 57 (1949 Apr.), p. 192; E. L. Johnson and H. M. Jeffers, IAUC,
No. 1210 (1949 Apr. 20); [Bosque Alegre Observatory], [Lowell Observatory],
and [Harvard College Observatory], MNRAS, 110 (1950), p. 177; C. Dinwoodie,
BAA Handbook for 1958 (1957 Nov.), p. 58; C. Dinwoodie, BAA Handbook for 1960
(1959 Nov.), p. 50; V1964, p. 73; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 9 (1968 Sep.), pp. 31415;
B. G. Marsden, BAA Handbook for 1970 (1969 Oct.), p. 71; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS,
12 (1971), p. 264; S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 378 (1980 Oct. 20); B. G. Marsden,
MPC, No. 14595 (1989 May 20); S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 549 (1991 Apr. 4);
personal correspondence from P. Rocher (1995); S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 786
(2001 Apr. 27); personal correspondence from K. Kinoshita (2003); K. Muraoka,
The Comet Handbook for 2004, pp. 2, 20.

C/1939 B1 Discovered: 1939 January 17.61 ( = 0.87 AU, r = 0.82 AU, Elong. = 52)
(KozikPeltier) Last seen: 1939 April 21.75 ( = 1.45 AU, r = 1.54 AU, Elong. = 75)
Closest to the Earth: 1939 February 11 (0.5511 AU)
1939 I = 1939a Calculated path: CYG (Disc), VUL (Jan. 17), PEG (Jan. 21), PSC (Feb. 7), CET
(Feb. 12), FOR (Feb. 28), ERI (Mar. 15), HOR (Mar. 23), CAE (Mar. 30), PIC
(Apr. 10)
This comet was first discovered by S. Kozik (Tashkent, Russia, now Uzbekistan) on 1939 January 17.61. He gave the position as = 21h 07.1m , =
+28 20 . The comet was confirmed by S. I. Beljawsky (Pulkovo Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia) on January 19.68. Both observers described the
comet as diffuse, with a central condensation, and a tail less than 1 long.
The magnitude was estimated as 8 and the daily motion was determined as
+5m 48s in and 13 in . An official announcement was sent from Pulkovo
on January 20, but not before L. C. Peltier (Delphos, Ohio, USA) independently discovered the 8th-magnitude comet on January 20.0. An additional
early confirmation was made by Y. Visl (University of Turku, Finland) on
January 20.70. He estimated the magnitude as 6, and said the tail was less
than 1 long. The comet had reached a maximum declination of +29 on
January 10. The comet was approaching both the sun and Earth.
On January 21, the magnitude was given as 7.7 by G. van Biesbroeck
(Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA), 8 by V. V. Lavdovsky (Pulkovo
Observatory), and 8.5 by V. V. Michkovitch (Belgrade, Yugoslavia, now
Serbia). Van Biesbroeck said the faint coma was about 2 across, with a
sharp nucleus and a tail extending over 30 in PA 20. Lavdovsky described
the comet as diffuse, without a central condensation, and a tail less than
84

catalog of comets

1 long. On the 22nd, the visual magnitude was given as 8 by H. M. Jeffers


(Lick Observatory, California, USA) and van Biesbroeck. Jeffers observed
using the 30-cm refractor and saw a tail extended toward PA 30. Van Biesbroeck noted the sharp nucleus shone at magnitude 8.7. M. Dziurla (Poznan,
Poland) described the comet as diffuse, with a condensation and a tail less
than 1 long. On the 23rd, the magnitude was given as 7 by H. Hirose (Tokyo
Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka Station, Japan), 7.8 by van Biesbroeck,
and 8 by J. Dick (Babelsberg, Germany) and Jeffers. Van Biesbroeck said the
coma diameter was 1.5 , and he added that a slender tail extended 1 in
PA 30, while a more diffuse bundle extended 20 in PA 20. On the 24th,
the magnitude was given as 7 by G. Adamopoulos (National Observatory,
Athens, Greece) and 8.0 by M. Campa (Milan, Italy). G. C. Flammarion and
F. Quenisset (Juvisy, France) photographed the comet and noted two tails.
The primary tail was 30 long and in PA 30, while the secondary tail was
very short and in PA 25. On the 25th, M. Beyer (Hamburg, Germany)
gave the visual magnitude as 6.38, while H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory,
Arizona, USA) photographed the comet using the 18-cm Lawrence Lowell
telescope and gave the magnitude as 8. Beyer said the coma was 2.6 across
and contained a nucleus of magnitude 8.26. He added that the tail extended
20 in PA 22. On January 26, the magnitude was given as 6 by Hirose and
6.5 by E. J. Delporte (Uccle, Belgium).
On January 27, the photographic magnitude was given as 7.07.5 by R. S.
Zug (Goodsell Observatory, Minnesota, USA) and 7.5 by Flammarion and
Quenisset. Flammarion and Quenisset said their photograph showed only
one tail spanning from PA 25 to PA 30. Zug visually observed the comet
using the 41-cm refractor and gave the nuclear magnitude as 8.5. He also
noted a round nucleus with no sharp central condensation, and a smoothly
flowing tail visible for half a degree. On the 28th, van Biesbroeck observed
under moonlit hazy skies and gave the magnitude as 6.9. On January 31,
the magnitude was given as 6.0 by O. Volk (Wurzburg,

Germany) and van


Biesbroeck, 6.57.0 by Delporte, 6.6 by H. Krumpholz (Vienna University
Observatory, Austria), 6.9 by M. Bielicki (Warszawa, Poland), 7 by P. Chofardet (Besancon, France), and 8 by A. Fresa (Pino Torinese Observatory,
Turin, Italy). Van Biesbroeck said the coma diameter was 2.5 . He noted
that the 8.0-magnitude stellar nucleus was less than 0.3 in diameter and
emanated a little bright fan 2 long in the direction of the tail. He added
that the brighter part of the tail extended to PA 25. Krumpholz said the
coma was 23 across, with a very distinct condensation, and a tail extending about 15 in PA 30.
The comet passed closest to the sun on February 6. On February 1, Delporte gave the magnitude as 6.57. On the 2nd, Jeffers visually observed
the comet with the 30-cm refractor and said the head was somewhat elongated. On the 3rd, the magnitude was given as 66.5 by Flammarion and
Quenisset and 6.75 by Beyer. Beyer said the nucleus was about magnitude
9.3, while a tail extended 12 in PA 33. The moon was full on the 4th and the
85

catalog of comets

magnitude was given as 6.2 by van Biesbroeck and 7.6 by Krumpholz. Van
Biesbroeck also said there was a sharp nucleus and a tail extending to PA 40.
Krumpholz said the coma was 2 across, with a very distinct condensation
and a tail extending 20 in PA 40. On the 6th, the magnitude was given as
6 by Flammarion and Quenisset, 6.10 by Beyer, and 7.0 by Campa. The estimate by Flammarion and Quenisset was with the naked eye. Beyer said the
coma was 2.2 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 9.8, and a tail extended
30 in PA 40. Beyer added that a photograph showed the tail extending
1.9. Flammarion and Quenisset said the tail photographed was 3 long in
PA 45 and spanned an angle of 25. On February 7, the magnitude was given
as 5.8 by Flammarion and Quenisset, 6.15 by Beyer, 6.8 by G. B. Lacchini
(Trieste, Italy), and 7.2 by Krumpholz. Flammarion and Quenisset saw the
comet with the naked eye. Beyer said the nucleus was about magnitude
10.0, while a tail extended 27 in PA 46. Lacchini said the tail was fanshaped and extended about 1 in PA 48. Flammarion and Quenissets photographs showed a diffuse short tail extending in PA 48 and spanning an
angle of 45.
The comet attained a minimum solar elongation of 46 on February 8.
The magnitude was then given as 5.8 by Flammarion and Quenisset, 6.0 by
G. Peisino (Trieste, Italy), 6.8 by Lacchini, and 7.4 by Krumpholz.
Flammarion and Quenisset said the tail consisted of two parts the primary
pointing in PA 50. Krumpholz said the tail extended 20 in PA 46. Lacchini
said the tail was fan-shaped and extended about 1 in PA 48. L. Gialanella
(Monte Mario Observatory, Rome, Italy) obtained a photometric observation of the nucleus which showed a magnitude of 6.10, and a color index of
+1.14. The comet passed closest to the sun on February 11. The magnitude
was then given as 6.2 by van Biesbroeck, 7.5 by Campa, and 7.9 by Peisino.
Gialanella obtained a photometric observation of the nucleus which showed
a magnitude of 7.15, and a color index of +0.99. On the 12th, B. H. Dawson
(La Plata Observatory, Argentina) gave the magnitude as 6.6. On the 13th,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.04. He said the coma was 2.3 across, with
a nucleus of magnitude 8.8, and a tail extending 25 in PA 58. On February 14, the magnitude was given as 6.9 by Krumpholz, and 7.5 by Lacchini
and Campa. U. S. Lyons (US Naval Observatory, Washington DC, USA) said
there was a decided condensation.
As the last half of February began, the comet was moving away from
both the sun and Earth. On the 15th, the magnitude was given as 5.7 by van
Biesbroeck and 7.5 by Campa. Gialanella obtained a photometric observation of the nucleus which showed a magnitude of 6.97, and a color index of
+0.85. On the 16th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.30. He said the nucleus
was about magnitude 8.5, while the tail extended 20 in PA 68. Gialanella
obtained a photometric observation of the nucleus which showed a magnitude of 6.15, and a color index of +0.81. On the 17th, the magnitude was
given as 6.26 by Beyer and 7.0 by Krumpholz. Beyer said the coma was
about 3 across, with a nucleus of about magnitude 9.0, and a tail extending
86

catalog of comets

7 in PA 69. On the 18th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.17 and said the
tail extended 8 in PA 78. On the 19th, Gialanella obtained a photometric
observation of the nucleus which showed a magnitude of 8.10, and a color
index of +0.87. On the 21st, the magnitude was given as 5.56.1 by Dawson
and 5.7 by van Biesbroeck. On the 22nd, the magnitude was given as 5.4 by
van Biesbroeck and 7 by Jeffers. On the 23rd, the magnitude was given as 5.4
by van Biesbroeck, 5.6 by Dawson, and 6.1 by Adamopoulos. On the 24th,
van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 5.6. On February 27, the magnitude
was given as 6.1 by van Biesbroeck and 6.50 by Dawson.
Dawson provided the only physical descriptions during March and these
were strictly total magnitudes. He gave the magnitude as 7.2 on the 1st, 5.80
on the 6th, 5.92 on the 7th, 6.51 on the 9th, 6.57 on the 11th, 7.10 on the 13th,
7.33 on the 15th, 8.2 on the 17th, 7.90 on the 18th, 7.95 on the 20th, and 8.3
on the 21st.
The comet was last detected on April 21.75, when H. E. Wood (Union
Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) found it on a 15-minute exposure
obtained with the 25-cm FranklinAdams Star Camera. He gave the position
as = 5h 22.7m , = 47 07 .
The first orbit was calculated by A. Kahrstedt. Based on positions obtained
during the period January 1722, it revealed a perihelion date of 1938
December 30.00. It was considered uncertain. Three orbits were independently calculated using positions from January 21, 22, and 23. The perihelion
date was given as 1939 February 6.39 by L. E. Cunningham, February 6.16
by A. D. Maxwell and H. R. J. Grosch, and February 6.79 by P. Herget. During the next few weeks orbits very similar to these three were calculated by
J. P. Moller,

Hirose, Herget, Maxwell, and T. J. Bartlett, H. A. Panofsky, and


E. L. Scott. They established the perihelion date as February 6.9.
The first elliptical orbit was calculated by Kahrstedt. Using positions
spanning the period January 20February 6, he gave the perihelion date
as February 6.77 and the period as 8170 years. Kozik took positions spanning the period January 19February 12, and determined a perihelion date
of February 6.86 and a period of 3690 years. Very similar elliptical orbits
were calculated in the following days and weeks by A. Przybylski and
F. Koebcke, but with periods of 1650 and 2700 years, respectively.
Przybylski (1953) calculated a definitive orbit using 562 positions spanning the period of January 19April 21. The result was a perihelion date of
February 6.85 and a period near 1770 years. This orbit is given below.
T
1939 Feb. 6.8535 (UT)

 (2000.0)
169.0243 289.6136

i
63.5238

q
e
0.716496 0.995103

absolute magnitude: H10 = 9.2 (V1964)


full moon: Jan. 5, Feb. 4, Mar. 5, Apr. 4, May 3
sources: H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1939), pp. 734; L. C. Peltier, IAUC, No. 736 (1939
Jan. 20); L. C. Peltier, HAC, No. 467 (1939 Jan. 20); S. Kozik, S. I. Beljawsky, and

87

catalog of comets
Y. Visl, IAUC, No. 737 (1939 Jan. 21); M. Dziurla and A. Kahrstedt, IAUC, No.
738 (1939 Jan. 23); S. I. Beljawsky, G. van Biesbroeck, H. M. Jeffers, and B. Adams,
HAC, No. 468 (1939 Jan. 23); J. Dick and L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 739 (1939
Jan. 24); L. E. Cunningham, A. D. Maxwell, and H. R. J. Grosch, HAC, No. 469
(1939 Jan. 24); V. V. Michkovitch, IAUC, No. 740 (1939 Jan. 26); A. N. Deutsch,
V. V. Lavdovsky, M. Campa, and J. P. Moller,

IAUC, No. 741 (1939 Jan. 27); G.


Adamopoulos and E. J. Delporte, IAUC, No. 742 (1939 Feb. 1); J. P. Moller,

IAUC,
No. 743 (1939 Feb. 2); P. Herget and G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 470 (1939 Feb. 3);
O. Volk and P. Chofardet, IAUC, No. 744 (1939 Feb. 4); E. J. Delporte and A. Fresa,
IAUC, No. 745 (1939 Feb. 8); G. Peisino, G. B. Lacchini, and A. Kahrstedt, IAUC,
No. 746 (1939 Feb. 11); P. Herget, A. D. Maxwell, T. J. Bartlett, H. A. Panofsky,
and E. L. Scott, HAC, No. 471 (1939 Feb. 14); L. Gialanella, G. C. Flammarion, and
F. Quenisset, IAUC, No. 747 (1939 Feb. 14); H. Hirose, G. Peisino, L. Gialanella,
G. B. Lacchini, and A. D. Maxwell, IAUC, No. 748 (1939 Feb. 17); L. Gialanella,
IAUC, No. 749 (1939 Feb. 25); A. D. Maxwell, HAC, No. 473 (1939 Feb. 27); L. C.
Peltier, S. Kozik, L. E. Cunningham, A. D. Maxwell, H. R. J. Grosch, and R. S.
Zug, PA, 47 (1939 Feb.), pp. 1023; A. D. Maxwell and G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 47
(1939 Mar.), pp. 1623; M. Bielicki, G. Peisino, and A. D. Maxwell, IAUC, No.
750 (1939 Mar. 4); S. Kozik, A. Przybylski, and F. Koebcke, IAUC, No. 752 (1939
Mar. 18); G. Adamopoulos, IAUC, No. 756 (1939 Mar. 31); G. van Biesbroeck,
PA, 47 (1939 Apr.), p. 215; T. J. Bartlett, H. A. Panofsky, E. L. Scott, and H. M.
Jeffers, PASP, 51 (1939 Apr.), pp. 1201; H. E. Wood, IAUC, No. 766 (1939 May
3); M. Campa, AN, 268 (1939 Jun. 15), pp. 3912; B. H. Dawson, AJ, 48 (1939 Dec.
15), pp. 1568; E. L. Johnson, UOC, 5 (1940 Jan. 31), p. 29; L. C. Peltier and A.
Kahrstedt, MNRAS, 100 (1940 Feb.), pp. 3279; H. Krumpholz, AN, 271 (1940
Nov.), pp. 289; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 49 (1941 Nov. 20), pp. 109, 111, 114; M.
Beyer, AN, 272 (1942 Jul.), pp. 2502; U. S. Lyons, AJ, 50 (1942 Aug. 13), p. 26; H. L.
Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 62; A. Przybylski, MNRAS, 113 (1953), pp. 3901;
V1964, p. 73.

40P/1939 CB Prediscovery: 1939 January 18.99 ( = 1.09 AU, r = 2.02 AU, Elong. = 153)
(Visl 1) Discovered: 1939 February 8.80 ( = 0.94 AU, r = 1.93 AU, Elong. = 175)
Last seen: 1939 June 8.24 ( = 1.49 AU, r = 1.82 AU, Elong. = 91)
1939 IV = 1939b Closest to the Earth: 1939 March 1 (0.8926 AU)
Calculated path: LEO (Pre) [Did not leave this constellation]
Y. Visl (University of Turku, Finland) discovered this comet on photographs exposed for the study of minor planets. It was first found on 1939
February 8.80, at a position of = 9h 44.7m , = +15 58 , and was given the
asteroidal designation of 1939 CB. Shortly thereafter, prediscovery images
were found on plates taken at the same observatory on January 18.99. Visl
obtained additional confirmation and identified the object as a comet on
plates exposed on March 14.92. At that time he described it as diffuse, without a central condensation or nucleus, and about magnitude 15. The comet
was approaching both the sun and Earth.
On March 19, W. Dieckvoss (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany)
gave the photographic magnitude as 14.6. On the 20th, the photographic
88

catalog of comets

magnitude was given as 13.6 by J. Dick and E. Wahl (Babelsberg, Germany), 13.8 by A. M. Vergnano (Pino Torinese Observatory, Turin, Italy),
and 15 by G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA). The
last astronomer was observing under hazy skies. On the 21st, the magnitude was given as 12.5 by Vergnano and 15 by van Biesbroeck. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was 15 across and centrally condensed, with a broad,
faint tail extending 1 in PA 140. On the 25th, H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) obtained two 20-minute exposures with the 91-cm
Crossley reflector and described the comet as small and round. On March
27, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet using the 102-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 15. The coma was centrally condensed, and
12 across.
The comet attained its most northerly declination of +25 on April 8. On
that date Jeffers visually observed the comet using the 91-cm refractor and
gave the magnitude as 15. He said the coma was 34 across, with a faint
nucleus. On the 9th and 10th, Vergnano gave the photographic magnitude
as 14. Dieckvoss gave the photographic magnitude as 15.0 on the 9th and
15.2 on the 17th. On the 25th, van Biesbroeck simply described the comets
photographic image as very diffuse. On April 26, Jeffers photographed
the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 16.
On May 11, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet with the 102-cm
refractor under hazy skies and gave the magnitude as 15. The coma was
centrally condensed. On May 17 and 20, van Biesbroeck gave the visual
magnitude as 15.5. He said the refractor revealed a centrally condensed
coma 15 across on the 17th, while the coma was 12 across on the 20th.
On June 5, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 16.5. He said the coma was hazy, centrally
condensed, and about 10 across.
The last two detections of the comet came on June 8.22 and June 8.24,
when Jeffers obtained 20-minute exposures with the 91-cm Crossley reflector. B. Adams gave the comets position on the latter date as = 11h 34.6m ,
= +16 35 . Jeffers estimated the magnitude as 17.
The first orbit was calculated by L. Oterma using the positions obtained
by Visl at the time of the discovery announcement. She computed an
elliptical orbit with a perihelion date of 1939 April 26.0 and a period of
about 10 years. This was an excellent representation as later calculations by
T. J. Bartlett, E. L. Scott, and H. A. Panofsky, Oterma, and Visl revealed a
perihelion date of April 26.1 and a period of 10.58 years.
Multiple apparition orbits were calculated by B. G. Marsden (1972, 1985),
G. Forti (1989), S. Nakano (1990, 2001), K. Kinoshita (2004), and P. Rocher
(2005). Applying planetary perturbations and nongravitational terms, they
gave the perihelion date as April 26.0726.08 and the period as 10.58 years.
The nongravitational terms were given as A1 = 0.23 and A2 = 0.0180 by
Forti, A1 = 0.039 and A2 = 0.01336 by Nakano (1990), A1 = +0.084 and
A2 = 0.01072 by Nakano (2001), A1 = +0.033610 and A2 = 0.010614 by
89

catalog of comets

Kinoshita, and A1 = +0.03811 and A2 = 0.01096 by Rocher. Kinoshitas


orbit is given below.
T
1939 Apr. 26.0756 (TT)

44.3608

 (2000.0)
136.2407

i
11.2662

q
e
1.762385 0.634292

absolute magnitude: H10 = 12.2 (V1964)


full moon: Jan. 5, Feb. 4, Mar. 5, Apr. 4, May 3, Jun. 2, Jul. 1
sources: H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1939), p. 74; Y. Visl, IAUC, No. 752 (1939
Mar. 18); Y. Visl, HAC, No. 475 (1939 Mar. 20); L. Oterma and Y. Visl,
IAUC, No. 754 (1939 Mar. 21); A. M. Vergnano, G. van Biesbroeck, J. Dick, and E.
Wahl, IAUC, No. 756 (1939 Mar. 31); A. M. Vergnano, IAUC, No. 764 (1939 Apr.
27); L. Oterma, IAUC, No. 767 (1939 May 6); Y. Visl and L. Oterma, PA, 47
(1939 May), pp. 2812; Y. Visl, T. J. Bartlett, E. L. Scott, and H. A. Panofsky,
PASP, 51 (1939 Jun.), pp. 169, 1734; T. J. Bartlett, E. L. Scott, and H. A. Panofsky, PA, 47 (1939 Jun.Jul.), p. 333; L. Oterma and Y. Visl, MNRAS, 100 (1940
Feb.), pp. 3279; W. Dieckvoss, AN, 270 (1940 Jul.), p. 192; G. van Biesbroeck,
AJ, 49 (1941 Nov. 20), pp. 109, 111, 114; L. Oterma, BAA Handbook for 1949 (1948
Nov.), pp. 523; L. Oterma, MNRAS, 109 (1949), pp. 2545; V1964, p. 73; B. G.
Marsden, CCO, 1st ed. (1972), pp. 24, 47; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 26 (1985 Mar.),
p. 114; G. Forti, AAP, 215 (1989), pp. 382, 384; S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 536
(1990 May 2); S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 780 (2001 Apr. 26); personal correspondence from K. Kinoshita (2004); personal correspondence from P. Rocher
(2005).

7P/Pons Recovered: 1939 March 17.47 ( = 0.82 AU, r = 1.64 AU, Elong. = 130)
Winnecke Last seen: 1939 October 13.01 ( = 1.08 AU, r = 1.77 AU, Elong. = 117)
Closest to the Earth: 1939 July 1 (0.1073 AU)
1939 V = 1939c Calculated path: BOO (Rec), CrB (Jun. 13), SER (Jun. 17), OPH (Jun. 28),
SCO (Jun. 29), OPH (Jul. 2), SCO (Jul. 3), ARA (Jul. 9), PAV (Jul. 14), IND
(Aug. 14), TUC (Sep. 9), GRU (Sep. 12)
Beginning with orbits computed for the 1927 apparition, A. E. Levin and
J. G. Porter (1938) applied perturbations from Earth for the period when the
comet passed 0.04 AU away to each orbit and then took the average to obtain
a starting point for further calculations. Levin and Porter then advanced
the comets motion forward, taking into consideration the perturbations
by Jupiter during the comets approach to within 0.46 AU in July 1930,
and arrived at an orbit for the 1933 apparition. They compared this orbit
to that computed by A. C. D. Crommelin from the 1933 observations, and
adopted Crommelins perihelion distance to obtain a new value for the
eccentricity and orbital period. In addition, they adopted the means of ,
, and i from Crommelins orbit and their own to establish a starting point
for the next stage of computations. Levin and Porter finally advanced the
comets motion forward and predicted it would next arrive at perihelion on
1939 June 23.50.
90

catalog of comets

H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) recovered this comet


near the edge of a plate exposed with the 91-cm Crossley reflector on 1939
March 17.47. He gave the position as = 14h 36.2m , = +31 21 , and
described the comet as diffuse, centrally condensed, and a few seconds of
arc in diameter. The magnitude was estimated as 17.5. Jeffers confirmed
the comet recovery on March 18.52. He concluded that his failure to detect
the comet on photographs exposed on March 16 was primarily due to an
error of more than 0.3 day in the prediction of the comets perihelion date.
The comet was approaching both the sun and Earth.
On March 22, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA)
photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and described it as an
almost stellar object of about magnitude 16.5. On the 26th, van Biesbroeck
gave the magnitude as 16, and added that the coma was 8 across and
contained a stellar nucleus. On March 29, A. M. Vergnano (Pino Torinese
Observatory, Turin, Italy) gave the magnitude as 16. On April 9, the magnitude was given as 15 by van Biesbroeck and 16 by W. Dieckvoss (Hamburg
Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany). Van Biesbroeck added that the coma
was 20 across and contained a stellar nucleus at its center. On the 11th and
12th, Vergnano gave the magnitude as 14.5. On April 17, Dieckvoss gave
the magnitude as 13.9.
On May 10, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet using the 102-cm
refractor and gave the magnitude as 12.5. He said the coma was 3 across
and contained a well-condensed central nucleus of magnitude 13. On the
11th, van Biesbroeck gave the visual magnitude as 12.0. On the 12th, L.
Boyer (Alger, now al-Jazair, Algeria) gave the photographic magnitude as
13.6. The comet attained its most northerly declination of +47 on May
13. On the 16th, Boyer gave the photographic magnitude as 13.5. On the
17th, van Biesbroeck gave the visual magnitude as 12.0. The photographic
magnitude was given as 13.5 by Boyer and 14 by Jeffers. Van Biesbroeck said
the round coma contained a central condensation. On the 24th, Boyer gave
the photographic magnitude as 12.9. On the 24th and 25th, the photographic
magnitude was given as 11.5 by A. Schmitt (Alger, now al-Jazair, Algeria).
On the 29th and 30th, R. Rigollet (Lagny, France) observed the comet using
20 60 binoculars and gave the magnitude as 9.0. On the last date, he said
the coma was 10 across. On May 31, van Biesbroeck observed in bright
moonlight and gave the magnitude as 10.5. The nucleus was well defined.
On June 4, Rigollet gave the magnitude as 9.0 and the coma as 12 across.
On the 5th Rigollet observed using 8 25 binoculars and gave the magnitude as 8.2. On the 6th, Rigollet gave the magnitude as 8.0 and said the
coma was 15 across. H. Krumpholz (Vienna, Austria) said the coma was 2
across with a small distinct condensation. On the 7th, F. de Roy (Antwerp,
Belgium) observed using a 20-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 9.0. L.
Volta (Pino Torinese Observatory, Turin, Italy) gave the photographic magnitude as 11. On the 8th, M. Beyer (Hamburg, Germany) gave the magnitude
as 8.53. He said the oval coma was 4 across, with a nucleus of magnitude
91

catalog of comets

12.18. On the 9th, the magnitude was given as 7.2 by Rigollet, 8.56 by Beyer,
and 8.9 by de Roy. Rigollet added that the coma diameter was 20 . Beyer
said the coma was 3.8 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 12.35. On the
10th, the magnitude was given as 8.38 by Beyer and 8.78.8 by de Roy. Beyer
said the coma was 3.0 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 12.53. On the
12th, Rigollet observed using 8 25 binoculars and gave the magnitude
as 6.7 and the coma diameter as 20 . G. Adamopoulos (National Observatory, Athens, Greece) photographed the comet using the 40-cm refractor and
gave the magnitude as 8.5. He said the coma was 75 across, with a distinct
nucleus of magnitude 11.5. On the 13th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.40
and said the coma was 4 across. On June 14, the magnitude was given as
7.97 by Beyer, 9.0 by de Roy, and 10.5 by A. Schaumasse (Nice, France) and
Volta. Beyer said the round coma was 5 across. Schaumasse said the coma
was 3 across and elongated towards northeast.
The comets brightness not only continued to increase during the second half of June, but its decreasing distance from Earth caused the coma
to grow. On June 15, the magnitude was given as 7.73 by Beyer and 8.5 by
Adamopoulos. Beyer said the round coma was 8 across, with a nucleus
of magnitude 12.2. Adamopoulos said the coma was 135 across, with a
nucleus of magnitude 11.5. Schaumasse said the coma was 3 across and
elongated towards northeast. On the 16th, the magnitude was given as 7.80
by Beyer and 8.7 by Adamopoulos. Krumpholz said the coma was 3 across,
with a nearly stellar condensation of magnitude 11. On the 17th, Rigollet
made a naked-eye observation which gave the magnitude as 6.5, while
8 25 binoculars revealed a magnitude of 6.8. The binoculars also revealed
a coma 21 across. On the 18th, the magnitude was given as 8.5 by de Roy.
Van Biesbroeck added that the coma was large and diffuse, with a diameter of at least 10 and a sharp nucleus. Schaumasse said the coma was 3
across and elongated towards northeast. On the 19th, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 8.9. On the 20th, Rigollet gave the naked-eye magnitude
as 6.2, while de Roy gave the magnitude as 8.6 using a 20-cm reflector. Photographic magnitudes were given as 9.3 by Schmitt and 10.0 by L. Gialanella
(Monte Mario Observatory, Rome, Italy). Rigollet added that the coma was
24 across. Adamopoulos said the coma was 290 across, with a nuclear magnitude of 10.5, and a weak tail extending 20 towards the north-northeast.
On the 21st, visual magnitudes were given as 6.5 by Rigollet and 7.12 by
Beyer, while a photographic magnitude of 9.2 was given by Schmitt. Beyer
said the coma was 10 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 11.8. On the 22nd,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.96. He added that the coma was 10 across,
with a nucleus of magnitude 11.7. On the 23rd, the visual magnitude was
given as 6.97 by Beyer and 8.4 by de Roy. On the 24th, Rigollet gave the
naked-eye magnitude as 6.0 and said the coma was 24 across. On the 26th,
de Roy gave the visual magnitude as 8.3, while Schmitt gave the photographic magnitude as 9.0. On the 27th, de Roy gave the magnitude as 8.1.
On June 30, Schmitt gave the magnitude as 9.0.
92

catalog of comets

As July began, the comet was moving away from both the sun and Earth.
On the 3rd, Adamopoulos gave the magnitude as 8.2. He said the distinct
nucleus shone at magnitude 10.0, while a large tail extended towards the
northwest. On the 6th, Adamopoulos gave the magnitude as 8.8. He said the
coma was 85 across, with a tail extending 8 towards the north-northeast.
On July 7, Adamopoulos gave the magnitude as 8.8. He said the distinct
nucleus could be seen only occasionally.
The comet moved south-southeast as July progressed and was finally
observable only to astronomers in the Southern Hemisphere. The comet
attained its most southerly declination of 68 on July 31. The most prolific observer was B. H. Dawson (La Plata Observatory, Argentina), who
obtained 17 photographic plates during July, 8 plates during August, 8
plates during September, and 5 plates during October, while using the 43-cm
refractor. Other photographic observations were obtained by E. L. Johnson
(Union Observatory, South Africa).
The comet was last detected on October 13.01, when Dawson photographed it with the 43-cm refractor. The position was given as = 22h
35.0m , = 45 10 . Dawson simply described the comet as barely visible.
Porter (1944) used 225 positions covering 7 months, reduced them to 12
Normal places, and included perturbations by Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter,
and Saturn. The result was a perihelion date of June 22.72. He did not attempt
to link this apparition with previous apparitions.
Multiple apparition orbits were calculated by L. Ya. Ananeva (1957), B. G.
Marsden (1968, 1978), Ananeva and E. A. Reznikov (1974), and Reznikov
(1978). These applied various planetary perturbations, with nongravitational terms being applied by Marsden. The result was a perihelion date of
June 22.72 and a period of 6.09 years. Marsden (1968) noted an extremely
slight secular deceleration for this comet. Marsden (1970) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = 0.012726 and A2 = +0.00064604, using positions spanning 193964. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans (1973)
gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.01, A2 = +0.0024, using positions from 193351.
T
1939 Jun. 22.7150 (TT)

 (2000.0)
169.3667
97.4818

i
20.1218

q
e
1.101471 0.669678

absolute magnitude: H10 = 11.4 (V1964)


full moon: Mar. 5, Apr. 4, May 3, Jun. 2, Jul. 1, Jul. 31, Aug. 29, Sep. 28, Oct. 28
sources: A. E. Levin and J. G. Porter, BAA Handbook for 1939 (1938), pp. 258;
H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1939), p. 74; H. M. Jeffers, HAC, No. 474 (1939 Mar. 18);
H. M. Jeffers, IAUC, No. 753 (1939 Mar. 19); A. M. Vergnano, IAUC, No. 757
(1939 Apr. 5); A. M. Vergnano, IAUC, No. 764 (1939 Apr. 27); H. M. Jeffers, A. E.
Levin, and J. G. Porter, PASP, 51 (1939 Apr.), pp. 11415; H. M. Jeffers and G.
van Biesbroeck, PA, 47 (1939 May), p. 281; A. M. Vergnano, IAUC, No. 773 (1939
Jun. 6); L. Boyer, IAUC, No. 775 (1939 Jun. 10); G. Adamopoulos, IAUC, No. 778

93

catalog of comets
(1939 Jun. 19); L. Volta, IAUC, No. 779 (1939 Jun. 21); A. Schmitt, G. Adamopoulos, and F. de Roy, IAUC, No. 780 (1939 Jul. 1); L. Gialanella and R. Rigollet, IAUC,
No. 781 (1939 Jul. 8); A. Schmitt, IAUC, No. 783 (1939 Jul. 20); A. Schaumasse,
JO, 22 (1939 Dec.), pp. 2278; G. Adamopoulos, JO, 23 (1940 Jan.), p. 15; E. L.
Johnson, UOC, 5 (1940 Jan. 31), p. 30; H. M. Jeffers, A. E. Levin, and J. G. Porter,
MNRAS, 100 (1940 Feb.), pp. 3279; W. Dieckvoss, AN, 270 (1940 Jul.), p. 192;
B. H. Dawson, AJ, 49 (1940 Oct. 31), pp. 556; H. Krumpholz, AN, 271 (1940
Nov.), p. 29; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 49 (1941 Nov. 20), pp. 109, 111, 114; M. Beyer,
AN, 272 (1942 Jul.), pp. 2523; J. G. Porter, JBAA, 54 (1944 Aug.), pp. 133, 13740;
J. G. Porter, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 11011, 113; L. Ya. Ananeva, MNRAS, 117
(1957), pp. 3401; V1964, p. 74; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 3701; B. G.
Marsden, QJRAS, 9 (1968 Sep.), pp. 31415; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 75 (1970 Feb.),
pp. 801; B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.),
p. 214; L. Ya. Ananeva and E. A. Reznikov, QJRAS, 15 (1974 Dec.), pp. 4523,
459; E. A. Reznikov and B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 19 (1978 Mar.), pp. 823, 88.
C/1939 H1 (Jurlof Discovered: 1939 April 15.8 ( = 0.68 AU, r = 0.54 AU, Elong. = 31)
AchmarofHassel) Last seen: 1939 May 27.45 ( = 1.84 AU, r = 1.14 AU, Elong. = 34)

Closest to the Earth: 1939 April 16 (0.6812 AU)


1939 III = 1939d Calculated path: AND (Disc), PER (Apr. 20), AUR (Apr. 28), GEM (May 13)
A bright comet appeared during mid-April 1939. Numerous independent
discoveries were made, but the first announcement to reach the proper
authorities was by O. Hassel (Hokksund, Norway), who reported that he
detected the comet on the evening of April 16, at a position of = 1h 27m ,
= +41. He estimated the magnitude as 3. On April 20, S. I. Beljawsky
(Pulkovo Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia) reported that two amateur
astronomers, Achmarof (Balezino, Russia) and Jurlof (Votkinsk, Russia)
independently announced that they discovered this comet in the evening
sky on April 15.8. Other independent discoveries were made by L. V. Smith
(Sedgewick, Alberta, Canada) on April 16.19, E. W. Barlow (England) on
April 18, E. Buchar (Prague, Czech Republic) on April 18.79, C. L. Friend
(Escondido, California, USA) on April 19, S. Kozik (Ashkhabad Geophysical Observatory, Turkmenistan) on April 19.64, R. Rigollet (Lagny, France)
on April 19.88, and S. Okabayasi (Tokyo, Japan) on April 20. Kozik gave the
magnitude as 5, while Rigollet determined it as 3.7. At the time of its initial
discovery, the comet was just hours from passing closest to Earth and about
5 days past perihelion.
On April 18, the magnitude was given as 3 by J. M. Vinter Hansen
(Copenhagen Observatory, Denmark) and Dziurla (Poznan, Poland), 3.8
by Y. Visl (University of Turku, Finland), and 4 by J. O. Stobbe (Babelsberg, Germany). Vinter Hansen described the comet as big and diffuse,
with a nucleus and a tail. On April 19, the magnitude was given as 3 by
H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA), 3.7 by Rigollet, 3.9 by J.
Gadomski (Warszawa, Poland), 4 by A. N. Deutsch (Pulkovo Observatory,
St. Petersburg, Russia), 4.5 by F. Rigaux (Uccle, Belgium), and 4.9 by H. van
94

catalog of comets

Schewick (Sonneberg, Germany). Jeffers said a visual observation with the


30-cm refractor showed a stellar nucleus. Rigaux added that the comet was
diffuse, with a nucleus, and a tail greater than 1 in length. Van Schewick
photographed the comet and said the tail extended 16 in PA 16.
The comet attained its most northerly declination of +44 on April 20. The
magnitude was given as 3 by G. C. Flammarion and F. Quenisset (Juvisy,
France) and Zukerwanik (Tashkent, Uzbekistan), 3.46 by M. Beyer (Hamburg, Germany), 3.5 by G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin,
USA) and Rigollet, 4.0 by G. Peisino and G. B. Lacchini (Trieste, Italy), and
4.5 by Gadomski. Van Biesbroeck said a sharp nucleus was surrounded
by an ill-defined round coma measuring 5 across, while a straight narrow
tail 5 long extended out of a bundle of streamers which fanned across an
angle of 30. U. S. Lyons (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, USA)
said the nucleus was elongated and the comet was visible to the naked eye.
Beyer said the coma was 10 across with a tail extending more than 7 in PA
15. Rigollet described the comet as diffuse, with a condensation, and a tail
greater than 1 long. A photograph by Flammarion and Quenisset showed
a tail about 20 long composed of several filaments.
On April 21, the magnitude range was 34.96, with an average of 4.0,
according to Flammarion and Quenisset, G. N. Neujmin (Simeis Observatory, Crimea, Ukraine), Peisino, M. Kamienski (Warszawa, Poland), Beyer,
M. Campa (Milan, Italy), van Schewick, L. Volta (Pino Torinese Observatory,
Turin, Italy), Gadomski, Rigollet, J. Hunaerts and S. J. V. Arend (Royal Observatory, Uccle, Belgium), and Jeffers. Beyer said the coma was 10 across, with
a tail extending more than 7 in PA 19. Jeffers visually observed the comet
with the 30-cm refractor and said the coma was 5 across, with a sharp,
but not quite stellar, nucleus. The tail extended several degrees toward
PA 15. Van Schewick said a photograph revealed that the tail extended
8.5 in PA 39. R. L. Waterfield (Headley, England) photographed the comet
and noted a tail extending over 9. D. N. Davis (Smith College Observatory,
Massachusetts, USA) obtained a 15-minute exposure which revealed a tail
extending 45 toward PA 23.
On April 22, the magnitude was given as 3.9 by van Biesbroeck, 4 by
V. V. Michkovitch (Belgrade, Yugoslavia, now Serbia) and A. Schaumasse
(Nice, France), 4.5 by Rigollet, 4.6 by H. Krumpholz (Vienna University
Observatory, Austria), 4.60 by van Schewick, 5 by M. B. Protitch (Belgrade)
and Deutsch, and 5.7 by Arend. Krumpholz said the coma was 3 across,
with a very distinct condensation and a tail 20 long. Schaumasse said the
coma was 8 across. Waterfield photographed the comet and said the tail
had nearly disappeared.
On April 23, the magnitude was given as 4.18 by Beyer, 4.2 by van Biesbroeck, 4.5 by Gadomski, and 4.6 by Krumpholz. Krumpholz said the tail
extended 1 in PA 20. On the 24th, the magnitude was given as 4.8 by
Campa and 5.0 by Gadomski. On the 25th, the magnitude was given as
4.85 by Beyer, 4.9 by van Biesbroeck, 5 by A. Schmitt (Alger, now al-Jazair,
95

catalog of comets

Algeria), 5.1 by Gadomski, and 5.5 by G. Adamopoulos (National Observatory, Athens, Greece). Beyer said the coma was 4.5 across, with a tail
extending 3.8 in PA 46. Lyons said there was a decided condensation, but
no nucleus. He added that the comet exhibited a greenish color in haze and
moonlight, and was visible in a 5-cm finder. On the 26th, the magnitude was
given as 4.90 by Beyer, 5.0 by Gadomski, and 5.4 by Krumpholz. Beyer said
the tail extended 0.8 in PA 54. Krumpholz said the coma was 4 across,
with a very distinct condensation and a tail extending about 0.5 in PA 50.
On the 27th, the magnitude was given as 5.0 by Rigollet and 5.05 by Beyer.
Beyer said the tail extended 0.6 in PA 57. On the 29th, the magnitude was
given as 5.4 by Gadomski and 5.5 by Schmitt. On April 30, Gadomski gave
the magnitude as 5.8.
On May 1, Rigollet gave the visual magnitude as 5.0, while the photographic magnitude was given as 5.8 by Schmitt and 5.83 by van Schewick.
On the 2nd, Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.10. He said a photograph
revealed the coma was 3.4 across, while the tail extended more than 1 in
PA 65. Lyons observed in moonlight and said the comet appeared greenish
and exhibited an elongated nucleus. He added that the comet was visible
in a 5-cm finder. On May 3, the magnitude was given as 5.49 by Beyer, 5.9
by Krumpholz, and 6 by Jeffers. Beyer said the tail extended 0.3 in PA 68.
Jeffers visually observed the comet with the 30-cm refractor and said the
coma was 2 across, with a sharp, but not stellar, nucleus. There was no tail
visible. The comet attained a maximum solar elongation of 43 on May 4.
The magnitude was then given as 5.60 by Beyer, 5.9 by Gadomski, and
6.5 by Schmitt. Beyer said the tail extended 0.3 in PA 65. On the 5th, the
magnitude was given as 5.85 by Beyer, 6.0 by Rigollet, and 6.8 by Schmitt.
Beyer said the coma was 2.9 across, with a tail extending 3.7 in PA 76. On
the 6th, van Schewick obtained a photographic magnitude determination of
6.71 from a 2-minute exposure. On May 7, Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.97.
Beyer said a photograph revealed a coma 3.1 across and a tail extending
2.7 in PA 77.
On May 8, the magnitude was given as 6.08 by Beyer, 6.3 by Rigollet,
and 6.5 by Adamopoulos. On the 9th, Schmitt gave the photographic magnitude as 7.5. On the 10th, 11th, and 13th, Schaumasse photographed the
comet using a 40-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 6. He said the coma
was 4 across, with a diffuse condensation. On the 12th, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 6.6. On the 13th, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 7.12.
On the 14th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.09. On the 15th, the photographic magnitude was given as 7.68 by van Schewick and 8.8 by Schmitt.
Krumpholz said the coma was 2 across. On the 16th, Beyer gave the visual
magnitude as 6.75, while van Schewick gave the photographic magnitude
as 7.48. Van Biesbroeck simply described the comets photographic appearance as very diffuse. On the 18th, Lyons said the comet was faint, with
a central condensation. He added that the comet still exhibited a greenish
color. On the 19th, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 7.46. On the 20th,
96

catalog of comets

the visual magnitude was given as 7.49 by Beyer and 7.8 by van Biesbroeck,
while the photographic magnitude was given as 9.5 by Schmitt. On the 23rd,
Schmitt gave the photographic magnitude as 9.8. On May 24, Adamopoulos
observed it in twilight.
The comet was last detected on May 27.45, by H. Hirose (Tokyo Observatory, Japan), when it was at a low altitude in the evening sky. Hirose gave
the position as = 6h 39.2m , = +21 39 .

Y. Ohman
(Uppsala) obtained three plates with a polarigraph attached
to the 20-cm Zeiss Astrograph on the night of April 18/19. He wrote, Not
only the coma but also the tail shows marked polarization. This might mean
that the phase angle is close to 90.
Several observations were made of this comets spectrum. F. Hinderer
(Babelsberg) photographed it on April 18 and found bands of cyanogen
and diatomic carbon. There was also a then unidentified band, which
was later recognized as methylidyne. S. K. Vsekhsvyatskij and B. Shulman
(Pulkovo Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia) obtained two spectrograms
on April 19. They said the spectrum was a usual one for a comet, with
intense CN IV and C IV bands as well as with other carbon and cyan
bands. They added that CO+ was seen up to 2 from the head. Beyer
photographed the spectrum on April 21 and noted diatomic carbon and
cyanogen.
On 1939 May 10, V. Guth suggested this comet might produce meteor
showers around January 31 and August 4. The comet was at its descending
node on the former date and the predicted radiant was = 251.0, = 4.3.
On the latter date, the comet was at its ascending node and the predicted
radiant was = 17.8, = 12.6. M. Davidson remarked that no showers
should be expected since this was a long-period comet and it is not likely
to have left sufficient debris to produce a meteor shower. There was no
confirmation of activity.
The first orbits were published on April 21. Using three precise positions
obtained at Copenhagen, J. P. Moller

determined the perihelion date as 1939


April 10.27. Using a different set of positions over the same three days, K. P.
Kaster, T. J. Bartlett, E. L. Scott, and White determined the perihelion date as
April 10.42. Around the same time, M. Davidson determined the perihelion
date as April 10.29. These three orbits turned out to be quite close to the
final orbit, considering their parabolic nature, with the first being especially
close. During the first week of June, C. H. Smiley determined the perihelion
date as April 10.19.
The first elliptical orbit was calculated by Buchar. Using positions spanning the period April 18May 1, he gave the perihelion date as April 10.11
and the period as 330 years. This perihelion date proved less than 2 hours
early, as shown by later computations, although the period would prove
much longer. During the next few days and weeks, Davidson gave the
period as 774 years and A. Przybylski gave it as 7490 years. Orbits were
calculated by L. M. Belous (1956, 1957), using positions from a 39-day arc,
97

catalog of comets

which indicated a perihelion date of April 10.17 and a period of about 6490
years.
A definitive orbit was later calculated by Belous (1960). He took 399 positions, reduced them to 12 Normal places, and applied perturbations by
Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The result was a perihelion date of
April 10.17 and a period of about 6490 years. This orbit is given below.
T
1939 Apr. 10.1689 (TT)

89.2399

 (2000.0)
i
q
e
312.2770 138.1212 0.528266 0.998482

absolute magnitude: H0 = 6.35, n = 3.08 (Beyer, 1942); H0 = 7.08, n = 2.56


(van Schewick, 1943); H10 = 7.1 (V1964)
full moon: Apr. 4, May 3, Jun. 2
sources: H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1939), p. 75; O. Hassel, IAUC, No. 759 (1939
Apr. 18); J. M. Vinter Hansen, IAUC, No. 760 (1939 Apr. 19); Achmarof, Jurlof, Y.

Visl, J. O. Stobbe, F. Rigaux, and Y. Ohman,


IAUC, No. 761 (1939 Apr. 20); Dziurla, A. N. Deutsch, Zukerwanik, R. Rigollet, J. P. Moller,

K. P. Kaster, T. J. Bartlett,
E. L. Scott, and White, IAUC, No. 762 (1939 Apr. 21); S. Kozik, J. Gadomski, F.
Rigaux, G. N. Neujmin, A. N. Deutsch, and S. Orlow, IAUC, No. 763 (1939 Apr.
24); G. Peisino, G. B. Lacchini, L. Volta, M. Kamienski, M. Campa, A. Schaumasse, S. K. Vsekhsvyatskij, B. Shulman, G. C. Flammarion, and F. Quenisset,
IAUC, No. 764 (1939 Apr. 27); O. Hassel, J. P. Moller,

and M. Davidson, The


Observatory, 62 (1939 May), p. 139; J. Hunaerts, S. J. V. Arend, M. B. Protitch, V. V.
Michkovitch, M. Campa, A. Schmitt, E. W. Barlow, E. Buchar, C. L. Friend, S.
Kozik, S. Okabayasi, and R. Rigollet, IAUC, No. 765 (1939 May 1); A. Schmitt,
IAUC, No. 766 (1939 May 3); G. Adamopoulos, A. Schmitt, A. D. Maxwell, and V.
Guth, IAUC, No. 768 (1939 May 10); A. Schmitt, G. Adamopoulos, J. Gadomski,
L. V. Smith, and E. Buchar, IAUC, No. 769 (1939 May 15); A. Schmitt and A. D.
Maxwell, IAUC, No. 770 (1939 May 20); R. Rigollet, IAUC, No. 771 (1939 May 25);
A. Schmitt and C. H. Smiley, IAUC, No. 773 (1939 Jun. 6); V. Guth, E. Buchar, M.
Davidson, and F. Hinderer, The Observatory, 62 (1939 Jun.), pp. 1635; O. Hassel,
Jurlof, Achmarof, L. V. Smith, C. L. Friend, K. P. Kaster, White, E. L. Scott, and
T. J. Bartlett, PASP, 51 (1939 Jun.), p. 170; O. Hassel, Achmarof, Jurlof, L. V. Smith,
E. W. Barlow, E. Buchar, C. L. Friend, S. Kozik, A. D. Maxwell, G. van Biesbroeck,
and D. N. Davis, PA, 47 (1939 Jun.Jul.), pp. 3314; A. Przybylski, IAUC, No. 781
(1939 Jul. 8); L. V. Smith, Jurlof, and Achmarof, PA, 47 (1939 Aug.Sep.), p. 394;
A. Schaumasse, JO, 22 (1939 Dec.), pp. 2278; O. Hassel, E. W. Barlow, E. Buchar,
M. Davidson, J. P. Moller,

and C. H. Smiley, MNRAS, 100 (1940 Feb.), pp. 3279;


H. Krumpholz, AN, 271 (1940 Nov.), p. 29; [Tokyo Observatory], VJS, 76 (1941),
p. 28; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 49 (1941 Nov. 20), pp. 11112, 114; M. Beyer, AN, 272
(1942 Jul.), pp. 2548; U. S. Lyons, AJ, 50 (1942 Aug. 13), p. 26; H. van Schewick,
AN, 273 (1943 Jun.), pp. 27882; A. Przybylski, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 11012;
L. M. Belous, MNRAS, 116 (1956), pp. 2267; L. M. Belous, MNRAS, 117 (1957),
pp. 3401; L. M. Belous, BITA, 7 (1960), pp. 71327; V1964, p. 73.

22P/Kopff Prerecovery: 1939 April 21.50 ( = 2.06 AU, r = 1.72 AU, Elong. = 56)
Recovered: 1939 April 22.40 ( = 2.06 AU, r = 1.73 AU, Elong. = 57)
1939 II = 1939e Last seen: 1939 November 17.17 ( = 1.97 AU, r = 2.71 AU, Elong. = 129)
98

catalog of comets

Closest to the Earth: 1939 September 10 (1.4183 AU)


Calculated path: AQR (Pre), PSC (May 5), PEG (Jun. 8), PSC (Jun. 10), PEG
(Oct. 7)
P. J. Harris and W. P. Henderson (1937) predicted the comet would next
arrive at perihelion on 1939 March 12.41. F. Kepinski (1938) predicted the
comet would arrive at perihelion on March 13.16.
Using an ephemeris published by Kepinski, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes
Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) recovered this comet on 1939 April 22.40, on
a couple of photographic plates made with the 61-cm reflector shortly before
sunrise. The position was = 22h 19.6m , = 5 12 and the magnitude was
estimated as 13.5. The comets low altitude caused the photographic image
to be poor, but van Biesbroeck said it appeared round, centrally condensed,
and 30 across. Van Biesbroeck immediately sent notice of the recovery to
the appropriate authorities and proceeded to reobserve the comet on April
25.40 and April 27.40. Due to a delay in the arrival of the news of this recovery, an independent recovery was made by H. Hirose (Tokyo Astronomical
Observatory, Japan) on April 27.76. He estimated the magnitude as 13. Van
Biesbroeck pointed out that when his recovery position was compared to
Kepinskis ephemeris, the resulting residual was only 0.2s in and 3 in
. He added that this is the most precise prediction of a periodic comet ever
made. A short time later, H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA)
announced the finding of an image of the comet on a 22-minute exposure
obtained with the 91-cm Crossley reflector on April 21.50. The comet was a
month past perihelion when it was discovered.
Although it would approach Earth during the next few months, the comet
did not become particularly bright and few physical descriptions were
given. On May 29, A. M. Vergnano (Pino Torinese Observatory, Turin, Italy)
gave the magnitude as 13.5. On June 23, van Biesbroeck photographed the
comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 14. He said the
round coma was about 30 across. On June 25, Vergnano gave the magnitude as 13. On July 20 and 21, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet
using the 102-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 14. He said the round
coma was about 30 across and contained only slight central condensation.
The comet attained its most northerly declination of +20 on August 29.
On September 10, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet using the
refractor and gave the magnitude as 14.5. He said the round coma was 15
across. On the 11th, van Biesbroeck observed the comet using the refractor
and gave the magnitude as 15. He said the coma was about 20 across. On
the 16th, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 15.5. On September 18, Vergnano gave the
magnitude as 15.5. On October 14, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic
magnitude as 16. On November 11, van Biesbroecks 20-minute exposure with the 61-cm reflector showed a hardly measurable vague diffuse
coma.
99

catalog of comets

The last two detections of the comet came on November 16.14 and 17.17,
when van Biesbroeck obtained 40-minute exposures with the 61-cm reflector. The position on the latter date was given as = 23h 58.0m , = +11
31 . The magnitude was estimated as 17. The coma was vague, diffuse, and
about 2530 across.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by F. Kepinski (1972),
D. K. Yeomans (1973), Y. A. Chernetenko (1978), and G. Sitarski (1994).
Kepinski applied perturbations by Venus to Uranus, while the other
astronomers used perturbations by Mercury to Pluto. Yeomans and Sitarski
also solved for nongravitational effects. Although Kepinski determined the
perihelion date as March 13.11, the other astronomers gave the date as
March 13.04. Everyone gave the period as 6.54 years. The nongravitational
terms were given as A1 = +0.66 and A2 = 0.0455 by Yeomans (1973),
A1 = +0.664 and A2 = +0.0078 by Yeomans (1974), and A1 = +0.534, A2 =
0.019, and A3 = 0.181 by Sitarski. The orbit by Sitarski is given below.
T
1939 Mar. 13.0479 (TT)

19.7967

 (2000.0)
264.9005

i
8.7126

q
e
1.682084 0.519090

absolute magnitude: H10 = 10.1 (V1964)


full moon: Apr. 4, May 3, Jun. 2, Jul. 1, Jul. 31, Aug. 29, Sep. 28, Oct. 28, Nov. 26
sources: P. J. Harris and W. P. Henderson, BAA Handbook for 1938, (1937), p. 27;
P. J. Harris and W. P. Henderson, BAA Handbook for 1939, (1938), p. 24; F. Kepinski,
IAUC, No. 710 (1938 Apr. 12); F. Kepinski, JBAA, 48 (1938 Jul.), pp. 3689; H. M.
Jeffers and B. Adams, LOB, 19 (1939), p. 75; G. van Biesbroeck, IAUC, No. 763
(1939 Apr. 24); G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 62 (1939 May), pp. 13940; H.
Hirose, IAUC, No. 765 (1939 May 1); A. M. Vergnano, IAUC, No. 773 (1939 Jun.
6); G. van Biesbroeck, PASP, 51 (1939 Jun.), pp. 1701; A. M. Vergnano, IAUC,
No. 781 (1939 Jul. 8); G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 47 (1939 Jun.Jul.), p. 333; A. M.
Vergnano, IAUC, No. 797 (1939 Oct. 16); G. van Biesbroeck, P. J. Harris, and W. P.
Henderson, MNRAS, 100 (1940 Feb.), pp. 3289; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 49 (1941
Nov. 20), pp. 109, 112, 114; V1964, p. 73; D. K. Yeomans, QJRAS, 14 (1973 Dec.),
pp. 4046; F. Kepinski, CCO, 1st ed. (1972), pp. 24, 47; D. K. Yeomans, PASP, 86
(1974 Feb.), p. 126; Y. A. Chernetenko, QJRAS, 19 (1978 Mar.), pp. 823, 88; G.
Sitarski, AcA, 44 (1994), pp. 95, 424.

16P/Brooks 2 Recovered: 1939 June 17.45 ( = 1.90 AU, r = 2.03 AU, Elong. = 82)
Last seen: 1940 January 6.13 ( = 1.54 AU, r = 2.11 AU, Elong. = 111)
1939 VII = 1939g Closest to the Earth: 1939 October 17 (0.9060 AU)
Calculated path: PSC (Rec), ARI (Aug. 14), CET (Sep. 18), PSC (Nov. 9), CET
(Dec. 8)
F. R. Cripps (1938) took the orbit derived for this comets 1932 apparition,
and applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn. The result was a prediction that the comet would next reach perihelion on 1939 September 15.29.
H. M. Jeffers and B. Adams (Lick Observatory, California, USA) recovered
100

catalog of comets

this comet with the 91-cm Crossley reflector on 1939 June 17.45, at a position
of = 0h 07.7m , = +3 29 . This indicated Cripps prediction required a
correction of +0.435 day. The comet was described as diffuse, without a condensation or nucleus, and of magnitude 17. Jeffers confirmed the recovery
on June 20.44. The comet was approaching both the sun and Earth.
The comet attained its most northerly declination of +11 on August 29.
On September 10 and 13, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin,
USA) visually observed the comet using the 102-cm refractor and gave the
magnitude as 14. On the 10th, he said a coarse nucleus was situated within
a coma 20 in diameter, while a diffuse tail extended 1 in PA 270. On the
13th, he said the broad tail extended 1 in PA 260.
As October began, the comet was moving away from the sun, but was
still approaching Earth. On the 7th, van Biesbroeck visually observed the
comet using the 102-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 12.5. He noted
a well-defined nucleus shining at magnitude 13, while the tail extended 2 in
PA 265. On November 5 and 6, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet
using the refractor and gave the magnitude as 13.5. He noted that a sharp
nucleus of magnitude 14.5 was situated within a faint coma elongated to PA
270. After generally moving southward since August, the comet attained
a declination of +4 on November 25 and then began moving northward.
On December 8, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm
reflector and gave the magnitude as 15. He added that there was still a slight
indication of a tail. On December 14, Jeffers photographed the comet with
the 91-cm Crossley reflector and noted a sharp nucleus of magnitude 15,
which was situated on the southwest side of the coma. This coma, which
Jeffers said could possibly have been the tail, was 0.7 across.
The comet was last detected on 1940 January 6.13, when van Biesbroeck
found it on a photographic plate exposed for 30 minutes with the 61-cm
reflector. He described it as a round coma of magnitude 15.5. The position
was determined as = 2h 24.0m , = +7 04 .
Very similar orbits using several apparitions were ultimately published
by A. D. Dubiago (1947, 1951), B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina (1972), I. Y.
Evdokimov (1978), I. Y. Evdokimov and Y. V. Evdokimov (1980), and Sekanina and D. K. Yeomans (1985). They gave the perihelion date as September 15.43 and the period as 6.95 years. The studies of 1972 and 1985 both
added nongravitational terms to these calculations. Dubiago noted in 1947
that there was a secular acceleration to the mean motion. Marsden, Sekanina, and Yeomans (1973) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = 0.54
and A2 = 0.1893. Sekanina and Yeomans (1985) gave the nongravitational
terms as A1 = +1.11 and A2 = 0.2545. The orbit of Sekanina and Yeomans
is given below.

T
1939 Sep. 15.4272 (TT)

101

 (2000.0)
195.6867 178.4056

i
5.5393

q
e
1.871487 0.486053

catalog of comets
absolute magnitude: H10 = 11.2 (V1964)
full moon: Jul. 1, Jul. 31, Aug. 29, Sep. 28, Oct. 28, Nov. 26, Dec. 26, 1940 Jan. 24
sources: F. R. Cripps, BAA Handbook for 1939 (1938), pp. 2930; H. M. Jeffers
and B. Adams, LOB, 19 (1939), p. 75; H. M. Jeffers and B. Adams, IAUC, No.
779 (1939 Jun. 21); IAUC, No. 790 (1939 Aug. 14); H. M. Jeffers, B. Adams, and
F. R. Cripps, PASP, 51 (1939 Oct.), p. 294; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1940), p. 99;
H. M. Jeffers, B. Adams, and F. R. Cripps, MNRAS, 100 (1940 Feb.), pp. 3289;
G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 49 (1941 Nov. 20), pp. 10910, 112, 114; A. D. Dubiago,
MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 11011, 113; A. D. Dubiago, MNRAS, 111 (1951), pp. 240
3; V1964, p. 74; B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina, QJRAS, 13 (1972 Sep.), pp. 4301;
B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.), p. 21315;
I. Y. Evdokimov, QJRAS, 19 (1978 Mar.), pp. 823, 88; I. Y. Evdokimov and Y. V.
Evdokimov, KomMe, No. 2931 (1980), p. 79; Z. Sekanina and D. K. Yeomans, AJ,
90 (1985 Nov.), p. 2336; D. K. Yeomans, QJRAS, 27 (1986 Dec.), p. 604.

35P/1939 O1 Discovered: 1939 July 28.09 ( = 0.83 AU, r = 0.79 AU, Elong. = 49)
(HerschelRigollet) Last seen: 1940 January 16.49 ( = 2.17 AU, r = 2.65 AU, Elong. = 108)
Closest to the Earth: 1939 July 30 (0.8241 AU)
1939 VI = 1939h Calculated path: TAU (Disc), AUR (Jul. 29), LYN (Aug. 12), UMa (Aug. 21),
CVn (Sep. 29), COM (Nov. 9), CVn (Nov. 25)
R. Rigollet (Lagny, France) found this comet low in the northeastern sky
before sunrise on 1939 July 28.09, at a position of = 4h 54.0m , = +25 45 .
It was described as diffuse, with a central condensation and a magnitude
of 8. The daily motion was given as 4 to the northeast. The comet was confirmed on July 29.08 by A. Fresa (Pino Torinese Observatory, Turin, Italy),
on July 29.09 by P. E.-E. Bourgeois and Hunaerts (Uccle, Belgium), on July
29.16 by Oriano (Le Houga, France), on July 29.38 by G. van Biesbroeck
(Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA), and on July 29.47 by H. M. Jeffers
and B. Adams (Lick Observatory, California, USA). Van Biesbroeck determined the total magnitude as 8.0 and said that there was a sharp nucleus
and a broad, fan-shaped tail extending 3 in PA 290. Oriano estimated the
magnitude as 8.
The comet passed closest to Earth on July 30, but was still approaching
the sun. On the 30th, the magnitude was given as 8 by E. J. Delporte (Uccle,
Belgium) and van Biesbroeck. M. B. Protitch (Belgrade, Yugoslavia, now
Serbia) described the comet as diffuse, without a tail, but with a stellar
nucleus of magnitude 11.5. On July 31, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude
as 8.1.
The comet passed closest to the sun during the first half of August.
Van Biesbroeck gave the visual magnitude as 7.5 on August 4 and 7.3 on
August 5. On the 14th, G. C. Flammarion and F. Quenisset (Juvisy, France)
obtained five photographs of the comet. They said the nucleus was not
in the center of the coma, but was eccentrically placed towards the tail,
which extended 1 40 in PA 315. The comets magnitude was between 7
and 7.3. On the 15th, van Biesbroeck photographed a slender threadlike tail
102

catalog of comets

extending 1, while using the 61-cm reflector. The coma was 3 across and
contained a sharp central nucleus. Jeffers visually observed the comet with
the 30-cm refractor and noted a coma 3.5 across, which contained a wellcondensed, but not stellar, nucleus. The comet attained its most northerly
declination of +54 on August 24. On August 26, Jeffers gave the magnitude as 8. He said the coma was 5 across and contained a well-condensed
nucleus.
On September 5, van Biesbroeck said the comet was diffuse with a
magnitude of 8.4. On the 8th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.0.
On September 13, van Biesbroeck said the comets photographic image
was extremely diffuse, while the magnitude was 8.7. On October 12, van
Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 11. On the 16th, O. Volk (Wurzburg,

Germany) gave the magnitude as 9.5. On October 20, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 12. He added that the coma was very diffuse, and a broad
tail extended about 2 in PA 180. On November 8, van Biesbroeck said the
comet was extremely diffuse, with a magnitude of 13. The tail extended 2
in PA 190. On the 11th, van Biesbroeck said the comet was very diffuse,
with a magnitude of 13. A faint tail extended to PA 200. On November
13, van Biesbroeck said the coma was vaguely visible over about 40 , with
no apparent nucleus. The magnitude was estimated as 14. On December 22,
van Biesbroeck said the comets photographic image was hardly measurable
due to the lack of a nucleus. The magnitude was estimated as 16.
On 1940 January 15, Jeffers and Adams photographed the comet with the
91-cm Crossley reflector and noted a faint nucleus, scarcely brighter than
the 19th magnitude, with a trace of coma to the south of it.
The last two observations of this comet were obtained photographically
by Jeffers and Adams with the 91-cm Crossley reflector on January 16.42 and
January 16.49. The comets position on the latter date was given as = 13h
15.2m , = +33 07 . They said the nucleus was about magnitude 19 and
seemed situated on the northern edge of a faint and diffuse coma. This
coma was measured as 1 0.3 .
The first parabolic orbits were independently published on August 2. J. P.
Moller

used positions from July 29, July 31, and August 1 to determine
the perihelion date as 1939 August 9.07. K. P. Kaster and T. J. Bartlett used
positions over the same period to determine the perihelion date as August
9.20. Based on the early orbits, L. E. Cunningham suggested that this comet
was probably identical with Comet 1788 II (Herschel). Further parabolic
orbits came from E. K. Rabe, H. A. Panofsky and E. L. Scott, and A. D.
Maxwell.
The first elliptical orbit was computed by Maxwell and Kaster during
the first half of September. They began by assuming an orbital period of 150
years, based on Cunninghams suggested link, and determined a perihelion
date of August 9.46. Using precise positions obtained on July 29, August 6,
and 13, F. W. Hoffman computed an elliptical orbit which was first published
in early November. The perihelion date was determined as August 9.49 and
103

catalog of comets

the orbital period was about 125 years. Maxwell and Kaster (1940) took 89
positions obtained between July 29 and December 22, and determined the
perihelion date as August 9.46 and the orbital period as about 156 years.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by B. G. Marsden (1974),
A. M. Chernitsov and A. P. Baturin (2001), and S. Nakano (2005), which
applied planetary perturbations. These orbits indicated a perihelion date of
August 9.46 and a period of 154.99 years. Nakanos orbit is given below.
T
1939 Aug. 9.4634 (UT)

29.2970

 (2000.0)
355.9803

i
64.2069

q
e
0.748494 0.974059

absolute magnitude: H10 = 8.5 (V1964)


full moon: Jul. 1, Jul. 31, Aug. 29, Sep. 28, Oct. 28, Nov. 26, Dec. 26, 1940 Jan. 24
sources: H. M. Jeffers and B. Adams, LOB, 19 (1939), pp. 756; R. Rigollet, IAUC,
No. 784 (1939 Jul. 28); Oriano and G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 496 (1939 Jul.
31); Oriano, IAUC, No. 785 (1939 Jul. 31); E. J. Delporte, J. P. Moller,

K. P. Kaster,
and T. J. Bartlett, IAUC, No. 787 (1939 Aug. 2); G. van Biesbroeck and J. P. Moller,

HAC, No. 498 (1939 Aug. 3); M. B. Protitch and E. K. Rabe, IAUC, No. 788 (1939
Aug. 5); A. D. Maxwell, IAUC, No.790 (1939 Aug. 14); H. A. Panofsky, E. L. Scott,
G. C. Flammarion, and F. Quenisset, IAUC, No. 791 (1939 Aug. 21); A. D. Maxwell
and K. P. Kaster, IAUC, No. 795 (1939 Sep. 14); R. Rigollet, J. P. Moller,

and L. E.
Cunningham, The Observatory, 62 (1939 Sep.), p. 246; R. Rigollet, K. P. Kaster, T. J.
Bartlett, A. D. Maxwell, J. P. Moller,

L. E. Cunningham, and G. van Biesbroeck,


PA, 47 (1939 Oct.), pp. 4445; R. Rigollet, L. E. Cunningham, A. D. Maxwell, K. P.
Kaster, T. J. Bartlett, H. M. Jeffers, and B. Adams, PASP, 51 (1939 Oct.), pp. 2947;
G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 47 (1939 Nov.), p. 508; F. W. Hoffman, IAUC, No. 798
(1939 Nov. 6); O. Volk, IAUC, No. 801 (1939 Nov. 21); A. Fresa, AN, 269 (1939
Dec.), p. 283; H. M. Jeffers and B. Adams, LOB, 19 (1940), p. 99; R. Rigollet, L. E.
Cunningham, F. W. Hoffman, A. D. Maxwell, and J. P. Moller,

MNRAS, 100 (1940


Feb.), p. 327; H. M. Jeffers, PASP, 52 (1940 Apr.), p. 152; A. D. Maxwell and K. P.
Kaster, AJ, 49 (1940 Oct. 31), pp. 569; A. D. Maxwell and K. P. Kaster, IAUC,
No. 840 (1941 Jan. 3); G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 49 (1941 Nov. 20), pp. 11214; A. D.
Maxwell and K. P. Kaster, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 11011, 113; V1964, p. 74;
B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 15 (1974 Dec.), pp. 4523, 459; A. M. Chernitsov and A. P.
Baturin, SoSyR, 35 (2001), pp. 32738; S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 1225 (2005
Oct. 6).

8P/Tuttle Recovered: 1939 August 12.47 ( = 1.96 AU, r = 1.65 AU, Elong. = 57)
Last seen: 1939 December 21.06 ( = 1.35 AU, r = 1.47 AU, Elong. = 76)
1939 X = 1939k Closest to the Earth: 1939 November 7 (1.0235 AU)
Calculated path: CAM (Rec), LYN (Aug. 16), CNC (Sep. 30), LEO (Oct. 9), SEX
(Oct. 25), HYA (Nov. 7), CRT (Nov. 11), HYA-CRT (Nov. 13), HYA (Nov. 17),
CEN (Nov. 26)
Using a corrected orbit for the 1926 apparition, A. C. D. Crommelin (1938)
applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn and integrated the comets
motion forward. He predicted the comet would next reach perihelion on
104

catalog of comets

1939 November 10.08. His ephemeris was used by H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) to recover this comet on 1939 August 12.47, at a
position of = 5h 55.8m , = +57 22 . Jeffers used the 91-cm Crossley
reflector, and although he initially estimated the magnitude as 18, he later
revised it to 17.5. The coma was 0.3 across and contained a fairly sharp
nucleus. The position indicated Crommelins prediction required a correction of +0.70 day. Jeffers confirmed the recovery on August 12.49, August
18.46, and August 18.49, and found the comet unchanged.
The comet was never widely observed, but it was kept under observation almost until the end of the year. During September, G. van Biesbroeck
(Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) photographed the comet on the 16th
and 25th and described it as very diffuse. A. M. Vergnano (Pino Torinese
Observatory, Turin, Italy) saw the comet on the 19th and estimated the magnitude as 13. During October, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as
9.5 on the 12th and added that the round coma was about 3 across and contained a well-condensed central nucleus. Jeffers obtained 10-minute exposures with the reflector on the 14th and 16th, and described the comet as over
1 across, with a central well-condensed nucleus. During November, van
Biesbroeck determined the magnitude as 9.2 on the 8th and 8.5 on the 11th.
On the latter date he noted the round coma was well condensed, but no tail
was present. Meanwhile the comets southward motion had made it visible
in the southern hemisphere, and E. L. Johnson (Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) photographed it with the 25-cm FranklinAdams
Star Camera on the 10th and estimated the magnitude as 9.0.
The comet was last detected on December 21.06, when Johnson again
photographed it with the 25-cm FranklinAdams Star Camera. He estimated the magnitude as 12.0, and gave the position as = 13h 11.1m ,
= 56 56 .
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by C. Dinwoodie (1963),
B. G. Marsden (1968), D. K. Yeomans (1972), V. V. Emelyanenko (1977), and
S. Nakano (2004). The result was a perihelion date of November 10.61
and a period of 13.61 years. Marsden noted a secular deceleration. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and Yeomans (1973) gave the nongravitational terms as
A1 = 0.04 and A2 = +0.0131. Nakano gave the nongravitational terms as
A1 = +0.043 and A2 = +0.01312. Nakanos orbit is given below.
T
1939 Nov. 10.6125 (TT)

 (2000.0)
206.9490 270.5424

i
54.6492

q
e
1.022585 0.820596

absolute magnitude: H10 = 11.4 (V1964)


full moon: Jul. 31, Aug. 29, Sep. 28, Oct. 28, Nov. 26, Dec. 26
sources: A. C. D. Crommelin, BAA Handbook for 1939 (1938), p. 32; H. M. Jeffers,
LOB, 19 (1939), p. 76; H. M. Jeffers, IAUC, No. 790 (1939 Aug. 14); H. M. Jeffers,
The Observatory, 62 (1939 Sep.), p. 247; A. M. Vergnano, IAUC, No. 797 (1939 Oct.
16); H. M. Jeffers, PA, 47 (1939 Oct.), p. 446; A. C. D. Crommelin and H. M. Jeffers,

105

catalog of comets
PASP, 51 (1939 Oct.), p. 295; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 47 (1939 Nov.), p. 508; G.
van Biesbroeck, PA, 47 (1939 Dec.), p. 556; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1940), p. 99;
E. L. Johnson, UOC, 5 (1940 Jan. 31), p. 32; H. M. Jeffers and A. C. D. Crommelin,
MNRAS, 100 (1940 Feb.), pp. 3289; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 49 (1941 Nov. 20),
pp. 110, 11314; C. Dinwoodie, QJRAS, 4 (1963 Sep.), pp. 31011, 313; V1964,
p. 74; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 373, 375; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS,
9 (1968 Sep.), pp. 31415; D. K. Yeomans, QJRAS, 13 (1972 Sep.), pp. 4301;
B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.), p. 213; V. V.
Emelyanenko, TrKaz, 43 (1977), pp. 20310; S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 1103
(2004 Oct. 15).

139P/1939 TN Discovered: 1939 October 7.91 ( = 2.45 AU, r = 3.41 AU, Elong. = 161)
Last seen: 1939 November 11.74 ( = 2.46 AU, r = 3.40 AU, Elong. = 158)
(VislOterma) Closest to the Earth: 1939 October 25 (2.4110 AU)
Calculated path: ARI (Disc), PSC (Nov. 3)
During the routine asteroid search program at Turku, Y. Visl found this
object on 1939 October 7.91 at a position of = 2h 00.2m , = +14 33 .
The object was classed as an asteroid and the magnitude was determined
as 15.8. The object was further photographed on October 18.88 and 20.85.
The fourth and final observation was obtained on November 11.74, when
the position was given as = 1h 39.7m , = +12 25 . The object was
designated 1939 TN.
Precise positions were not published until 1979 when they appeared in
an issue of the Minor Planet Circular. An orbit calculation by L. Oterma
suggested to her that the object was a comet and this conclusion was sent
to the Minor Planet Center in 1981 (Marsden, 1982). On 1998 November 18
and 21, the Lincoln Near Asteroid Research (LINEAR) survey picked up an
apparently asteroidal object, which was found to exhibit a coma and tail in
early December. S. Nakano (1998) subsequently announced that this was
apparently a return of object 1939 TN.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by S. Nakano (2000, 2005).
Using positions from the 1939 and 1998 apparitions, he applied perturbations by all major planets and several large minor planets and determined
the perihelion date as 1939 December 30.92 and the period as 9.59 years.
Nakanos 2005 orbit is given below.
T
1939 Dec. 30.9154 (TT)

 (2000.0)
147.2467 255.6984

i
2.1105

q
e
3.389937 0.249012

absolute magnitude: H10 = 8.5 (Kronk)


full moon: Sep. 28, Oct. 28, Nov. 26
sources: L. Oterma, MPC, No. 4811 (1979 Aug. 1); B. G. Marsden and L. Oterma,
CCO, 4th ed. (1982), p. 3; S. Nakano, MPEC, No. 1998-X19 (1998 Dec. 5);
Y. Visl, L. Oterma, and S. Nakano, IAUC, No. 7064 (1998 Dec. 7); personal

106

catalog of comets
correspondence from B. G. Marsden (1998); S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 751
(2000 Dec. 20); S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 1195 (2005 Jul. 4).

21P/Giacobini Recovered: 1939 October 15.05 ( = 2.44 AU, r = 1.91 AU, Elong. = 47)
Zinner Last seen: 1939 October 16.03 ( = 2.44 AU, r = 1.90 AU, Elong. = 46)
Closest to the Earth: 1940 February 18 (1.8530 AU)
1940 I = 1939l Calculated path: OPH (Rec) [Did not leave this constellation]
Beginning with the orbit determined for the 1933 apparition, F. R. Cripps
(1938) applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn and predicted the comet
would next arrive at perihelion on 1940 February 17.14. This did not allow
for a favorable apparition, but, using the ephemeris computed by Cripps,
G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) recovered this
comet on 1939 October 15.05, at a position of = 16h 21.5m , = +1 19 .
The comet was described as magnitude 15, with a very diffuse coma about
15 in diameter. Van Biesbroeck confirmed the recovery on October 16.03,
and gave the position as = 16h 23.2m , = +1 11 . Because of the comets
low altitude, this was also the final observation. A minimum solar elongation of 21 was attained on 1940 February 13.
Calculations using multiple apparitions and planetary perturbation were
published by Y. V. Evdokimov (1972) and D. K. Yeomans (1971, 1972, 1986).
These revealed a perihelion date of February 17.21 and a period of 6.59
years. Yeomans 1986 orbit is given below. In the 1986 book ESA Proceedings
of the 20th ESLAB Symposium on the Exploration of Halleys Comet, Yeomans
gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.1253 and A2 = +0.0387.
T
1940 Feb. 17.2088 (TT)

 (2000.0)
171.7869 196.9526

i
30.7353

q
e
0.995604 0.716705

absolute magnitude: H10 = 10.8 (V1964)


full moon: Sep. 28, Oct. 28
sources: F. R. Cripps, BAA Handbook for 1939 (1938), p. 33; G. van Biesbroeck,
IAUC, No. 797 (1939 Oct. 16); G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 509 (1939 Nov. 6); G.
van Biesbroeck, PA, 47 (1939 Nov.), p. 509; G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory,
62 (1939 Nov.), p. 308; G. van Biesbroeck and F. R. Cripps, PASP, 51 (1939 Dec.),
pp. 3589; G. van Biesbroeck and F. R. Cripps, MNRAS, 100 (1940 Feb.), pp. 3289;
G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 49 (1941 Nov. 20), pp. 11314; V1964, p. 74; D. K. Yeomans,
QJRAS, 12 (1971 Sep.), pp. 2689, 272; Y. V. Evdokimov and D. K. Yeomans, IAUS,
No. 45 (1972), pp. 174, 185; D. K. Yeomans, ESA Proceedings of the 20th ESLAB
Symposium on the Exploration of Halleys Comet. Volume 2: Dust and Nucleus (1986),
p. 424; D. K. Yeomans, QJRAS, 27 (1986 Mar.), p. 116.

4P/Faye Recovered: 1939 November 3.17 ( = 2.22 AU, r = 2.33 AU, Elong. = 83)
Last seen: 1940 January 6.02 ( = 2.53 AU, r = 1.97 AU, Elong. = 45)
1940 II = 1939m Closest to the Earth: 1939 August 21 (1.8518 AU)
Calculated path: CAP (Rec), AQR (Nov. 19), CAP (Dec. 18), AQR (Dec. 20)
107

catalog of comets

W. P. Henderson and P. J. Harris (1938) examined the perturbations by


Jupiter and Saturn the comet was likely to have encountered since the 1932
apparition, especially those from the former planet during June 1934 and
March 1935, and predicted the comet would next arrive at perihelion on
1940 April 23.5.
H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) recovered this comet on
two plates exposed with the 91-cm Crossley reflector on 1939 November
3.17. The position was at = 20h 13.5m , = 10 18 . He described the
comet as a very faint and diffuse coma, with a central condensation. Jeffers
initially gave the magnitude as 16, but later revised it to 17.5. The comet was
over 2 months past its closest approach to Earth, but was still over 5 months
from perihelion. The position indicated that the prediction by Henderson
and Harris was only 0.2 day too early.
On November 5, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA)
described the comet as a small round coma of magnitude 16. On November
11, van Biesbroeck described the comet as a little condensed coma of
magnitude 16. The comet attained its most southerly declination of 10.4
on November 12. On December 14, Jeffers photographed the comet using
the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 15. He said the coma
was about 8 across.
The comet was last detected on 1940 January 3.02 and January 6.02, when
van Biesbroecks photographs with the 61-cm reflector revealed a vague
nebulosity of magnitude 15. It was then in the evening sky, with a steadily
decreasing elongation from the sun. On the latter date, the position was
determined as = 22h 01.3m , = 7 01 .
Multiple apparition orbits were calculated by V. F. Zheverzheyev (1951),
F. B. Khanina and O. N. Barteneva (1960, 1962), and B. G. Marsden and Z.
Sekanina (1971). Planetary perturbations were considered, but Marsden and
Sekaninas calculations also considered nongravitational effects. Marsden
and Sekanina determined the perihelion date as April 24.8924.95 and the
period as 7.42 years. They gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.381
and A2 = +0.00687.
T
1940 Apr. 24.8936 (TT)

 (2000.0)
200.4902 207.0870

i
10.5468

q
e
1.653929 0.565188

absolute magnitude: H10 = 10.7 (V1964)


full moon: Oct. 28, Nov. 26, Dec. 26, 1940 Jan. 24
sources: W. P. Henderson and P. J. Harris, BAA Handbook for 1939 (1938), p. 34;
W. P. Henderson and P. J. Harris, BAA Handbook for 1940 (1939), p. 34; H. M.
Jeffers, HAC, No. 509 (1939 Nov. 9); H. M. Jeffers, IAUC, No. 798 (1939 Nov. 6);
H. M. Jeffers, PA, 47 (1939 Dec.), p. 555; H. M. Jeffers, W. P. Henderson, and P. J.
Harris, PASP, 51 (1939 Dec.), p. 359; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1940), p. 99; W. P.
Henderson, P. J. Harris, and H. M. Jeffers, MNRAS, 100 (1940 Feb.), pp. 3289; G.
van Biesbroeck, AJ, 49 (1941 Nov. 20), pp. 11314; V. F. Zheverzheyev, MNRAS,

108

catalog of comets
111 (1951), pp. 2413; F. B. Khanina and O. N. Barteneva, QJRAS, 1 (1960 Dec.),
pp. 2323; F. B. Khanina and O. N. Barteneva, QJRAS, 3 (1962 Sep.), pp. 1735;
V1964, p. 74; B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina, AJ, 76 (1971 Dec.), pp. 11367.

C/1939 V1 Discovered: 1939 November 2.2 ( = 0.97 AU, r = 0.95 AU, Elong. = 58)
(Friend) Last seen: 1940 January 9.02 ( = 1.78 AU, r = 1.44 AU, Elong. = 54)
Closest to the Earth: 1939 November 18 (0.8059 AU)
1939 IX = 1939n Calculated path: HER (Disc), SGE (Nov. 17), AQL (Nov. 21), DEL (Nov. 28),
AQR (Dec. 1), CAP (Dec. 11), AQR (Dec. 15)
C. L. Friend (Escondido, California, USA) discovered this comet in the
evening sky on 1939 November 2.2, at a position of = 16h 31m , = +35.
He described it as round, with a magnitude of 12. The comet was confirmed
by L. E. Cunningham (Harvard College Observatory, Massachusetts, USA)
on November 4.98, and was described as diffuse, without a central condensation. The magnitude was again estimated as 12. Friends discovery was
actually widely reported as occurring on November 1, but the Author
notes that the given position was then over 3 west of the comets predicted
position for that date. The author thinks it is more likely that Friend saw
the comet on the evening of November 1, local time, and that the universal
time date would be November 2.
Shortly after Cunninghams confirmation, the comet passed perihelion,
but it still approached Earth for another two weeks. On November 6, G. van
Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) gave the magnitude as
9.2. He added that the round coma was 3 across and centrally condensed.
E. J. Delporte and F. Rigaux (Uccle, Belgium) described the comet as diffuse,
without a central condensation. On the 7th, H. M. Jeffers and B. Adams (Lick
Observatory, California, USA) visually observed the comet using the 30-cm
refractor and gave the magnitude as 10. They said the comet was diffuse,
with a central condensation. Delporte gave the photographic magnitude as
9.5. G. Adamopoulos (National Observatory, Athens, Greece) said the round
coma was 120 across, and exhibited a large, rather intense condensation.
On the 8th, the magnitude was given as 9.1 by van Biesbroeck and 10 by
Jeffers and Adams. Jeffers and Adams said the comet was diffuse, with a
central condensation. On November 8 and 9, W. H. Steavenson and Fry (West
Norwood, England) gave the magnitude as 89. They described the comet
as diffuse, with some condensation, but no tail. On the 9th, the magnitude
was given as 9.2 by Adamopoulos and 9.3 by van Biesbroeck. U. S. Lyons (US
Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, USA) said the comet was visible in a
13-cm finder. Adamopoulos said the coma was 167 across. Van Biesbroeck
said the central, stellar nucleus shone at magnitude 12. He added that the
round coma was 4 across, with a bright inner coma 2 across. Lyons said the
comet was diffuse and faint. On the 10th, the magnitude was given as 8.2 by
F. Schembor (Vienna University Observatory, Austria), 10 by H. Krumpholz
(Vienna), and 10.0 by A. A. Wachmann (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf,
109

catalog of comets

Germany). Lyons said the comet was visible in a 13-cm finder. Krumpholz
said the round coma was 3 across, with a weak condensation. Adamopoulos
said the coma was 234 across, with a central stellar nucleus of magnitude
13. Van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.3 on the 11th and 9.0 on the
12th. On November 13, Adamopoulos said the coma was 197 across, with
the nucleus visible only occasionally just east of the central portion of the
coma.
On November 14, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.2. Lyons said
the comet had a condensation and was barely visible in a 13-cm finder. On
the 15th, Jeffers and Adams visually observed the comet with the 30-cm
refractor and said the quite diffuse coma was 2 across, with a somewhat
indefinite nucleus. On the 16th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.1,
while Lyons said the comet was barely visible in a 13-cm finder. On the
20th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.0. On the 21st, Adamopoulos
observed the comet in moonlight with the 40-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 9.8. He said the coma was 82 across. On the 23rd, van Biesbroeck
gave the magnitude as 9.5. On the 28th, Adamopoulos said the coma was
140 across. On November 30, Adamopoulos observed with the refractor
and gave the magnitude as 10.5. He said the coma was 133 across.
On December 1, Jeffers and Adams obtained a 12-minute exposure with
the 91-cm Crossley reflector and noted a round coma 1.4 across, with a central condensation. On the 7th, the magnitude was given as 10.3 by van Biesbroeck and 11 by Krumpholz. Van Biesbroeck added that the photographic
image was very diffuse. On the 8th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude
as 10.4. On the 9th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 10.6 and added
that the diffuse coma was 6 across, with only a slight condensation. On
the 12th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 10.5. On the 16th, van Biesbroeck simply described the comet as very diffuse. On December 31, van
Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 13. He added that the photographic
image was extremely diffuse.
On 1940 January 2, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the
61-cm reflector. He said the image was difficult to measure and gave the
magnitude as 14. On January 3, van Biesbroecks 18-minute exposure with
the reflector showed a vague diffuse spot measuring about 30 across. There
was no condensation.
The comet was last detected on January 9.02, when van Biesbroeck
obtained a 20-minute exposure with the 61-cm reflector, and determined
the position as = 23h 11.5m , = 21 34 . He estimated the magnitude as
15, and added that the hardly measurable coma was about 35 in diameter,
without a central condensation. The moon was full on January 24.
The first orbital calculation was by P. E. Fell, B. R. White, E. L. Scott, J. H. B.
Irwin, and H. A. Panofsky, all graduate students at Students Observatory, University of California at Berkeley, California, USA. Published on
November 9, the orbit was based on three precise positions obtained at
Lick Observatory between November 6 and 8. The perihelion date was
110

catalog of comets

determined as 1939 November 6.15. They also noted the comet would be
closest to Earth shortly after the middle of November, and would fade
rapidly thereafter. A. D. Maxwell and H. R. J. Grosch published their orbital
computations on November 10. They determined the perihelion date as
November 6.58.
Maxwell and Grosch revised their parabolic orbit using three precise positions obtained between November 7 and 15. Published on November 22, the
revised orbit gave a perihelion date of November 5.65. Using three precise
positions obtained between November 4 and 14, A. M. Vergnano computed
a parabolic orbit which was first published on November 28. The perihelion
date was determined as November 6.00.
At the beginning of December, E. K. Rabe published an orbit based on
observations obtained through November 25. He determined the perihelion date as November 5.74. On December 14, an orbit was published by
Vergnano which used three precise positions obtained between November
9 and December 1. The perihelion date was determined as November 5.65.
W. Landgraf (1981) used 61 positions obtained between November 6, 1939,
and January 9, 1940, and computed an elliptical orbit with a perihelion date
of November 5.63 and a period of about 6175 years.
T
1939 Nov. 5.6260 (TT)

 (2000.0)
126.7769 197.1118

i
92.9520

q
e
0.945209 0.997192

absolute magnitude: H10 = 10.7 (V1964)


full moon: Oct. 28, Nov. 26, Dec. 26, 1940 Jan. 24
sources: C. L. Friend and L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 509 (1939 Nov. 6); C. L.
Friend, IAUC, No. 798 (1939 Nov. 6); G. van Biesbroeck, E. J. Delporte, and F.
Rigaux, HAC, No. 510 (1939 Nov. 7); H. M. Jeffers, B. Adams, and G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 511 (1939 Nov. 8); P. E. Fell, B. R. White, E. L. Scott, J. H. B.
Irwin, and H. A. Panofsky, HAC, No. 512 (1939 Nov. 9); A. D. Maxwell and H. R. J.
Grosch, HAC, No. 513 (1939 Nov. 10); E. J. Delporte and F. Rigaux, IAUC, No.
799 (1939 Nov. 10); E. J. Delporte, IAUC, No. 800 (1939 Nov. 18); A. D. Maxwell
and H. R. J. Grosch, HAC, No. 514 (1939 Nov. 22); H. M. Jeffers, B. Adams, G.
van Biesbroeck, F. Schembor, A. A. Wachmann, H. Krumpholz, A. D. Maxwell,
H. R. J. Grosch, and A. M. Vergnano, IAUC, No. 802 (1939 Nov. 28); C. L. Friend,
G. van Biesbroeck, A. D. Maxwell, and H. R. J. Grosch, PA, 47 (1939 Dec.), pp. 555
6; C. L. Friend, P. E. Fell, B. R. White, E. L. Scott, J. H. B. Irwin, and H. A. Panofsky,
PASP, 51 (1939 Dec.), pp. 35960; A. D. Maxwell, H. R. J. Grosch, and E. K. Rabe,
IAUC, No. 803 (1939 Dec. 5); A. M. Vergnano, IAUC, No. 805 (1939 Dec. 14);
H. M. Jeffers and B. Adams, LOB, 19 (1940), p. 100; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 48
(1940 Jan.), p. 52; W. H. Steavenson, Fry, A. D. Maxwell, and A. M. Vergnano,
MNRAS, 100 (1940 Feb.), pp. 3279; G. van Biesbreock, PA, 48 (1940 Feb.), p. 89;
H. Krumpholz, AN, 271 (1940 Nov.), p. 29; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 49 (1941 Nov.
20), pp. 110, 11315; U. S. Lyons, AJ, 50 (1942 Aug. 13), p. 26; G. Adamopoulos,
JO, 31 (1948 Dec.), pp. 2001; V1964, p. 74; W. Landgraf, MPC, No. 6099 (1981
Jul. 1).

111

catalog of comets

C/1940 O1 Prediscovery: 1940 July 28.95 ( = 0.59 AU, r = 1.56 AU, Elong. = 154)
(Whipple Discovered: 1940 August 8.17 ( = 0.46 AU, r = 1.45 AU, Elong. = 159)
Paraskevopoulos) Last seen: 1941 January 1.09 ( = 1.12 AU, r = 1.71 AU, Elong. = 108)
Closest to the Earth: 1940 August 20 (0.3963 AU)
1940 IV = 1940d Calculated path: DEL (Pre), AQL (Jul. 30), SGR (Aug. 11), CrA (Aug. 22), TEL
(Aug. 26), PAV (Sep. 1), ARA (Sep. 7), APS (Sep. 9), TrA-APS (Sep. 11), CHA
(Sep. 29), CAR (Oct. 27), VOL (Nov. 10), CAR (Dec. 6), PIC (Dec. 16), CAR
(Dec. 17), PUP (Dec. 28)
On 1940 September 30, F. L. Whipple (Harvard College Observatory, Massachusetts, USA) found this comet on a patrol plate exposed on 1940
August 8.17. The comets position was then = 20h 01.8m , = 6 17 .
Subsequent examination of Harvard patrol plates from Cambridge and
the Oak Ridge Station revealed the comet on at least sixteen small-scale
Harvard plates exposed during the period July 29.16August 10.15, during which time the magnitude brightened from 11 to 10. The comet was
described as diffuse, without a central condensation or a nucleus. No tail was
present.
The comet attained its most southerly declination of 78 on October
3. From the intial orbital calculations, independent recoveries were made
by K. Guthe and R. N. Thomas (Bloemfontein, South Africa) on October
3.73, S. J. V. Arend (Royal Observatory, Uccle, Belgium) on October 3.91,
J. Bobone (National Observatory, Cordoba,

Argentina) on October 4.05, and


B. H. Dawson (La Plata Observatory, Argentina) on October 4.98. Bobone
described it as diffuse, with a magnitude of 11, while Arend estimated the
photographic magnitude as 15.0.
J. S. Paraskevopoulos (Harvard College Observatory, Boyden Station,
Bloemfontein) was unaware of the predicted positions of comet Whipple for
early October, so when he found a 10th-magnitude comet on October 8.75,
at a position of = 12h 13.5m , = 77.9, he immediately sent a radiogram
to Harvard College Observatory (Massachusetts, USA) announcing his discovery. The comet then became known as WhippleParaskevopoulos.
Subsequent searches by Paraskevopoulos through Boyden Station patrol
plates revealed a photograph showing the comet on August 5.82.
Several observatories began checking their archives for further images of
this comet. Ultimately, P. Ahnert (Sonneberg, Germany) found the earliest
image on a plate exposed on July 28.95.
Guthe and Thomas only followed the comet until October 9, and Bobone
obtained his last observation on October 29. But Dawson continued to
photograph the comet on every possible occasion, with 18 observations
in November and 11 observations during December.
The comet was last detected on 1941 January 1.09, when Dawson photographed it at a position of = 6h 19.6m , = 48 02 .
The first orbits for this comet were based on the photographic images
from July and August, and were independently published by Whipple,
112

catalog of comets

J. P. Moller,

A. D. Maxwell, and H. R. J. Grosch. Whipple computed a


parabolic orbit which gave the perihelion date as 1940 October 7.89. Moller

calculated a parabolic orbit which gave the perihelion date as October 7.87.
Maxwell determined the perihelion date as October 7.88. Their accompanying ephemerides revealed the comet to have moved far to the south with
the declination on October 2 being 78.
Van Biesbroeck (1970) used 70 positions obtained between 1940 July 28
and 1941 January 1, and computed an elliptical orbit with a perihelion date
of October 8.03 and a period of 432 years.
B. G. Marsden (1978) used 51 positions obtained between 1940 August
1 and 1941 January 1, as well as perturbations by all nine planets, and
computed an elliptical orbit with a perihelion date of October 8.25 and
a period of 425 years. Marsden took this orbit and derived an elliptical
original orbit with a period of about 411 years, and an elliptical future orbit
with a period of about 379 years.
T
1940 Oct. 8.2491 (TT)

 (2000.0)
235.7368 135.0616

i
54.6906

q
e
1.082228 0.980843

absolute magnitude: H10 = 10.3 (V1964)


full moon: Jul. 19, Aug. 17, Sep. 16, Oct. 16, Nov. 15, Dec. 14, 1941 Jan. 13
sources: F. L. Whipple, HAC, No. 537 (1940 Sep. 30); F. L. Whipple, IAUC, No.
822 (1940 Oct. 1); F. L. Whipple, HAC, No. 538 (1940 Oct. 2); J. P. Moller,

IAUC, No.
823 (1940 Oct. 2); F. L. Whipple, IAUC, No. 824 (1940 Oct. 3); A. D. Maxwell and
H. R. J. Grosch, HAC, No. 539 (1940 Oct. 7); J. Bobone and J. S. Paraskevopoulos,
HAC, No. 540 (1940 Oct. 10); S. J. V. Arend, IAUC, No. 829 (1940 Oct. 24); F. L.
Whipple, IAUC, No. 830 (1940 Oct. 30); F. L. Whipple and A. D. Maxwell, PA,
48 (1940 Nov.), p. 489; K. Guthe and R. N. Thomas, HAC, No. 590 (1941 Jul. 23);
A. D. Maxwell and H. R. J. Grosch, MNRAS, 102 (1942), pp. 1079; B. H. Dawson,
Observatorio Astronomico Universidad do la Plata Publicaciones, 6 (1942), pp. 1345;
V1964, p. 74; G. van Biesbroeck, CLPL, 8 (1970), pp. 32930; B. G. Marsden, AJ,
83 (1978 Jan.), pp. 66, 68.

36P/1940 R1 Recovered: 1940 September 1.15 ( = 1.64 AU, r = 2.65 AU, Elong. = 172)
(Whipple) Last seen: 1941 November 22.25 ( = 2.37 AU, r = 3.09 AU, Elong. = 128)
Closest to the Earth: 1940 September 9 (1.6340 AU)
1941 III = 1940b Calculated path: AQR (Rec), PSC (Jan. 6), CET (Feb. 5), PSC (Feb. 19), CET
(Apr. 2), ARI (Apr. 16), TAU (May 14), ORI (Aug. 6), GEM (Aug. 29), CMi
(Oct. 7)
Beginning with an orbit for the 1933 apparition computed by Maxwell, H. Q.
Rasmusen (1939) applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn and predicted
the comet would next arrive at perihelion on 1941 January 13.34. D. H. Sadler
and F. M. McBain predicted the comet would next arrive at perihelion on
January 22.69.
L. E. Cunningham (Harvard Observatory, Oak Ridge Station, Massachusetts, USA) recovered this comet on plates exposed using the 30-cm
113

catalog of comets

Metcalf refractor on 1940 September 1.15 and September 1.19. The position
for the first date was given as = 22h 34.1m , = 0 16 . A comparison of this
position with that predicted from elements computed by McBain and Sadler
reveals the predicted perihelion date was only 0.23 day late. Cunningham
gave the magnitudes as 15.5 and 15.1, respectively, and noted the coma was
10 across on the first plate. Both photographs were made through passing
clouds . . .. The comet was about to make its closest approach to Earth, but
was still four months from passing perihelion.
On September 3, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA)
gave the magnitude as 14.5. He described the comet as round, centrally
condensed, and 15 in diameter. On September 4, van Biesbroeck estimated
the magnitude as 14. He added that there was a well-defined nucleus.
S. Nakano (1984) found that a minor planet photographed by the
Crimea Astrophysical Observatory on September 7.93 and designated 1940
RP was really this comet. The magnitude was given as 13.5.
The comet attained its most southerly declination of 7 on November
14. On November 25, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 16. He said the
faint coma contained a sharp nucleus.
The comet passed slightly less than 5 from the sun on 1941 May 10 and
attained its most northerly declination of +16 on July 15.
The comet was last seen on 1941 November 22.25, when van Biesbroeck
located it on a 20-minute exposure made with the 61-cm reflector. He estimated the magnitude as 17, and said the round coma was 10 across. The
position was determined as = 7h 16.1m , = +8 51 .
Multiple apparition orbits were calculated by B. G. Marsden (1968, 1969,
1986), S. Nakano (2000), and P. Rocher (2005). All of these included planetary perturbations, while those published from 1969 onwards also solved
for nongravitational forces. The result was a perihelion date of January 22.39
and a period of 7.48 years. Marsden (1968) noted a very slight secular acceleration. Marsden (1969) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.60516
and A2 = 0.062093. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans (1973) gave
the nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.6, A2 = 0.063. Nakano (2000) gave
the nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.332 and A2 = 0.05283. Rocher
(2005) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.49054 and A2 = 0.04709.
Nakanos orbit is given below.
T
1941 Jan. 22.3853 (TT)

 (2000.0)
190.4401 189.5227

i
10.2167

q
e
2.484801 0.350154

absolute magnitude: H10 = 9.6 (V1964)


full moon: Aug. 17, Sep. 16, Oct. 16, Nov. 15, Dec. 14, 1941 Jan. 13, Feb. 12, Mar.
13, Apr. 11, May 11, Jun. 9, Jul. 8, Aug. 7, Sep. 5, Oct. 5, Nov. 4, Dec. 3
sources: L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 531 (1940 Sep. 3); H. Q. Rasmusen, AN,
253 (1934 Sep. 4), pp. 1636; H. Q. Rasmusen, BAA Handbook for 1940 (1939),
p. 30; L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 816 (1940 Sep. 2); L. E. Cunningham, IAUC,

114

catalog of comets
No. 817 (1940 Sep. 7); L. E. Cunningham and G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 48 (1940 Oct.),
p. 429; L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 827 (1940 Oct. 12); L. E. Cunningham, The
Observatory, 63 (1940 Nov.), p. 290; G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 609 (1941 Nov.
27); G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1942 Aug. 13), pp. 2931; D. H. Sadler and F. M.
McBain, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 11011, 113; V1964, p. 74; B. G. Marsden, AJ,
73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 370, 374; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 74 (1969 Jun.), pp. 7256; B. G.
Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.), p. 213; S. Nakano,
Nakano Note, No. 446 (1984 Feb. 16); S. Nakano, MPC, No. 8695 (1984 May 15);
B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 27 (1986 Mar.), p. 116; S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 711
(2000 May 12); personal correspondence from P. Rocher (2005).

C/1940 R2 Prediscovery: 1940 August 25.10 ( = 2.12 AU, r = 2.71 AU, Elong. = 115)
(Cunningham) Discovered: 1940 September 5.09 ( = 1.96 AU, r = 2.55 AU, Elong. = 115)
Last seen: 1941 June 17.96 ( = 1.92 AU, r = 2.82 AU, Elong. = 145)
1941 I = 1940c Closest to the Earth: 1941 January 10 (0.5948 AU)
Calculated path: CYG (Pre), LYR (Oct. 25), CYG (Nov. 30), VUL (Dec. 6), SGE
(Dec. 21), AQL (Dec. 24), SGR (Jan. 9), TEL (Jan. 31), SGR (Feb. 14), MIC
(Feb. 17), IND (May 15), TEL (May 31)
On 1940 September 17, L. E. Cunningham found a comet on a photograph
exposed with the 20-cm Ross telescope at Harvard College Observatorys
Oak Ridge Station (Massachusetts, USA) on 1940 September 5.09. The
comets position was = 21h 15.6m , = +54 30 . The magnitude was
estimated as 13, while the daily motion was given as 2.7 to the west. Subsequent examination of Harvard patrol plates exposed at Oak Ridge and
Cambridge revealed 11 plates showing the comet from August 25.10 to
September 15. F. W. Wright estimated the comets magnitude as 12.9, based
on an August 29.1 plate, and found it slightly brighter, with a strong nucleus
and a tail 2 long pointing southward on a plate exposed on September 9.10.
The comet was still 4 months from passing closest to both the sun and
Earth. The comet had attained its most northerly declination of +55 on
September 6.
On September 27, A. M. Vergnano (Pino Torinese Observatory, Turin,
Italy) estimated the magnitude as 12.5. U. S. Lyons (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, USA) said the comet was barely visible in a 13-cm
finder. He obtained a photograph with the 66-cm refractor and said the
comet exhibited a well-defined nucleus. On September 29, K. A. Voroshiloff
(Moscow Observatory, Russia) photographed the comet with a 12-cm camera and gave the magnitude as 10.4.
On October 3, H. Krumpholz (Vienna, Austria) gave the magnitude as 12.
On the 4th, K. A. Voroschilov and P. G. Kulikovkii (Sverdlovsk, Sternberg
Institute, Russia) gave the photographic magnitude as 11.912.0. On the 5th,
Voroshiloff and Kulikovkii gave the photographic magnitude as 11.511.7.
On the 8th, W. Gleissberg (University Observatory, Istanbul, Turkey) estimated the magnitude as 11. On the 12th, S. J. V. Arend (Royal Observatory,
Uccle, Belgium) estimated the photographic magnitude as 12. On the 15th,
115

catalog of comets

Lyons said the comet was faint in moonlight and could not be seen in the
13-cm finder. On the 23rd, Lyons said the comet was easily visible in the
13-cm finder. On the 25th, M. Beyer (Hamburg, Germany) gave the magnitude as 8.27. He said the coma was 3 across and contained an eccentrically
situated condensation. On the 27th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.34. He
said the coma was 3 across and contained an eccentrically situated condensation. On the 28th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.86. On the 29th, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 7.74 and said the nucleus was less than magnitude
10.0. On October 31, Kulikovkii photographed the comet with the 12-cm
camera and estimated the magnitude as 10.0.
On November 1, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.82, while Lyons said the
comet was barely visible in the 13-cm finder. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was less than 10.0. On the 4th, A. Schaumasse (Nice Observatory,
France) observed using the 40-cm refractor and noted a nucleus of magnitude 9, located within a diffuse coma that was 4 across and elongated
away from the sun. On the 5th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.36, while
H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) gave it as 9.5. Beyer was
using an 8-cm refractor, while Jeffers was using a 30-cm refractor. Jeffers
said the comet was 1.5 across with a stellar nucleus. On the 7th, Beyer gave
the magnitude as 7.37. On the 8th, Krumpholz gave the magnitude as 8.7.
He added that the coma was 2 across and contained a very distinct condensation. On the 13th and 14th, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory,
Wisconsin, USA) observed the comet under a nearly full moon and said the
coma was faint and the nuclear magnitude was 11. On November 15, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 7.28.
On November 19, Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.86. On the 20th, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 6.87, while Lyons said it was easily visible in the
5-cm finder. Beyer said the tail extended 0.3 in PA 59. Schaumasse said the
nucleus was rather diffuse and badly defined, while the coma was 5 across
and elongated away from the sun. On the 21st, van Biesbroeck gave the
magnitude as 7.5. He estimated the nuclear magnitude as 10. On the 23rd,
the magnitude was given as 6.6 by B. G. Karpov (Vassar College Observatory, New York, USA) and 6.78 by Beyer. Lyons said the comet was visible in binoculars. Beyer said the coma was 8 across, with a tail extending
0.4 in PA 68. During the period of November 2326, Schaumasse noted
the comet was magnitude 8.5, with a coma 6 across. He noted the central
part of the coma was slightly more brilliant. On the 25th, the magnitude
was given as 7.0 by van Biesbroeck and 7.1 by V. Chernov (Zaporizhia,
Ukraine). Van Biesbroeck was then using 25-mm binoculars, while Chernov was using 6 40 binoculars. On the 27th, the magnitude was given
as 6.38 by Beyer and 6.7 by Krumpholz. Beyer said the tail extended 0.2 in
PA 69. Krumpholz described the comet as 4 across, with a distinct round
condensation 10 across, and a tail extending 12 in PA 50. On the 28th, the
magnitude was given as 6.36 by Beyer and 6.86.9 by Chernov. Beyer said
the tail extended 0.2 in PA 72. On November 29, the magnitude was given
116

catalog of comets

as 6.29 by Beyer and 7 by R. S. Richardson (Mount Wilson Observatory, California, USA). Beyer said the coma was 9 across, with a tail extending 0.4
in PA 68.
On December 1, the magnitude was given as 6.18 by Beyer and 6.5 by
Krumpholz. Beyer said the tail extended 0.3 in PA 64. Krumpholz said
the coma contained a nearly stellar nucleus. On the 3rd, the magnitude was
given as 5.9 by Krumpholz and 6.30 by Beyer. Schaumasse photographed
the comet using the 40-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 8. Zeidler
and J. Mergentaler (Lviv University, Ukraine) photographed the comet and
gave the magnitude as 8. Beyer said the coma was 10 across, with a tail
extending 0.6 in PA 62. On the 3rd, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as
6.3. On the 5th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.24 and said the tail extended
0.3 in PA 64. On the 7th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.16 and said the tail
extended 0.5 in PA 62. On the 8th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.89. On
the 12th, M. Campa (Milan, Italy) gave the magnitude as 8.0. Schaumasse
noted, In spite of the moon, the comet is seen as a nebulosity 6 across.
He added that the coma had a slightly brighter area a little in front of the
geometrical center. On the 13th, Campa gave the magnitude as 7.5. On the
14th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.57 and said the tail extended 0.8 in PA
63. On December 15, Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.26 and said the tail
extended 0.6 in PA 56.
On December 16, the magnitude was given as 4.9 by Chernov and 5.13
by Beyer. Zeidler and Mergentaler gave the photographic magnitude as 6.
Beyer said the condensation contained a starlike nucleus of magnitude 7.2,
while the slightly fan-shaped tail extended 0.4 in PA 4266. On the 17th,
Lyons said the comet was near naked-eye brightness and was of a bluish
color. On the 18th, the visual magnitude was given as 5.1 by Krumpholz and
6.0 by S. Taffara (Padua, Italy). The photographic magnitude was given as
5 by Zeidler and Mergentaler, 6.0 by Campa, and 7 by Schaumasse. Zeidler
and Mergentaler noted the tail was composed of two unequal branches, one
was sharp and 1.2 long, while the other was diffuse and short. Schaumasse
noted that the comet had increased in brightness rather quickly, adding
that the condensed coma was 8 across and was lengthened toward PA 30.
On the 19th, R. T. Smith (Lick Observatory) obtained a 30-minute exposure
which revealed two tails. One tail extended over 2 and contained filaments,
while the other tail was less than 1 and diffuse. On the 20th, the visual
magnitude was given as 4.98 by Beyer, and 5.0 by Chernov and Taffara. The
photographic magnitude was given as 5 by Zeidler and Mergentaler. Beyer
said the fan-shaped tail extended 1.2 in PA 33, but shortened to 0.8 in PA
54. Chernov said the tail was 15 long in the binoculars, while the degree
of condensation (DC) was 6. Zeidler and Mergentaler said the tail was still
composed on two branches as on the 18th. On December 21, the visual
magnitude was given as 4.5 by Krumpholz, 4.84 by Beyer, 4.85 by N. T.
Bobrovnikoff (Perkins Observatory, Ohio, USA), 5.0 by Chernov, and 5.2
by van Biesbroeck. H. E. Burton (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC,
117

catalog of comets

USA) said the comet was not visible to the naked eye. Beyer said the coma
was 6 across, with a fan-shaped tail extending 0.8 in PA 4158. Krumpholz
said the coma was round and 4 across, while the central condensation was
10 across. He added that there was a short, bright tail. Chernov said the
tail was 15 long.
On December 22, the visual magnitude was given as 4.62 by Beyer and 5.1
by van Biesbroeck. Beyer said the coma was 6 across, with a fan-shaped tail
extending 2.0 in PA 45, lengthening to 2.6 in PA 47, and then shortening
to 0.9 in PA 59. On the 23rd, Lyons said the comet was visible to the naked
eye and appeared blue-green. On the 24th, the magnitude was given as 4.36
by Bobrovnikoff and 4.6 by Chernov. On the 25th, the magnitude was given
as 4.28 by Bobrovnikoff, 4.4 by van Biesbroeck, and 4.6 by Chernov. Van
Biesbroeck said the coma was 3 across and contained a stellar nucleus. On
the 26th, Chernov gave the magnitude as 4.5. On the 27th, the magnitude
was given as 4.17 by Beyer and 4.5 by Taffara. Beyer said the tail extended
0.8 in PA 32, lengthened to 1.0 at PA 42, and then shortened to 0.8 in PA
54. On the 28th, Taffara gave the magnitude as 4.4. On December 29, the
magnitude was given as 4.3 by Taffara and 4.5 by Chernov.
On December 30, Schaumasse described this as a Splendid Comet. He
noted a nucleus about 15 in diameter, which was surrounded by a coma
about 10 across. Schaumasse said a superb brush was directed toward
the northeast and was 20 long. G. H. Herbig and G. W. Bunton (University of California, Los Angeles, USA) obtained a 20-minute exposure which
revealed a double tail, with the two components forming an angle of about
20 with each other. The western tail extended 2.2, before running off the
edge of the photograph. The coma was measured as about 4.5 by 5.5 .
On December 31, Beyer gave the magnitude as 3.90. He said the nuclear
condensation shone at magnitude 6.2, while the fan-shaped tail extended
1.0 in PA 25, lengthened to 1.4 in PA 31, and shortened to 1.0 in PA 41.
M. B. Protitch (Belgrade, Yugoslavia, now Serbia) noted a stellar nucleus of
magnitude 6.9. He added that the tail extended 5 toward PA 27.
On 1941 January 1, Beyer gave the magnitude as 3.68. He said the coma
was 8 across, with a nuclear condensation of magnitude 6.0, and a fanshaped tail extending 1.3 in PA 22, lengthening to 3.0 in PA 25, and
shortening to 0.7 in PA 37. On the 2nd, Beyer gave the magnitude as 3.61.
He said the coma was 7 across, with a condensation of magnitude 6.8, and
a fan-shaped tail extending 1.6 in PA 14, lengthening to 2.6 in PA 20, and
shortening to 0.8 in PA 36. On the 3rd, the naked-eye magnitude was given
as 3.8 by Chernov and 4 by Smith. Chernov said 6 40 binoculars revealed
a tail 0.5 long. Smith obtained a 15-minute exposure that revealed only the
long filamentary tail, which extended 3 to the edge of the plate. On the
4th, Bobrovnikoff gave the magnitude as 3.283.31. Lyons said the comet
was not visible to the naked eye and added that it was definitely green
in the 66-cm refractor. On January 5, van Biesbroeck gave the naked-eye
magnitude as 3.5.
118

catalog of comets

The comet passed about 2 from the sun on 1941 January 12. It was then
recovered by J. Bobone and M. Dartayet (National Observatory, Cordoba,

Argentina) on January 21. They estimated the magnitude as 3 and said the
comet appeared diffuse, with a central condensation, and with a tail less
than 1 long. Astronomers at the Royal Observatory (Cape of Good Hope,
South Africa) first photographed the comet on January 25. Their 3-minute
exposure was obtained with the astrographic telescope when the comet
was less than 11 above the horizon. The Royal Observatory astronomers
obtained additional short and long exposures on January 26 and 28. D. J. K.
OConnell (Riverview College Observatory, Sydney, Australia) obtained an
8-minute exposure of the comet using the 10-cm lens on January 29.
The comet attained a declination of 46 on February 5 and then turned
northward. Astronomers at the Royal Observatory obtained exposures with
the astrographic telescope on the 3rd, 10th, and 22nd, with the shortest
exposures being 30 seconds long and the longest being 10 minutes long. H.
van Gent (Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) photographed
the comet using the FranklinAdams Star Camera on February 15 and 25.
He simply noted the comet was diffuse.
Astronomers at the Royal Observatory obtained a 10-minute exposure on
March 1 and 10- and 15-minute exposures on the 7th. W. H. van den Bos
(Union Observatory) photographed the comet using the FranklinAdams
Star Camera on the 9th. Van den Bos described the comet as diffuse. The
comet attained a declination of 42 on March 31, and then resumed a
southerly motion.
Astronomers at the Royal Observatory last photographed the comet on
April 1, by taking 15- and 20-minute exposures with the astrograph. Van
Gent photographed the comet on April 1 and 5, using the FranklinAdams
Star Camera, and described the comet as diffuse.
As May began, van Gent was the only astronomer following the comet.
He obtained photographs with the FranklinAdams Star Camera on May
2, 4, 28, and June 4. He described the comet as diffuse and noted that from
May 28 onwards [the comet was] increasingly faint and hard to measure.
After attaining a declination of 48 on June 16, the comet again turned
northward.
The comet was last detected on June 17.96, when van Gent photographed
it using the FranklinAdams Star Camera. He gave the position as = 19h
42.7m , = 47 33 . He described it as diffuse.
The spectrum of this comet was observed by several astronomers. C. T.
Elvey, P. Swings, and H. W. Babcock (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA)
obtained 24 spectrograms of this comet during the period 1940 September 201941 January 6. They were obtained with the Cassegrain spectrograph. Cyanogen, methylidyne, diatomic carbon, hydroxyl radical, and
imidyl radical were detected, as well as an unknown set of lines in the
region 39504140 , which is referred to as the 4050 Group by the
authors. This marks the first time the hydroxyl radical and the imidyl
119

catalog of comets

radical were identified in a comet, although the MacDonald astronomers


suggested diffuse bands seen at a similar location in the spectra of C/1911
O1 (Brooks) and the 1937 apparition of 2P/Encke may have been due to
these two radicals. The astronomers acknowledge that the lines of their
4050 Group have been seen in the spectra of numerous other comets,
but that no satisfactory explanation had yet surfaced. Although they ruled
out several previous suggestions, they were not able to solve this problem. This group of bands is now known to represent triatomic carbon.
J. Hunaerts (Royal Observatory, Uccle, Belgium) observed the spectrum
on October 20 and 29. He noted bands of cyanogen, diatomic carbon, and
methylidyne. Elvey and Swings also saw the bright D-line of sodium on
1941 January 3. They noted that it was absent on 1940 December 27 and
28, and was weak on December 31. Bobrovnikoff photographed the comet
on 1940 December 23 and 24. He detected cyanogen, methylidyne, diatomic
carbon, and methylene. Five spectrograms were also obtained at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (Victoria, British Columbia, Canada) during
the period December 416, while another four were obtained during the
period January 15. These were measured by A. McKellar, who recognized
the bands of cyanogen, methylidyne, and diatomic carbon, as well as the
4050 Group, which is now known to represent triatomic carbon. He
noted that during the period December 4January 4, the 4050 Group
bands became less intense with respect to the bands of diatomic carbon and
cyanogen.

Y. Ohman
(Stockholm Observatory, Sweden) observed the comet on several occasions in order to measure polarization. He reported that a photographic plate obtained on November 26 shows distinct positive polarization of total photographic light of the head of the comet. Plates obtained on
December 4 indicated the polarization was mainly due to diatomic carbon.
This was partially confirmed on plates exposed in moonlight on December
13, 14, and 17, and fully confirmed on December 19.
The first orbit was calculated by Cunningham. He took the available Harvard positions and provided a parabolic orbit with a perihelion date of 1941
January 19.91. Most notable was his ephemeris, which indicated the comet
might peak at a magnitude of 2.1! A. D. Maxwell used the same positions
and published an orbit on September 20 which gave the perihelion date as
January 18.95. Additional parabolic orbits were calculated during the next
few weeks by Cunningham, J. P. Moller,

M. H. Quirk, and F. W. Hoffman.


They revealed a perihelion date of January 16.2316.25. Interestingly, Cunningham provided a revised ephemeris on October 18 which was based on
a revised orbit and brightness parameters. This predicted the comet might
attain a maximum magnitude of 2.6!
The first definitive orbit was calculated by M. A. Mamedov (1966). He
began with 261 positions spanning the period 1940 September 191941
June 17, reduced them to 12 Normal places, and applied the perturbations
of Venus to Saturn. The result was a perihelion date of January 16.23 and an
120

catalog of comets

eccentricity of 1.0004690. O. N. Barteneva (1971) used Mamedovs orbit and


derived an elliptical original orbit with a period of about 17 million years,
and a hyperbolic future orbit with an eccentricity of 1.000575.
B. G. Marsden (1978) used 189 positions obtained between 1940 September 19 and 1941 June 17, as well as perturbations by all nine planets, and
computed a hyperbolic orbit with a perihelion date of January 16.23 and an
eccentricity of 1.000485. Marsden took this orbit and derived an elliptical
original orbit with a period of about 1 billion years, and a hyperbolic future
orbit with an eccentricity of 1.000577.
T
1941 Jan. 16.2340 (TT)

 (2000.0)
199.5690 296.5905

i
49.8942

q
e
0.367751 1.000485

absolute magnitude: H0 = 5.81, n = 1.99 (Beyer, 1942); H10 = 6.3 (V1964)


full moon: Aug. 17, Sep. 16, Oct. 16, Nov. 15, Dec. 14, 1941 Jan. 13, Feb. 12, Mar.
13, Apr. 11, May 11, Jun. 9, Jul. 8, Aug. 7, Sep. 5, Oct. 5
sources: L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 819 (1940 Sep. 17); L. E. Cunningham
and F. W. Wright, HAC, No. 533 (1940 Sep. 18); L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No.
820 (1940 Sep. 19); A. D. Maxwell, HAC, No. 534 (1940 Sep. 20); K. A. Voroshiloff
and P. G. Kulikovkii, IAUC, No. 828 (1940 Oct. 17); L. E. Cunningham, HAC,
No. 543 (1940 Oct. 18); L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 544 (1940 Oct. 18); S. J. V.
Arend and W. Gleissberg, IAUC, No. 829 (1940 Oct. 24); A. M. Vergnano and J. P.
Moller,

IAUC, No. 830 (1940 Oct. 30); L. E. Cunningham, A. D. Maxwell, and G.


van Biesbroeck, PA, 48 (1940 Nov.), p. 488; L. E. Cunningham and A. D. Maxwell,
The Observatory, 63 (1940 Nov.), pp. 2901; J. P. Moller,

IAUC, No. 832 (1940 Nov.


23); J. Hunaerts, IAUC, No. 834 (1940 Nov. 28); B. G. Karpov, HAC, No. 550 (1940

Dec. 12); Y. Ohman,


IAUC, No. 839 (1940 Dec. 28); H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1941),
p. 115; [Royal Observatory], MNRAS, 101 (1941), pp. 334, 336; H. van Gent and
W. H. van den Bos, UOC, No. 104 (1941), p. 72; L. E. Cunningham, PA, 49 (1941
Jan.), p. 54; R. S. Richardson, HAC, No. 555 (1941 Jan. 6); C. T. Elvey, P. Swings,
and H. W. Babcock, HAC, No. 556 (1941 Jan. 8); M. H. Quirk and F. W. Hoffman,
HAC, No. 557 (1941 Jan. 8); A. McKellar, HAC, No. 562 (1941 Jan. 21); J. Bobone
and M. Dartayet, HAC, No. 564 (1941 Jan. 22); Zeidler and J. Mergentaler, IAUC,
No. 847 (1941 Jan. 30); R. T. Smith, G. H. Herbig, and G. W. Bunton, PASP, 53 (1941
Feb.), pp. 345, 37; M. B. Protitch, IAUC, No. 853 (1941 Feb. 28); M. Campa and S.
Taffara, AN, 271 (1941 Jul.), pp. 285, 287; C. T. Elvey, P. Swings, and H. W. Babcock,
APJ, 94 (1941 Sep.), pp. 32043; H. Krumpholz, AN, 272 (1941 Aug.), pp. 912; A.
Schaumasse, JO, 24 (1941 Oct.), pp. 11213; L. E. Cunningham, M. H. Quirk, and
F. W. Hoffman, MNRAS, 102 (1942), pp. 1079; N. T. Bobrovnikoff, PA, 50 (1942
Jun.), p. 307; M. Beyer, AN, 272 (1942 Jul.), pp. 25860; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50
(1942 Aug. 13), pp. 2931; D. J. K. OConnell, MNRAS, 103 (1943), pp. 2278; U. S.
Lyons and H. E. Burton, AJ, 50 (1943 Mar. 26), pp. 11213; N. T. Bobrovnikoff,
APJ, 99 (1944 Mar.), pp. 1739; V1964, p. 74; M. A. Mamedov, Akademiia Nauk
Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR Izvestiia Seriia Fiziko Tekhnicheskikh i Matematicheskikh Nauk,
No. 4 (1966), pp. 12841; O. N. Barteneva, QJRAS, 12 (1971 Sep.), p. 272; B. G.
Marsden, AJ, 83 (1978 Jan.), pp. 66, 68; K. A. Voroshiloff, P. G. Kulikovkii, and
V. Chernov, ICQ, 20 (1998 Apr.), p. 62.

121

catalog of comets

C/1940 S1 Discovered: 1940 September 30.79 ( = 1.84 AU, r = 1.30 AU, Elong. = 43)
(OkabayasiHonda) Last seen: 1941 January 3.10 ( = 1.90 AU, r = 2.37 AU, Elong. = 105)
Closest to the Earth: 1940 May 30 (1.1943 AU), 1940 November 21 (1.3296 AU)
1940 III = 1940e Calculated path: LEO (Disc), LMi (Oct. 8), UMa (Oct. 24), DRA (Nov. 23),
CAM (Nov. 30), CEP (Dec. 3), CAS-CEP (Dec. 18), CAS (Jan. 1)
S. Okabayasi (Kurashiki Observatory, Japan) was conducting a systematic
search for comets with his 8-cm telescope when he discovered a diffuse
object in the morning sky on 1940 September 30.79 at a position of = 10h
00.0m , = +21 30 . The magnitude was estimated as 9. Cloudy skies prevented Okabayasi from immediately confirming his discovery, but a brief
sweep of the region on the morning of October 3.8 erased all doubt that the
object was a real comet. Interestingly, M. Honda (Zodiacal Light Observatory, Seto, Japan) was systematically searching for comets in the morning sky
on October 3, when he, too, found this new comet. Honda immediately telephoned Okabayasi to request confirmation and, upon comparing notes, they
realized they had independently found the same comet. On October 4.78,
H. Hirose (Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo, Japan) estimated the magnitude as
11. Hirose described the comet as diffuse, with a central condensation. The
comet was found about 2 months after its perihelion passage.
On October 12, H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) visually
observed the comet using the 91-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as
13.5. He said the coma was 1.5 across and, although centrally condensed,
there was no sharp nucleus. On November 8, A. Fresa (Pino Torinese Observatory, Turin, Italy) estimated the photographic magnitude as 13.5.
G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) was unable to
find the comet with the 102-cm refractor on December 5. He surmised,
There is still a possibility that photographic observations may reveal its
presence . . .. The comet attained its most northerly declination of +86 on
December 7. Van Biesbroeck obtained a 20-minute exposure on December
21, which revealed a diffuse, hardly measurable image of magnitude 17.
The final observations of this comet were obtained during the first days of
January 1941. On January 2.27, R. T. Smith (Lick Observatory) photographed
the comet with the 91-cm Crossley reflector and estimated the magnitude
as 18. He described the comet as a small, diffuse spot. On January 3.10,
van Biesbroeck obtained a 33-minute exposure with the 61-cm reflector. He
estimated the magnitude as 17.5. He added that two 20-minute exposures
made shortly before this photograph revealed extremely faint images. Van
Biesbroeck gave the position as = 0h 07.8m , = +65 24 .
The first orbit was calculated by F. E. Driggers, J. H. B. Irwin, H. A. Panofsky, and E. L. Scott of the Students Observatory (Berkeley, California, USA).
They took three positions from the period October 49 and determined a
parabolic orbit with a perihelion date of 1940 August 11.98. They noted that
the orbital elements are very similar to those of Comet 1926 I, Comet Blathwayt. Shortly after this orbit was published, A. D. Maxwell and F. J. Wood
122

catalog of comets

published a parabolic orbit with a perihelion date of August 13.62. Fresa


followed near the end of November with an orbit that gave the perihelion
date as August 15.45. An orbit by K. Koziel was published on December 9
and gave the perihelion date as August 15.68.
The first hyperbolic orbit was calculated by Scott and Panofsky, using
three precise positions spanning the period October 6January 2. The result
was a perihelion date of August 15.84 and an eccentricity of 1.00345.
B. G. Marsden (1972, 1978) used 19 positions obtained between 1940 October 4 and 1941 January 2 as well as perturbations by nine planets, and
determined a hyperbolic orbit with a perihelion date of August 15.76 and
an eccentricity of 1.001459. Marsden took this orbit and derived a hyperbolic
original orbit with an eccentricity of 1.000132, and a hyperbolic future orbit
with an eccentricity of 1.001192.
T
1940 Aug. 15.7592 (TT)

 (2000.0)
i
q
e
329.6782 128.0685 133.1141 1.061768 1.001459

absolute magnitude: H10 = 10.9 (V1964)


full moon: Sep. 16, Oct. 16, Nov. 15, Dec. 14, 1941 Jan. 13
sources: S. Okabayasi and H. Hirose, HAC, No. 539 (1941 Oct. 7); S. Okabayasi,
IAUC, No. 825 (1940 Oct. 7); E. L. Scott, HAC, No. 540 (1940 Oct. 10); E. L. Scott,
IAUC, No. 826 (1940 Oct. 11); A. D. Maxwell and F. J. Wood, HAC, No. 542 (1940
Oct. 17); S. Okabayasi, PA, 48 (1940 Nov.), p. 489; A. Fresa, IAUC, No. 835 (1940
Nov. 30); E. L. Scott, A. D. Maxwell, F. J. Wood, and G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 48
(1940 Dec.), p. 553; K. Koziel, S. Okabayasi, and M. Honda, IAUC, No. 836 (1940
Dec. 9); R. T. Smith and H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1941), p. 116; F. E. Driggers, J. H. B.
Irwin, H. A. Panofsky, E. L. Scott, R. T. Smith, S. Okabayasi, and M. Honda, PASP,
53 (1941 Feb.), pp. 34, 456; E. L. Scott and H. A. Panofsky, HAC, No. 571 (1941
Feb. 7); G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1942 Aug. 13), pp. 301; S. Okabayasi, M.
Honda, E. L. Scott, and H. A. Panofsky, MNRAS, 102 (1942), pp. 1079; V1964,
p. 74; B. G. Marsden, CCO, 1st ed. (1972), pp. 24, 47; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 83 (1978
Jan.), pp. 66, 68.

C/1941 B1 Prediscovery: 1940 December 31.99 ( = 0.60 AU, r = 1.00 AU, Elong. = 74)
(FriendReese Discovered: 1941 January 17.2 ( = 0.44 AU, r = 0.94 AU, Elong. = 71)
Honda) Last seen: 1941 March 3.92 ( = 0.25 AU, r = 1.19 AU, Elong. = 138)
Closest to the Earth: 1941 February 18 (0.1516 AU)
1941 II = 1941a Calculated path: CYG (Pre), LAC (Jan. 4), AND (Jan. 27), CAS (Jan. 31), CAM
(Feb. 12), AUR (Feb. 16), GEM (Feb. 20), CMi (Feb. 27), CNC-CMi (Feb. 28),
CNC (Mar. 1), CMi (Mar. 2), HYA (Mar. 3)
C. L. Friend (Escondido, California, USA) discovered this comet in the
evening sky using a 13-cm refractor on 1941 January 17.2, at a position of
= 22h 18m , = +43. An independent discovery was made by E. J. Reese
(Uniontown, Pennsylvania, USA) on January 18.00. Reese described the
comet as a diffuse object of magnitude 10, with a nucleus and a tail less than
123

catalog of comets

1 long. He waited to report his discovery until he was able to confirm the
observation on January 20.00. M. Honda (Tanakami, Japan) independently
found the comet on January 21. At the end of January, K. F. Guthe and R. N.
Thomas (Harvard College Observatory, Massachusetts, USA) found a prediscovery image of the comet on a plate exposed on 1940 December 31.99.
At the time of the discovery, the comet was just a few days from passing
perihelion and nearly 1 month from passing closest to Earth.
On January 18, the photographic magnitude was given as 10 by A. A.
Wachmann (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) and 12 by Y.
Visl (University of Turku, Finland). Wachmann said the comet appeared
diffuse, without a condensation. Visl said the comet appeared diffuse,
without a condensation. On the 19th, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory,
Wisconsin, USA) observed the comet using the 61-cm reflector. He gave the
magnitude as 9.1 using the extrafocal method. The photographic magnitude
was given as 10 by A. Fresa (Pino Torinese Observatory, Turin, Italy) and 12
by Visl. Van Biesbroeck said the nucleus was diffuse and expanded into
a fan-shaped tail extending 3 in PA 230. Visl said the comet appeared
diffuse, without a condensation. Fresa said the comet appeared diffuse,
without a condensation. On the 20th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude
as 9.2 and said the comet appeared diffuse, with a nucleus which was elongated towards a short tail in PA 220. On the 21st, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 9.2 and said the nearly round coma was 3 across. On
the 22nd, B. G. Karpov (Vassar College Observatory, New York, USA) said
the comet was diffuse, with a nucleus of magnitude 9.5. On the 25th,
van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.1. On the 26th, M. Beyer
(Wilhelmshaven, Germany) gave the magnitude as 8.48. He said the round
coma was 4 across and contained no nucleus. On the 27th, Beyer gave the
magnitude as 8.83. He said the coma was 4 across and very uncondensed.
On the 28th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.13 and said the very uncondensed coma was 4 across. On the 29th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.26.
On the 30th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.09 and said the coma was 5
across. On January 31, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.00.
As February began, the comet was moving away from the sun, but was
still approaching Earth. On the 1st, the magnitude was given as 7.84 by
Beyer and 9.0 by van Biesbroeck. Beyer said the coma was 6 across, without
a condensation or nucleus. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was 4 across,
and much brighter on the north side of the very diffuse nucleus, which is
strongly elliptical in right ascension. On the 4th, Beyer gave the magnitude
as 7.64. On the 5th, Beyer gave the magnitude as about 8.3 under hazy
and moonlit conditions. On the 6th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.58. The
comet attained its most northerly declination of +61 on February 10. On
the 15th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.0. He said the nearly
round coma was 6 across. He added, The nucleus is poorly defined and
appears pear-shaped. It tapered off in PA 130 to a length of 0.25 . On
the 16th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.2. He said the coma was
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catalog of comets

7 across and extended mostly in the first quadrant of the nucleus. The
nucleus was described as coarse and strongly elongated towards PA 100.
On the 17th, H. Krumpholz (Vienna, Austria) gave the magnitude as 10. He
added that the coma was round and a tail was 15 long. There was very
little condensation. On the 19th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 8.8.
On the 20th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.2. On the 21st, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 7.26 and said the coma was 12 across. On the 22nd,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.30. He said the coma was 13 across, without
a condensation or nucleus. Van Biesbroeck visually saw the comet using
the 102-cm refractor on the 23rd and 24th, and gave the magnitude as 10.5
and 11, respectively. On the 23rd, he said a 12th-magnitude stellar nucleus
was situated within an elliptical patch which was centered within a coma 5
across. On the 24th, he said a small, stellar nucleus shone at magnitude 13.
On February 26, the magnitude was given as 7.55 by Beyer and 9.4 by van
Biesbroeck. Beyer said the coma was 11 across, without a condensation or
nucleus.
On March 1, van Biesbroeck obtained a 5-minute exposure using the
61-cm reflector. He estimated the magnitude as 12 and said the coma was
30 across.
The comet was last seen on March 3.92, when M. Protitch (Belgrade,
Yugoslavia, now Serbia) photographed it and gave the position as = 8h
11.9m , = +3 36 . Moonlight interfered thereafter and searches during the
second half of March were unsuccessful. Beyer could not find the comet in
the predicted positions on March 17.8 and March 21.8, and concluded that
the comet was fainter than magnitude 9.
The first parabolic orbits were calculated before the end of January, with
the perihelion date being given as 1941 January 24.97 by A. D. Maxwell,
January 22.85 by L. E. Cunningham, and January 20.46 by Y. Visl and
L. Oterma. The latter proved very close to the actual orbit. Calculations by
Guthe and Thomas at the beginning of February gave the perihelion date
as January 20.63.
Elliptical orbits were calculated by Maxwell (1941) and Z. Sekanina (1979,
1985). Both orbits used positions spanning the period January 19March 1,
but did not consider planetary perturbations. The perihelion date was given
as January 20.38, while the period was given as about 372 years by Maxwell
and about 355 years by Sekanina.
T
1941 Jan. 20.3778 (TT)

 (2000.0)
132.7319 329.7897

i
26.2756

q
e
0.941864 0.981221

absolute magnitude: H0 = 10.86, n = 2.14 (Beyer, 1942); H10 = 12.0 (V1964)


full moon: Dec. 14, 1941 Jan. 13, Feb. 12, Mar. 13
sources: C. L. Friend, HAC, No. 560 (1941 Jan. 17); C. L. Friend, IAUC, No. 843
(1941 Jan. 18); G. van Biesbroeck and E. J. Reese, HAC, No. 561 (1941 Jan. 20); A. A.
Wachmann and G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 563 (1941 Jan. 21); A. A. Wachmann,

125

catalog of comets
Y. Visl, and A. Fresa, IAUC, No. 844 (1941 Jan. 21); A. D. Maxwell and L. E.
Cunningham, HAC, No. 564 (1941 Jan. 22); G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 565
(1941 Jan. 25); Y. Visl and L. Oterma, IAUC, No. 846 (1941 Jan. 27); B. G.
Karpov, Y. Visl, and L. Oterma, HAC, No. 567 (1941 Jan. 28); Y. Visl and L.
Oterma, IAUC, No. 847 (1941 Jan. 30); K. F. Guthe and R. N. Thomas, HAC, No.
568 (1941 Feb. 4); C. L. Friend and G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 49 (1941 Mar.), p. 166;
M. Protitch, IAUC, No. 856 (1941 Mar. 20); C. L. Friend and E. J. Reese, PASP,
53 (1941 Apr.), p. 135; C. L. Friend, E. J. Reese, K. F. Guthe, and R. N. Thomas,
The Observatory, 64 (1941 Apr.), p. 30; A. D. Maxwell, HAC, No. 580 (1941 Apr.
10); H. Krumpholz, AN, 272 (1941 Aug.), pp. 912; M. Beyer, AN, 272 (1942 Jul.),
pp. 2602; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1942 Aug. 13), pp. 2931; V1964, p. 74; Z.
Sekanina, CCO, 3rd ed. (1979), pp. 24, 51; Z. Sekanina, QJRAS, 26 (1985 Mar.),
p. 104.

C/1941 B2 Discovered: 1941 January 15.09 ( = 0.70 AU, r = 0.83 AU, Elong. = 56)
(de Kock Last seen: 1941 September 17.36 ( = 2.60 AU, r = 3.54 AU, Elong. = 155)
Paraskevopoulos) Closest to the Earth: 1941 January 29 (0.2655 AU)
Calculated path: LUP (Disc), SCO (Jan. 19), NOR (Jan. 21), SCO-ARA (Jan.
1941 IV = 1941c 22), TEL (Jan. 25), PAV (Jan. 27), IND (Jan. 28), GRU (Jan. 29), PHE (Jan. 31),
SCL (Feb. 1), CET (Feb. 4), PSC (Feb. 20), CET (Mar. 14), ARI (Mar. 19), PSC
(Aug. 18)
R. P. de Kock (Paarl, South Africa) was preparing to observe the variable
star R Lupi, when he discovered this comet in the morning sky on 1941
January 15.09. The head was prominent, while the tail was well developed
and over 12 long. The comets magnitude was determined as 5.8 and he
estimated the position as = 15h 36m , = 32. De Kock immediately
notified nearby Royal Observatory (Cape of Good Hope, South Africa),
where J. Jackson confirmed the discovery on January 18, 19, and 20. An
independent discovery was made by J. F. Skjellerup (Melbourne, Victoria,
Australia) on January 20.71. He was then conducting a binocular search
for comet C/1940 R2 when he saw a comet in Norma. He was uncertain
whether this was the comet he was looking for or a new comet and gave
the position as = 16h 06m , = 40. The magnitude was estimated as 4.5,
while a short, broad tail extended about 0.5. Because of his uncertainty as
to whether this was a new comet or not, Skjellerup waited until he could
make a confirmation. The next morning, he found this comet was moving
in the wrong direction to have been C/1940 R2 and immediately notified
Melbourne Observatory. Interestingly, Melbourne Observatory had already
received notice of this comets discovery from a gentleman named Barnes
(Canterbury, Victoria, Australia) on January 21. Barnes was not an amateur
or professional astronomer, but had spotted the comet on January 21.73 and
immediately reported his find to the observatory. He provided no positions
or even a celestial location since he did not know the sky. Within the state
of Victoria, the comet immediately became known as BarnesSkjellerup.
The comet was rapidly approaching both the sun and Earth.
126

catalog of comets

J. S. Paraskevopoulos (Harvard College Observatory, Boyden Station,


Bloemfontein, South Africa) independently discovered the comet on January 23.0, at a position of = 16h 48m , = 46. He described it as
magnitude 3.5 and noted a tail 5 long. Paraskevopoulos immediately
sent a radiogram to Harvard College Observatory (Massachusetts, USA)
announcing his find. Since earlier news of the comets discovery had not
yet been received in the USA, the comet became known in that country as
comet Paraskevopoulos and received a preliminary designation of 1941c.
Although a telegram had been sent to the Central Bureau for Astronomical
Telegrams (Copenhagen, Denmark) shortly after de Kocks discovery, notification did not immediately reach the USA or other countries outside of
Europe. Also, although the discovery was made in South Africa, news did
not spread rapidly around that country.
On January 20, R. H. Stoy (Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope)
obtained exposures ranging from 5 seconds to 27 minutes and revealed
a sharply defined nucleus located in the center of a circular coma measuring 5 across. The shortest exposures revealed faint traces of two fan-like
emissions, emanating from the nucleus, the longer and brighter in P.A.
30, the other in P.A. 150. The tail consisted of a very faint background on
which are superimposed two bright streamers diverging from the head of
the comet . . .. The stronger southern streamer covered PA 265268, while
the northern streamer spread from PA 273 to PA 281. Between these two
streamers there appears a well-defined dark space which would stretch right
up to the nucleus were it not for the spherical coma which surrounds the
whole head.
On January 21, Stoy obtained exposures ranging from 30 seconds to
5 minutes. The shortest exposure still revealed signs of two nuclear emissions, the short, stubby one extending towards PA 150, and a stronger, narrow sickle-shaped one extended towards PA 30. The handle of this sickle
was in PA 5 and accentuated that part of the straight bounding edge of
the cap. The radius of the cap was about 30 . Stoy said, The tail streamers
seem to be associated with the cap that immediately surrounds the bright
semicircular cap and which is just bright enough to register faintly on the
1-minute exposure. This cap extends for over 1 behind the nucleus and does
not appear to have a well-defined following edge. The dimensions through
the nucleus were 60 130 , with the axis of symmetry towards PA 268.
On January 22, Stoy obtained exposures ranging from 15 seconds to 6
minutes and revealed a very bright and conspicuous nucleus which consisted of a condensation about 15 in diameter surrounded eccentrically
by a fainter elliptical envelope 20 by 30 with major axis in P.A. 130.
The nuclear emissions noted on the two previous days had vanished. Both
tail streamers were still present, but the southern one then seemed to have
become the broader, while remaining the stronger.
R. Grandon (Santiago Observatory, Chile) independently discovered the
comet on January 23.36. The comet was described as diffuse, with a total
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catalog of comets

magnitude of 2. The coma exhibited a central condensation and the tail was
more than 1 in length. Also on the 23rd, H. W. Wood (Sydney Observatory,
New South Wales, Australia) gave the naked-eye magnitude as 4.48. He said
the head appeared stellar to the naked eye, while the tail extended 3.5 in a
5-cm refractor. Stoy obtained photographic exposures ranging from 30 seconds to 30 minutes. These photographs revealed the nucleus as relatively
bright and almost stellar, while the tail extended 50 and still consisted of
two bright streamers the southern one being the brighter and broader.
The dark cleft between the two principal streamers of the tail is broader
and not so clearly marked. The P.As. of its edges are about 260 and 265.
The coma was circular, with a diameter of 7 , and seemed to gradually fade
out towards the edges.
A number of independent discoveries were made on January 24. E.
Roubaud and A. Pochintesta (Montevideo Observatory, Uruguay) visually
discovered the comet on January 24.25, estimating the magnitude as 2.2
and noting a tail 5 long. Roubaud photographically confirmed the discovery on January 24.30. A short time later, on January 24.34, M. Dartayet,
J. Bobone, and Cecilio (National Observatory, Cordoba,

Argentina) discovered the comet and described it as magnitude 2 and diffuse, with a nucleus.
Another discovery was made on January 24.56, by R. A. McIntosh (Auckland, New Zealand). He gave the magnitude as 3.3, and said the tail looked
like an enduring meteor trail, straight and about equal to the neighboring
galaxy in brightness. Through a telescope he said the tail was parabolic in
form, with the southern edge extending 7 and the northern edge extending
on 1. This tail had a full width of 12 , while the longer extension was 5 wide.
McIntosh added that the nucleus was slightly brighter on the sunward side.
Other observers continued to follow the comets progress, with Wood giving the naked-eye magnitude as 4.15 and the extrafocal magnitude, using a
5-cm refractor, as 3.36. Wood said the head appeared stellar to the naked eye,
while the tail extended 3. Stoy obtained exposures ranging from 5 seconds
to 30 seconds. He said the cap was nearly semicircular, with an indistinct
nucleus which was slightly elongated to PA 120 lying on the bounding
diameter. In fact, the nucleus appeared double, with the southern component being brightest, and the separation being 12 . Stoy said, A sickle-like
emission from the nucleus brightens the north-west edges of the cap. The
radius of the cap was given as 35 . A larger, very faint cap surrounded this
cap. It measured 75 160 , with the axis of symmetry directed towards
PA 245.
On January 25, the magnitude was given as 2 by Grandon, about 3 by
Stoy, and 3.06 by Wood. Wood said the head appeared diffuse to the naked
eye, while the tail extended 4 in a 5-cm refractor. Stoy obtained photographic exposures ranging in exposure time from 5 seconds to 45 minutes.
The nucleus was described as bright, distinct and almost stellar with its
magnitude, as compared to the star C.P.D. 51 10535, being determined as
about 7. The general background of the tail is fairly uniform in structure,
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catalog of comets

but is perhaps a little brighter towards the edges, especially near the head
of the comet. One bright, narrow, and straight streamer was present within
the tail, the northern edge of which was in PA 245. The dark marking in
the tail was again detected, but it is wider than it was and more diffuse,
especially on the north side. Grandon said the coma was diffuse, with a
condensation, and a tail more than 1 long.
On January 26, Wood gave the naked-eye magnitude as 3.27. He said the
tail extended 4 to the naked eye. Stoy obtained exposures ranging from
5 seconds to 30 minutes. He described the nucleus as bright, small but
perhaps not quite stellar . . .. The coma measured 8 by 7 , with the longest
axis oriented with the comets tail. The narrow, straight streamer within
the tail was nearly 1 long and was oriented in PA 235. He thought this
streamer might be related to a probable nuclear emission in PA 230. He
said, There are still signs of the relatively dark cleft in the tail, but it is
no longer bounded on the south by the streamer, nor does it stretch tight
into the nucleus. Its edges, which are in P.As. 245 and 250, are vague and
diffuse, while the space between them is by no means completely dark.
The comet attained its most southerly declination of 57 on January 27
and also passed closest to the sun. Wood gave the magnitude as 2.76 and said
he saw a tail 5 long with the naked-eye, using averted vision. Stoy obtained
exposures ranging from 1 to 5 minutes which revealed a small but rather
diffuse nucleus with a very strong emission in P.A. 330. This emission is
nearly as bright as the nucleus itself. The inner cap was roughly semicircular, with the straight edge being in PA 315, and the radius measuring
about 50 . Two other caps surrounded this cap. The first measured 100
220 , and the outer one measured 140 350 . The axis of symmetry of
the former cap was towards PA 225. The long, narrow streamer was also
detected and extended in PA 220.
The comet seemed to brighten a bit more during the remaining days of
January. On the 28th, the magnitude was given as 2.6 by McIntosh and 2.71
by Wood. McIntosh said the tail had assumed a more symmetric parabolic
form and possessed a distinct orange tint. Stoy obtained exposures ranging from 10 seconds to 3 minutes, despite the comets low altitude. These
revealed a small, bright but not stellar nucleus, and a coma measuring
about 40 across. One cap recorded on the longest exposure measured
70 200 , with the axis of symmetry extending towards PA 200. The
comet passed closest to Earth on January 29. On the 30th, Wood gave the
magnitude as 2.58. He said the head was diffuse to the naked eye, with a
tail extending 4.5. On January 31, McIntosh gave the magnitude as 2.2 and
noted the tail extended 6.
The comet was moving away from both the sun and Earth as February
began. On the 1st, the magnitude was given as 2.7 by McIntosh and 3.15 by
Wood. McIntosh said the tail had become distinctly bent with a total length
of 5. He also noted a very prominent sunward jet. On the 2nd, C. B. Michie
(Kaitaia, New Zealand) described the comets tail as bent. Stoy obtained
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catalog of comets

exposures ranging from 5 seconds to 45 minutes. These barely revealed the


nucleus, which was nearly hidden by a very bright elliptical shell that
measured 30 20 . Two caps are visible with their axes in PA 100. The
tail was recorded to about 1.5 from the nucleus and contained a number
of streamers, the brightest of which lies between P.As. 103 and 108. The
dark space once present in the center of the tail had completely vanished.
On the 3rd, C. L. Friend (California, USA) found the comet. According to
van Biesbroeck, Friend said the tail was over 20, while the brightness was
almost as great as Halleys Comet at the 1910 apparition. On February 4, Stoy
obtained several photographs ranging in exposure times from 5 seconds
to 5 minutes. A bright clear-cut stellar nucleus with traces of a fan-like
emission was detected. This emission proved to be the brighter parts of
the inner cap. A fainter outer cap was also present with its axis of symmetry
in PA 88. Only 5 of the tail could be photographed, but two streamers
were present, with the southern one being the broader and brighter. The
dark narrow space lying between the two streamers had returned and was
said to extend right from the nucleus outwards. A halo surrounded the
head and was estimated as 4 in diameter.
On February 5, with the moon interfering with observations, the magnitude was given as 3 by G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin,
USA) and 3.5 by McIntosh. Van Biesbroeck said photographs revealed a
sharp stellar nucleus with a bright fanlike emission toward the sun. The
broad tail was several degrees in length. McIntosh said the tail extended
4. G. M. Raynsford (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, USA) said a
photograph with the 66-cm refractor revealed a bright nucleus and a fanshaped tail extending 45 . On the 7th, Wood gave the magnitude as 4.23. G.
Loreta (Bologna, Italy) said the coma was 10 across, with a tail extending
2.3 in PA 83. Stoy obtained exposures ranging from 30 seconds to 5 minutes which showed very little change in the appearance of the comet from
that of February 4. The bright inner cap possessed a radius of 35 , while its
straight edges were directed towards PA 180 and 320. The faint outer cap
measured 70 150 , with the axis of symmetry directed towards PA 84.
On February 8, Wood battled moonlight and gave the naked-eye magnitude
as 4.39. He said the tail extended 2 in the 5-cm refractor.
On February 9, the magnitude was given as near 3 by J. E. Willis (US
Naval Observatory), 3.7 by van Biesbroeck, and 4.79 by Wood. Willis said
the nuclear magnitude was 10.5. Wood said the tail extended 2 in the 5cm refractor. Stoy obtained exposures ranging from 10 seconds to 10 minutes which revealed a bright but not quite stellar nucleus. The bright
inner cap and faint outer cap were again present, with their axes of symmetry in PA 77. The two tail streamers apparently brightened along their
inner edges, so that the dark gap between them had become more pronounced. The edges of this gap were in PA 79 and 83. U. S. Lyons (US Naval
Observatory) said a photograph with the 66-cm refractor revealed a sharp
nucleus.
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catalog of comets

On February 10, Wood gave the magnitude as 4.98, which was obtained
using the 5-cm refractor in moonlight. F. Hollander and V. Goedicke (Yale
University Observatory, Connecticut, USA) obtained several photographs
of the comet with the Yale Catalogue Camera. The 10-second exposures
revealed a very small, almost stellar nucleus, with no visible coma. The
20-second exposures revealed a clearly defined, almost stellar nucleus
with a clearly visible coma. The 30-second exposures revealed a larger
and appreciably less regular nucleus. Lyons said a photograph exposed
with the 66-cm refractor showed a nonstellar nucleus which was fuzzy on
one side.
On February 11, in moonlight, the magnitude was given as 3.9 by van
Biesbroeck, 4.7 by H. Krumpholz (Vienna, Austria), and 4.83 by N. T.
Bobrovnikoff (Perkins Observatory, Ohio, USA). Van Biesbroeck said the
tail was over 2 long in binoculars. Krumpholz said the coma was 23
across and contained a very distinct, nearly stellar condensation. Raynsford
said a photograph with the 66-cm refractor revealed a bright nucleus.
The comet continued fading during the remainder of February. On the
12th, Wood gave the magnitude as 5.35 using his 5-cm refractor, while
Bobrovnikoff gave it as 4.78 using 8 28 binoculars. Lyons said a photograph exposed with the 66-cm refractor showed an elongated nucleus. On
the 14th, the magnitude was given as 4.6 by Krumpholz and 5.48 by Wood.
Krumpholz said the coma was 4 across, and contained a striking stellar
nucleus of magnitude 7. The tail, as viewed through binoculars, extended
3 in PA 75. On the 15th, the magnitude was given as 4.8 by van Biesbroeck and 5.5 by McIntosh. McIntosh said the tail appeared as a parabolic
shell of light, giving a bifurcated appearance and extended 4. On the 16th,
the magnitude was given as 4.9 by van Biesbroeck and 6.18 by Wood. Van
Biesbroeck said the tail was 5 long. Wood said the tail extended 1.5 in the
refractor, and that the comet was barely visible to the naked eye. On the 17th,
Franz said the tail extended 4.0 in PA 74. On the 19th, the magnitude was
given as 5.0 by van Biesbroeck and 5.28 by Bobrovnikoff. Bobrovnikoff said
the tail was 1 long. On the 20th, Bobrovnikoff gave the magnitude as 5.22.
He said the tail was 2 long, while van Biesbroeck said it was 3 long. Hollander and Goedicke obtained several photographs of the comet with the
Yale Catalogue Camera. The 1-minute exposures revealed a clearly defined,
somewhat less sharply defined nucleus with a clearly visible coma. The
2-minute exposures revealed a slightly enlarged nucleus and a moderately
condensed coma. The 3-minute exposures revealed a well-exposed coma
which is, however, well short of merging with the nucleus. On the 21st,
Bobrovnikoff gave the magnitude as 5.68. Loreta said the tail extended 2.0
in PA 80. On the 22nd, M. Campa (Milan, Italy) gave the magnitude as
5.5. Loreta said the coma was 6 across, while the tail extended 1.8 in PA
78. On the 23rd, the magnitude was given as 5.5 by Campa and 6.56 by
Wood. On the 25th, the magnitude was given as 5.7 by Krumpholz and 6.0
by Campa. Krumpholz said the coma was 23 across, and contained a very
131

catalog of comets

distinct condensation, while the tail was nearly 40 long. On the 26th, the
magnitude was given as 6.10 by Bobrovnikoff and 6.17 by M. Beyer (Hamburg, Germany). Bobrovnikoff said the tail was 1 long. Beyer said the tail
extended 45 in PA 81. On the 27th, Campa gave the magnitude as 7.5. On
February 28, the magnitude was given as 7.11 by Wood and 8.0 by Campa.
On March 1, the magnitude was given as 5.9 by van Biesbroeck and 6.90
by Bobrovnikoff. Bobrovnikoff said the tail was 0.5 long. On the 2nd, Wood
gave the magnitude as 7.08. On the 3rd, Lyons obtained a photograph with
the 66-cm refractor which revealed the comet possessed a bluish color. He
said the moon was nearby and the comet was not visible in the 5-cm finder.
On the 6th, Campa gave the photographic magnitude as 8.5. On the 9th,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.3. On the 12th, Beyer gave the magnitude
as 7.16. On the 15th, Bobrovnikoff gave the magnitude as 7.84. On the 17th,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.47 and said the tail extended 30 in PA 75.
On the 18th, the magnitude was given as 7.62 by Beyer and 8.2 by van
Biesbroeck. Beyer said the tail extended 25 in PA 78. On the 19th, van
Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 8.6. Lyons said the comet was barely
visible in the 13-cm finder. On the 20th, Lyons obtained a photograph with
the 66-cm refractor which showed a condensation, but no sharp nucleus.
On the 21st, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.7. On the 22nd, van Biesbroeck
saw the comet at a very low altitude and gave the magnitude as 8.8. The
comet was last detected prior to its conjunction with the sun on March 29.05
when van Biesbroeck located it at a low altitude in the evening sky.
The comet passed about 0.6 from the sun on April 28. Following conjunction with the sun, the comet was only observed on four more occasions. Van
Biesbroeck detected it on July 4.32 and 6.35, estimating the magnitude as
15.5 and noting the round, diffuse coma was 12 across. The comet attained
its most northerly declination of +19 on July 24. H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory) photographed the comet on July 23.47 and September 17.36 with
the 91-cm Crossley reflector. On the former occasion he estimated the magnitude as 15 and said the globular coma was about 6 across. The latter date
was the final time the comet was seen. Jeffers gave the position as = 0h
48.6m , = +14 31 . He estimated the magnitude as 17, and described the
coma as sharp, 10 across, and surrounded by a faint haze.
The first orbit was calculated by H. E. Wood using his precise positions
of January 18, 19, and 20. The resulting perihelion date was 1941 January
27.78. This was an excellent representation of the comets orbit, as shown
by the calculations of A. D. Maxwell, L. E. Cunningham, A. Fresa, Liu and
Li, N. I. Idelson, and J. Bobone.
The first elliptical orbit was determined by Y.-C. Chang and C. C. Li (1944),
using five Normal positions obtained from 15 observations. The result was
a perihelion date of January 27.65 and a period of about 18 thousand years.
Definitive orbits were calculated by van Biesbroeck (1970) and B. G. Marsden (1978), using positions spanning almost the entire period of visibility.
Planetary perturbations were applied. Both astronomers gave the perihelion
132

catalog of comets

date as January 27.66. Van Biesbroeck gave the period as about 2.5 million
years, while Marsden gave it as about 26 thousand years. Marsden took his
orbit and derived an elliptical original orbit with a period of about 10,940
years, and an elliptical future orbit with a period of about 26,330 years.
T
1941 Jan. 27.6577 (TT)

 (2000.0)
i
q
e
268.6997
43.1069 168.2039 0.790033 0.999102

absolute magnitude: H0 = 5.77, n = 2 (Beyer, 1942); H10 = 5.9 (V1964)


full moon: Jan. 13, Feb. 12, Mar. 13, Apr. 11, May 11, Jun. 9, Jul. 8, Aug. 7, Sep.
5, Oct. 5
sources: R. P. de Kock, ASSAMN, No. 10 (1941 Jan.), p. 4; J. S. Paraskevopoulos, M. Dartayet, J. Bobone, and Cecilio, HAC, No. 565 (1941 Jan. 25); J. S.
Paraskevopoulos, M. Dartayet, and J. Bobone, IAUC, No. 845 (1941 Jan. 25);
R. Grandon, E. Roubaud, L. E. Cunningham, and A. D. Maxwell, HAC, No. 566
(1941 Jan. 27); L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 846 (1941 Jan. 27); J. Jackson, E.
Roubaud, and A. Pochintesta, HAC, No. 569 (1941 Feb. 5); G. van Biesbroeck,
HAC, No. 572 (1941 Feb. 10); J. E. Willis, HAC, No. 573 (1941 Feb. 14); N. I. Idelson, IAUC, No. 853 (1941 Feb. 28); J. S. Paraskevopoulos, M. Dartayet, J. Bobone,
Cecilio, R. Grandon, E. Roubaud, A. Pochintesta, J. Jackson, R. P. de Kock, L. E.
Cunningham, A. D. Maxwell, H. E. Wood, C. L. Friend, and G. van Biesbroeck,
R. A. McIntosh, PA, 49 (1941 Mar.), pp. 1678; R. P. de Kock, HAC, No. 577 (1941
Mar. 12); G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 49 (1941 Apr.), p. 218; J. S. Paraskevopoulos and
R. Grandon, The Observatory, 64 (1941 Apr.), p. 30; A. Fresa, IAUC, No. 858 (1941
Apr. 1); J. Bobone, HAC, No. 579 (1941 Apr. 9); R. P. de Kock, The Observatory,
64 (1941 May), p. 59; G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 588 (1941 Jul. 15); G. van
Biesbroeck, PA, 49 (1941 Aug.), p. 390; M. Campa and H. Krumpholz, AN, 272
(1941 Aug.), pp. 8992; H. W. Wood, JBAA, 51 (1941 Sep.), pp. 2846; R. A. McIntosh, JBAA, 51 (1941 Oct.), pp. 3202; J. F. Skjellerup, The Observatory, 64 (1941
Dec.), p. 183; R. P. de Kock and R. H. Stoy, MNRAS, 101 (1941), pp. 33444; N. T.
Bobrovnikoff, PA, 50 (1942 Jun.), p. 307; M. Beyer, AN, 272 (1942 Jul.), pp. 2624;
G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1942 Aug. 13), pp. 2932, 457; J. Bobone, MNRAS,
102 (1942), pp. 1079; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1944), p. 164; G. M. Raynsford and
U. S. Lyons, AJ, 50 (1944 Feb. 29), pp. 1857; Y.-C. Chang, C. C. Li, and Liu, AJ,
51 (1944 Aug.), p. 51; V1964, p. 74; G. van Biesbroeck, CLPL, 8 (1970), pp. 3335;
B. G. Marsden, AJ, 83 (1978 Jan.), pp. 66, 68; W. Orchiston, J. F. Skjellerup, and
Barnes, JBAA, 109 (1999 Dec.), p. 332.

2P/Encke Recovered: 1941 January 19.03 ( = 2.02 AU, r = 1.65 AU, Elong. = 55)
Last seen: 1941 March 19.83 ( = 1.52 AU, r = 0.76 AU, Elong. = 26)
1941 V = 1941b Closest to the Earth: 1941 May 12 (0.5139 AU)
Calculated path: PSC (Rec) [Did not leave this constellation]
In the absence of a prediction for this comets impending return of 1941, the
editors of the BAA Handbook used the late A. C. D. Crommelins 59.5-year
cycle to generate orbital elements. This cycle was said to reproduce the perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn almost perfectly. The resulting predicted
perihelion date was 1941 April 18.15.
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catalog of comets

G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) recovered this


comet, at a position of = 23h 21.8m , = +4 03 , on photographs exposed
with the 61-cm reflector on 1941 January 19.03. The comet appeared as a
small, diffuse, round coma of magnitude 17. Van Biesbroeck confirmed the
recovery on January 20.03 and noted the coma was 15 across, with little
condensation. He noted that his positions indicated the comet was within
3 of Crommelins prediction.
The comet was poorly situated at this return. On January 25, van Biesbroeck estimated the photographic magnitude as 16.5, and said the coma
diameter was 20 , with little condensation. On February 16, van Biesbroeck
estimated the photographic magnitude as 15. He said the coma was round
and 25 across. On February 19, van Biesbroeck estimated the photographic
magnitude as 14.5. He said the coma was only slightly condensed and 40
in diameter. On February 20, van Biesbroeck estimated the photographic
magnitude as 14. He added that the diffuse coma was 35 across. Van Biesbroeck estimated the photographic magnitude as 13 on March 1, and noted
some interference from twilight. He added that the coma seemed to show
a projection in the direction of the sun, suggesting a beginning of physical
activity.
The comet was last detected on March 19.83, by F. Baldet and C. Bertaud
(Meudon Observatory, France). They photographed the comet using the 32cm refractor and even saw it visually through that telescopes finder. The
comet was described as a weak circular nebulosity about 1 in diameter,
with a marked nebulous central condensation, but without a perceptible
stellar nucleus. They indicated a position of = 1h 18.5m , = +14 51 .
An extrafocal comparison to two nearby stars revealed a photographic and
visual magnitude of about 11. The comet passed about 7.5 from the sun on
April 26.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by S. G. Makover (1952,
1956), S. Y. Luchich (1958), B. G. Marsden (1969, 1970), N. A. Bokhan and
Y. A. Chernetenko (1974), and Marsden and Z. Sekanina (1974). All of these
orbits included planetary perturbations, while those from 1969 and later also
included the effects of nongravitational terms. The result was a perihelion
date of April 17.1517.16 and a period of 3.31 years. Marsden and Sekanina
(1974) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = 0.05, A2 = 0.00822.
T
1941 Apr. 17.1460 (TT)

 (2000.0)
185.1528 335.4681

i
12.3558

q
e
0.341381 0.846164

absolute magnitude: H10 = 12.4 (V1964)


full moon: Jan. 13, Feb. 12, Mar. 13
sources: A. C. D. Crommelin, BAA Handbook for 1941 (1940 Nov.), p. 16; G. van
Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 561 (1941 Jan. 20); G. van Biesbroeck, IAUC, No. 844
(1941 Jan. 21); G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 565 (1941 Jan. 25); F. Baldet and
C. Bertaud, Bulletin de la Societe Astronomique de France, 55 (1941 Feb.), p. 30;

134

catalog of comets
G. van Biesbroeck and A. C. D. Crommelin, PA, 49 (1941 Mar.), p. 167; G. van
Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 64 (1941 Apr.), p. 30; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 49 (1941
Apr.), p. 218; G. van Biesbroeck, A. C. D. Crommelin, and L. Matkiewicz, PASP,
53 (1941 Apr.), p. 135; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1942 Aug. 13), pp. 302; S. G.
Makover, MNRAS, 112 (1952), pp. 3423; S. G. Makover, TrITA, 6 (1956), pp. 69
79; S. Y. Luchich, MNRAS, 119 (1959), pp. 4423; V1964, p. 74; B. G. Marsden, AJ,
74 (1969 Jun.), pp. 7256, 72830; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 11 (1970 Sep.), pp. 232
3; N. A. Bokhan and Y. A. Chernetenko, QJRAS, 15 (1974 Dec.), pp. 4523, 459;
B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina, AJ, 79 (1974 Mar.), pp. 41319.

29P/ Recovered: Visible throughout orbit


Schwassmann Last seen: Visible throughout orbit
Wachmann 1 Closest to the Earth: 1941 August 20 (4.5210 AU)
Calculated path: LEO (1933 Jun. 28), SEX (1934 Jul. 24), LEO (Aug. 30), VIR
1941 VI (Dec. 1), LEO (1935 Feb. 7), VIR (Aug. 16), CRV (Dec. 16), VIR (1936 Apr. 30),
CRV (Aug. 8), VIR (Sep. 17), HYA (1937 Jan. 29), VIR (May 3), HYA (Oct. 3),
LIB (Oct. 9), HYA (Nov. 16), LIB (Nov. 29), SCO (1938 Feb. 7), LUP (Feb. 16),
LIB (Jun. 16), SCO (Oct. 5), SGR (1939 Mar. 16), SCO (May 19), OPH (Oct.
10), SGR (Oct. 16), CAP (1940 Apr. 3), SGR (Jul. 5), CAP (Nov. 27), AQR
(1941 Apr. 14), CAP (Aug. 27), AQR (Dec. 13), PSC (1942 Mar. 6), ARI (1943
Jul. 21), PSC (Sep. 10), ARI (1944 Mar. 11), TAU (Aug. 7), ARI (Oct. 13), TAU
(1945 Apr. 5), AUR (Jul. 2), GEM (1946 Sep. 1), AUR (Dec. 17), GEM (1947
May 17), CNC (Sep. 15), GEM (1948 Jan. 9), CNC (Jun. 4), LEO (Oct. 27),
CNC (Dec. 30), LEO (1949 Jul. 13)
This comets nearly circular orbit allowed it to be observed nearly every
year between its aphelions of 1933 March and 1949 April. The comet was
difficult or impossible to observe unless it was experiencing one of its rather
frequent outbursts.
Around the time of the 1933 aphelion passage, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes
Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) photographed the comet on March 2, 15, and
24, using the 61-cm reflector. He gave the magnitude as 16.5 on each occasion. He described the comet as extremely faint and diffuse on the 2nd and
noted a small coma about 10 across on the 24th. F. Lause (Innsbruck, Austria) photographed the comets position on March 16 and 28, but found no
trace. He concluded that it was fainter than magnitude 15.5. R. R. E. Schorr
(Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) photographed the comet on
March 21 and 22, and gave the magnitude as 13.5. He obtained additional
photographs on March 24 and 25, and said the comet was magnitude 14.5,
with a coma 15 across. On April 22, Schorr noted the comet appeared as a
circular bright nebula of magnitude 12, about 45 across, and without condensation. He noted the comet seemed unchanged in physical appearance
on April 25 and 26, although the magnitude had faded to 13 and 14, respectively. Schorr said the comet had changed little on the 27th and estimated the
magnitude as 14. On May 14, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 13.5. He said the coma was 15 across, with central condensation.
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catalog of comets

On the 18th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 13 and noted the comet
was still small in diameter. On May 20, Schorr gave the magnitude as
12.5. He described the comet as a nebula 15 across and without condensation. He added that the appearance was unchanged on the 21st, except the
magnitude had faded to 13. Lause gave the magnitude as 12 on the 21st and
noted a bright nucleus within a small coma. On the 22nd, Schorr noted a
nebulosity of magnitude 14, with a condensation 30 across. On the 23rd,
van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 13. He also noted a coma 25 across
and a central nucleus. On May 25, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as
13 and said the coma was 35 across and diffuse.
On 1934 January 13, W. H. W. Baade (Mount Wilson Observatory, California, USA) photographed the comet with the 254-cm reflector. He described
it as a diffuse disk 1.6 in diameter, without any halo. The magnitude was
18.5. Van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector on
February 15 and 19. He gave the magnitude as 17.5 and noted the very diffuse coma exhibited no central disk. He gave the coma diameter as 10 on the
15th and 12 on the 19th. On March 7, Kaiser gave the magnitude as 13.5. On
the 10th, van Biesbroeck described the comet as a nearly starlike nucleus of
magnitude 18, with a barely perceptible coma, which was estimated as 30
across. On the 12th, G. N. Neujmin (Simeis Observatory, Crimea, Ukraine)
gave the magnitude as 14 and noted the comet was planet-like. On March
14, van Biesbroeck found the comet to have become smaller, while brightening to magnitude 13. On the 16th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude
as 13.5. A stellar nucleus was situated in the center of a round coma measuring about 12 across. On the 18th, Neujmin gave the magnitude as 13.5.
On the 20th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 13.5. The coma was 15
across and contained a sharp nucleus. On March 25, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 13.5. The round coma was 20 across, and contained a
well-marked condensation.
On April 2, Kaiser could not find the comet and noted it was obviously
too faint. On the 8th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 14. The coma
had increased in diameter to 45 and had very little condensation. On the 9th,
van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 14.5, while the slightly condensed
coma was 50 across. That same night, K. Liebermann (Danzig, now Gdansk,
Poland) obtained a 67-minute exposure which showed stars to magnitude
15, but no trace of the comet. On April 17, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude
as 15, while the coma diameter had decreased to 30 .
On May 2, van Biesbroeck seemed to have detected a very minor outburst
as the comet was described as decidedly brighter and sharper edged, with
a total magnitude of 14. On the 3rd, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as
14. The round coma was 35 across, with a fairly well-defined edge, and
contained hardly any central condensation. On the 8th, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 14.5. The central part of the coma was bright and measured
about 10 across, while a fainter outer coma was 40 across and was without
a defined edge. On May 18, van Biesbroeck tried to photograph the comet
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catalog of comets

with the 61-cm reflector, but found no trace. He remarked that the total
magnitude was then less than 16.
On November 15, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 16. The coma
was about 1 across, and only feebly condensed toward the center.
Van Biesbroeck was the only astronomer to obtain descriptive observations of this comet in 1935, all of which were obtained with a 61-cm reflector.
The first observation of the year came on February 3, when the comet was
photographed at a magnitude of 17.5. Most of the light, he noted, is concentrated in a small nucleus. The coma is extremely faint. On February 26,
the comet was a hardly measureable hazy spot of magnitude 17.5, while
on February 27, it was at magnitude 17 and better condensed than on the
previous night. Schorr obtained two photographs on March 5, which failed
to reveal the comet and van Biesbroeck detected no trace of the comet on
photographs taken on March 27. Van Biesbroeck said the comet must have
then been fainter than 17.5. On April 7, van Biesbroeck photographed the
comet at magnitude 15 and noted a well-condensed coma. He said most
of the comets light was concentrated within 8 . Van Biesbroeck next photographed the comet on May 4, at which time the magnitude had brightened to 12.5 and the small round coma had increased in diameter to 20 .
The final observation of the year came on May 10, when van Biesbroeck
gave the magnitude as 14. The coma was described as 25 in diameter and
diffuse.
An ephemeris for this comet in 1936 was apparently not published until
after the comets opposition. Van Biesbroecks photographic searches were
conducted during May, but failed to reveal the comet. No observations were
reported from any observatory during the year.
Van Biesbroeck was the only astronomer to obtain descriptive observations of the comet during 1937, and they were plentiful. All of his observations were obtained with a 61-cm reflector, except that on May 15, when
the 102-cm refractor was used. The first plates were exposed on January 16.
Additional plates were exposed on January 18, February 17, and March 17.
All of these were at first considered not to have shown the comet, but later
observations in May revealed a large correction was needed in the published ephemeris. Upon re-examining these earlier plates, van Biesbroeck
found the comet as an extremely diffuse coma of magnitude 17 on the
January plates, and as suspected magnitude 16 images on the February
and March plates the latter of which were too weak to measure for accurate positions. The comet was officially first recognized on May 6, at which
time the magnitude was given as 15.5, while the coma was very diffuse. On
May 8, the magnitude had slightly faded to 15, but the coma seemed to have
become slightly elongated in to a diameter of 30 . The brightness took a
momentary dip on May 10, when van Biesbroeck noted an extremely vague
image of magnitude 16.5, but by May 15, it had brightened and reached a
magnitude of 13.5. The coma was described as round on this latter date and
was 8 across, with a well-condensed nucleus. The brightness seems to have
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catalog of comets

slowly subsided thereafter. On May 17 and May 29, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 14.5, while the coma was described as well condensed.
On May 30, June 8, and June 11, the brightness had declined to 15.5. The
comet was last detected during 1937 on July 1, at which time it appeared
very diffuse and about magnitude 16.
Van Biesbroeck said, Repeated photographs in 1938 have failed to reveal
the presence of the object in that opposition. No observations were made
of this comet from any observatory in 1938.
J. Bobone (National Observatory, Cordoba,

Argentina) made the first


attempts at trying to observe this comet in 1939, when he exposed photographic plates on April 26 and May 15. With stars visible to magnitude
16, the fact that no cometary images were detected meant the comet was
fainter than the plate limit. Similarly, plates exposed on May 17 and 18 at
McDonald Observatory (Texas, USA) also failed to show the comet at least
initially. The comet attained its most southerly declination of 33 on June 1.
The comet was finally, and quite accidentally, recovered on 1939 June
12.85, when C. V. Jackson (Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa)
found what he thought was a new comet on a photographic plate. He gave
the position as = 17h 42.5m , = 33 01 . The comet was described as
diffuse, with a central condensation, and had a magnitude of 13. Although
the comet was officially announced as a new discovery on June 16, and
was even given the preliminary designation 1939f, van Biesbroeck had
photographed 29P on June 14, and found it in the midst of an outburst. He
gave the magnitude as 14.5 and added that it possessed a round, diffuse
coma 25 in diameter. Most significant was the fact that the comet was not
in the predicted position and, after the Central Bureau had been informed of
this, it was soon realized that Jacksons new comet was actually 29P. The
comet was also photographed on June 15, June 16, and June 18, by Bobone
and M. Dartayet (National Observatory). They gave the magnitude as 15.
On June 21, Jackson gave the magnitude as 13.
With the knowledge that the comet was not in its predicted position, van
Biesbroeck corrected the published ephemeris and re-examined the photographic plates exposed by C. Seifert and J. L. Greenstein (McDonald Observatory) on May 17 and May 18. He found the comet on both plates as a
nearly starlike image of magnitude 17, with a very dim coma 30 in diameter.
Bobone exposed photographic plates on July 6 and July 18, but no
cometary images were found. He concluded the comet was probably fainter
than magnitude 16.
On 1940 July 4, H. Hirose (Tokyo Observatory, Japan) photographed the
comet and gave the magnitude as 13. He noted it was fairly large, with
little central condensation. On September 28, van Biesbroeck (McDonald
Observatory) gave the magnitude of the stellar nucleus as 17. He added
that the faint coma spread in PA 130 into a broad fan 1 long. On September 29, van Biesbroeck said the coma extended mostly toward PA 150.
On September 30, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 17. He added
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catalog of comets

that the coma was nearly round. On October 1, van Biesbroecks 10-minute
exposure with the 208-cm reflector revealed a very diffuse image. On October 2, H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) photographed the
comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 15. The
1-hour exposure showed a well-condensed nucleus surrounded by a very
diffuse, faint coma measuring 90 across. On October 25, van Biesbroeck
gave the magnitude as 17.5. He said the photographic image was very diffuse. On October 26, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 17. He said
the nucleus was diffuse and 10 across, but there was hardly any coma.
On October 27, van Biesbroeck estimated the magnitude as 17. He said the
coma was more easily visible than on the 26th, and extended mostly toward
PA 120.
The year 1941 was the busiest one of this apparition. On April 30, van
Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave
the magnitude as 18. He added that the round coma was 10 across.
On July 4, the photographic magnitude was given as 13 by Hirose
and 14 by van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory). Van Biesbroeck said the
round coma was 40 across. On July 24, W. Gliese (Potsdam Observatory,
Germany) gave the photographic magnitude as 13.6. Gliese photographed
the comet using a 40-cm reflector and said the coma was 1.0 across, with
a weak nucleus simply estimated as fainter than 13.6. On the 25th, Gliese
gave the photographic magnitude as 13.4. On July 27, Gliese did not find
the comet on a photograph and said the magnitude must have been less
than 13.5.
On August 3, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 17 and said the
comet appeared as a hardly measurable diffuse coma. On the 14th, P. Finsler
(Zurich,

Switzerland) gave the visual magnitude as 13 and said the diffuse


coma was 60 across. On the 17th, C. Hoffmeister (Sonneberg, Germany)
photographed the comet and gave the magnitude as 14.5. He said the coma
was 9 across and exhibited no nucleus. On the 21st, Hoffmeister gave the
photographic magnitude as 14.5. He said the coma was 96 across and
contained no nucleus. On the 23rd, van Biesbroeck obtained a 30-minute
exposure using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 16. He said
the diffuse, round coma was 35 across. On the 24th and 25th, Finsler gave
the visual magnitude as 13.5 and said the comet was very weak. On the 27th,
van Biesbroeck obtained a 30-minute exposure using the 61-cm reflector and
gave the magnitude as 15.5. He said the coma had enlarged to 1 across, while
a well-defined nucleus was 5 across. On August 28, Finsler said the comet
was close to a star and was hardly discernible. Van Biesbroeck obtained a
30-minute exposure with the reflector and gave the magnitude as 16. He
said the image was practically stellar!
In early September, Neujmin reported the discovery of a new comet
on plates exposed on August 29.94, at a position of = 21h 54.5m , =
11 16 . He gave the magnitude as 13 and described it as stellar, with an
asteroid-like motion. Several observations were made of the new comet
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catalog of comets

in early September, and it was given the preliminary designation of 1941f;


however, on September 15, L. E. Cunningham announced that comet
Neujmin was identical to comet SchwassmannWachmann 1.
On September 11, van Biesbroeck obtained a 7-minute exposure using
the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 13. He said the diffuse coma
was 25 in diameter. On the 12th, van Biesbroeck visually observed the
comet using the 102-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 12. Bobone
photographed the comet on the 14th and 15th, and noted it was diffuse,
without a nucleus. He gave the magnitude as 14.8 on the 14th and 15.6 on
the 15th. On the 15th, Gliese photographed the comet using the 40-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 12.7. He said the weak coma was 1.7 across,
with a stellar nucleus of magnitude 12.9. R. N. Thomas (Harvard College
Observatorys Oak Ridge Station, Massachusetts, USA) photographed the
comet using the 41-cm refractor and revealed a magnitude of 15. Thomas
said the comet appeared diffuse. On the 16th, the photographic magnitude
was given as 12.1 by Hoffmeister and 12.7 by Bobone. Hoffmeister said the
coma was 58 across, with a starlike nucleus of magnitude 12.7. Bobone
noted the comet appeared starlike. On the 17th, Bobone gave the photographic magnitude as 11.8 and noted the comet was stellar. On the 18th,
Thomas photographed the comet using the 41-cm refractor and gave the
magnitude as 11. He said the comet appeared almost stellar. On September
19, N. Richter (Berlin-Babelsberg Observatory, Germany) photographed the
comet and gave the magnitude as 12.9. He described it as diffuse, without
a nucleus.
On September 20, Thomas photographed the comet using the 20-cm
refractor and said the comet appeared slightly fainter and more diffuse
than on the 18th. Gliese gave the photographic magnitude as 11.9. He said
the coma was weak, while the nucleus was bright. Richter photographed
the comet and gave the magnitude as 12.2. He described the coma as diffuse, with a nucleus of magnitude 13.6. Hoffmeister gave the photographic
magnitude as 11.7 and said the coma was 77 across.
On September 21, Gliese gave the photographic magnitude as 11.5. He
said the weak coma was 2 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 11.8. Richter
gave the photographic magnitude as 12.4. He said the coma was diffuse and
exhibited a nucleus of magnitude 12.9. Hoffmeister gave the photographic
magnitude as 11.0. He said the coma was 81 across and contained a stellar
nucleus of magnitude 12.8. On September 22, Hoffmeister gave the photographic magnitude as 11.6. The coma was 94 across and contained a stellar
nucleus of magnitude 12.1.
On September 23, Gliese gave the photographic magnitude as 11.7. He
said the coma was 1.5 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 12.0. Richter gave
the photographic magnitude as 12.4. He said the coma was diffuse, but was
without the prominent central condensation of September 21. Richter visually estimated the coma diameter as 33 . Hoffmeister gave the photographic
magnitude as 10.8 and noted the coma was 101 across.
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catalog of comets

On September 24, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory) photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as
13. He said the fairly sharp nucleus was surrounded by a faint coma which
extended mostly toward PA 330. Jeffers photographed the comet using the
91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 10.0. He said a 1-hour
exposure showed a strongly condensed, roughly elliptical coma measuring
30 by 35 . Richter gave the photographic magnitude as 12.6 and noted the
comet was diffuse, with a central nucleus of magnitude 13.4. Richter visually observed the comet and said the coma was 46 across. Hoffmeister gave
the photographic magnitude as 11.1. He said the coma was 51 across, with
a stellar nucleus of magnitude 13.4.
On September 25, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as
12.5. He said the coma spread into a broad fan which extended about 1
toward PA 330. Richter visually estimated the coma diameter as 49 . Gliese
gave the photographic magnitude as 12.5. He said the bright coma was 11.5
across.
On September 26, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as
12.5. He said the coma was less eccentric than on the 25th. Gliese gave the
photographic magnitude as 11.8 and said the coma was 1.5 across. Richter
visually observed the coma as 49 across.
On September 27, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the
208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 13. He said the nucleus was
nearly stellar and shone at magnitude 15. It was surrounded by a nearly
round coma some 30 across. Richter visually observed the comet using the
65-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 12. He gave the nuclear magnitude as 12. Richter also photographed the comet using the same telescope
and gave the magnitude as 12.9. The nuclear magnitude was given as 13.4.
Gliese photographed the comet and said the coma was 1.7 across, with a
stellar nucleus of magnitude 12.6. Hoffmeister gave the photographic magnitude as 13.5. He said the stellar nucleus was magnitude 13.6 and was
surrounded by a weak coma 37 across.
On September 29, Hoffmeister gave the photographic magnitude as 13.5.
He said the stellar nucleus was magnitude 13.8 and was surrounded by a
weak coma. Gliese gave the photographic magnitude as 11.9. He said the
coma was 1.5 across, with a weak nucleus.
On October 7, Gliese gave the photographic magnitude as 12. He said the
bright coma was greater than 1.5 across. On the 12th, Hoffmeister gave the
photographic magnitude as 13. He said the stellar nucleus was surrounded
by a weak coma measuring 120 across. On the 17th, van Biesbroeck gave
the photographic magnitude as 10. The comet was described as stellar. On
the 20th, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 10.5. He said
most of the comets light came from the nucleus, which measured 12
in diameter. It was surrounded by a sharply outlined, slightly eccentric
coma, some 20 across. Richter gave the photographic magnitude as 11.5.
He said the comet was absolutely stellar, hence, a nuclear magnitude of
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catalog of comets

11.5. On the 21st, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 10.
He said the nucleus was sharp and bright, with a diameter of 8 . The coma
was 25 in diameter and was brightest toward PA 210. Hoffmeister gave
the visual magnitude as 12 and the photographic magnitude as 10.4. His
photograph indicated the nuclear magnitude was 10.4, while the coma was
48 across. Richter said the coma was 31 across and contained a sharp inner
coma 6.0 across. Gliese gave the photographic magnitude as 11.4. He said
the weak coma contained a bright nucleus. On the 22nd, Hoffmeister gave
the photographic magnitude as 12. On the 27th, van Biesbroeck gave the
photographic magnitude as 10. He said the nucleus shone at magnitude 15,
but was no longer as sharp as on previous days and was quite eccentically
situated within the coma toward PA 110. The coma was 50 across and was
brightest toward PA 110.
On November 9, Richter visually observed the coma and said it was 58
across. Hoffmeister gave the photographic magnitude as 13.514. He said
the main coma was 114 across, the inner coma was 50 across, and the
nuclear condensation was 19 across. On the 10th, Richter visually observed
the coma and said it was 81 across, without a central condensation. On the
13th, van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory) photographed the comet using
the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 14. He said the round coma
was 3 across and contained a well-condensed nucleus. On the 13th and 14th,
Richter gave the photographic magnitude as 14.2. He described the comet
as diffuse and washed out. Richter visually gave the coma diameter as
68 . On the 14th, Hoffmeister gave the photographic magnitude as 1314.
He said the nucleus was diffuse, with a coma measuring 143 across. Gliese
described the comet as diffuse, without a nucleus, and 1.52 across. Richter
gave the photographic magnitude as 14.3. On the 15th, Richter gave the photographic magnitude as 14.5. On the 16th, Richter gave the photographic
magnitude as 14.6. Hoffmeister gave the photographic magnitude as 1314.
He said the nucleus was diffuse, with a coma measuring 130 across. Gliese
described the comet as very diffuse, without a nucleus, and 4 across. On the
18th, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and
gave the magnitude as 14.5. He said the round coma was 3 across, while
the nucleus had become more diffuse than on November 13. On the 20th,
Hoffmeister gave the photographic magnitude as 1314. The nucleus was
diffuse, with a coma measuring 181 across. On November 22, Hoffmeister gave the photographic magnitude as 15. The nucleus was diffuse, with
a coma measuring 156 across. On December 17, Hoffmeister could not
detect the comet on a photographic plate with a limiting stellar magnitude
of 14.
On 1942 August 15, R. Sekiguti (Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo, Japan) gave
the magnitude as 15. On September 6 and 7, van Biesbroeck (McDonald
Observatory) photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave
the magnitude as 12. He added that the round coma was 2 across and
contained a sharp nucleus. The coma was brightest toward PA 140.
142

catalog of comets

On September 7.92 and September 11.93, L. Oterma (Turku University Observatory, Finland) accidentally found this comet on photographs
exposed as part of a minor planet survey. She checked the predicted positions of known comets and did not find a match, so she announced it as a
new discovery. The comet was quickly identified as 29P, for which a current
ephemeris was not available at the time her photographs were obtained.
She described the comet as magnitude 13, with a diffuse coma and a central condensation. Interestingly, one British publication later announced the
September 11 image as the discovery photo of 38P/StephanOterma.
On September 8 and 10, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using
the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 13. For the 8th, he said the
coma was fainter and smaller than on previous days, while the nucleus
appeared as a disk measuring about 5 across. For the 10th, he described it
as a tiny stellar nucleus with a bright fan-shaped coma extending about 6
toward PA 260. Van Biesbroeck added that there was also a faint spherical coma about 1 across. On the 11th, O. Volk (Wurzburg,

Germany)
gave the photographed magnitude as 13. Van Biesbroeck photographed the
comet using the reflector and said the fan-shaped coma had faded slightly
from the previous night and extended 10 toward PA 250. On the 13th,
van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 14.5. He said the
nucleus appeared very fuzzy and the coma, which measured about 30
across, was still brightest on the preceding side. On the 15th, van Biesbroeck
gave the photographic magnitude as 15. He said the nucleus was stellar,
while the coma was round, faint and 40 across. On the 16th, van Biesbroeck
gave the photographic magnitude as 16.5. He said the nucleus was sharp, but
the coma was hardly visible. On the 20th, Volk gave the photographic magnitude as 13. On the 27th, H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA)
photographed the comet using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph
and gave the magnitude as 14. On the 28th, Fresa gave the photographic
magnitude as 13. On September 30, the photographic magnitude was given
as 13 by Fresa and 14 by Giclas.
On October 3, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 208-cm
reflector and gave the magnitude as 17. He said the round, fuzzy coma was
10 across, but possessed no nucleus. On the 4th, van Biesbroeck gave the
photographic magnitude as 16. He said the nucleus was well defined and
sharp, while the round coma was extremely faint and 20 across. On the 5th,
van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 17. He said the nucleus
was less sharp than on the previous night. On the 10th, van Biesbroeck gave
the photographic magnitude as 17.5. He said the coma was round and 5
across. On the 14th, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as
18. He said it appeared nearly stellar. On October 15, van Biesbroeck gave
the photographic magnitude as 18.5. He said it appeared nearly stellar.
On November 11, van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory) obtained a 20minute exposure using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as
16. On December 8 and December 9, van Biesbroeck obtained 20-minute
143

catalog of comets

exposures using the reflector and gave the magnitude as 14. He said the
comet possessed a well-defined coma.
Throughout 1943, van Biesbroeck was the only astronomer to provide
physical descriptions of this comet. On January 5 and 6, he photographed
the comet from Yerkes Observatory using the 61-cm reflector and gave the
magnitude as 16. He said the comet was very diffuse. On June 29 and 30,
he obtained 20-minute exposures using the 61-cm reflector and gave the
magnitude as 16. He said the coma was very diffuse, with a diameter of 25 ,
and seemed slightly elongated in right ascension. On October 21, 23, 25,
and 28, he obtained 15- and 20-minute exposures using the 208-cm reflector at McDonald Observatory and gave the magnitude as 17. He said the
comet appeared nearly stellar, except for a very faint coma measuring about
20 across. Back at Yerkes on November 25, he photographed the comets
predicted position using the 61-cm reflector, but the comet was not found,
despite showing stars to magnitude 17. He obtained 20-minute exposures
using the 61-cm reflector on December 16 and 18. For the 16th, he gave the
magnitude as 17 and said the comet appeared nearly stellar. For the 18th,
he gave the magnitude as 18.
On 1944 January 18, van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory) photographed
the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 13. He said
the comet contained a sharp core surrounded by a coma measuring about
4 across. The coma extended mostly toward PA 140. On the 21st, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 13.5. He said the coma was 3
across and was brightest in the second quadrant. On January 24, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 14. The coma was 3 across and
was brightest in the second quadrant. On February 19, van Biesbroeck gave
the photographic magnitude as 15.5. The comet was described as a round,
ill-defined coma measuring about 3 across, but containing no condensation.
On July 1, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 17. He
said the nearly stellar nucleus possessed hardly a coma. On August 17,
G. H. Herbig (Lick Observatory) photographed the comet using the 91-cm
Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 15.5. The large hazy coma was
rather well condensed and 1012 across. On August 18 and 19, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 16. He said the fuzzy nucleus
possessed a dissymmetrical coma extending mostly toward PA 190. On
September 22 and September 26, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic
magnitude as 16.5. He said the nucleus was only a little less sharp than
a star, and exhibited no coma. On October 19, van Biesbroeck (McDonald
Observatory) photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave
the magnitude as 16.5. He said the sharp nucleus possessed a dissymmetrical, faint coma which extended 30 toward PA 200270. On the 20th, Herbig
photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the
magnitude as 17.0. The coma was 6 across. On October 22, van Biesbroeck
gave the photographic magnitude as 16. He said the comet was almost stellar. On November 20, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as
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catalog of comets

16.5. He said the coma was brighter between PA 110 and 200 and extended
to 40 , while it is hardly perceptible over the balance in angle. On December 14, van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory) photographed the comet using
the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 17. He said the poorly defined
coma was about 35 across.
The year 1945 began with van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory) detecting this comet on 1945 February 1. It was then described as a small
nebulosity not brighter than a star of magnitude 17. The comet moved
into evening twilight thereafter and no observations were possible for the
next 7 months. On September 9, Jeffers photographed the comet using the
91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 15.5. He said the comet
appeared stellar. On October 4, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as
18.3. He described the comet as stellar. On October 10, van Biesbroeck photographed the predicted position of the comet with the 61-cm reflector, but
his plates failed to show anything cometary there brighter than magnitude
17. Similar results were obtained with the same instrument on October 30
and November 6, when photographs taken under transparent skies showed
stars to magnitude 18, but no trace of the comet was detected.
On November 13, Jeffers photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 17.5. He said the faint coma was
20 across and contained a stellar nucleus in the western portion. The comet
attained its most northerly declination of +33 on November 14. On the 15th,
van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory) photographed the comet using the
208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 15. The comet was described
as a round coma 40 in diameter, which possessed a slight central condensation. On November 30, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude
as 16. He said the well-condensed nucleus possessed a coma measuring 5
across. On December 1, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude
as 15. He said the comet was practically stellar. On the 6th, van Biesbroeck
gave the photographic magnitude as 15.5. He said the coma was centrally
condensed and 6 across. On December 7, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 15. He said the comet was stellar.
On 1946 January 1 and 2, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory) photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitudes as
14 and 15.5, respectively. He said the nucleus was almost stellar and exhibited a broad fan-shaped tail covering PA 40165 and extending to 36 . The
rest of the PA was blank except for a faint filament extending 30 toward PA
285. On the 11th, Jeffers photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley
reflector and gave the magnitude as 9.4. He said the comet was diffuse, with
a nonstellar nucleus on the north side of a coma 40 across. On the 25th, van
Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory) photographed the comet using the 61-cm
reflector and gave the magnitude as 10.2. He said the sharp nucleus was
surrounded by a round coma 8 across. Jeffers photographed the comet on
the same date and gave the magnitude as 9.4. He said the irregular outer
coma appeared as a faint ring 2 across, while the bright inner coma was
145

catalog of comets

30 across. On the 26th, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude
as 9.4. He said the sharp nucleus was surrounded by a round coma 15
across. On January 29, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude
as 9.5. He said the well-defined central nucleus was surrounded by a coma
20 across. On February 1, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 9.4.
The irregular diffuse coma was 0.8 across, and contained a condensed, but
nonstellar nucleus in the northwestern portion. On the 8th, van Biesbroeck
gave the photographic magnitude as 15. He said the coma was only slightly
condensed and 45 across. On February 18, van Biesbroeck could not find
the comet on a plate showing stars to magnitude 18. He concluded the comet
was fainter than 17. On March 1, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude
as 18. The very faint coma was 40 across and contained a nucleus in the
northwest portion.
On October 5, Jeffers photographed the comet with the 91-cm Crossley
reflector and gave the magnitude as 19. He described the comet as nearly
stellar. On the 22nd, van Biesbroeck photographed the region of the comet
with the 61-cm reflector, but despite stars to magnitude 17 being visible, no
comet was found. On October 24 and 25, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 18.5. He described the comet as nearly stellar. On November 27,
Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 15.5. He said the comet was 20
across and contained a sharp nucleus in the southern portion. On November 29, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 17.5. The round
coma was 10 across. On December 4, van Biesbroeck photographed the
comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 16.5. The coma
was about 30 across and trailed off to 1 toward PA 320. On December 20,
Jeffers photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave
the magnitude as 17.8. He said there was a sharp nucleus surrounded by a
very faint coma.
On 1947 January 22, van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory) photographed
the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 18. The coma
was simply described as tiny and fuzzy. On January 27, van Biesbroeck
said the comet was very faint on a plate exposed with the 61-cm reflector.
On February 19, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 17
and said the comet was diffuse. On March 12 and 14, Jeffers photographed
the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as
18.5. There was a faint coma. On April 11, Jeffers gave the photographic
magnitude as 18.5 and said the comet was completely stellar.
On October 21, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 18. On October
22, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and
gave the magnitude as 18. He noted that the small coma was extremely faint.
On November 12, H. W. Stackpole (Lick Observatory) photographed the
comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 12.5. He
said the comet was nearly stellar. On the 22nd, Jeffers gave the photographic
magnitude as 12.5. The fan-shaped coma was 40 across and surrounded a
stellar nucleus of magnitude 14, which was situated on the northeast edge.
146

catalog of comets

On November 23, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 13.5.


The sharply defined coma was 10 across and possessed a diffuse, broad
extension to 40 in the first quadrant. On December 9, van Biesbroeck gave
the photographic magnitude as 15. The coma was elongated 50 toward
PA 80, and there was no nucleus. On the 19th, Jeffers photographed the
comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and said the coma was very faint
and 20 across, while the nucleus was centrally located and magnitude 18.
On December 20, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 17.
There was a well-defined eccentric nucleus. The broad coma extended 45
toward PA 70.
On 1948 January 7, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 17.5. He said the diffuse coma was
25 across. On the 14th, Jeffers photographed the comet using the 91-cm
Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 16.5. He said the comet was
stellar. On January 17, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude
as 17. He said the nearly round coma was 15 across and possessed a faint
broad extension about 40 long toward PA 330. On February 6, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 17. He said the round coma
was 10 across and was centrally condensed. On February 17, Jeffers gave
the photographic magnitude as 17.5. He said the faint coma was 5 across
and surrounded a sharp nucleus. On March 4, Jeffers gave the photographic
magnitude as 18.2. On April 11, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 18.
On October 2, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory) obtained an 8minute exposure using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 19.
He said the coma was diffuse. On November 9, Jeffers gave the photographic
magnitude as 18.3. He said the diffuse coma was 0.2 across. On the 12th,
van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory) gave the photographic magnitude as
18. On the 29th, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 18.6. The comet
was stellar, with a trace of coma. On the 30th, Jeffers gave the photographic
magnitude as 18.6. The comet was stellar, with a trace of coma. On November
30 and December 7, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet and said the
magnitude was not brighter than 17, while the coma was large and diffuse.
On December 29, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 18.8 and said
the comet was nearly stellar.
The comet arrived at aphelion around the middle of 1949. On January 7
and 8, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and
gave the magnitude as 18. He said the coma was extremely diffuse, with
a diameter of 30 . On the 21st, M. Beyer (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) visually observed the comet using the 60-cm refractor and
gave the magnitude as 15.2. He said the coma was 0.5 across. On the 23rd,
Beyer observed using the refractor and gave the magnitude as 14.21. He
said the coma was round and weakly condensed, with a diameter of 0.7
across. On the 26th, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 13.47. He said
the coma was round, weakly condensed, and 0.8 across, while the nuclear
147

catalog of comets

magnitude was about 15.5. On the 27th, Jeffers photographed the comet
using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 14. He said
a sharp nucleus shone at magnitude 17.5, while a fan-shaped tail extended
0.3 toward the northeast. On the 29th, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as
13.78. He said the coma was 0.7 across, and the nuclear magnitude was
about 16. On the 30th, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude
as 15.5. He said a fairly well-condensed nucleus was surrounded by a diffuse coma, while a protrusion extended 40 toward PA 310. On January 31,
Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 13.8613.91, while van Biesbroeck gave
the photographic magnitude as 16. Beyer said the coma was 1.1 across, and
the nuclear magnitude was about 16.5. Van Biesbroeck said the fairly wellcondensed nucleus was surrounded by a diffuse coma, while a protrusion
extended 40 toward PA 30.
On February 1, Beyer visually observed the comet using the 60-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 14.01. He said the coma was 1.2 across. On the
2nd, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 13.75, while van Biesbroeck gave
the photographic magnitude as 16. Beyer said the coma was 1.2 across. Van
Biesbroeck said the coma extended 50 toward PA 60. On the 5th, Beyer
gave the visual magnitude as 14.10. He said the coma was 1.1 across, and
the nuclear magnitude was about 16.5. On the 17th, Beyer gave the visual
magnitude as 14.52, while van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude
as 16.5. Beyer said the coma was 0.7 across, and the nuclear magnitude was
about 16.5. Van Biesbroeck said the ill-defined coma extended 40 toward
PA 260. On the 19th, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 14.9. On the 20th,
Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 15.0. On the 23rd, Beyer gave the visual
magnitude as 15.3. He said the coma was 0.9 across, and the nuclear magnitude was about 16.5. On the 25th, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 15.3.
He said the coma was 0.8 across, and the nuclear magnitude was about
16.5. On February 27, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as about 15. He said
the coma was 0.6 across, and the nuclear magnitude was about 16.5.
On March 29, Jeffers said a photograph with the 91-cm Crossley reflector
showed a stellar nucleus surrounded by a very faint coma and magnitude
18.2. On April 2 and 3, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the
61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 16.5. He said the coma was
elongated 30 toward PA 280. On April 13, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 18. He said the coma was nearly round with little
condensation. On May 1, Jeffers and S. Vasilevskis photographed the comet
using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 19. They said
the comet was nearly stellar.
The spectrum of this comet can only be observed at the time the comet
is experiencing one of its outbursts in brightness. During this particular apparition, astronomers managed to photograph the spectrum on two
different occasions. N. U. Mayall (Lick Observatory) received a telegram
from Harvard College Observatory stating that the comet was suddenly
brighter, spectra desirable. He subsequently obtained two spectrograms
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catalog of comets

on the night of 1941 September 20. The first spectrum was exposed on
the semi-stellar nucleus for an hour, while the second spectrum was a
two-hour exposure on the nucleus and head. Mayall wrote, The two spectra obtained in this way show no definite evidence of any bright lines or
bands. G. H. Herbig (Lick Observatory) obtained plates using the nebular
spectrograph on 1946 January 26. Although the solar spectrum was seen,
there were no conspicuous bright lines.
Several astronomers analyzed the orbital motion of this comet during this
apparition. These included J. T. Foxell and K. Pollock (1940) and J. G. Behrens
(1944). They demonstrated how the period of the comet was decreasing due
to perturbations by Jupiter.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by P. Herget (1947, 1961,
1972), S. Nakano (1991, 2001), and K. Kinoshita (2003). Hergets calculations
used perturbations by between two and seven planets, while the orbits of
Nakano and Kinoshita used perturbations by seven or more planets, as well
as some minor planets. The calculations from 1972 onward gave a perihelion
date of April 21.61 and a period of 16.1416.15 years. Nakano (2005) noted
that his 2001 orbit still fitted positions up to 2005 with residuals of less than
1 . Kinoshitas orbit, which had the smallest residuals for the 1902 positions,
is given below.
T
1941 Apr. 21.6078 (TT)

 (2000.0)
356.2283 322.7215

i
9.5235

q
e
5.522852 0.135208

absolute magnitude: H10 = 25 (V1964)


full moon: Annual comet: full moons do not limit the overall period of the
comets visibility
sources: R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN, 15 (1933 Mar. 30), p. 22; R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN,
15 (1933 May 4), p. 30; R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN, 15 (1933 May 10), p. 32; R. R. E.
Schorr, IAUC, No. 436 (1933 May 16); R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN, 15 (1933 May 26),
p. 34; F. Lause, BZAN, 15 (1933 May 30), p. 36; R. R. E. Schorr, IAUC, No. 438
(1933 Jun. 2); G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 56 (1933 Jul.), p. 242; F. Lause,
AN, 249 (1933 Aug. 15), p. 322; W. H. W. Baade, HAC, No. 289 (1934 Jan. 25);
W. H. W. Baade, BZAN, 16 (1934 Feb. 12), p. 9; W. H. W. Baade, IAUC, No. 469
(1934 Feb. 24); W. H. W. Baade and G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 42 (1934 Mar.), pp. 143
4; W. H. W. Baade, The Observatory, 57 (1934 Mar.), p. 106; R. R. E. Schorr, AN, 251
(1934 Mar. 5), p. 209; G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 292 (1934 Mar. 15); G. van
Biesbroeck, BZAN, 16 (1934 Mar. 23), p. 19; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 42 (1934 Apr.),
p. 218; F. Kaiser, BZAN, 16 (1934 Apr. 4), p. 22; F. Kaiser, BZAN, 16 (1934 Apr.
10), p. 24; K. Liebermann, BZAN, 16 (1934 Apr. 18), p. 25; G. van Biesbroeck, PA,
42 (1934 May), p. 258; G. N. Neujmin, BZAN, 16 (1934 May 29), p. 32; G. van
Biesbroeck, PA, 42 (1934 Jun.Jul.), p. 334; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 44 (1934 Aug.
31), pp. 1, 3, 5; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 42 (1934 Dec.), p. 594; G. van Biesbroeck,
The Observatory, 58 (1935 Jan.), p. 31; R. R. E. Schorr, BZAN, 17 (1935 Mar. 11),
p. 17; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 43 (1935 May), pp. 3067; G. van Biesbroeck, PA,
43 (1935 Jun.Jul.), p. 356; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 45 (1935 Dec. 4), pp. 17, 19; G.

149

catalog of comets
van Biesbroeck, PA, 44 (1936 Jun.Jul.), p. 325; MNRAS, 97 (1937 Feb.), p. 334;
G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 415 (1937 May 19); G. van Biesbroeck, IAUC, No.
659 (1937 Jun. 2); G. van Biesbroeck, BZAN, 19 (1937 Jun. 3), p. 33; G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 60 (1937 Jul.), p. 203; [correction], HAC, No. 416 (1937
Jul. 6); G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 47 (1938 Nov. 21), pp. 157, 160, 162; C. V. Jackson,
IAUC, No. 776 (1939 Jun. 16); C. V. Jackson, IAUC, No. 777 (1939 Jun. 17); C. V.
Jackson, G. van Biesbroeck, C. Seifert, and J. L. Greenstein, PA, 47 (1939 Aug.
Sep.), pp. 3934; C. V. Jackson and E. L. Johnson, UOC, 5 (1940 Jan. 31), p. 32; J.
Bobone, AJ, 48 (1940 Feb. 28), p. 189; H. Hirose, PA, 48 (1940 Oct.), p. 430; J. T.
Foxell and K. Pollock, BAA Handbook for 1941 (1940 Nov.), p. 19; H. M. Jeffers,
LOB, 19 (1941), p. 115; H. Hirose, IAUC, No. 840 (1941 Jan. 3); G. van Biesbroeck,
HAC, No. 582 (1941 May 6); G. van Biesbroeck, IAUC, No. 866 (1941 Jun. 14);
G. N. Neujmin, HAC, No. 600 (1941 Sep. 10); C. Hoffmeister, IAUC, No. 884
(1941 Sep. 13); L. E. Cunningham and G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 603 (1941
Sep. 15); R. N. Thomas, HAC, No. 605 (1941 Sep. 22); G. van Biesbroeck and R. N.
Thomas, IAUC, No. 891 (1941 Nov. 7); G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 49 (1941 Nov. 20),
pp. 112, 114; N. U. Mayall, PASP, 53 (1941 Dec.), pp. 3401; W. Gliese, AN, 272
(1942 Jul.), pp. 26970; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1942 Aug. 13), pp. 2933; G.
van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 630 (1942 Sep. 15); L. Oterma, IAUC, No. 919 (1942
Sep. 23); L. Oterma, IAUC, No. 920 (1942 Sep. 25); L. Oterma, The Observatory,
64 (1942 Oct.), p. 339; Sekiguti, IAUC, No. 921 (1942 Oct. 7); O. Volk and A.
Fresa, IAUC, No. 924 (1942 Nov. 9); G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1943 Dec. 3),
pp. 1668; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1944), p. 163; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1944
Feb. 29), pp. 1834; H. L. Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 63; G. H. Herbig, LOB,
19 (1945), p. 172; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 51 (1945 Mar.), pp. 11114; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 53 (1945 Mar.), p. 140; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 53 (1945 Nov.), p. 473;
G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 54 (1946 Jan.), p. 51; G. H. Herbig, PASP, 58 (1946 Feb.),
p. 61; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 54 (1946 Dec.), p. 553; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1947),
pp. 1845; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 52 (1947 May), p. 201; P. Herget, MNRAS, 107
(1947), pp. 11013; P. Herget, AJ, 53 (1947 Aug.), pp. 1617; H. M. Jeffers and H. W.
Stackpole, LOB, 19 (1948), pp. 18990; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 54 (1948 Dec.), p. 87;
H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 20 (1949), p. 33; G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 57 (1949 Jan.), p. 29;
H. M. Jeffers and S. Vasilevskis, LOB, 20 (1950), p. 39; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 55
(1950 Jan.), pp. 58, 60; M. Beyer, AN, 278 (1950 Jul. 14), pp. 2413; N. Richter, W.
Gliese, P. Finsler, C. Hoffmeister, R. N. Thomas, L. Oterma, O. Volk, A. Fresa, AN,
281 (1954 Sep. 21), pp. 2427; P. Herget, AJ, 66 (1961 Aug.), pp. 26671; V1964,
p. 74; P. Herget, CCO, 1st ed. (1972), pp. 25, 47; S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 548
(1991 Apr. 6); S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 787 (2001 May 2); personal correspondence from K. Kinoshita (2003); personal correspondence from S. Nakano
(2005).

C/1941 K1 Discovered: 1941 May 27.97 ( = 0.91 AU, r = 1.86 AU, Elong. = 150)
(van Gent) Last seen: 1942 February 18.05 ( = 2.64 AU, r = 2.74 AU, Elong. = 85)
Closest to the Earth: 1941 June 21 (0.6033 AU)
1941 VIII = 1941d Calculated path: CrA (Disc), SCO (May 29), OPHSCO (Jun. 9), OPH (Jun.
13), SCO (Jun. 14), LIB (Jun. 17), VIR (Jun. 27), BOO (Jul. 2), COM (Jul. 20),
CVn (Jul. 25), COM (Jul. 27), CVn (Aug. 1), UMa (Sep. 11), LYN (Nov. 11),
AUR (Nov. 19), TAU (Dec. 6)
150

catalog of comets

H. van Gent (Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) discovered


this comet on 1941 May 27.97, at a position of = 18h 01.9m , = 40
07 . He estimated the magnitude as 11, and described the comet as diffuse,
with a central condensation and a tail less than 1 long. The original discovery announcement erroneously said the comet was discovered at Bosscha Observatory (Lembang, South Africa). An independent discovery was
made by G. Bernasconi (Cagno, Italy) on June 16.9. He estimated the magnitude as 10, and described the comet as diffuse, without a condensation.
Another independent discovery was made by M. Howarth (Grange Mountain Observatory, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia) on June 17.38.
He estimated the magnitude as 10 and noted the comet was diffuse. At the
time of the discovery, the comet was about 3 months from perihelion and
about a month from passing closest to Earth.
On June 14, A. F. I. Forbes (South Africa) gave the magnitude as 8 and
noted a tail about 15 long. He said it displayed a big tousled head with
solid looking nucleus but no stellar like centre. He commented, It looks
like a young tadpole. On the 17th, the magnitude was given as 9 by L. Volta
and A. Fresa (Torino, Italy). On the 17th and 18th, F. Zagar (Bologna, Italy)
gave the magnitude as 10. On the 19th, the magnitude was given as 8 by
O. Struve (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA), 8.1 by G. van Biesbroeck
(Yerkes Observatory), 9 by Fresa, 9.5 by G. B. Lacchini (Trieste, Italy), and 10
by Zagar. Van Biesbroecks estimate was made extrafocally using the 61-cm
reflector. Struve said the comet was diffuse, with a condensation and a tail
less than 1 long. Van Biesbroeck said the coma merged into a tail which
extended about 5 in PA 135. He added that there was a sharp nucleus.
Lacchini noted a nucleus of magnitude 12 and a coma 5 across. P. Ahnert
(Sonneberg, Germany) said the nucleus shone at magnitude 13. On the 20th,
the magnitude was given as 7.1 by H. Krumpholz (Vienna, Austria) and 10
by U. S. Lyons (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, USA). Lyons was
using the 66-cm refractor. Under very clear skies, Krumpholz described the
coma as nearly 4 across, with a very distinct condensation, while a tail
extended nearly 15 in PA 140. Lyons said the comet was diffuse, with a
central condensation, and barely visible in the 13-cm finder.
On June 21, the magnitude was given as 6.7 by van Biesbroeck and 7.4
by Krumpholz. Lyons said the comet was barely visible in the 13-cm finder,
while the 66-cm refractor showed a decided condensation. On the 23rd, the
nuclear magnitude was given as 13 by N. Richter (Berlin-Babelsberg Observatory, Germany) and Ahnert. On the 24th, the magnitude was given as 6.4
by van Biesbroeck and 7.7 by Krumpholz. Richter gave the nuclear magnitude as 13.5. On the 25th, the magnitude was given as 6.4 by van Biesbroeck,
7.1 by Krumpholz, and 7.74 by M. Beyer (Hamburg, Germany). Beyer said
no nucleus or tail was present. Lyons said the comet was visible in the 13-cm
finder, while the 66-cm refractor showed a nucleus. H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) examined the comet using the 30-cm refractor and
gave the magnitude as 9. He wrote, there was a well-condensed nucleus in
151

catalog of comets

a round coma several minutes of arc in diameter. R. T. Smith (Lick Observatory) photographed the comet using a 20-cm Schmidt reflector and noted a
conspicuous tail about 2 long. On the 26th, van Biesbroeck observed using
binoculars and gave the magnitude as 6.3 using the extrafocal method. On
the 27th, Lyons said the comet was visible in the 5-cm finder. On the 28th,
Fresa gave the magnitude as 8. He noted the centrally condensed comet was
diffuse, with a tail over 1 long. On the 29th, Krumpholz gave the magnitude
as 7.4. He said the 30-cm telescope revealed a coma 4 across, while the 8-cm
finder showed it to be 8 across. There was a small, distinct condensation.
On June 30, the magnitude was given as 6.5 by van Biesbroeck and 7.50 by
Beyer. Van Biesbroeck said the tail was over 15 long. Beyer said no nucleus
or tail was present.
On July 1, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 7.38, while O. Volk
(Wurzburg,

Germany) gave the photographic magnitude as 9.5. Beyer said


no nucleus or tail was present. On the 10th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.06
in moonlight. On the 11th, the magnitude was given as 7.12 by Beyer and
7.6 by Krumpholz. On the 12th, the visual magnitude was given as 6.2 by
van Biesbroeck and 7.42 by N. T. Bobrovnikoff (Perkins Observatory, Ohio,
USA). Both astronomers used binoculars and the extrafocal method. Beyer
gave the visual magnitude as 7.22. Krumpholz said the coma was 4 across,
with a weak condensation. On the 14th, the magnitude was given as 6.80 by
Beyer and 6.98 by Bobrovnikoff. Richter estimated the nuclear magnitude
as 13.5. On July 15, the magnitude was given as 6.1 by Krumpholz and 6.7
by van Biesbroeck. Krumpholz added that the coma was 4 across, with a
distinct condensation, but no tail.
On July 16, the visual magnitude was given as 6.8 by van Biesbroeck and
6.94 by Bobrovnikoff. Bobrovnikoff said his 8 28 binoculars revealed a
coma 11.6 across. On the 17th, Volta gave the photographic magnitude as
7. On the 18th, Bobrovnikoff gave the magnitude as 6.79. On the 19th, van
Biesbroeck gave the visual magnitude as 7.2. He said a photograph with
the 61-cm reflector showed the nucleus was no longer stellar, while the tail
extended 20 in PA 140. On the 20th, Richter gave the nuclear magnitude
as 15. On the 21st, Bobrovnikoff gave the visual magnitude as 6.82, while
Volta gave the photographic magnitude as 7.5. On the 22nd, the magnitude
was given as 6.9 by van Biesbroeck and Bobrovnikoff, using binoculars.
Van Biesbroeck said a photograph with the 61-cm reflector showed the tail
extending 28 in PA 144. Lyons said the comet was faint, but visible in the
5-cm finder. On the 23rd, the magnitude was given as 6.90 by Bobrovnikoff
and 7.01 by Beyer. Richter gave the nuclear magnitude as 14.7. On the 24th,
Bobrovnikoff gave the magnitude as 6.81. On the 26th, the magnitude was
given as 6.8 by van Biesbroeck and 7.00 by Beyer. Beyer said the coma was
5 across, while the tail extended 10 in PA 128. On the 27th, Beyer gave
the magnitude as 6.93. On July 28, the magnitude was given as 6.76 by
Bobrovnikoff and 6.88 by Beyer. Beyer said a nuclear condensation shone
at magnitude 9, while the tail extended 26 in PA 135.
152

catalog of comets

On August 2, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.4 under hazy and moonlit
skies. He said the tail extended 12 in PA 143. Van Biesbroeck said a photograph with the 102-cm refractor revealed a well-condensed, but not stellar,
nucleus. On the 9th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.08 in moonlight. He
said the tail extended 6 in about PA 87. On the 10th, Bobrovnikoff gave the
magnitude as 6.77. On the 11th, Bobrovnikoff gave the magnitude as 6.87.
On the 12th, the magnitude was given as 7.05 by van Biesbroeck and 7.22 by
Beyer. Beyer said the tail extended 15 in PA 117. On the 13th, Bobrovnikoff
gave the magnitude as 6.826.89. He said the coma was 5.3 across. On the
14th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.25 and said the tail extended 23 in PA
126. Beyer added that a nuclear condensation shone at magnitude 9. On
the 15th, Krumpholz gave the magnitude as 7.0. He added that the coma
was round, with a small, but distinct, condensation.
On August 16, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 7.05. On the 17th,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.05 and said the tail extended 8 in PA 135.
On the 19th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 7.16. On the 21st,
the magnitude was given as 6.86 by Bobrovnikoff and 7.3 by Krumpholz.
On the 23rd, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 7.10. On the 24th, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 7.20. He said the coma was 6 across, with a sharp
nucleus of magnitude 9.5, and a tail extending 20 in PA 121. On the 26th,
Bobrovnikoff gave the magnitude as 6.91. On the 26th and 28th, Lyons said
the comet was easily visible in the 5-cm finder, while the 66-cm refractor
revealed the comet shining with a greenish color. On the 27th, the magnitude was given as 7.02 by van Biesbroeck, 7.06 by Bobrovnikoff, and 7.29
by Beyer. Beyer said the coma was 3 across, with a nuclear condensation of
magnitude 9.5, and a tail extending 18 in PA 115. On the 28th, Krumpholz
gave the magnitude as 7.6. On August 31, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.34
in moonlight. He said the tail extended 10 in PA 121.
On September 1, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.41 in moonlight. He said
the tail extended 8 in PA 116. On the 7th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.41
in moonlight. On the 8th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.32 in moonlight. He
said the tail extended 10 in PA 104. On the 11th, Beyer gave the magnitude
as 7.26. On September 15, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.31 and said the
tail extended 20 in PA 103.
On September 16, Bobrovnikoff gave the magnitude as 7.10. On the 17th,
the magnitude was given as 7.23 by Bobrovnikoff, using binoculars, 7.4
by J. R. Gill (John Payson Williston Observatory, Mount Holyoke College,
Massachusetts, USA), and 7.7 by A. H. Farnsworth (John Payson Williston
Observatory). The last two astronomers were using a 20-cm refractor. On
the 19th, Farnsworth gave the magnitude as 8.0. On the 20th, the magnitude
was given as 7.36 by Beyer, 8.2 by Farnsworth, and 8.5 by Krumpholz. Beyer
said the coma was 5 across, with a tail extending 12 in PA 98. Krumpholz
added that the coma was round, 23 across, with a distinct condensation.
On the 21st, Bobrovnikoff gave the magnitude as 7.27. On the 22nd, the
magnitude was given as 7.38 by Bobrovnikoff, 7.8 by Farnsworth, and 8.2
153

catalog of comets

by Gill. On the 23rd, the magnitude was given as 7.42 by Bobrovnikoff and
7.6 by Farnsworth. On the 24th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.30 and said
the tail extended 15 in PA 85. On the 25th, Gill gave the magnitude as 7.6.
On the 26th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.4 under hazy skies. On the 27th,
the magnitude was given as 7.48 by Beyer and 7.6 by Farnsworth. Beyer said
the tail extended 24 in PA 86. On the 28th, Beyer gave the magnitude as
7.43 and said the tail extended 20 in PA 87. On September 29, Beyer gave
the magnitude as 7.55 in moonlight.
On October 13, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.76. He said the coma was

4 across, with a tail extending 20 in PA 56. On the 19th, Beyer gave the
magnitude as 7.86. He said the coma was 6 across, with a tail extending 20
in PA 51. On the 20th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.90. He said the round
coma was 7 across, with a tail extending 30 in PA 49. On the 21st, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 7.827.89. He said the coma was 7 across, while the
tail extended 30 in PA 49. On the 22nd, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.78.
He said the coma was 7 across, with a tail extending 30 in PA 52. On the
23rd, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.91. He said the coma was 7 across, with
a tail extending 30 in PA 54. On October 24, Beyer gave the magnitude as
7.92. He said the coma was 7 across, with a tail extending 20 in PA 46.
The comet attained its most northerly declination of +47 on November
3. On the 10th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.96. He said the coma was
7 across, with a tail extending 12 in PA 28. On the 12th, Beyer gave the
magnitude as 7.97 and said the tail extended 10 in PA 6. On the 13th, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 8.11. He said the coma was 7 across, with a tail
extending 12 in PA 20. On the 14th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.09 and
said the tail extended 10 in PA 16. On the 15th, Beyer said the coma was
6 across, with a starlike nucleus of magnitude 13.0, and a tail extending 15
in PA 16. On the 16th, the magnitude was given as 8.12 by Beyer and 8.8
by van Biesbroeck. Beyer said the coma was 7 across, with a tail extending
18 in PA 12. Van Biesbroeck said the round coma was 5 across and was
centrally condensed into a stellar nucleus. On the 17th, van Biesbroeck gave
the magnitude as 8.5, using a 10-cm finder. On the 29th, Beyer gave the
magnitude as 8.53. He said the coma was 7 across, with a tail extending 10
in about PA 3. On November 30, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.81. He said
the coma was 6 across, with a tail extending 8 in about PA 2.
On December 10, van Biesbroeck said the 102-cm refractor showed
only an 11th-magnitude diffuse nucleus in bright moonlight. On the 12th,
Krumpholz gave the magnitude as near 11. He said the coma was 2 across
and contained a distinct, but tiny, condensation. He noted it was difficult
to see in the 8-cm finder. On the 13th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 9.00.
He said the coma was 6 across, with a tail extending 20 in PA 357. On
the 16th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 9.46. On the 18th and 21st, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet using the 102-cm refractor and gave the
magnitude as 11. He said the diffuse coma was 2 across and contained a
sharp nucleus. On the 24th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 10.38. He said the
154

catalog of comets

coma was 5 across. On December 25, Beyer gave the magnitude as 10.52
and said the coma was 4 across.
On 1942 January 10, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet using the
102-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 12. He said a round inner coma
was centrally condensed within a diffuse outer coma. On January 21, van
Biesbroeck visually observed using the refractor and gave the magnitude
as 13. He said the coma was 15 across and contained a central nucleus.
On February 8, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm
reflector and gave the magnitude as 15.5. He said the coma was small and
round.
The comet was last detected on February 18.05, when van Biesbroeck
obtained a 20-minute exposure with the 61-cm reflector. The position was
determined as = 3h 40.9m , = +2 06 . He estimated the magnitude as
16.5, and said the round coma was 10 across.
The first parabolic orbit was calculated by J. Bobone and gave the perihelion date as 1941 September 3.36. This proved a very good initial orbit, as
later calculations by E. K. Rabe, Bobone, and J. P. Moller,

revealed a perihelion date near September 3.2.


The first hyperbolic orbit was calculated by M. G. Sumner and M. Davidson (1942). They gave the perihelion date as September 3.20 and the eccentricity as 1.000968. They later revised their calculations using a longer arc
and gave the eccentricity as 1.002815.
G. Pels (1960) took 318 positions spanning the period 1941 June 41942
February 18, reduced them to 18 Normal positions, and applied perturbations by Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The result was a hyperbolic orbit with a perihelion date of September 3.18 and an eccentricity of
1.0002443. B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and E. Everhart (1978) took this orbit
and derived an elliptical original orbit with a period of about 1.5 million
years, and an elliptical future orbit with a period of about 382 thousand
years. B. G. Marsden (1979) transformed Pels orbit to a standard epoch and
this orbit is given below.
T
1941 Sep. 3.1842 (UT)

85.3219

 (2000.0)
257.5598

i
94.5165

q
e
0.874789 1.000243

absolute magnitude: H0 = 6.91, n = 3.62 (Beyer, 1942); H10 = 7.1 (V1964)


full moon: May 11, Jun. 9, Jul. 8, Aug. 7, Sep. 5, Oct. 5, Nov. 4, Dec. 3, 1942 Jan.
2, Feb. 1, Mar. 3
sources: A. F. I. Forbes, ASSAMN, No. 15 (1941 Jun.), p. 3; H. van Gent, HAC, No.
583 (1941 Jun. 6); H. van Gent, IAUC, No. 865 (1941 Jun. 6); M. Howarth, HAC,
No. 584 (1941 Jun. 17); J. Bobone, HAC, No. 585 (1941 Jun. 18); G. Bernasconi and
F. Zagar, IAUC, No. 867 (1941 Jun. 18); L. Volta, A. Fresa, and J. Bobone, IAUC,
No. 868 (1921 Jun. 19); G. Bernasconi, G. van Biesbroeck, O. Struve, and U. S.
Lyons, HAC, No. 586 (1941 Jun. 20); A. Fresa and G. Bernasconi, IAUC, No. 869
(1941 Jun. 21); F. Zagar, G. B. Lacchini, H. Krumpholz, A. Fresa, and E. K. Rabe,
IAUC, No. 870 (1941 Jul. 3); J. Bobone, HAC, No. 587 (1941 Jul. 10); E. K. Rabe,

155

catalog of comets
IAUC, No. 873 (1941 Jul. 17); N. T. Bobrovnikoff, HAC, No. 589 (1941 Jul. 22);
O. Volk and N. Richter, IAUC, No. 874 (1941 Jul. 23); J. P. Moller,

IAUC, No. 876


(1941 Jul. 28); H. van Gent, M. Howarth, G. Bernasconi, H. M. Jeffers, and R. T.
Smith, PASP, 53 (1941 Aug.), p. 261; H. van Gent, J. Bobone, and G. Bernasconi,
The Observatory, 64 (1941 Aug.), pp. 11920; L. Volta, IAUC, No. 877 (1941 Aug.
1); G. van Biesbroeck, U. S. Lyons, L. Volta, J. P. Moller,

and E. K. Rabe, IAUC,


No. 878 (1941 Aug. 9); J. Bobone, HAC, No. 593 (1941 Aug. 15); J. P. Moller,

IAUC,
No. 879 (1941 Aug. 23); J. Bobone, IAUC, No. 891 (1941 Nov. 7); M. Howarth, The
Observatory, 64 (1941 Dec.), p. 183; M. G. Sumner and M. Davidson, MNRAS,
102 (1942), pp. 1089; H. Krumpholz, AN, 272 (1942 Jan.), pp. 199200; N. T.
Bobrovnikoff, PA, 50 (1942 Jun.), p. 307; M. Beyer, AN, 272 (1942 Jul.), pp. 2648;
G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1943 Mar. 26), pp. 11417; A. H. Farnsworth and J. R.
Gill, PA, 51 (1943 May), p. 252; H. Krumpholz, AN, 274 (1943 Jul.Aug.), pp. 47
8; U. S. Lyons, AJ, 50 (1944 Feb. 29), pp. 1857; G. Pels and H. van Gent, BAN,
15 (1960 Dec. 30), pp. 12938; V1964, p. 74; B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and E.
Everhart, AJ, 83 (1978 Jan.), p. 68; B. G. Marsden, CCO, 3rd ed. (1979), pp. 25, 51.

57P/1941 O1 Discovered: 1941 July 17.03 ( = 0.30 AU, r = 1.31 AU, Elong. = 166)
(du Toit Last seen: 1941 October 20.88 ( = 0.84 AU, r = 1.65 AU, Elong. =
NeujminDelporte) 127)
Closest to the Earth: 1941 July 21 (0.2959 AU)
1941 VII = 1941e Calculated path: AQL (Disc), AQR (Aug. 12)
Three photographic surveys and wartime conditions led to the long name
of this comet. D. du Toit (Harvard College Observatory, Boyden Station,
Bloemfontein, South Africa) discovered this comet on a photographic plate
exposed for 45 minutes using the 25-cm Metcalf Triplet on 1941 July 17.03.
He estimated the position as = 20h , = 7 and described the comet
as magnitude 10. He confirmed the discovery on another 45-minute exposure obtained on July 19.03. Wartime conditions prevented the cabled information from reaching Harvard College Observatory (Massachusetts, USA)
until July 27. At that time, the information was held pending confirmation. Unbeknownst to astronomers in Massachusetts, P. Ahnert (Sonneberg,
Germany) confirmed the discovery on July 22.01, but this message did not
arrive until the first days of September. During a routine examination of a
photographic plate exposed with the 12-cm Maltsev double astrograph on
July 25.87 for asteroids, an independent discovery was made by G. N. Neujmin (Simeis Observatory, Crimea, Ukraine). He gave the position as = 20h
09.6m , = 5 56 , and he estimated the magnitude as 9. Neujmin confirmed
his observation on July 29.90, and radiogrammed the news from Moscow
to Harvard, but this message took nearly 20 days to arrive, thus keeping
the official announcement from being widely published until August 22. A
few days later, word came that E. J. Delporte (Royal Observatory, Uccle,
Belgium) had independently found this comet on a photographic plate
exposed with the 40-cm double astrograph for minor planets on August
19.86. He had given the magnitude as 9, and said the comet was diffuse,
156

catalog of comets

with a central condensation. At the time of discovery, the comet was just a
few days from its closest approach to both the sun and Earth.
There is an interesting story concerning how the initial observations given
above for Boyden Observatory were uncovered. Du Toit simply gave the
discovery date as July 18 in his discovery announcement and this was
reprinted in several publications. During the last few years, the author has
tried to find the time of discovery, so that the date could be given with the
same precision as all other comet discovery dates in Cometography. In recent
years, the Author wrote to the librarians at the Royal Observatory in Cape
Town (South Africa) on several occasions asking about possible references
in South African journals and even correspondence between the various
observatories, but only the generalized July 18 kept popping up. I discussed the issue with M. Meyer (2007). He subsequently discovered that
the plate catalog for the various Harvard observatories was available on the
internet. He very quickly found that no plates were obtained of the region of
this comet on July 18 from Boyden Observatory! Further searches by Meyer
revealed that wide-field plates were obtained on July 17 and 19, whose centers were not far from the position of the comet. The author subsequently
noted that the wide-field plates were supposed to have a limiting magnitude of 17 and the comet was supposed to be magnitude 10, so it seemed
that the comet should be an easy object. I sent an e-mail to G. V. Williams
at the Minor Planet Center (Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) and told him
the story so far and asked him to look at two specific plates. Within hours,
Williams wrote that he had walked over to the plate archives and pulled
the two plates in question. He said the comet was clearly marked on both
plates! Thus, du Toit may have made a mistake in the date he announced,
or he was inspecting the July 17 plate on July 18 and literally discovered the
comet on July 18!
The comet attained its most northerly declination of 5 on August 14. On
August 22, Delporte gave the photographic magnitude as 9.5. On the 23rd
and 24th, A. Fresa (Torino, Italy) gave the photographic magnitude as 11. On
the 26th, the photographic magnitude was given as 11 by G. van Biesbroeck
(Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA), H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory,
California, USA), and H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona,
USA). Van Biesbroeck described the comet as diffuse, with a central condensation, and a faint tail extending 3 in PA 110. Jeffers said the comet was
diffuse, with a central condensation. On the 27th and 28th, van Biesbroeck
obtained 3-minute exposures using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 11. He said the coma was centrally condensed and 25 across, while
a faint tail extended 3 in PA 120. On the 29th, U. S. Lyons (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, USA) visually observed the comet using the 66-cm
refractor and gave the magnitude as 12. On the 30th, Fresa gave the photographic magnitude as 11. On August 31, J. O. Stobbe (Poznan, Poland)
gave the magnitude as 12 and noted the comet was diffuse, without a
condensation.
157

catalog of comets

On September 1, van Biesbroeck obtained a 5-minute exposure using the


61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 12. He added that the tail was
very faint. On the 9th and 15th, Fresa gave the photographic magnitude as
12. He noted the comet was diffuse, with a central condensation. On the
11th, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA) photographed
the comet using the 208-cm reflector and estimated the magnitude as 12.
On the 12th, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 208-cm
reflector and said the coma was 20 across, while a trace of a broad tail
extended towards PA 120. On the 16th and 19th, Fresa gave the photographic magnitude as 13. He noted the comet was diffuse, with a central
condensation. On the 17th, Jeffers obtained a 25-minute exposure with the
91-cm Crossley reflector and described the coma as strongly condensed,
12 across, with a short broad tail extending toward the east. On the 22nd,
H. Krumpholz (Vienna, Austria) estimated the magnitude as near 13. He
described the comet as a very weak nebulosity about 11.5 across, with little
condensation. On the 23rd, Krumpholz said the comet was extraordinarily
faint in the 68-cm refractor. On the 25th, van Biesbroeck obtained 4- and
5-minute exposures using the reflector and gave the magnitude as 13.5. He
said the coma diameter was 15 and extended into a broad tail measuring
1 in PA 25. On the 26th and 27th, van Biesbroeck obtained 3-minute exposures using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 14. He said the
comet was very diffuse. The comet was primarily moving eastward, but had
been slowly shifting southward since mid-August. After attaining a southern declination of 6 on September 27, its motion began to slowly shift
northward.
On October 15, Fresa gave the photographic magnitude as 14. On October
17, van Biesbroeck obtained a 10-minute exposure using the 208-cm reflector
and gave the magnitude as 16. He described the comet as a small extremely
diffuse coma with hardly any condensation.
The comet was last detected on October 20.88, when L. Volta (Torino) gave
the magnitude as 14. He gave the position as = 22h 20.5m , = 5 24 .
The first orbits were published on September 1. E. K. Rabe determined
the perihelion date as 1941 August 3.06. K. A. Thernoe
took positions from
August 17, 20, and 24, and calculated an elliptical orbit. The resulting perihelion date was July 24.34 and the period was 8.83 years.
More orbits were published on September 2. H. L. Scott and M. E. Stahr
determined a parabolic orbit with a perihelion date of July 23.09. J. E. Willis
used three precise positions obtained between July 25 and August 26, and
determined an elliptical orbit with a perihelion date of July 21.36 and a
period of 5.68 years. This orbit indicated the comets aphelion was near
Jupiter, with a minimum possible distance of about 0.3 AU. Maxwell also
noted that the comet was probably last near Jupiter in 1824, and would
pass close to Earth in 1958. Similar orbits were published in the coming
weeks by A. D. Maxwell, Thernoe,
H. R. J. Grosch, and Fresa. M. Davidson
remarked that Groschs orbit indicated the last close approach to Jupiter
158

catalog of comets

probably occurred in 1824, when the planet may have annexed it as one of
his family.
Orbits spanning the entire period of visibility were calculated by P. Naur
(1946, 1947), N. F. Boeva (1953), and B. G. Marsden (1969). Various sets of
planetary perturbations were considered, with the result being a perihelion
date of July 21.2121.22 and a period being 5.525.55 years.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by Marsden (1982, 1985,
1989) and G. Forti (1986). They applied perturbations by the planets Mercury to Neptune, as well as the dwarf planet Pluto, and they determined
nongravitational terms. The result was a perihelion date of July 21.21 and
a period of 5.55 years. Forti gave the nongravitational terms as A1 =
0.03 and A2 = 0.0103. Marsden (1989) gave the nongravitational terms as
A1 = +0.08 and A2 = 0.0088. Marsdens orbit is given below.
T
1941 Jul. 21.2094 (TT)

69.2493

 (2000.0)
230.3906

i
3.2582

q
e
1.305191 0.583598

absolute magnitude: H10 = 11.7 (V1964)


full moon: Jul. 8, Aug. 7, Sep. 5, Oct. 5, Nov. 4
sources: D. du Toit and G. N. Neujmin, HAC, No. 594 (1941 Aug. 22); D. du Toit
and G. N. Neujmin, IAUC, No. 879 (1941 Aug. 23); E. J. Delporte and A. Fresa,
IAUC, No. 880 (1941 Aug. 25); E. J. Delporte, G. van Biesbroeck, and H. M. Jeffers,
HAC, No. 595 (1941 Aug. 27); G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 596 (1941 Aug. 29);
E. J. Delporte and A. Fresa, IAUC, No. 881 (1941 Aug. 29); A. Fresa, E. K. Rabe,
and K. A. Thernoe,
IAUC, No. 882 (1941 Sep. 1); H. L. Scott, M. E. Stahr, and J. E.
Willis, HAC, No. 597 (1941 Sep. 2); A. D. Maxwell and P. Ahnert, HAC, No. 599
(1941 Sep. 4); J. O. Stobbe and K. A. Thernoe,
IAUC, No. 883 (1941 Sep. 5); K. A.
Thernoe,
HAC, No. 600 (1941 Sep. 10); J. E. Willis, HAC, No. 601 (1941 Sep. 11);
H. L. Scott and M. E. Stahr, HAC, No. 603 (1941 Sep. 15); H. R. J. Grosch, HAC, No.
604 (1941 Sep. 16); A. Fresa, IAUC, No. 885 (1941 Sep. 18); A. Fresa, IAUC, No. 886
(1941 Sep. 23); G. van Biesbroeck, A. Fresa, and H. R. J. Grosch, IAUC, No. 891
(1941 Nov. 7); L. Volta, IAUC, No. 892 (1941 Nov. 29); D. du Toit, G. N. Neujmin,
and H. R. J. Grosch, The Observatory, 64 (1941 Dec.), p. 182; H. Krumpholz, AN,
272 (1942 Jan.), pp. 199200; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1942 Aug. 13), pp. 2933;
H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1944), p. 164; U. S. Lyons, AJ, 50 (1944 Feb. 29), pp. 1867;
H. L. Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 63; P. Naur, IAUC, No. 1068 (1946 Nov. 8);
P. Naur, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 11013; N. F. Boeva, BITA, 5 (1953), pp. 42
54; V1964, p. 74; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 10 (1969), pp. 2523; B. G. Marsden,
CCO, 4th ed. (1982), pp. 21, 53; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 26 (1985 Sep.), p. 309; G.
Forti, AAP, 155 (1986), pp. 1701; B. G. Marsden, CCO, 6th ed. (1989), pp. 21, 58;
personal correspondence from M. Meyer (2007); personal correspondence from
G. V. Williams (2007).

31P/Schwassmann Recovered: 1941 September 20.49 ( = 2.36 AU, r = 2.38 AU, Elong. = 79)
Wachmann 2 Last seen: 1942 June 15.14 ( = 2.64 AU, r = 2.31 AU, Elong. = 61)
Closest to the Earth: 1942 January 16 (1.1714 AU)
1942 I = 1941f Calculated path: GEM (Rec), CNC (Apr. 9), LEO (May 29)
159

catalog of comets

W. P. Henderson and H. Whichello (1940) predicted the comet would next


arrive at perihelion on 1942 February 14.33. H. Q. Rasmusen used his predicted orbit for the 1935 apparition, added a correction to the perihelion
date, and predicted the comet would next arrive at perihelion on February
13.76.
H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) recovered this comet
on 1941 September 20.49, at a position of = 6h 35.3m , = +20 13 .
He estimated the magnitude as 17, and described the comet as slightly
diffuse, with a condensation, but no tail. Jeffers confirmed the recovery on
September 20.52. The positions indicated the prediction by Henderson and
Whichello needed to be corrected by 0.035 day.
On November 14, H. Hirose (Tokyo Observatory, Japan) gave the photographic magnitude as 14. On the 16th, G. van Biesbroeck, (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) visually observed the comet using the 102-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 14. He said the small coma contained no
sharp nucleus, but a tail did extend 1 in PA 270. On the 17th, van Biesbroeck
visually observed using the refractor and gave the magnitude as 14. He said
the narrow tail extended 55 in PA 275. The comet attained a southerly
declination of +18 on November 29 and then began a northerly motion.
On December 18, van Biesbroeck visually observed using the refractor and
said the stellar nucleus was of magnitude 12 and was situated in the center of a small coma measuring 5 across. This coma was situated within a
larger diffuse coma measuring 40 across. Van Biesbroeck added that the
tail extended 3 in PA 283.
On 1942 January 10, van Biesbroeck visually observed using the 102-cm
refractor and gave the magnitude as 11. He said the coma was about 2 across
and contained a well-defined nucleus on the following side. The apparent
tail showed itself simply as a slight extension of the coma that extended
towards PA 270. On the 20th, van Biesbroeck observed using the refractor
and gave the magnitude as 11.5. He said the round coma measured about
1.5 across and contained a well-defined nucleus. On January 21 and 22,
A. A. Wachmann (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) gave the
photographic magnitude as 12.5. On February 14, van Biesbroeck observed
using the refractor and gave the magnitude as 12.5. He said the coma was 1
across and was slightly elongated towards PA 100. On March 10, van Biesbroeck observed using the refractor and gave the magnitude as 13. He said
the coma spreads mostly in the second quadrant so that the nucleus is quite
eccentric. He added that the nucleus was diffuse. The comet attained its
most northerly declination of +23 on March 15. On May 19, van Biesbroeck
photographed the comet with the 61-cm reflector and described the comet
as extremely diffuse.
The comet was last detected on June 15.14, when van Biesbroeck found
it on a 20-minute exposure obtained with the 61-cm reflector. The comets
position was given as = 9h 48.0m , = +15 33 . No physical description
was made.
160

catalog of comets

S. Kanda (1942) took an orbit that he and H. Hirose had calculated for
the 1935 apparition and applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn. He
determined the perihelion date as February 14.41 and the period as 6.51
years. He added that observations so far gathered during the 1942 apparition
indicated a perihelion date of February 13.83.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by B. G. Marsden (1968,
1969, 1973) and G. Forti (1983). These included perturbations by the planets Mercury to Neptune, as well as the dwarf planet Pluto. Marsden (1968)
noted a definite secular acceleration. All other calculations determined
nongravitational terms. The result was a perihelion date of February 13.84
and a period of 6.51 years. Marsden (1969) gave the nongravitational terms
as A1 = +1.5300, A2 = 0.17186, and B2 = +0.3013. Marsden, Z. Sekanina,
and D. K. Yeomans (1973) determined the nongravitational terms as
A1 = +1.01 and A2 = 0.1972. Forti gave the nongravitational terms as
A1 = +0.76 and A2 = 0.1863. Fortis orbit is given below.
T
1942 Feb. 13.8366 (TT)

 (2000.0)
358.1076 126.6620

i
3.7206

q
e
2.143689 0.385405

absolute magnitude: H10 = 8.9 (V1964)


full moon: Sep. 5, Oct. 5, Nov. 4, Dec. 3, 1942 Jan. 2, Feb. 1, Mar. 3, Apr. 1, Apr.
30, May 30, Jun. 28
sources: W. P. Henderson and H. Whichello, BAA Handbook for 1941 (1940 Nov.),
p. 20; H. M. Jeffers, HAC, No. 605 (1941 Sep. 22); H. M. Jeffers, IAUC, No. 886 (1941
Sep. 23); H. M. Jeffers, PASP, 53 (1941 Oct.), p. 292; H. Hirose, IAUC, No. 892 (1941
Nov. 29); H. M. Jeffers, The Observatory, 64 (1941 Dec.), p. 182; H. M. Jeffers, W. P.
Henderson, and H. Whichello, MNRAS, 102 (1942), pp. 1079; A. A. Wachmann,
IAUC, No. 901 (1942 Feb. 23); H. Hirose and S. Kanda, Tokyo Astronomical Bulletin,
No. 615 (1942 Feb. 24), p. 1229; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1943 Mar. 26), pp. 114
17; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1944), p. 163; H. Q. Rasmusen, MNRAS, 107 (1947).
pp. 11011, 113; V1964, p. 74; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 373, 375; B. G.
Marsden, AJ, 74 (1969 Jun.), pp. 7215; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 14 (1973 Dec.),
pp. 4045; B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.),
pp. 213, 215; G. Forti, AAP, 126 (1983), pp. 30710.

C/1942 C1 Prediscovery: 1941 December 28.42 ( = 1.97 AU, r = 2.22 AU, Elong. = 91)
(Whipple Discovered: 1942 January 25.45 ( = 1.30 AU, r = 1.96 AU, Elong. = 117)
BernasconiKulin) Last seen: 1943 January 8.05 ( = 4.15 AU, r = 3.51 AU, Elong. = 44)
Closest to the Earth: 1942 March 9 (0.6594 AU)
1942 IV = 1942a Calculated path: COM (Pre), LEO (Feb. 17), SEX (Mar. 3), HYA (Mar. 11), PUP
(Mar. 23), CMa (Apr. 9), PUP (Jun. 2), CAR (Jul. 22), VOL (Aug. 15), MEN
(Sep. 2), OCT (Sep. 17), IND (Oct. 16), GRU (Dec. 12)
While examining Harvard Observatory patrol photographs on January 25,
F. L. Whipple discovered a 10th-magnitude comet on a plate exposed on
1942 January 25.45. The position was given as = 12h 59.2m , = +23 53 .
161

catalog of comets

He described it as possessing a nucleus and added that the tail was less than
1 long. Upon examining photographs exposed during the previous month,
Whipple found prediscovery images on plates exposed on 1941 December
28.42 and 1942 January 17.41.
News of the discovery did not reach Europe for several days because
of suspended transmission service, and G. Bernasconi (Como, Italy) independently found the comet on February 10. Another independent discovery was made by G. Kulin (Konkoly Observatory, Budapest, Hungary) on
February 13.07, while testing sky transparency with a 10-cm finder. He estimated the magnitude as 9. A. Becvar (Skalnate Pleso Observatory, Slovakia)
discovered the comet on February 18.79 and said the coma was about 0.5
across. A further independent discovery was made by D. du Toit (Harvard
College Observatory, Boyden Station, Bloemfontein, South Africa), while
examining an MF Series plate exposed using the 25-cm Metcalf Triplet on
March 17.74.
On February 4, H. E. Burton (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC,
USA) estimated the magnitude as 10 and noted the comet was barely visible
in [13-cm] finder. He said the comet was diffuse, with a stellar nucleus.
On the 10th, A. H. Farnsworth (John Payson Williston Observatory, Mount
Holyoke College, Massachusetts, USA) visually observed the comet using a
20-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 8.6. On the 11th, the photographic
magnitude was given as 8 by F. Zagar (Bologna, Italy) and A. Fresa (Torino,
Italy). Fresa described the comet as diffuse, with a central condensation.
On the 12th, the visual magnitude was given as 7.8 by G. van Biesbroeck
(Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA), using the extrafocal method with the
61-cm reflector. The photographic magnitude was given as 8.5 by M. Campa
(Milan, Italy), and 9 by H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA) and
Fresa. Fresa described the comet as diffuse, with a central condensation. On
the 13th, the visual magnitude was given as 7.5 by Farnsworth and 8.83 by
L. Gialanella (Monte Mario Observatory, Rome, Italy). The photographic
magnitude was given as 9 by Fresa. Fresa described the comet as diffuse,
with a central condensation. Burton said the comet was easily visible in the
13-cm finder. On the 14th, the visual magnitude was given as 7.1 by van
Biesbroeck and 8.5 by Campa. Van Biesbroeck said a sharp nucleus was
situated within a coma measuring 5 across, while a coarse tail extended
18 in PA 358. On February 15, the visual magnitude was given as 8.2 by
Farnsworth and 9.03 by Gialanella, while the photographic magnitude was
given as 8.5 by Campa.
On February 16, Farnsworth gave the magnitude as 7.6, using a 20-cm
refractor. On the 17th, the magnitude was given as 6.8 by H. Krumpholz
(Vienna, Austria), 8 by J. P. Moller

(Copenhagen, Denmark), and 9 by


Y. Visl (University of Turku, Finland). Krumpholz said the coma was
34 across, with a tiny, nearly stellar, condensation. Visl described it
as diffuse, without a condensation. On the 19th, the magnitude was given
as 6.75 by van Biesbroeck, 8 by C. Hoffmeister (Sonneberg, Germany), 8.1
162

catalog of comets

by B. G. Karpov (Vassar College Observatory, New York, USA), and 8.3 by


Campa. On the 20th, the magnitude was given as 6.75 by van Biesbroeck,
7.5 by Farnsworth, and 8.3 by Campa. Van Biesbroeck said the main tail
extended 22 in PA 1, while a fainter, narrower tail extended 20 in PA 298.
On the 21st, Visl estimated the magnitude as 8. He described the comet
as diffuse, without a condensation, and with a tail <1 long. Van Biesbroeck
said the main tail extended 25 in PA 4, while the slender tail was forked.
This latter tail extended 10 in PA 280, then split and extended 10 in PA
285, and 50 in PA 265. On the 22nd, the magnitude was given as 7.7 by
Farnsworth and 8.0 by J. O. Stobbe (Poznan, Poland). Van Biesbroeck said
the main tail extended 25 in PA 5, while there was only a suspicion of the
fainter secondary tail extending towards PA 275. P. Ahnert said the tail
extended 12 in PA 0. Burton said the comet was visible in the 13-cm finder.
On the 23rd, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 6.35, using binoculars.
He said the main tail extended towards PA 5, while the vague indication of the secondary tail extended towards PA 280. On the 25th, M. Beyer
(Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) gave the magnitude as 6.93.
On February 26, Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.73 and said the tail extended
18 in PA 14.
The comet attained a maximum elongation of 179 on March 1. On the
3rd, the visual magnitude was given as 6.28 by Beyer, while the photographic magnitude was given as 7 by Moller,

and 8.0 by S. J. V. Arend and


L. Neven (Royal Observatory, Uccle, Belgium), and Campa. The observations of Campa and Moller

were made during an eclipse of the moon. Beyer


said the coma was 7 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 8.5, while a tail
extended 30 in PA 17. Arend and Neven also gave the magnitude of the
central condensation as 9.2. On the 4th, Gialanella gave the magnitude as
8.50. On the 6th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.16. He said the coma was 9
across, with a nucleus of magnitude 8.5, while a tail extended 35 in PA 21.
On the 7th, Gialanella gave the magnitude as 7.65. On the 8th, the magnitude
was given as 6.40 by N. T. Bobrovnikoff (Perkins Observatory, Ohio, USA)
and 8.2 by Farnsworth. On the 9th, Krumpholz said the coma was 4 across,
with a very distinct condensation. A. Model said the tail extended towards
PA 35. On the 10th, the magnitude was given as 5.83 by van Biesbroeck
and 6.39 by Bobrovnikoff. Van Biesbroeck said there was a sharp, stellar
nucleus within a bright coma measuring 4 across. He said the main tail
extended 26 in PA 23, while the quite faint, narrow, and ill-defined secondary tail extended 40 in PA 69. J. Gramatzki said the tail extended 15
in PA 35. On the 11th, the magnitude was given as 6.06 by Beyer and 7.69
by Gialanella. Beyer said the coma contained a nucleus of magnitude 9.3,
while a tail extended towards PA 23. On the 12th, the magnitude was given
as 6.04 by Beyer, 7.0 by E. J. Delporte (Uccle), and 7.90 by Gialanella. Beyer
said the coma was 13 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 9.1, while a tail
extended 40 in PA 22. On March 13, the magnitude was given as 5.92 by
Beyer, 6.36 by Bobrovnikoff, 7.5 by Neven, and 8.6 by Farnsworth. Beyer
163

catalog of comets

said the coma was 12 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 8.6, while a tail
extended towards PA 26.
On March 16, Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.34 and said the tail extended
towards PA 24. On the 18th, Model said the tail extended 18 in PA 45.
On the 19th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 6.2, using binoculars.
C. Fedtke (Konigsberg,

now Kaliningrad, Russia) said the tail extended 20


in PA 45. On the 20th, the magnitude was given as 6.31 by Bobrovnikoff
and 7.8 by M. R. Hunt (John Payson Williston Observatory). On the 21st,
Bobrovnikoff gave the magnitude as 6.48. Fedtke said the tail extended 15
in PA 50. On the 22nd, Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.58. He said the coma
was 8 across, with a nucleus of magnitude 8.9, while a tail extended 20
in PA 38. On the 23rd, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 6.4, using
binoculars. On the 24th, the magnitude was given as 8.0 by Campa and 8.2
by Krumpholz. On the 25th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.93. He said the
tail extended 12 in PA 42. Burton said the comet was barely visible in the
13-cm finder. On March 28, Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.92 and said the
tail extended 12 in PA 37.
On April 3, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.05. He said the coma was
8 across, while a tail extended towards PA 48. On the 5th, Bobrovnikoff
gave the magnitude as 7.03, using 8 28 binoculars. On the 6th, the magnitude was given as 6.99 by Bobrovnikoff and 8.3 by Krumpholz. Krumpholz
said the coma was 3 across, with a central condensation. On the 10th,
Campa gave the photographic magnitude as 8.7. On the 13th, Campa gave
the photographic magnitude as 8.8. On the 14th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 7.66. On April 18, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 8.5, using
binoculars.
The comet attained a minimum elongation of 62 on June 11. It then
attained its most southerly declination of 87 on September 23 and reached
a maximum elongation of 93 on September 24.
The comet was photographed with the 154-cm reflector at Bosque
Alegre Observatory (Cordoba,

Argentina) on several occasions during


the period of 1942 October 2December 15 by R. P. Platzeck and M.
Dartayet. Photographs were also obtained at the National Observatory
(Cordoba,

Argentina) by J. Bobone and C. G. Torres during the period of


December 1429.
The comet was last detected on 1943 January 8.05, when Bobone found
it on a 14.5-minute exposure obtained with the 154-cm reflector at Bosque
Alegre Observatory by Dartayet. The position was given as = 22h 23.6m ,
= 42 03 .
The spectrum was observed by several astronomers. R. K. Marshall (Cook
Observatory, Pennsylvania, USA) reported that a grating spectrum of the
comet on February 13, obtained with the 25-cm Schmidt camera, revealed
emission lines of cyanogen. D. M. Popper and P. Swings (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA) used a Schmidt camera and detected cyanogen, imidyl
radical, hydroxyl radical, and triatomic carbon.
164

catalog of comets

The first parabolic orbit was calculated by R. N. Thomas using the positions measured on Harvard plates from December 28, January 17, and January 25. He determined the perihelion date as 1942 April 30.89. This proved
an excellent representation as shown by the parabolic orbits calculated by
Fresa, Moller,

G. Kulin, J. Jackson, and Bobone.


An elliptical orbit was calculated by Kulin using positions from February
13, March 15, and April 17. He calculated a perihelion date of March 15.99
and a period of 172 thousand years.
A definitive calculation by G. M. Iannini (1945) proved that the orbit was
hyperbolic. He used 228 positions obtained between 1941 December 28, and
1943 January 8, as well as perturbations by five planets, and determined the
perihelion date as April 30.83 and the eccentricity as 1.000893. This orbit
is given below. B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and E. Everhart (1978) took
this orbit and derived an elliptical original orbit with a period of about
15.6-million years, and a hyperbolic future orbit with an eccentricity of
1.001187.
T
1942 Apr. 30.8333 (UT)

 (2000.0)
223.4157 340.9347

i
79.4520

q
e
1.445303 1.000893

absolute magnitude: H0 = 4.40, n = 5.7 (Iannini, 1945); H10 = 6.0 (V1964)


full moon: Dec. 3, 1942 Jan. 2, Feb. 1, Mar. 3, Apr. 1, Apr. 30, May 30, Jun. 28,
Jul. 27, Aug. 26, Sep. 24, Oct. 24, Nov. 22, Dec. 22, 1943 Jan. 21
sources: F. L. Whipple and R. N. Thomas, HAC, No. 613 (1942 Feb. 2); R. N.
Thomas, HAC, No. 614 (1942 Feb. 3); G. Bernasconi and A. Fresa, IAUC, No.
897 (1942 Feb. 13); G. Kulin, IAUC, No. 898 (1942 Feb. 14); G. Kulin, BZAN,
24 (1942 Feb. 16), p. 1; H. E. Burton, G. Bernasconi, and R. K. Marshall, HAC,
No. 615 (1942 Feb. 16); F. Zagar and A. Fresa, IAUC, No. 899 (1942 Feb. 16); H.
Krumpholz, J. P. Moller,

and A. Becvar, IAUC, No. 900 (1942 Feb. 20); Y. Visl


and A. Fresa, IAUC, No. 901 (1942 Feb. 23); B. G. Karpov, HAC, No. 617 (1942
Feb. 27); C. Hoffmeister, J. O. Stobbe, J. P. Moller,

and G. Kulin, IAUC, No. 902


(1942 Feb. 27); J. Jackson, ASSAMN, 1 (1942 Mar.), pp. 45; G. Kulin, TK, 74 (1942
Mar.); M. Campa and J. P. Moller,

IAUC, No. 903 (1942 Mar. 5); A. Fresa and


J. O. Stobbe, IAUC, No. 904 (1942 Mar. 14); M. Campa, IAUC, No. 905 (1942 Mar.
17); S. J. V. Arend and L. Neven, IAUC, No. 906 (1942 Mar. 20); E. J. Delporte, L.
Neven, J. P. Moller,

and L. Gialanella, IAUC, No. 907 (1942 Mar. 24); J. Jackson


and D. du Toit, ASSAMN, 1 (1942 Apr.), pp. 56; D. du Toit, HAC, No. 622 (1942
Apr. 10); J. Bobone, HAC, No. 624 (1942 Apr. 16); M. Campa, IAUC, No. 910
(1942 Apr. 25); N. T. Bobrovnikoff, PA, 50 (1942 Jun.), p. 308; D. M. Popper and
P. Swings, APJ, 96 (1942 Jul.), pp. 1567; G. Kulin, IAUC, No. 915 (1942 Jul. 23);
M. Campa, AN, 273 (1943), p. 201; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1943 Mar. 26),
pp. 11417; F. L. Whipple, G. Bernasconi, G. Kulin, A. Becvar, and D. du Toit,
PASP, 55 (1943 Apr.), p. 114; A. H. Farnsworth and M. R. Hunt, PA, 51 (1943
May), p. 252; J. Bobone, C. G. Torres, R. P. Platzeck, and M. Dartayet, AJ, 50
(1943 Jul. 30), p. 134; H. Krumpholz, AN, 274 (1943 Jul.Aug.), pp. 478; H. E.
Burton, AJ, 50 (1944 Feb. 29), pp. 1857; H. L. Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 63;
G. M. Iannini and J. Bobone, Observatorio Astronomico Universidad do la Plata

165

catalog of comets
Publicaciones, 21 (1945), pp. 521; M. Beyer, P. Ahnert, A. Model, J. Gramatzki,
and C. Fedtke, AN, 275 (1947 Dec. 31), pp. 23740; V1964, p. 74; B. G. Marsden,
Z. Sekanina, and E. Everhart, AJ, 83 (1978 Jan.), p. 68; personal correspondence
from K. Sarneczky (2005).

C/1942 C2 Discovered: 1942 February 12.01 ( = 3.57 AU, r = 4.54 AU, Elong. = 165)
(Oterma) Last seen: 1943 March 9.83 ( = 4.25 AU, r = 4.34 AU, Elong. = 88)
Closest to the Earth: 1942 December 29 (3.2086 AU)
1942 VIII = 1942b Calculated path: LEO (Disc), CNC (Mar. 28), GEM (Nov. 28), TAU (1943 Jan.
25), ORI (Jan. 27), TAU (Jan. 31)
L. Oterma (Turku University Observatory, Finland) discovered this comet
on minor planet survey plate L4255, which had been exposed on 1942 February 12.01. The position was given as = 10h 36.8m , = +16 49 . Oterma
gave the magnitude as 15 and noted a diffuse coma, but no central condensation. Y. Visl (Turku University Observatory) confirmed the discovery
on February 17.97.
Physical descriptions were nonexistent during the remainder of this
comets apparition and the comet was only followed at Turku University
Observatory, where positions were provided by Oterma, Visl, and I.
Klemola. These astronomers provided 16 positions during the period of
February 19April 19. The comet attained a northerly declination of +23
on May 2 and then turned southward. The comet passed less than 3 from
the sun on July 30.
The latitude of Turku University Observatory prevented observations
during the summer months because of continuous sunlight, but the observatory resumed observations on October 7. Through the end of the year
they managed to photograph the comet on October 12, November 6, and
December 31. The comet attained a declination of +20 on October 10 and
then turned northward.
The comet attained a declination of +23 on 1943 January 8 and
then turned back toward the south. The Turku University Observatory
astronomers continued photographing the comet as it steadily faded. They
detected it on January 10 and 24, February 23, and March 1. The comet was
last detected on March 9.83, when Oterma photographed it and gave the
position as = 5h 04.5m , = +21 30 .
The first orbit was computed by Oterma and was published on March 5.
Based on precise positions obtained on February 11, 17, and 21, she gave the
perihelion date as 1942 September 7.18. She later revised the orbit using positions obtained through April 20 and gave the perihelion date as September
27.52.
S. Mikkola and J. Lehtinen (1978, 1982, 1985) took 35 positions spanning
the entire period of visibility, as well as perturbations by all nine planets.
They computed a hyperbolic orbit with a perihelion date of September 27.37
and an eccentricity of 1.000943.
166

catalog of comets

B. G. Marsden (1982, 1985) also took 35 positions spanning the entire


period of visibility, as well as perturbations by all nine planets, and computed a hyperbolic orbit with a perihelion date of September 27.28 and an
eccentricity of 1.003183. This orbit is given below.
G. van Biesbroeck (1942) and J. M. Vinter Hansen (1943) indicated
that news of this comet did not reach the USA until 1942 October 14,
because the mail service and telegraph were delayed by wartime conditions. The orbit included with this announcement was the first calculated by Oterma, which proved to have a perihelion date 20 days too
early.
T
1942 Sep. 27.2783 (TT)

 (2000.0)
i
q
e
163.6206 281.0393 172.5144 4.113405 1.003183

absolute magnitude: H10 = 5.7 (V1964)


full moon: Feb. 1, Mar. 3, Apr. 1, Apr. 30, May 30, Jun. 28, Jul. 27, Aug. 26, Sep.
24, Oct. 24, Nov. 22, Dec. 22, 1943 Jan. 21, Feb. 20, Mar. 21
sources: L. Oterma, IAUC, No. 900 (1942 Feb. 20); L. Oterma, IAUC, No. 903
(1942 Mar. 5); L. Oterma, IAUC, No. 923 (1942 Oct. 19); L. Oterma and Y. Visl,
HAC, No. 635 (1942 Oct. 20); G. van Biesbroeck, PA, 50 (1942 Dec.), p. 566; J. M.
Vinter Hansen, PASP, 55 (1943 Apr.), p. 114; V1964, p. 75; L. Oterma, Y. Visl, S.
Mikkola, and J. Lehtinen, Turku University Observatory Informo, No. 41 (1978 Dec.
20), pp. 19; J. Lehtinen, MPC, No. 4702 (1979 May 1); B. G. Marsden, S. Mikkola,
and J. Lehtinen, CCO, 4th ed. (1982), pp. 21, 53; B. G. Marsden, S. Mikkola, and
J. Lehtinen, QJRAS, 26 (1985 Mar.), pp. 11314.

C/1942 EA Discovered: 1942 March 11.86 ( = 0.34 AU, r = 1.33 AU, Elong. = 171)
(Visl 2) Last seen: 1942 April 17.88 ( = 0.72 AU, r = 1.56 AU, Elong. = 128)
Closest to the Earth: 1942 March 7 (0.3362 AU)
1942 II = 1942c Calculated path: LEO (Disc), UMa (Mar. 31), CVn (Apr. 12)
The discovery of two interesting objects on the same plate, coupled with
inconsistent communications because of World War II, caused some confusion in the USA and a potentially interesting periodic comet was followed
for barely a month.
A photographic plate exposed by Y. Visl (University of Turku, Finland)
on 1942 March 11.86 revealed the presence of two objects which were designated 1942 EA and 1942 EC. Both were described as stellar, with the
former being magnitude 13 and the latter being magnitude 14. The latter
object was also said to have rapid motion. The object 1942 EA was given
a position of = 10h 56.5m , = 0 23 and a confirming observation was
obtained on March 13.77.
News of the discovery was sent to the appropriate authorities in Europe,
but a radiogram sent to Harvard College Observatory (Massachusetts, USA)
on March 17 told of only one object. The news was subsequently sent to key
observatories in the USA.
167

catalog of comets

The comet was photographed by H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA) on March 18 and 19, using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and the 23-cm Schmidt. The magnitude was given as 12 and Giclas
noted, On both negatives the images are not stellar but are somewhat diffused and have the appearance of comet trails. In Europe, A. Fresa (Torino,
Italy) and J. O. Stobbe (Poznan, Poland) observed the comet on March 20 and
independently estimated the magnitude as 13. Fresa added that the comet
was stellar in appearance, while Stobbe noted it was diffuse, without a condensation. On March 21, H. Krumpholz (Vienna, Austria) observed using
the 68-cm refractor and estimated the magnitude as near 13, and described
the comet as round, nearly 20 across, with a weak condensation. On
March 22, Giclas photographed the comet again with the 33-cm A. Lawrence
Lowell Astrograph and gave the magnitude as 12.
Despite several attempts, Giclas was unable to locate the comet after the
March 22 observation, even after the receipt of an ephemeris around midApril. He wrote, More than 900 square degrees of the sky were examined
with a [20-cm] Schmidt, as well as other suspected regions with matched
13-inch plates.
The comet was last detected on April 17.88 by L. Oterma (University of
Turku). The position was given as = 12h 11.8m , = +37 04 .
The first orbit was calculated by Visl using several positions obtained
on six nights. The resulting perihelion date was 1942 February 16.21. M. E.
Stahr and L. E. Salanave took positions from March 12, 18, and 22, and calculated an orbit. They said the five available positions were very inconsistent
and therefore only provided an ephemeris. It later turned out that the March
12 position was in error.
The first elliptical orbit was calculated by Visl. He took positions from
March 11, 25, and April 12, and calculated a perihelion date of February
15.82 and a period of 85.52 years.
Oterma (1971, 1972) took 34 positions obtained between March 11 and
April 17. She determined the perihelion date as 1942 February 15.82 and
the period as 85.42 years. She suggested the orbital period was uncertain by
1.42 years.
T
1942 Feb. 15.8195 (TT)

 (2000.0)
335.2229 172.2906

i
37.9961

q
e
1.287079 0.933639

absolute magnitude: H10 = 13.2 (V1964)


full moon: Mar. 3, Apr. 1, Apr. 30
sources: Y. Visl, IAUC, No. 904 (1942 Mar. 14); Y. Visl, HAC, No. 619
(1942 Mar. 17); Y. Visl, IAUC, No. 906 (1942 Mar. 20); H. L. Giclas, HAC, No.
621 (1942 Mar. 24); A. Fresa, IAUC, No. 907 (1942 Mar. 24); J. O. Stobbe and H.
Krumpholz, IAUC, No. 908 (1942 Apr. 4); M. E. Stahr and L. E. Salanave, HAC,
No. 623 (1942 Apr. 13); Y. Visl, IAUC, No. 910 (1942 Apr. 25); A. Fresa, IAUC,
No. 912 (1942 May 29); H. Krumpholz, AN, 274 (1943 Jul.Aug.), pp. 478; H. L.
Giclas, PASP, 56 (1944 Apr.), pp. 867; H. L. Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 63;

168

catalog of comets
V1964, p. 74; Y. Visl and L. Oterma, Astronomia-Optika Institucio Universitato
de Turku Informo, No. 35 (1971), pp. 16; L. Oterma, CCO, 1st ed. (1972), pp. 25, 47.

26P/Grigg Recovered: 1942 April 11.11 ( = 0.85 AU, r = 1.07 AU, Elong. = 70)
Skjellerup Last seen: 1942 July 12.15 ( = 0.39 AU, r = 1.14 AU, Elong. = 97)
Closest to the Earth: 1942 June 24 (0.3316 AU)
1942 V = 1942d Calculated path: ORI (Rec), MON (Apr. 20), GEM (May 6), CMi (May 7), GEM
(May 11), CNC (May 20), LEO (Jun. 6), LMi (Jun. 11), UMa (Jun. 16), CVn
(Jun. 23), BOO (Jul. 4)
F. R. Cripps (1941) took the predicted orbit for the 1937 return, corrected
the perihelion date using observations obtained during 1937, and applied
perturbations for the period 193742. He predicted this comet would next
arrive at perihelion on 1942 May 23.25.
G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) recovered this
comet on a 22-minute exposure obtained with the 61-cm reflector on 1942
April 11.11. The position was given as = 5h 56.5m , = +3 48 . The comet
was described as a small, round, diffuse coma about 15 across. There was
a nucleus, and the magnitude was 15.5. The comet was only 4.4 from the
predicted position. An independent recovery was obtained on May 9.46, by
S. Kanda (Tokyo Observatory, Japan). He estimated the magnitude as 10. At
the time of the recovery, the comet was about 1 month from perihelion and
about 2 months from its closest approach to Earth.
On April 12 and 13, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the
61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 15.5. On April 18, van Biesbroeck
gave the photographic magnitude as 15. He said the fuzzy nucleus measured
15 across and was situated within a very faint coma 1.2 across. On May 2,
van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 14. He said the coma
extended mostly towards PA 280. On the 9th, van Biesbroeck gave the
photographic magnitude as 13. He said the nucleus was only 10 across,
while the coma extended into a broad fan on the preceding side. On
May 19, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 12. He said
the fairly sharp nucleus was surrounded by a faint coma expanding on the
preceding side into a fan of 100 aperture, that can be followed to about 1.5
from the nucleus.
On June 5, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet using the 61-cm
reflector and gave the magnitude as 9.4. He described the coma as very
diffuse with a diameter of about 5 . He said there was no visible nucleus.
On the 9th, van Biesbroeck gave the visual magnitude as 9.4, while H. L.
Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA) photographed the comet using
the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and gave the magnitude as 12.
Van Biesbroeck said the coma was about 3 across, with no nucleus visible.
On the 15th, van Biesbroeck visually observed using the 61-cm reflector
and gave the magnitude as 9.1. He said the coma was 4 across. The nucleus
was diffuse and on the preceding side of the coma which is fan shaped,
169

catalog of comets

pointing toward 290. On the 17th, van Biesbroeck visually observed using
the reflector and gave the magnitude as 10.0. He said the coma was 5 across.
On the 19th, van Biesbroeck visually observed using the reflector and gave
the magnitude as 10.2. The comet attained its most northerly declination of
+42 on June 27.
On July 3, van Biesbroeck said the comet was similar in size and condensation to nearby NGC 5371, but about 1 magnitude fainter or about magnitude
12. On July 7, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet using the 10-cm
finder and gave the magnitude as 12. He said the coma was 3 across and
contained an almost stellar nucleus of magnitude 14.
The comet was last detected on July 12.15, when van Biesbroeck found it
on a 16-minute exposure made with the 61-cm reflector. The position was
given as = 15h 15.2m , = +36 07 . No physical description was obtained.
B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina (1972, 1973) used 36 positions obtained
between 1942 and 1961, as well as perturbations by all nine planets and
nongravitational terms, and determined the perihelion date as May 23.38
and the orbital period as 4.90 years. Marsden, Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans
(1973) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.03 and A2 = 0.0025.
This orbit is given below.
T
1942 May 23.3800 (TT)

 (2000.0)
356.3493 216.1166

i
17.6173

q
e
0.856003 0.703466

absolute magnitude: H10 = 13.9 (V1964)


full moon: Apr. 1, Apr. 30, May 30, Jun. 28, Jul. 27
sources: F. R. Cripps, BAA Handbook for 1942 (1941 Nov.), p. 19; G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 623 (1942 Apr. 13); G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 624 (1942
Apr. 16); S. Kanda, IAUC, No. 911 (1942 May 12); G. van Biesbroeck and S.
Kanda, The Observatory, 64 (1942 Jun.), p. 276; F. R. Cripps, MNRAS, 103 (1943),
pp. 11213; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1943 Mar. 26), pp. 11417; H. L. Giclas, AJ,
51 (1944 Aug.), p. 63; V1964, p. 75; B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina, CCO, 1st ed.
(1972), pp. 25, 47; B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973
Mar.), pp. 214, 216.

37P/1942 L1 Recovered: 1942 June 15.35 ( = 1.42 AU, r = 1.66 AU, Elong. = 85)
(Forbes) Last seen: 1942 October 5.36 ( = 1.26 AU, r = 2.25 AU, Elong. = 174)
Closest to the Earth: 1942 September 3 (1.1432 AU)
1942 III Calculated path: PSC (Rec), CET (Jun. 26), PSC (Oct. 6)
This comet was missed at its predicted return of 1935. F. R. Cripps (1934)
and H. Q. Rasmusen (1934) independently began with an orbit calculated for
the 1929 apparitions and applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn. The
result was a predicted perihelion date of 1935 November 16.18 by Cripps
and November 16.00 by Rasmusen. These calculations revealed this was an
unfavorable apparition, as the comet was at a small solar elongation when
at maximum brightness.
170

catalog of comets

Two predictions became available for the upcoming 1942 apparition.


F. R. Cripps (1941) took his predicted orbit for the 1935 apparition and
applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn. He predicted the comet would
next arrive at perihelion on 1942 April 16.90. N. Makarov (1942) took an
orbit for the 1929 apparition and integrated it up to this apparition by
applying perturbations by Venus to Saturn. The result was a perihelion of
April 17.76.
G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) recovered this
comet on a 20-minute exposure obtained with the 61-cm reflector on 1942
June 15.35. The position was given as = 0h 04.4m , = 4 50 . The comet
appeared on two plates as a 15th-magnitude object possessing a tail extending about 1 in PA 270. The position indicated the actual perihelion date
was only 0.5 day earlier than predicted by Cripps, and 1.25 days earlier than
predicted by Makarov.
Observations were made on two nights during July. Van Biesbroeck photographed the comet with the 61-cm reflector on the 11th and 12th. He
estimated the magnitude as 15.5 and said the coma was diffuse and about
20 across. H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA) detected the
comet with the 33-cm Lawrence Lowell telescope on the 12th and estimated
the magnitude as 12.
The comet attained its most northerly declination of +2 on August 20.
Although well placed, the comet was not observed during August. It
attained its most northerly declination of +2 on August 20. It was photographed in September by van Biesbroeck, who was then using the 208-cm
reflector at McDonald Observatory in Texas. On the 4th he estimated the
magnitude as 15 and said there was a well-defined nucleus within a very
faint coma. The coma was about 20 across and extended mostly into the
first quadrant. Van Biesbroeck also said there was a trace of a tail extending
45 in PA 15. He estimated the magnitude as 16 on the 11th and simply
noted the nucleus was fainter than on the 4th. On the 13th van Biesbroeck
estimated the magnitude as 16.5 and said the nucleus was faint, but fairly
sharp.
The comet was last detected on October 4.30 and 5.36, when van
Biesbroeck photographed it with the 208-cm reflector at McDonald Observatory. He estimated the magnitude as 18 for each night. The 15-minute
exposure on the 4th showed a much less sharp nucleus, while a 20minute exposure on the 5th revealed a very fuzzy nucleus and a little changed coma. The comets position on the latter night was given as
= 0h 24.7m , = 0 00 .
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by B. G. Marsden (1968,
1969, 1972). He applied perturbations by all nine planets and applied
nongravitational forces after 1968. The result was a perihelion date of
April 16.4116.42 and a period of 6.43 years. Marsden (1968) noted a
secular deceleration. Marsden (1969) gave the nongravitational terms as
A1 = +0.28845, A2 = +0.021529, and B2 = +1.2457. Marsden, Z. Sekanina,
171

catalog of comets

and D. K. Yeomans (1973) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = 0.14


and A2 = +0.0733. The orbit of Marsden (1969) is given below.
T
1942 Apr. 16.4168 (TT)

 (2000.0)
259.6593
26.2565

i
4.6288

q
e
1.548694 0.552045

absolute magnitude: H10 = 12.7 (V1964)


full moon: Jun. 28, Jul. 27, Aug. 26, Sep. 24, Oct. 24
sources: F. R. Cripps, BAA Handbook for 1935 (1934), p. 29; H. Q. Rasmusen, AN,
253 (1934 Nov. 13), pp. 4258; F. R. Cripps, BAA Handbook for 1942 (1941 Nov.),
p. 18; G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 626 (1942 Jun. 18); N. Makarov, HAC, No.
627 (1942 Jul. 3); N. Makarov, AJ, 50 (1942 Aug. 13), pp. 338; MNRAS, 103
(1943), pp. 112113; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1943 Dec. 3), pp. 1668; G. van
Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1944 Feb. 29), pp. 1834; H. L. Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 63;
V1964, p. 74; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 372, 3745; B. G. Marsden,
QJRAS, 9 (1968 Sep.), pp. 31415; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 74 (1969 Jun.), pp. 725, 727;
B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 10 (1969 Sep.), pp. 2523; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 13 (1972
Sep.), pp. 4301; B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973
Mar.), p. 213.

14P/Wolf Recovered: 1942 November 5.40 ( = 1.64 AU, r = 2.61 AU, Elong. = 164)
Last seen: 1942 December 12.24 ( = 1.93 AU, r = 2.71 AU, Elong. = 134)
1942 VI Closest to the Earth: 1942 October 25 (1.6224 AU)
Calculated path: CET (Rec), ERI (Nov. 20), CET (Dec. 8)
W. P. Henderson and H. Whichello (1941) took M. Kamienskis orbit for
the 1934 apparition and applied perturbations for the period of 193442.
They predicted this comet would next arrive at perihelion on 1942 June
7.59. S. Kanda (1942) took the orbit calculated by M. Kamensky for the
1934 apparition and applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn. Kanda
predicted the comet would next pass perihelion on June 23.55.
W. H. W. Baade (Mount Wilson Observatory, California, USA) recovered
this comet on a 1-hour exposure obtained with the 254-cm reflector on
1942 November 5.40. The position was given as = 2h 59.4m , = +1
33 and the magnitude was given as 19.3. The comet was confirmed on
1-hour exposures obtained on November 6.29 and November 9.41. All
three of the photographic plates revealed a semi-stellar head with a faint
tail extending about 16 in PA 300. Baade gave the magnitude as 18.6 on
November 6.
The final observations were obtained by Baade, using the 254-cm reflector,
on December 11.24 and December 12.24. The position on the final date was
given as = 2h 42.0m , = 4 00 .
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by Kamienski (1959),
D. K. Yeomans (1975, 1978), and E. I. Kazimirchak-Polonskaya (1977, 1978)
and these revealed a perihelion date of June 23.57 and a period of 8.29 years.
Yeomans (1975) and Kazimirchak-Polonskaya (1977) said nongravitational
172

catalog of comets

effects were apparently no longer active. The orbit of Yeomans is given


below.
T
1942 Jun. 23.5659 (TT)

 (2000.0)
160.9628 205.0468

i
27.2976

q
e
2.437382 0.404776

absolute magnitude: H10 = 13.6 (V1964)


full moon: Oct. 24, Nov. 22, Dec. 22
sources: W. P. Henderson and H. Whichello, BAA Handbook for 1942 (1941
Nov.), p. 20; S. Kanda, Tokyo Astronomical Bulletin, No. 615 (1942 Feb. 24),
p. 1229; W. H. W. Baade, HAC, No. 638 (1942 Nov. 12); W. H. W. Baade, PASP,
54 (1942 Dec.), pp. 25960; W. P. Henderson, H. Whichello, and W. H. W. Baade,
MNRAS, 103 (1943), pp. 11213; W. H. W. Baade, IAUC, No. 933 (1943 Jan. 5);
W. H. W. Baade, AJ, 50 (1943 Jul. 30), p. 142; M. Kamienski, AcA, 9 (1959),
pp. 6672; V1964, p. 75; D. K. Yeomans, PASP, 87 (1975 Aug.), pp. 6357; E. I.
Kazimirchak-Polonskaya, SvA, 21 (1977 Jan.Feb.), pp. 10712; D. K. Yeomans
and E. I. Kazimirchak-Polonskaya, QJRAS, 19 (1978 Mar.), pp. 523, 57.

38P/1942 V1 Prediscovery: 1942 November 5.23 ( = 0.74 AU, r = 1.69 AU,


(Stephan Elong. = 152)
Oterma) Discovered: 1942 November 6.00 ( = 0.74 AU, r = 1.68 AU, Elong. = 153)
Last seen: 1943 May 2.12 ( = 2.26 AU, r = 2.28 AU, Elong. = 78)
1942 IX = 1942f Closest to the Earth: 1942 December 7 (0.6308 AU)
Calculated path: TAU (Pre), PER (Jan. 13), AUR (Jan. 26), PER (Jan. 30), AUR
(Feb. 2), LYN (Apr. 10)
L. Oterma (Turku University Observatory, Finland) discovered this comet
on minor planet survey plate L4918, which was exposed on 1942 November
6.00. She gave the position as = 4h 11.1m , = +0 35 . The magnitude was
estimated as 13 and the comet was described as diffuse, without a condensation. Y. Visl (Turku University Observatory) confirmed the discovery
on November 6.84. It was described as magnitude 13, with a slow northward motion. A short time after the announcement, F. L. Whipple (Harvard
College Observatory, Massachusetts, USA) found a prediscovery image on a
patrol plate exposed on November 5.23. The magnitude was then estimated
as 13. In the USA, the comet was referred to as Oterma 2 until first orbital
computations became available.
It should be noted that some publications, including the Monthly Notices of
the Royal Astronomical Society and The Observatory, reported that Oterma discovered a comet on 1942 September 11, with the former publication claiming
this was the first observation of periodic comet StephanOterma. In reality,
the September observation was an accidental observation of periodic comet
SchwassmannWachmann 1.
On November 11, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin,
USA) gave the magnitude as 10.6. He said the round coma measured
3 across and was centrally condensed into a sharp nucleus. He added,
173

catalog of comets

The coma is brightest in the second quadrant suggesting an embryonic


tail in that direction. On the 12th, J. M. Vinter Hansen (Lick Observatory,
California, USA) photographed the comet using the 51-cm Carnegie astrograph and gave the magnitude as 12. On the 13th and 14th, van Biesbroeck
visually observed the comet and gave the magnitudes as 10.6 and 10.6,
respectively. On the 17th, H. E. Burton (US Naval Observatory, Washington,
DC, USA) visually observed using the 66-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 13. He described the comet as diffuse, with a nucleus. On the
18th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 10.5. On November 27, van
Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 10.2. He said there was a short tail in the
second quadrant.
On December 1, H. Krumpholz (Vienna, Austria) gave the magnitude as
10.5. He said the coma was 23 across and contained a distinct condensation. On the 2nd, van Biesbroeck gave the visual magnitude as 10.0, while
H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA) gave the photographic
magnitude as 12. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was 3 across. On the 3rd,
van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.7. On the 4th, Krumpholz gave
the magnitude as 10.2. On the 5th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as
9.3. He said a fan-shaped tail pointing towards PA 130 emanated from a
well-defined nucleus, while a very diffuse tail extended 12 in PA 255. On
the 13th and 14th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.2. On the 30th,
Giclas photographed the comet using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and gave the magnitude as 12. On December 31, Krumpholz noted
the comet was very faint in the 30-cm refractor and it was invisible in the
finder.
Because of the interruption of communications between various countries
during World War II, word of this comet failed to reach many observatories. Consequently, the comet was independently found on December 26,
by G. A. Tevzadze (Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Georgia). He
estimated the magnitude as 10. His colleague E. K. Kharadze was able to
photograph the comet on December 26.68, and gave the position as = 4h
02.1m , = +23 09 . Kharadze also gave the magnitude as 10. The comet
was referred to in Russian publications as Tevzadze 1.
On 1943 January 4, Krumpholz gave the photographic magnitude as 11.
He said the coma was 1 across and contained a condensation. On the 6th,
van Biesbroeck obtained a 1-minute exposure using the 61-cm reflector and
gave the magnitude as 10. On the 7th, the photographic magnitude was
given as 10 by Kharadze and 12 by Krumpholz. On the 12th, van Biesbroeck
obtained a 1-minute exposure using the reflector and gave the magnitude
as 10. On the 26th and 27th, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 11. He said there was a sharp nucleus and the coma spread into a
broad fan towards PA 130. On January 27, Kharadze gave the photographic
magnitude as 10.
The interruption of wartime communications allowed another independent discovery on January 30.80, when G. N. Neujmin (Kitab, Uzbekistan)
174

catalog of comets

found the comet on a photograph and gave the position as = 4h 41m ,


= +36 18 . Although he initially estimated the magnitude as 10, he later
revised this to 11.0. He confirmed the comet on January 31.
On February 3, Neujmin gave the photographic magnitude as 11.0. On
the 3rd and 4th, D. Y. Martynov (Engelhardt Observatory, Kazan, Russia)
found the comet on photographic plates obtained by his colleague N. I. Tchudovitchev, using the 12-cm Zeiss Astro-Tessar. He estimated the magnitude
as 12.0. On the 4th, Neujmin gave the photographic magnitude as 12.0. On
the 7th and 8th, Martynov was able to locate a faint nebulous object of magnitude 11 on plates exposed by Tchudovitchev. On the 8th, P. G. Kulikovsky
(Swerdlowsk, Ukraine) photographed the comets position using the 16-cm
refractor, but no trace was found. He noted that the limiting magnitude at
the center of the plate was 14.5. On February 27, van Biesbroeck visually
observed the comet using the 102-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as
13. He said there was a sharp nucleus of magnitude 14.5, and a tail extended
1 in PA 95. On March 8 and 10, Kulikovsky photographed the comets position, but no trace was found. He noted that the limiting magnitude at the
center of the plate was 14.5. The comet attained its most northerly declination of +41 on March 13. On March 31, van Biesbroeck obtained a 10-minute
exposure using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 15. He added
that there was a sharp nucleus, and the coma mostly extended towards PA
100. On April 2, van Biesbroeck obtained a 6-minute exposure using the
reflector and said the nucleus was almost stellar, while the coma extended
2 in PA 110. On April 9, van Biesbroeck obtained a 10-minute exposure and
gave the magnitude as 15.5. He said the coma was less condensed than during previous observations and extended in a broad fan towards the second
quadrant.
The comet was last detected on May 2.12, when van Biesbroeck obtained
a 10-minute exposure with the 208-cm reflector. The position was given as
= 8h 17.9m , = +36 44 . He estimated the magnitude as 17, and said
the nucleus was hazy and about 10 across. Van Biesbroeck added that the
extension of the coma towards PA 120 was barely visible.
The first orbit was calculated by Oterma using three precise positions that
she measured on November 6 and 8. The perihelion date was given as 1942
December 23.42. By mid-November, it became apparent that the comet was
moving in a short-period orbit, as Whipple took positions from November
5, 11, and 14, and determined the perihelion date as December 18.86 and
the period as 41.4 years. He added that the orbit was essentially identical to that of comet 1867 I (Stephan). The breakdown of communications
during World War II prevented news of the comet from reaching numerous
countries, including Russia. Subsequently, following the independent discovery of the comet by Tevzadze, A. D. Dubiago independently identified
the comet with Stephans comet of 1867.
Additional elliptical orbits were calculated by Oterma, J. Bobone, and
Dubiago, which established the period as 38 or 39 years.
175

catalog of comets

Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by M. Y. Shmakova (1971,


1972), E. I. Kazimirchak-Polonskaya and L. M. Belous (1974), Belous and
Kazimirchak-Polonskaya (1979), D. K. Yeomans (1982, 1985, 1986), Belous
(1985), P. Rocher (1995), and K. Kinoshita (2003). Planetary perturbations
were considered by everyone, with Rocher and Kinoshita also applying
nongravitational terms. The result was a perihelion date of December 19.07
19.09 and a period of 38.8438.88 years. Nongravitational terms were given
as A1 = 0.46215 and A2 = 0.17296 by Rocher and A1 = 0.146460 and
A2 = 0.003112 by Kinoshita. Kinoshitas orbit is given below.
T
1942 Dec. 19.0886 (TT)

 (2000.0)
358.2903
79.2869

i
17.9018

q
e
1.595294 0.860988

absolute magnitude: H10 = 9.5 (V1964)


full moon: Oct. 24, Nov. 22, Dec. 22 1943, Jan. 21, Feb. 20, Mar. 21, Apr. 20,
May 19
sources: L. Oterma, The Observatory, 64 (1942 Oct.), p. 339; L. Oterma, IAUC, No.
924 (1942 Nov. 9); L. Oterma, HAC, No. 637 (1942 Nov. 10); F. L. Whipple and G.
van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 638 (1942 Nov. 12); L. Oterma, IAUC, No. 925 (1942
Nov. 12); F. L. Whipple, J. M. Vinter Hansen, and G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No.
640 (1942 Nov. 16); J. Bobone, HAC, No. 641 (1942 Dec. 3); L. Oterma, IAUC, No.
927 (1942 Dec. 3); G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 643 (1942 Dec. 15); J. Bobone and
F. L. Whipple, MNRAS, 103 (1943), pp. 11213; F. L. Whipple, G. van Biesbroeck,
and J. M. Vinter Hansen, IAUC, No. 933 (1943 Jan. 5); G. A. Tevzadze, HAC, No.
648 (1943 Jan. 8); A. D. Dubiago and G. A. Tevzadze, HAC, No. 650 (1943 Feb.
8); G. A. Tevzadze, E. K. Kharadze, G. N. Neujmin, D. Y. Martynov, N. I. Tchudovitchev, and A. D. Dubiago, ATsir, No. 11 (1943 Feb. 12); G. N. Neujmin, D. Y.
Martynov, and N. I. Tchudovitchev, ATsir, No. 12 (1943 Mar. 1); P. G. Kulikovsky,
ATsir, No. 14 (1943 Apr. 20); F. L. Whipple, The Observatory, 65 (1943 Apr.), p. 19;
A. D. Dubiago, ATsir, No. 17 (1943 Jun. 14); G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1943 Dec.
3), pp. 1668; G. van Biesbroeck and H. E. Burton, AJ, 50 (1944 Feb. 29), pp. 183
4, 1867; H. L. Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 63; J. Bobone and A. D. Dubiago,
MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 11011, 113; H. Krumpholz, AN, 275 (1947 Oct. 24),
pp. 1857; V1964, p. 75; M. Y. Shmakova, QJRAS, 12 (1971 Sep.), pp. 2689, 272;
M. Y. Shmakova, IAUS, No. 45 (1972), pp. 2035; E. I. Kazimirchak-Polonskaya
and L. M. Belous, QJRAS, 15 (1974 Dec.), pp. 4523, 459; L. Oterma, MPC, No.
4424 (1978 Aug. 1); L. Oterma and Y. Visl, Astronomia-Optika Institucio Universitato de Turku Informo, No. 41 (1978 Dec. 20), pp. 1013; L. M. Belous and E. I.
Kazimirchak-Polonskaya, CCO, 3rd ed. (1979), pp. 25, 51; D. K. Yeomans, CCO,
4th ed. (1982), pp. 21, 53; D. K. Yeomans, QJRAS, 26 (1985 Mar.), p. 104; L. M.
Belous, QJRAS, 26 (1985 Sep.), pp. 3089; D. K. Yeomans, QJRAS, 27 (1986 Dec.),
p. 604; personal correspondence from P. Rocher (1995); personal correspondence
from K. Kinoshita (2003).

C/1942 X1 Prediscovery: 1942 November 5.34 ( = 1.22 AU, r = 1.90 AU, Elong.
(Whipple = 117)
FedtkeTevzadze) Discovered: 1942 December 8.24 ( = 0.74 AU, r = 1.61 AU, Elong. = 138)
Last seen: 1943 August 2.13 ( = 2.70 AU, r = 2.74 AU, Elong. = 81)
176

catalog of comets

1943 I Closest to the Earth: 1943 January 25 (0.4304 AU)


Calculated path: MON (Pre), GEM (Nov. 8), CMi (Nov. 10), GEM (Nov. 25),
CMi (Nov. 28), GEM (Nov. 30), CNC (Dec. 9), LYN (1943 Jan. 9), LMi (Jan.
13), LYN (Jan. 17), LMi (Jan. 19), UMa (Jan. 20), CVn (Mar. 14), COM (May
6), VIR (Jun. 19), BOO (Jun. 24), VIR (Jul. 12)
F. L. Whipple (Harvard College Observatory, Masschusetts, USA) was in the
process of examining Harvard patrol plates when he found this comet on
a plate exposed on 1942 December 8.24. The position was given as = 7h
50.2m , = +15 24 . The comet was described as magnitude 10, and was
diffuse with a nucleus. Whipple subsequently found prediscovery images
on about 20 patrol plates, with the earliest having been exposed on November 5.34, at which time the magnitude was about 12. He pointed out that
good quality patrol plates exposed during October did not reveal the
comet. Whipples magnitude estimates were 12 on November 17.34, 11 on
November 29.32, 10 on December 4.40, and 10 on December 7.32. C. Fedtke
(Konigsberg,

now Kaliningrad, Russia) independently discovered the comet


on December 11.
Because of the breakdown of communications during World War II,
an independent discovery was made by G. A. Tevzadze (Abastumani
Astrophysical Observatory, Georgia) on December 28. His colleague E. K.
Kharadze was able to photograph the comet on December 28.80, and gave
the position as = 8h 33.5m , = +25 04 . Kharadze also gave the
magnitude as 7. The comet was referred to in Russian publications as
Tevzadze 2.
On December 13, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin,
USA) gave the magnitude as 7.6. He said the coma was 7 across, with a
well-defined nucleus, while a slender tail extended 45 in PA 280. On the
14th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 8. He said a tail extended 40
in PA 280. On the 15th, H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA)
photographed the comet using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph
and gave the magnitude as 7. On the 16th, the magnitude was given as 7
by Giclas, and 8 by J. M. Vinter Hansen (Lick Observatory, California, USA)
and van Biesbroeck. On the 19th, A. Model (Munich, Germany) gave the
magnitude as 7.06. He said the coma was 5 across. On the 27th, Model gave
the magnitude as 6.72 and nuclear magnitude as 9.5. On the 28th, M. Beyer
(Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) visually observed the comet
using a 5-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 6.28. On December 30,
Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 7.
On 1943 January 3, Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.74. He determined the
nuclear magnitude as 8.16, the coma diameter as 15 , and added that the tail
extended 0.8 in PA 270. On the 4th, J. Junkes (Vatican Observatory, Italy)
photographed the comet and said the tail extended toward PA 262. On the
5th, the magnitude was given as 5.7 by Model and 5.8 by van Biesbroeck.
Model said the coma was 7 across and the nuclear magnitude was 9, while
177

catalog of comets

the tail extended 0.3 in PA 277. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was 12 across
and contained a sharp nucleus. He added, The tail starts out as a threadlike filament but it soon broadens out and divides in lateral branches. On
the 6th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.77. Beyer determined the nuclear
magnitude as 8.0, the coma diameter as 14 , and added that the tail extended
0.7 in PA 263. H. E. Burton (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, USA)
said the comet was easily visible in the 5-cm finder, while a photograph with
the 66-cm refractor revealed a stellar nucleus. On the 7th, the magnitude was
given as 5.73 by Beyer and 6.2 by H. Krumpholz (Vienna, Austria). Beyer
gave the nuclear magnitude as 8.3, and added that the tail extended 0.4 in
PA 269. Krumpholz said the coma was 3 across and possessed a starlike
nucleus.
On January 8, Beyer gave the naked-eye magnitude as 5.50 and Giclas
gave the photographic magnitude as 7. Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as 8.1, the coma diameter as 16 , and added that the tail extended 0.6
in PA 266. On the 9th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 5.41. He determined
the nuclear magnitude as 8.7, the coma diameter as 13 , and added that the
tail extended 0.5 in PA 259. On the 10th, the magnitude was given as 5.16
by Beyer, 5.33 by Model, 5.4 by Krumpholz, and 5.8 by K. Himpel (Vienna,
Austria). Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as 8.7, the coma diameter as 15 , and added that the tail extended 0.6 in PA 260. Krumpholz
said the round coma was 10 across and contained a starlike condensation
of magnitude 8. On the 11th, E. Buchar (Prague, Czech Republic) gave the
magnitude as 5.9. He said the coma was 10 in diameter. On the 12th, the magnitude was given as 5.3 by van Biesbroeck, 6 by A. M. Bakharev (Stalinabad,
now Dushanbe, Tajikistan), and 6.0 by Buchar. On the 13th, Model gave the
naked-eye magnitude as 5.3. He said the nuclear magnitude was about 8.75,
while the tail extended 0.5 in PA 257. J. L. Smith (US Naval Observatory)
said a photograph with the 66-cm refractor revealed considerable coma,
but no apparent tail. On January 14, Model gave the naked-eye magnitude
as 4.73, while Bakharev gave the magnitude as 5.54, using a 17-cm comet
seeker. Model said the coma was 11 across and the nuclear magnitude was
about 8.75, while the tail extended 0.6 in PA 250. Bakharev noted traces of
a tail.
On January 16, the magnitude was given as 4.47 by Model. L. Gialanella
(Monte Mario, Rome, Italy) gave the magnitude of the nuclear region as
7.22. On the 17th, the magnitude was given as 4.57 by Model. Gialanella
gave the magnitude of the nuclear region as 6.64. Model said the coma was
14 across, while the tail extended 0.35 in PA 250. M. Timmers (Vatican
Observatory) photographed the comet and said the tail extended toward
PA 241. On the 18th, the magnitude was given as 4.12 by Model and 4.34
by Beyer. Gialanella gave the magnitude of the nuclear region as 7.15. Model
said the coma was 12 across and the nuclear magnitude was about 9. On
the 19th, the magnitude was given as 3.79 by Beyer and 4.99 by Bakharev.
Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as 7.0, and added that the tail
178

catalog of comets

extended 0.7 in PA 247. Bakharev noted a tail 1.5 long. On January 20,
Model observed the comet using 6 30 binoculars and gave the magnitude
as 4.37. He said the coma was 9 across and the nuclear magnitude was
about 9.25.
On January 23, Buchar gave the naked-eye magnitude as 4.6. He said
the coma was 10 across. On the 24th, the magnitude was given as 4.04.5
by Buchar and 4.15 by Beyer. Buchar said the coma was 12 in diameter.
Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as 6.78, the coma diameter as 19 ,
and added that the tail extended 1.1 in PA 237. On the 25th, the magnitude was given as 3.84 by Beyer, 3.9 by G. A. Lange (Kitob, Uzbekistan) and
Krumpholz, 4.3 by W. Gliese (Potsdam Observatory, Germany), and 5.0 by
Himpel. Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as 6.80, the coma diameter as 21 , and added that the tail extended 1.6 in PA 236. On the 26th,
the magnitude was given as 3.9 by van Biesbroeck, 3.92 by Beyer, 4.21 by
Bakharev, 4.4 by Gliese, and 4.5 by A. V. Soloviev (Stalinabad). Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as 6.5, the coma diameter as 28 , and added
that the tail extended 1.5 in PA 238. Bakharev said the nucleus and coma
had grown since his previous observation. On the 27th, the visual magnitude was given as 3.9 by van Biesbroeck and Lange, 4.2 by Gliese, 4.35 by
Bakharev, and 4.5 by Soloviev. Kharadze gave the photographic magnitude
as 6. Bakharev noted a sharply defined nucleus and a tail 200 long that
exhibited complex structure. Junkes and Timmers photographed the comet
and said the tail extended toward PA 230. On the 28th, Gliese gave the
naked-eye magnitude as 4.4. Junkes and Timmers photographed the comet
and said the tail extended toward PA 233. On the 29th, the magnitude was
given as 4.1 by Buchar, 4.2 by Lange, 4.244.30 by Model, 4.3 by Gliese, 4.48
by C. Votrubec (Vodnany, Czech Republic), 4.51 by Bakharev, and 4.8 by
Soloviev. Model said the coma was 16 across, while the tail extended 0.4
in PA 235 on Jan. 29.01 and he said the coma was 15 across, while the tail
extended 0.4 in PA 240 on Jan. 29.82. Votrubec said the coma was 7.77
across. On January 30, the magnitude was given as 4.0 by Lange, 4.19 by
Beyer, 4.2 by van Biesbroeck, 4.34 by Bakharev, and 4.7 by Soloviev. Beyer
determined the nuclear magnitude as 6.8, and added that the tail extended
1.2 in PA 234.
On January 31, the magnitude was given as 3.96 by Votrubec, 4.2 by Lange,
4.20 by Beyer, 4.26 by Model, 4.4 by Buchar, 4.47 by Bakharev, 5.0 by Soloviev,
and 5.1 by Himpel. Votrubec said the coma was 7.80 across. Beyer said the
coma diameter was 22 , and added that the tail extended 1.6 in PA 235.
Model said the tail extended 0.7 in PA 228. Buchar said the coma was 20
across. Bakharev said the tail was 210 long.
On February 1, the magnitude was given as 4.4 by Buchar and Krumpholz,
and 5.0 by Himpel. Buchar said the coma diameter was 20 , while the tail
extended 3 in PA 240. Krumpholz said the coma was 10 across. On the
2nd, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 4.2 and S. J. V. Arend (Royal
Observatory, Uccle, Belgium) gave it as 5.5. Arend added that the central
179

catalog of comets

condensation was magnitude 6.9. On the 3rd, the magnitude was given
as 4.4 by Krumpholz, 4.47 by Bakharev, 4.5 by Lange, and 4.52 by Beyer.
Gialanella gave the magnitude of the nuclear region as 6.33. Krumpholz
said the coma was 12 across, and contained a starlike nucleus of magnitude
8. Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as 7.41, the coma diameter as 21 ,
and added that the tail extended 1.3 in PA 231. A. Zirwes (Vatican Observatory) photographed the comet and said the tail extended toward PA 225.
On the 3rd, 4th, and 7th, D. Y. Martynov (Engelhardt Observatory, Kazan,
Russia) gave the visual magnitude as 5.08. N. I. Tchudovitchev (Engelhardt
Observatory) obtained 60-minute exposures using the 12-cm Zeiss AstroTessar, which Martynov said revealed a well developed tail, reaching over
6 in length, and changing its form and structure. The coma is very bright
and attains about 20 in diameter. On the 4th, the magnitude was given
as 4.6 by Lange, 4.74.8 by Himpel, 4.84 by Bakharev, and 5.3 by Soloviev.
On the 5th, the magnitude was given as 4.72 by Model, and 4.8 by Himpel
and Gliese. Model said the coma was 14 across, while the tail extended
0.7 in PA 229. On the 6th, the magnitude was given as 4.43 by Beyer, and
4.7 by F. Succi (Rome, Italy) and Buchar. Gialanella gave the magnitude of
the nuclear region as 7.63. Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as 7.2,
the coma diameter as 20 , and added that the tail extended 1.0 in PA 236.
Timmers photographed the comet and said the tail extended toward PA
223. On February 7, the magnitude was given as 4.364.57 by Beyer, 4.84
by Bakharev, and 5.0 by Gliese and by Arend. Beyer determined the nuclear
magnitude as 7.2, the coma diameter as 22 , and added that the tail extended
1.6 in PA 230. Arend added that the central condensation was magnitude
7.0. Timmers photographed the comet and said the tail extended toward
PA 222.
On February 8, the magnitude was within the range 4.145.1, according
to Bakharev, Lange, Votrubec, Soloviev, Krumpholz, Beyer, Buchar, Himpel,
van Biesbroeck, Martynov, and Gliese, with an average of 4.6. Buchar said
the coma was 15 in diameter. Beyer said the tail extended 1.6 in PA 227. On
the 9th, the magnitude was given as 4.114.19 by Votrubec and 4.35 by M. E.
Nabokov (Shatsk, Russia), 4.4 by Buchar, and 4.6 by Himpel. Nabokov said
the tail was about 0.5 long. Buchar said the coma diameter was 16 , while
the tail extended 1.5 in PA 235. On the 10th, the magnitude was given
as 4.17 by Nabokov and 4.74.8 by Gliese. Nabokov said the tail was 1.5
long with a head 1530 across. Timmers photographed the comet and said
the tail extended toward PA 230. On the 11th, the magnitude was given as
4.47 by Beyer, 4.84 by Bakharev, and 4.97 by Votrubec. Beyer determined the
nuclear magnitude as 6.64, the coma diameter as 29 , and added that the tail
extended 0.9 in PA 229. Votrubec said the coma was 7.78 across. On the
12th, Himpel observed the comet using 3 49 binoculars. On the 13th, the
magnitude was given as 4.01 by Nabokov and 4.19 by Votrubec. Votrubec
said the coma was 8.84 across. On February 14, Gliese observed using
6 30 binoculars and gave the magnitude as 5.6.
180

catalog of comets

On February 15, A. Weber (Berlin-Steglitz, Germany) observed using


6 30 binoculars and gave the magnitude as 5.4. On the 16th, van Biesbroeck
gave the naked-eye magnitude as 3.8. On the 17th, the magnitude was given
as 3.8 by Weber, using a 4 20 monocular, and 4.38 by Beyer, using the
naked eye. On the 18th, the magnitude was given as 3.7 by Buchar and 5.1
by Gliese. Buchar said the coma was 18 across. On the 19th, the magnitude
was given as 4.08 by Votrubec, 4.2 by Buchar, and 4.25 by Model. Votrubec
said the coma was 5.89 across. Model said the nuclear magnitude was 9.
On the 20th, Model gave the magnitude as 3.85 and said the nucleus was
shining at magnitude 9. On February 21, the magnitude was given as 3.55
by Model, 3.77 by Votrubec, 3.8 by Weber, 4.2 by Himpel and Gliese, and 4.4
by Buchar. Model said the nuclear magnitude was about 8.75. On the 22nd,
the magnitude was given as 3.75 by Votrubec, 3.9 by Himpel, 3.97 by Model,
4.0 by Buchar and van Biesbroeck, and 4.1 by Krumpholz. Votrubec said the
coma was 8.84 across. Model said the coma was 20 across, while the tail
extended 2.6 in PA 221. Buchar said the coma diameter was 28 , while
the tail extended 3 in PA 225. Krumpholz said the coma was 15 across
and contained a starlike nucleus. Zirwes photographed the comet and said
the tail extended toward PA 219. On February 23, the comet attained its
most northerly declination of +55. The magnitude was given as 3.62 by
Votrubec, 3.7 by Himpel, 3.8 by Buchar, 3.9 by Gliese and Krumpholz, 4.00
by Model and G. B. Lacchini (Triest, Italy), and 4.42 by Nabokov. Votrubec
said the coma was 9.78 across. Buchar said the coma diameter was 20 , while
the tail extended 3 in PA 224. Model said the coma was 21 across and the
nuclear magnitude was 9, while the tail extended 3.4 in PA 220. Junkes
and Zirwes photographed the comet and said the tail extended toward
PA 221.
On February 24, the magnitude was given as 3.2 by J. Ashbrook (Leesburg,
Virginia, USA), 3.52 by Nabokov, 3.8 by Krumpholz, and 3.95 by Model.
Nabokov said the tail was 56 long. Model said the coma was 27 across,
while the tail extended 6.5 in PA 220. Zirwes photographed the comet
and said the tail extended toward PA 219. On the 25th, the magnitude
was given as 3.5 by Ashbrook, 3.7 by Himpel and Krumpholz, 3.713.75
by Model, and 4.10 by Lacchini. Krumpholz said the 7 50 binoculars
revealed a tail extending 4 in PA 220, while the 75-mm seeker showed a
coma 22 across, and a tail extending 2. Krumpholz added that the 30-cm
refractor showed a nucleus measuring 45 across. Model said the coma was
27 across, while the tail extended 8.6 in PA 221. Zirwes photographed the
comet and said the tail extended toward PA 221. On the 26th, the magnitude
was given as 3.64 by Beyer, 3.7 by Ashbrook, and 3.8 by Himpel. On the
27th, the magnitude was given as 3.7 by Nabokov, 3.9 by Himpel and van
Biesbroeck, 4.19 by Votrubec, 4.2 by Ashbrook, and 4.29 by Model. Nabokov
said the comet was 1 across. Van Biesbroeck said there was a sharp nucleus
of magnitude 6.0. Votrubec said the coma was 14.14 across. Model said the
coma was 23 across, while the tail extended 4.5 in PA 220. On February 28,
181

catalog of comets

the magnitude was given as 3.9 by Buchar, 4.0 by Himpel, 4.14 by Model, 4.18
by Votrubec, and 4.58 by D. Y. Martynov (Engelhardt Observatory, Kazan,
Russia). Buchar said the coma diameter was 20 , while the tail extended 2
in PA 220. Model said the coma was 24 across and elongated towards PA
220, while the tail extended 1.3 in PA 220. Votrubec said the coma was
9.78 across. Weber said the tail was 1 long in a 5-cm refractor.
On March 1, the magnitude was given as 3.6 by Ashbrook, 3.92 by Beyer,
4.0 by van Biesbroeck, and 4.3 by Succi. Succi said the binoculars revealed
a tail extending over 8. Zirwes photographed the comet and said the tail
extended toward PA 221.
On March 2, the magnitude was given as 4.07 by Beyer, 4.1 by Krumpholz,
4.2 by Himpel, 4.37 by Votrubec, 4.38 by Model, 4.4 by Succi, 4.66 by Lacchini, and 4.9 by N. V. Ginori (Florence, Italy). Beyer determined the nuclear
magnitude as 7.50, estimated the coma diameter as 23 , and said the tail
extended 3.5 in PA 213. Krumpholz said 7 50 binoculars revealed a
coma 20 across. Votrubec said the coma was 9.78 across. Model said the
coma was 20 across, while the tail extended 3.8 in PA 213. Succi said
the coma was 1820 across. Nabokov said the tail was 89 across. Zirwes
photographed the comet and said the tail extended toward PA 212.
On March 3, the magnitude was given as 4.15 by Beyer, 4.3 by van
Biesbroeck, 4.5 by Gliese and Buchar, 4.6 by Succi, 4.61 by Model, 4.9 by
Weber, and 5.0 by Soloviev and Ginori. Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as 8.56, estimated the coma diameter as 28 , and said the tail extended
2.3 in PA 213. Buchar said the coma diameter was 14 , while the tail
extended 1.3 in PA 212. Model said the coma was 21 across and elongated
towards PA 214, while the tail extended 1.0 in PA 214. Weber said the tail
extended about 2 (50-mm telescope). Zirwes photographed the comet and
said the tail extended toward PA 215.
On March 4, the magnitude was within the range 4.25.1, according
to Succi, Nabokov, Soloviev, Ashbrook, Beyer, Votrubec, Ginori, Himpel,
Krumpholz, Lacchini, and Model, with an average of 4.5. Votrubec said
the coma was 8.84 across on March 4.14 and 11.78 across on March 4.88.
Nabokov observed with 6 binoculars and said the nucleus was brighter
and displaced to the front side of the coma. Succi detected a weak tail extending about 1 in binoculars, while the coma was 15 across. Model said the
coma was 22 across and elongated towards PA 223, while the tail extended
0.5 in PA 223. Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as 7.50, estimated
the coma diameter as 23 , and said the tail extended 1.7 in PA 220.
On March 5, the magnitude was given as 4.09 by Nabokov, 4.6 by Succi
and Ashbrook, 5.0 by Soloviev, and 5.1 by Ginori. Nabokov said the nucleus
was fainter than on the 4th. Succi said the tail extended 2.5 in binoculars,
while the coma was 14 across. Zirwes photographed the comet and said
the tail extended toward PA 212.
On March 6, the magnitude was given as 4.27 by Beyer, 4.3 by Himpel,
4.6 by Gliese, 4.67 by Lacchini, 4.714.86 by Martynov, and 5.2 by
182

catalog of comets

G. Zimmermann (Felde, Germany). Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as 8.01, estimated the coma diameter as 23 , and said the tail extended
2.3 in PA 214. Zimmermann said the coma was about 20 across and elongated towards PA 225, while the tail extended 1.5 in PA 230 and a bright
ray extended 0.5 in PA 260.
On March 7, the magnitude was given as 4.22 by Nabokov, 4.30 by Beyer,
4.32 by Votrubec, 4.4 by Himpel, 4.6 by Gliese, 4.67 by Lacchini, 4.7 by
Krumpholz, 4.74 by Model, 4.79 by Martynov, 4.8 by Ashbrook, and 5.0 by
Weber. Nabokov observed with 6 binoculars and said the nucleus was
but little conspicuous. He added, Head growing in size. Two streamers
in the head emerged in the direction of the tail. Beyer determined the
nuclear magnitude as 8.6, estimated the coma diameter as 23 , and said
the tail extended 3.6 in PA 212. Votrubec said the coma was 8.84 across.
Model said the coma was 17 across, while the tail extended 1.3 in PA
216. Zimmermann said one tail extended 3 in PA 230, and a second tail
extended 2 in PA 260.
On March 8, the magnitude was within the range 4.35.2, according
to Votrubec, Nabokov, Ashbrook, Buchar, van Biesbroeck, Beyer, Zimmermann, Krumpholz, Himpel, Weber, Lacchini, and Model, with an average
of 4.6. Buchar said the coma was 13 across. Votrubec said it was 9.42 across.
Model said the coma was 17 across, while the tail extended 0.3 in PA 216.
Zimmermann said a tail extended 22.5. Krumpholz said the 8-cm finder
revealed a coma 12 across. Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as
8.6, estimated the coma diameter as 21 , and said the tail extended 3.5 in
PA 213.
On March 9, the magnitude was given as 4.34 by Beyer, 4.52 by Nabokov,
4.6 by Himpel, 4.7 by Ashbrook, Krumpholz, and Gliese, 4.844.87 by
Martynov, 4.90 by Model, 5.0 by Weber, and 5.03 by Votrubec. Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as 9.1, estimated the coma diameter as 21 ,
and said the tail extended 2.9 in PA 214. Krumpholz said the coma was
1012 across in the 8-cm finder. Model said the coma was 15 across, while
the tail extended 0.5 in PA 216. Weber said the tail extended about 1
in his 5-cm refractor. Votrubec said the coma was 9.42 across. On the
10th, the magnitude was given as 4.4 by Krumpholz, 4.42 by Beyer, 4.6 by
Gliese and Ashbrook, 4.75 by Model, and 5.0 by Soloviev. Beyer determined
the nuclear magnitude as 9.1, estimated the coma diameter as 20 , and
said the tail extended 1.3 in PA 213. Model said the coma was 15 across,
while the tail extended 0.5 in PA 213. P. G. Kulikovsky (Swerdlowsk,
Ukraine) obtained a 30-minute exposure using the 16-cm refractor and noted
a tail extending 3.5. On March 11, the magnitude was given as 4.3 by Gliese,
4.40 by Beyer, 4.47 by Model, 4.48 by Martynov, 4.5 by Krumpholz, 4.57 by
Lacchini, 4.63 by Nabokov, 4.7 by Himpel, 4.8 by Zimmermann, and 5.0 by
Ginori. Beyer determined the nuclear magnitude as 8.8, estimated the coma
diameter as 18 , and said the tail extended 2.5 in PA 211. Model said the
coma was 15 across.
183

catalog of comets

Moonlight hampered observations around mid-March. On March 12, the


magnitude was given as 4.42 by Beyer, 4.44 by Martynov, 4.57 by Lacchini,
4.6 by Gliese, Nabokov, and Model, 4.7 by Himpel, and 5.0 by Ginori. Beyer
estimated the coma diameter as 24 , and said the tail extended 1.8 in PA
208. Model said the coma was 14 across. On the 13th, the magnitude was
given as 4.52 by Nabokov, 4.66 by Model, 4.7 by Gliese, 4.8 by Succi, and
5.0 by Ginori and Weber. Model said the coma was 11 across, while the
tail extended 0.25 in PA 208. On the 14th, the magnitude was given as
4.52 by Nabokov, 4.56 by Beyer, 4.6 by Gliese, 4.66 by Model, 4.7 by Ashbrook, 4.774.86 by Martynov, and 5.0 by Ginori. Beyer estimated the coma
diameter as 17 , and said the tail extended 1.7 in PA 208. Model said the
coma was 14 across. On March 15, the magnitude was given as 4.52 by
Nabokov, 4.7 by Ashbrook and Himpel, 4.8 by Gliese, 5.0 by Weber, and
5.15 by Votrubec. Votrubec said the coma was 7.07 across. Model said the
coma was 17 across. On the 16th, the magnitude was given as 4.32 by Beyer,
4.59 by Nabokov, 4.9 by Gliese, 4.97 by Model, 5.16 by Votrubec, and 5.2 by
Ginori. Votrubec said the coma was 3.89 across. On the 17th, the magnitude was given as 4.59 by Nabokov, 4.7 by Gliese, 4.83 by Model, 5.19 by
Votrubec, 5.2 by Ginori, and 5.3 by Succi. Succi said the coma was 8 across.
On the 18th, the magnitude was given as 4.65 by Nabokov, and 4.8 by Gliese
and Ashbrook. On the 19th, the magnitude was given as 4.77 by Nabokov,
5.0 by Gliese, 5.19 by Votrubec, 5.47 by Model, and 5.5 by Succi. Votrubec
said the coma was 2.36 across. Succi said the tail was fan-shaped and
30 long.
On March 20, the magnitude was given as 5.19 by Votrubec, 5.6 by Succi,
5.7 by Gliese, 5.77 by Model, 5.8 by Ginori, and 5.97 by Martynov. Votrubec
said the coma was 2.36 across. On the 21st, the magnitude was given as 5.87
by Model and 5.9 by Gliese. Votrubec said the coma was 1.41 across. On the
22nd, the magnitude was given as 5.47 by Votrubec, 5.48 by Model, and 5.9
by Ginori and Gliese. Votrubec said the coma was 1.41 across. On March
23, the magnitude was given as 5.1 by Succi, 5.27 by Model, 5.3 by Buchar
and Gliese, 5.4 by Weber, 5.5 by Ginori, and 5.52 by Votrubec. Succi said the
coma was 7 across, while the nucleus was much fainter than BD+501941,
which has a magnitude of 7.07. Model said the coma was 6 across. Buchar
said the coma diameter was 8 . Votrubec said the coma was 2.94 across. On
the 24th, the magnitude was given as 4.9 by Ashbrook, 5.07 by Lacchini, 5.1
by Succi, 5.255.32 by Martynov, 5.3 by Gliese, 5.47 by Votrubec, and 5.6 by
Ginori. Buchar said the coma diameter was 8 . Votrubec said the coma was
3.89 across. Succi said the coma was 7 across. Lacchini said a 40-minute
exposure revealed a faint tail extending at least 40 in PA 205. On the 25th,
the magnitude was given as 4.88 by Nabokov, 5.0 by Ashbrook, 5.2 by van
Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA) and Himpel, 5.24 by Beyer,
and 5.3 by Gliese. Smith said the comet was visible in the 5-cm finder. Beyer
determined the nuclear magnitude as 8.7, estimated the coma diameter as
22 , and said the tail extended 1.2 in PA 195.
184

catalog of comets

On March 26, the magnitude was given as 5.0 by Ashbrook, 5.04 by


Nabokov, 5.1 by van Biesbroeck, 5.36 by Martynov, and 5.4 by Gliese and
Succi. Nabokov said the binoculars revealed no tail, but showed an elongated envelope surrounding the nucleus. Timmers photographed the comet
and said the tail extended toward PA 185. Kulikovsky obtained an 18.5minute exposure and noted a tail extending 0.70.8. On the 27th, the magnitude was given as 5.15 by van Biesbroeck and 5.6 by Ginori. On the 29th,
van Biesbroeck gave the naked-eye magnitude as 5.2. Beyer said the tail
extended 0.6 in PA 199. On the 30th, the magnitude was given as 5.2 by
Himpel, 5.40 by Model, 5.5 by Gliese, 5.7 by Ashbrook, and 5.8 by Votrubec
and Ginori. Model said the coma was 9 across. Votrubec said the coma was
2.94 across. Krumpholz said the 75-mm seeker revealed a coma nearly 10
across, which possessed a distinct condensation. On March 31, the magnitude was given as 5.5 by Gliese, 5.7 by Succi, and 5.8 by Soloviev and
Ashbrook. Van Biesbroeck said two tails were present. The first was fairly
sharp and extended over 0.5 in PA 190, while the second was broad and
extended slightly over 3 in PA 230.
On April 1, the magnitude was given as 5.1 by E. Gregor (Konigsberg,

now
Kaliningrad, Russia), 5.4 by Weber, 5.77 by Votrubec, and 5.9 by Soloviev
and Ashbrook. Votrubec said the coma was 2.94 across. Van Biesbroeck
said two tails were present on 30-second exposures obtained with the 208cm reflector. The first extended beyond the limit of the plate (over 74 )
towards PA 190 and was composed of a bundle of filaments. The second tail
extended towards PA 220. On the 2nd, the magnitude was given as 5.6 by
Himpel, 5.8 by Weber, 5.90 by Votrubec, 6.0 by Ginori, 6.2 by Soloviev, and
6.5 by Succi. Votrubec said the coma was 2.00 across. On the 3rd, the nakedeye magnitude was given as 4.9 by Succi and 5.25 by van Biesbroeck. Van
Biesbroeck obtained a 30-second exposure with the 208-cm reflector which
revealed At the root of the tail in 190 there is a marked condensation giving the appearance of a second nucleus, some three magnitudes fainter than
the main one. He said there were several lateral streamers. Gregor said the
coma diameter was 12 . Timmers photographed the comet and said the tail
extended toward PA 186. On April 4, the magnitude was given as 5.6 by
Himpel, 5.7 by Gliese, 5.97 by Vortrubec, 6.0 by Krumpholz, 6.03 by Model,
6.1 by Ginori, 6.3 by Succi, 6.6 by G. Loreta (Bologna, Italy), and 6.74 by
Lacchini. Votrubec said the coma was 3.89 across. Model said the coma was
11 across and elongated towards PA 208. Zirwes photographed the comet
and said the tail extended toward PA 183.
On April 5, the magnitude was given as 5.7 by Himpel, 6.02 by Model,
6.06 by Martynov, 6.1 by Buchar, 6.2 by Ginori and Weber, 6.3 by Succi
and Loreta, and 6.5 by Krumpholz. Model said the coma was 16 across
and elongated towards PA 226. Buchar said the coma diameter was 6 .
Weber said the tail extended towards PA 220. Krumpholz estimated the
coma as 10 across in the 8-cm finder and 8 across in the 30-cm refractor
with a conspicuous condensation. On the 6th, the magnitude was given as
185

catalog of comets

5.82 by Beyer, 6.1 by Gliese, 6.10 by Martynov, 6.2 by Gregor, and 6.3 by
Soloviev and Loreta. Beyer estimated the coma diameter as 20 , and said
the tail extended 0.3 in PA 184. On the 7th, the magnitude was given as
5.7 by C. Fedtke (Konigsberg,

now Kaliningrad, Russia), 5.92 by Beyer, 6.2


by Ginori, 6.26.3 by Succi, and 6.3 by Gliese and Loreta. On the 8th, the
magnitude was given as 5.9 by Himpel, 6.08 by Martynov, 6.1 by Votrubec
and Gliese, and 6.3 by Loreta. Votrubec said the coma was 2.00 across. On
the 9th, the magnitude was given as 5.6 by Gregor, 5.8 by Fedtke, 6.0 by
Gliese, and 6.3 by Ginori and Loreta. Fedtke said the coma was elongated
and contained a nucleus of magnitude 9.0, while a tail extended 15 in PA
240. On the 10th, the magnitude was given as 6.1 by Gliese, 6.3 by Ginori
and Loreta, 6.36.4 by Succi, and 6.59 by Model. Model said the coma was
12 across and elongated towards PA 220. On the 11th, the magnitude was
given as 5.7 by Gliese and 6.0 by Loreta. On the 12th, Gliese observed using
10 50 binoculars and gave the magnitude as 6.1. On the 13th, the magnitude was given as 5.9 by Gregor, 6.3 by Fedtke, and 6.78 by Model. Votrubec
said the coma was 1.27 across. Model said the coma was elongated towards
PA 245. On the 14th, Ginori observed using 7 50 binoculars and gave the
magnitude as 6.6, while Martynov observed using a 16-cm comet seeker in
moonlight and gave the magnitude as 7.6. On April 15, the magnitude was
given as 6.3 by Loreta, 6.53 by Beyer, and 7.1 by Gliese. Martynov said the
comet seeker revealed a magnitude of 8.0 in moonlight.
On April 16, Gliese gave the magnitude as 7.3. On the 17th, the magnitude
was given as 6.9 by Ginori and fainter than 7.3 by Gliese. On the 18th,
the magnitude was given as 7.0 by Fedtke and 8.0 by Weber. On the 19th,
Martynov said the comet seeker revealed a magnitude of 8.2 in moonlight.
On the 20th, Gliese gave the magnitude as 7.3. On the 21st Gliese said the
comet was fainter than 7.3. On the 22nd the magnitude was given as 6.57
by Beyer, 7.0 by Fedtke, 7.08 by Model, and 7.1 by Gliese. Fedtke said the
coma was 5 across, with a nucleus, and a tail extending 10 in PA 240.
Model said the coma was 7 across and elongated towards PA 205. On the
23rd, the magnitude was given as 6.1 by Gregor, 6.6 by Krumpholz, 7.0
by Fedtke, 7.07 by Model, and 7.3 by Loreta. Krumpholz said the 75-mm
seeker revealed a coma 8 across, with a distinct condensation. On the 24th,
the magnitude was given as 6.58 by Beyer, 6.9 by Gliese, 7.1 by Fedtke, and
7.2 by Loreta. Beyer estimated the coma diameter as 14 , and said the tail
extended 1.0 in PA 260. On the 25th, the magnitude was given as 6.9 by
Gliese and Ginori, 6.95 by Model, and 7.2 by Loreta. Model said the coma
was 8 across and elongated towards PA 225. On the 26th, the magnitude
was given as 6.51 by Beyer and 6.75 by Model. The coma diameter was given
as 6 by Model and 12 by Beyer. On the 27th, the magnitude was given as
7.0 by Ginori, 7.1 by Gliese, and 7.2 by Loreta. On the 28th, Loreta observed
using 25-mm binoculars and gave the magnitude as 7.4. On the 29th, the
magnitude was given as 6.73 by Beyer and 7.2 by Ginori. Beyer estimated
the coma diameter as 14 , and said the tail extended 0.6 in PA 265. On April
186

catalog of comets

30, the magnitude was given as 6.91 by Beyer, 7.1 by Gliese, 7.2 by Ginori,
7.4 by Fedtke and Loreta, and 7.5 by Krumpholz. Beyer estimated the coma
diameter as 15 , and said the tail extended 0.6 in PA 261. Fedtke said the
coma was 5 across, with a tail extending towards PA 240. Krumpholz said
the 75-mm seeker showed a coma nearly 8 across, with a condensation.
On May 1, Beyer gave the magnitude as 6.96. He estimated the coma
diameter as 12 , and said the tail extended 0.8 in PA 264. On the 2nd, the
magnitude was given as 6.99 by Beyer, 7.3 by Fedtke, and 7.7 by Weber.
Beyer estimated the coma diameter as 14 , and said the tail extended 0.5
in PA 263. Weber said the coma was 22 across in the 5-cm refractor. On
the 3rd, the magnitude was given as 7.0 by Buchar, 7.3 by Ginori, and 7.7
by Weber. Buchar said the coma was 3 in diameter. On the 4th, the magnitude was given as 7.5 by Gliese, Buchar, and Fedtke, and 8.2 by Weber.
Buchar said the coma was 3 across. Weber said the coma was 9 across.
On the 5th, the magnitude was given as 7.6 by Loreta and 8.2 by Weber.
Weber said the coma was 11 across. On the 6th, the magnitude was given
as 7.2 by Himpel and 7.8 by Krumpholz. Krumpholz said a 10-cm finder
showed a round coma 6 across, with a distinct condensation. On the 8th,
Loreta observed using 40-mm binoculars and gave the magnitude as 8.1.
On the 10th, Fedtke gave the magnitude as 7.7. On May 12, Model observed
using 6 30 binoculars. He gave the magnitude as 8.5 and the coma
diameter as 4 .
On May 22, the magnitude was given as 8.1 by Weber, 8.6 by Loreta, and
9.0 by van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory). Weber said the coma was 6 in
diameter. Van Biesbroeck said there was a sharply defined condensation. On
the 23rd, the magnitude was given as 7.99 by Beyer, 8.6 by Fedtke, and 8.8
by Loreta. Beyer estimated the coma as 9 across. Fedtke said the coma was
5 across and elongated towards PA 250. He added that the nucleus was
not situated in the center of the coma. On the 25th, Loreta gave the magnitude as 8.6, using 40-mm binoculars, while van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 10.0, using the 61-cm reflector. On the 26th, Loreta gave the
magnitude as 8.6 using binoculars. On the 28th, the magnitude was given as
8.23 by Beyer, using a 5-cm refractor, and 10.2 by van Biesbroeck, using the
61-cm reflector. Beyer estimated the coma as 8 across. The comet attained
its minimum solar elongation of 66 on May 29, when the magnitude was
given as 8.58 by Beyer and 8.7 by Loreta. Beyer said the coma was 9 across.
On May 30, the magnitude was given as 8.8 by Loreta and 9.1 by Himpel.
On June 2, Krumpholz observed the comet using the 68-cm refractor and
gave the magnitude as 9.5. He said the round coma was 1.52 across, and
contained little condensation. On the 3rd, Loreta observed using 40-mm
binoculars and gave the magnitude as 9.0. On the 4th, Smith said the comet
was barely visible in the 13-cm finder. He added that a photograph with the
66-cm refractor revealed the comet as diffuse, with no well-defined nucleus.
On the 5th, the magnitude was given as 8.4 by Beyer, 9.0 by Loreta, and 10.1
by van Biesbroeck. Beyer and Loreta used small instruments, such as an
187

catalog of comets

8-cm refractor and 40-mm binoculars, while van Biesbroeck used the 61-cm
reflector. Van Biesbroeck said there was a well-defined nucleus, while a tail
was visible towards PA 280. On the 9th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude
as 10.6. On the 21st, the magnitude was given as 10.3 by van Biesbroeck,
10.4 by Himpel, and 11 by Krumpholz. On June 30, van Biesbroeck gave the
magnitude as 11.
On July 3, the magnitude was given as fainter than 11 by Himpel and
12 by Krumpholz. Krumpholz said the coma contained a weak condensation. On the 7th, Krumpholz gave the magnitude as 13. On the 23rd, van
Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the
magnitude as 14. He said the coma was diffuse. On July 31, van Biesbroeck
photographed the comet using the reflector when at a low altitude and gave
the magnitude as 15. On August 1, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet
at low altitude and gave the magnitude as 16. He said the comet appeared
as a vague nebulosity.
The comet was last detected at low altitude on August 2.13, when van
Biesbroeck obtained a 36-minute exposure with the 61-cm reflector. The
position was given as = 14h 13.2m , = +2 35 . Van Biesbroeck described
the comet as magnitude 16.5.
W. Brunner-Hagger (Zurich,

Switzerland) reported that during February


and March his observatory photographed several knots of material that
left the comets head and traveled down the tail or alongside it. He said a
tail streak was seen during the period February 28March 4 that moved
away from the head at a rate of 2.4 per day. A conspicuous bright knot
appeared on March 2 and moved at the same rate as the tail streak. A
diffuse tail patch was photographed on March 29 and 31, which exhibited
a daily motion of 1.1. This last object was also photographed at the Royal
Observatory (Uccle, Belgium) on March 28 and was reported as a new comet
[see Appendix 1, under 1943].
N. T. Bobrovnikoff (1944) studied the light curve of this comet. He utilized
708 magnitude estimates and noted, The light curve from January 5 to July
3, 1943 shows a periodic variation in light with a period of about 30 days
and the semi-amplitude diminishing from 0.6 mag. in January to 0.2 mag. in
June. He also pointed out that the comet experienced a sudden increase in
brightness on February 21, after which it faded at a rate faster than prior to
this date. He subsequently noted it is impossible to represent the brightness
of the comet by any one formula.
The first parabolic orbit was calculated by Whipple using three positions
spanning the period November 17December 13. He determined the perihelion date as 1943 February 6.66. This proved an excellent representation of
the comets motion, as shown by the later orbits of E. K. Rabe, J. P. Moller,

L.
Oterma, M. Davidson, M. B. Protitch, A. D. Dubiago, and B. de Jekhowsky.
A hyperbolic orbit was calculated by Rabe, using positions from December 12, 16, and 20. First published on 1943 January 5, it gave a perihelion
date of February 6.25 and an eccentricity of 1.10483.
188

catalog of comets

The first elliptical orbit was calculated by G. F. Kellaway and was published early in 1943 March. The result was a perihelion date of February 6.74
and a period of about 1160 years. Dubiago followed up with a very similar
orbit a couple of weeks later, which had a period of about 2700 years. A few
weeks after that, Dubiago calculated a revision which gave the period as
about 1860 years.
O. N. Barteneva (1972) used 544 positions obtained between 1942 December 12 and 1943 August 1, as well as perturbations by five planets, and
determined the perihelion date as February 6.72 and the period as about
2300 years.
B. G. Marsden (1978) used 166 positions obtained between 1942 November 17 and 1943 August 1, as well as perturbations by all nine planets, and
determined the perihelion date as February 6.72 and the period as about
2285 years. This orbit is given below. Marsden took this orbit and derived
an elliptical original orbit with a period of about 1586 years, and an elliptical
future orbit with a period of about 2075 years.
This comet became known as comet Whipple 2 in the USA and
Tevzadze 2 in Russia. Some sources gave the preliminary designation
as 1942g.
T
1943 Feb. 6.7211 (TT)

39.8432

 (2000.0)
100.7990

i
19.7127

q
e
1.353647 0.992196

absolute magnitude: H0 = 6.60, n = 2 (Bobrovnikoff, 1944); H10 = 4.6 (V1964)


full moon: Oct. 24, Nov. 22, Dec. 22, 1943 Jan. 21, Feb. 20, Mar. 21, Apr. 20, May
19, Jun. 18, Jul. 17, Aug. 15
sources: F. L. Whipple, HAC, No. 642 (1942 Dec. 14); G. van Biesbroeck, HAC,
No. 643 (1942 Dec. 15); F. L. Whipple, G. van Biesbroeck, and J. M. Vinter Hansen,
HAC, No. 644 (1942 Dec. 19); E. K. Rabe, IAUC, No. 933 (1943 Jan. 5); J. P. Moller

and L. Oterma, IAUC, No. 935 (1943 Jan. 14); G. A. Tevzadze, HAC, No. 650 (1943
Feb. 8); G. A. Tevzadze, E. K. Kharadze, D. Y. Martynov, N. I. Tchudovitchev, and
A. D. Dubiago, ATsir, No. 11 (1943 Feb. 12); M. B. Protitch and L. Gialanella,
IAUC, No. 939 (1943 Feb. 23); G. F. Kellaway, JBAA, 53 (1943 Mar.), p. 95; A. M.
Bakharev, G. A. Lange, D. Y. Martynov, and A. D. Dubiago, ATsir, No. 13 (1943
Mar. 29); M. Davidson, The Observatory, 65 (1943 Apr.), p. 19; S. J. V. Arend,
IAUC, No. 943 (1943 Apr. 1); B. de Jekhowsky and G. B. Lacchini, IAUC, No.
944 (1943 Apr. 6); G. B. Lacchini, IAUC, No. 946 (1943 Apr. 16); D. Y. Martynov,
A. D. Dubiago, and P. G. Kulikovsky, ATsir, No. 14 (1943 Apr. 20); W. BrunnerHagger and S. J. V. Arend, IAUC, No. 950 (1943 May 27); M. E. Nabokov and A. V.
Soloviev, ATsir, No. 17 (1943 Jun. 14); J. Ashbrook, PA, 51 (1943 Aug.), pp. 362
3; J. Junkes, A. Zirwes, and M. Timmers, Ricerche Astronomiche, 1 (1943 Aug.),
pp. 21320; N. T. Bobrovnikoff, PA, 51 (1943 Nov.), pp. 4819; C. Votrubec, W.
Gliese, N. V. Ginori, E. Gregor, E. Buchar, C. Fedtke, G. Loreta, K. Himpel, A.
Weber, A. Model, and G. Zimmermann, AN, 274 (1943 Sep.Dec.), pp. 12132; G.
van Biesbroeck, AJ, 50 (1943 Dec. 3), pp. 1668; G. van Biesbroeck, H. E. Burton,
and J. L. Smith, AJ, 50 (1944 Feb. 29), pp. 1834, 1867; N. T. Bobrovnikoff, AJ, 51

189

catalog of comets
(1944 Jun.), p. 18; H. L. Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 63; H. Krumpholz, AN, 275
(1947 Oct. 24), pp. 1857; M. Beyer, AN, 275 (1947 Dec. 31), pp. 2409; V1964,
p. 75; O. N. Barteneva, CCO, 1st ed. (1972), pp. 25, 47; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 83 (1978
Jan.), pp. 66, 68.

39P/1943 G1 Prediscovery: 1942 February 17.81 ( = 2.64 AU, r = 3.45 AU, Elong. = 139)
(Oterma) Discovered: 1943 March 27.97 ( = 2.48 AU, r = 3.47 AU, Elong. = 177)
Last seen: Visible throughout orbit
1942 VII = 1943a Closest to the Earth: 1943 March 25 (2.4767 AU)
Calculated path: GEM (Pre), CNC (May 9), LEO (Jul. 18), VIR (Oct. 29), LIB
(1943 Oct. 23), SCO (1944 Jan. 13), OPH (Feb. 3), SCO (Jun. 5), OPH (Sep.
12), SGR (Dec. 1), CAP (1945 Dec. 10), AQR (1946 Feb. 17), CAP (Feb. 25),
AQR (Mar. 31)
This comet was discovered by L. Oterma (Turku University Observatory,
Finland) on a minor planet survey plate exposed with the 50-cm Schmidt
Visl camera on 1943 March 27.97. The position was given as = 12h
26.3m , = +0 18 . Confirmation plates were obtained by Y. Visl (Turku
University Observatory) on April 3.93 and Oterma on April 8.86. The magnitude was then given as 15 and the comet was described as diffuse, without a central condensation. Prediscovery images were later found on plates
exposed by Visl on 1942 February 17.81 and February 18.77. The comet
had attained its most northerly declination of +20 on 1942 April 6 and
passed about 0.3 from the sun on 1942 August 24. The comet had attained
a maximum solar elongation of about 177 on the day of its discovery.
On April 27 and May 1, H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA)
photographed the comet using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph
and gave the magnitude as 15. On May 7 and 8, G. P. Nagtegaal (Lick Observatory, California, USA) photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley
reflector. Although he initially gave the magnitude as 13, he later changed it
to 15. On the 22nd, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA)
photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude
as 16. He said the round coma was 10 across, and was only slightly condensed. On the 23rd, Giclas photographed the comet using the astrograph
and gave the magnitude as 15. On the 26th, Giclas gave the photographic
magnitude as 15.4. On May 29, the photographic magnitude was given as
16 by van Biesbroeck and Giclas. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was 12
across. On June 4, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 16. On the
8th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 15.7. Giclas photographs
of June 20, 22, and 26, revealed a magnitude of 16. On July 2, the photographic magnitude was given as 16 by van Biesbroeck and Nagtegaal. Van
Biesbroeck said the comet was at a low altitude and appeared as a vague
coma about 15 across. On July 5, the photographic magnitude was given
as 16 by Giclas and Nagtegaal. The comet passed about 3 from the sun on
November 2.
190

catalog of comets

On 1944 January 23 and 30, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using
the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 16.5. He said the small,
round coma contained little condensation. On May 1, G. H. Herbig (Lick
Observatory) photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector
and gave the magnitude as 16. He described the comet as vague. The
comet attained a maximum solar elongation of about 175 on May 28.
On May 29, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 16. He
said the small, round coma contained little condensation. On June 14,
15, 20, and 21, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 16.5.
On June 28 and 30, Herbig gave the photographic magnitude as 16. He
described the comet as vague. The comet attained its most southerly declination of 20.5 on December 22 and passed about 3 from the sun on
December 23.
On 1945 April 14, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA)
photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 18. He said the round coma was diffuse and 6 across, with little
central condensation. On May 11, 12, and 13, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 17.5. He said the round coma was 12 across, with
hardly a condensation. On July 4, the magnitude was given as 17 by van
Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory) and 17.5 by H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory). Van Biesbroeck said the coma was small and round. Jeffers said the
coma was faint and about 8 across, with a sharply condensed nucleus. The
comet attained a maximum solar elongation of about 177 on July 16. On
July 31, Jeffers photographed the comet using a 91-cm Crossley reflector and
gave the magnitude as 17.6. He said the coma was faint and about 8 across,
with a sharply condensed nucleus. On August 3 and 4, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as
17. He said the coma was small and round. On September 29, Jeffers gave
the photographic magnitude as 18.5. He said the coma was faint and about
8 across, with a sharply condensed nucleus.
The comet passed about 1 from the sun on 1946 February 2. With the
comets aphelion falling on July 31, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory)
obtained an excellent series of photographic plates from June 29 to July 31,
using the 208-cm reflector. All of these plates showed the coma to be nearly
stellar, with a diameter of 34 and a well-defined nucleus. He gave the
magnitude as 18.2 on June 29, 18.0 on June 30, 18.1 on July 1, 18.0 on July 4,
17.5 on July 24, 17.6 on July 25, 17.2 on July 26 and 27, 17.4 on July 28, and
17.5 on July 31. Most of these images revealed a tail, which extended 1 in
PA 260 on June 30, 1 in PA 245 on July 4, 4 in PA 250 on July 25, 3 in PA
250 on July 26, 2 in PA 250 on July 27, 3 in PA 250 on July 28, and 4 in
PA 255 on July 31. The tail was only suspected on July 1 and was very faint
on July 24. Also on July 28, Jeffers photographed the comet using the 91-cm
Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 17.5. He said the coma was
nearly stellar and exhibited a very faint tail extending 2 toward the west.
The comet was officially at aphelion on July 31.
191

catalog of comets

The comet was discovered at opposition and this coupled with its location
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, meant it was moving very slowly.
The result was that the first orbit was not published until June. At that time,
Oterma took four positions spanning the period April 3June 8 and calculated an elliptical orbit with a perihelion date of 1942 August 20.72 and a
period of 7.88 years. This orbit proved so accurate that Oterma (1957) said it
was still predicting fairly accurate positions in the fall of 1955. Other orbits
calculated in the months immediately following the discovery came from
L. E. Cunningham and R. N. Thomas, and G. H. Herbig and D. F. McMullin.
Cunningham and Thomas noted that the comet passed within 0.5 AU of
Jupiter in 1938 and remained there for a considerable time. They suggested that the present orbit is very much different from the one which it
had previous to that encounter. H. Q. Rasmusen noted on July 15 that the
orbit given by Oterma indicated that, during the period 193740, the comet
for a long time moved within a relatively small distance from Jupiter. Under
these circumstances rather large perturbations must have resulted. Herbig
and McMullin said the eccentricity grouped this object with the asteroids
rather than the comets. They added that there was a strong resemblance
between the orbit of this comet and the orbit for minor planet 334 (Chicago).
Using positions spanning 1943 and 1944, P. Herget (1946, 1947) calculated
orbits with a perihelion date of August 9.19 and a period of 7.89 years.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by Herget (1961), B. G.
Marsden (1970), S. Nakano (2001), and K. Kinoshita (2003). Herget applied
perturbations by Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn. Marsden applied perturbations
by all nine planets. Nakano and Kinoshita applied perturbations by the
planets and several minor planets. Marsden wrote, no detectable nongravitational forces were acting on this comet. The perihelion date was given
as August 21.72 by Herget and August 21.09 by everyone else. The period
was given as 7.89 years. Nakanos orbit is given below.
T
1942 Aug. 21.0884 (TT)

 (2000.0)
354.7064 155.8384

i
3.9836

q
e
3.388901 0.144720

absolute magnitude: H10 = 7.8 (V1964)


full moon: Annual comet: full moons do not limit the overall period of the
comets visibility
sources: L. Oterma and Y. Visl, IAUC, No. 946 (1943 Apr. 16); L. Oterma,
HAC, No. 656 (1943 Apr. 22); G. P. Nagtegaal, HAC, No. 657 (1943 May 11); G. P.
Nagtegaal, PASP, 55 (1943 Jun.), p. 157; G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 658 (1943
Jun. 11); H. L. Giclas, HAC, No. 659 (1943 Jun. 25); L. Oterma, IAUC, No. 955 (1943
Jul. 5); L. E. Cunningham and R. N. Thomas, HAC, No. 660 (1943 Jul. 14); L. E.
Cunningham and R. N. Thomas, HAC, No. 661 (1943 Jul. 14); H. Q. Rasmusen,
IAUC, No. 956 (1943 Jul. 15); G. H. Herbig and D. F. McMullin, HAC, No. 662
(1943 Jul. 22); G. P. Nagtegaal, PASP, 55 (1943 Aug.), p. 197; G. van Biesbroeck,
AJ, 50 (1943 Dec. 3), pp. 1668; G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 679 (1944 Feb. 1);

192

catalog of comets
L. E. Cunningham and R. N. Thomas, The Observatory, 65 (1944 Mar.), p. 132;
H. L. Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 63; G. H. Herbig, LOB, 19 (1945), p. 172; P.
Herget, HAC, No. 698 (1945 Jan. 15); G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 702 (1945 Apr.
24); G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 51 (1945 Mar.), pp. 11115; G. van Biesbroeck, IAUC,
No. 1018 (1945 Sep. 21); G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 759 (1946 Jul. 25); G. van
Biesbroeck, IAUC, No. 1052 (1946 Jul. 30); P. Herget, BAA Handbook for 1947 (1946
Nov.), p. 41; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1947), p. 184; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 52 (1947
May), pp. 2023; P. Herget, AJ, 53 (1947 Aug.), pp. 1821; H. M. Jeffers, HAC,
No. 834 (1947 Aug. 8); L. Boyer, JO, 34 (1951), p. 8; L. Oterma and Y. Visl,
Astronomia-Optika Institucio Universitato de Turku Informo, No. 16 (1957), pp. 3
23; P. Herget, AJ, 66 (1961 Jun.), pp. 2468; V1964, p. 75; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 75
(1970 Feb.), pp. 823; S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 810 (2001 Aug. 24); personal
correspondence from K. Kinoshita (2003).

C/1943 R1 Discovered: 1943 September 3.1 ( = 0.72 AU, r = 0.80 AU, Elong. = 52)
(Daimaca) Last seen: 1943 September 23.1 ( = 0.37 AU, r = 0.98 AU, Elong. = 76)
Closest to the Earth: 1943 September 18 (0.3220 AU)
1943 II Calculated path: LYN (Disc), UMa (Sep. 9), DRA (Sep. 15), UMa (Sep. 17),
DRA (Sep. 18), BOO-DRA-HER (Sep. 20)
V. Daimaca (Targu Jiu, Romania) discovered this comet on 1943 September 3.1. On September 5, he sent a telegram to the National Observatory
of Bucharest (Romania), where C. Popovici photographed the comet on
September 9.06 and gave the position as = 8h 22.3m , = +50 32 .
Popovici obtained additional photographic observations of September 10.09
and September 11.10. For all three observations, he estimated the magnitude
as 8 and described the comet as diffuse, with a short tail.
Due to wartime conditions, news of the comet did not immediately arrive
in the USA. News of the discovery was sent from the National Observatory
of Bucharest to the Central Bureau in Copenhagen, Denmark. From Copenhagen, a message was forwarded to Zurich,

Switzerland, from where a radio


message was sent to Harvard College Observatory (Masschusetts, USA) on
September 14. Word had finally arrived at the major American observatories by September 17. Unfortunately, the long delay, plus the comets rapid
motion, prevented any observations.
G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) had been searching for periodic comet dArrest during early September, but had been
unsuccessful due to the comets southern declination. He surmised that
the comet was still too faint, but he was also concerned by the fact that the
comets 20-year absence might make the predicted positions considerably
in error. Shortly before leaving on a journey between Yerkes Observatory
and McDonald Observatory (Texas, USA), van Biesbroeck asked L. C. Peltier
(Delphos, Ohio, USA) to explore the region. Peltier obliged, but intensive
searches for comet dArrest continued to reveal nothing. He began expanding his search and eventually was sweeping other areas of the sky for anything unusual. On September 19.1, Peltier discovered a diffuse object at
193

catalog of comets

= 15h 10m , = +59. He estimated the magnitude as 10.5 and noted a


rapid motion to the southeast.
The comet had attained its most northerly declination of +66 on September 16. Peltier gave the magnitude as 11.5 on September 20 and 12.0 on
September 22.
The comet was last detected on September 23.1, when Peltier gave the
magnitude as 13.0. Peltier wrote to van Biesbroeck and said this magnitude estimate was uncertain because of the comets close proximity to
Herculis.
The author notes that there is something wrong with this observation, as
the comet would have been 6 from Herculis at the time indicated. The
details were published by van Biesbroeck in the 1943 December issue of Popular Astronomy. The actual date was given as September 22, with no time
given. The author has noted that Peltier frequently gave his observations in
local time instead of universal time when writing to van Biesbroeck. Since
this comet was best seen during the hours immediately following sunset,
the date of September 23.1 seemed the likely time of the final observation.
Peltier was most likely using his 15-cm refractor, which would only have
had a field of view of a degree or so at best. If the date is considered accurate,
then it might be that the star should have been Herculis, since the comet
was within 2.5 of this star at the time of the observation; however, this is
still not a good fit. If the star designation is accurate, then perhaps the date
should have been September 24.1, as the comet was then about 1.7 from
Herculis. Another assumption that could be made is that the September
22 date was correct, which would mean the comet was observed very near
the horizon a little after midnight, which would make the date September
22.3. The comet would then have been about 2.5 from Herculis and about
1.5 from Herculis. Two other possibilities do not require a change in
the date or star designation, and these are that Peltier mistook something
else for the comet or that the comet had drifted from the path indicated by
the orbits of Popovici and Naur. Because there are so many possibilities,
the author has opted to keep the final observation details as given in the
previous paragraph.
Popovici obtained photographs of the expected positions of the comet
on September 15, 16, and 18, but nothing was found. His later calculations
revealed the comet was immediately beyond the edges of the plates. Using
the Zeiss astrograph, he obtained a 30-minute exposure on September 28
and a 45-minute exposure on September 29. The comet was not found on
either plate.
No searches were conducted immediately after van Biesbroecks arrival
at McDonald observatory due to the absence of published orbits and
ephemerides and the comets rapid motion. An epehmeris became available
when the first orbit was published in early October, and van Biesbroeck photographed the comets predicted position on October 24. Although stars to
magnitude 18 were detected, nothing cometary was recorded on the plates.
194

catalog of comets

The first orbit was calculated by Naur using Popovicis positions of


September 9, 10, and 11. The result was a perihelion date of 1943 August
21.54. About a month later, Popovici took the same positions and determined the perihelion date as August 21.55. Popovicis orbit is given below.
No further orbits have been calculated.
T
1943 Aug. 21.5465 (UT)

36.4129

 (2000.0)
i
q
83.3863
161.3186 0.758300

e
1.0

absolute magnitude: H10 = 11 (V1964)


full moon: Aug. 15, Sep. 14, Oct. 13
sources: V. Daimaca and C. Popovici, IAUC, No. 962 (1943 Sep. 12); V. Daimaca,
HAC, No. 663 (1943 Sep. 17); V. Daimaca and L. C. Peltier, HAC, No. 664 (1943
Sep. 21); V. Daimaca, C. Popovici, and L. C. Peltier, IAUC, No. 964 (1943 Sep. 29);
P. Naur, IAUC, No. 965 (1943 Oct. 4); L. C. Peltier, IAUC, No. 966 (1943 Oct. 6); P.
Naur, HAC, No. 668 (1943 Oct. 18); L. C. Peltier, IAUC, No. 968 (1943 Oct. 26); V.
Daimaca and L. C. Peltier, PA, 51 (1943 Nov.), p. 523; C. Popovici, IAUC, No. 970
(1943 Nov. 15); G. van Biesbroeck, L. C. Peltier, and P. Naur, PA, 51 (1943 Dec.),
pp. 5723; V. Daimaca, L. C. Peltier, and P. Naur, PASP, 55 (1943 Dec.), p. 290; V.
Daimaca and L. C. Peltier, MNRAS, 104 (1944), p. 108; V1964, p. 75.

32P/Comas Recovered: 1943 October 2.01 ( = 1.60 AU, r = 2.50 AU, Elong. = 146)
Sola Last seen: 1944 June 15.14 ( = 2.61 AU, r = 1.88 AU, Elong. = 36)
Closest to the Earth: 1943 November 19 (1.3122 AU)
1944 II Calculated path: CET (Rec), PSC (Nov. 25), ARI (Jan. 10), TAU (Mar. 6), AUR
(Apr. 9), GEM (May 15), CNC (Jun. 13)
C. Dinwoodie and W. P. Henderson (1942) took the orbit for the 1935 apparition, corrected the perihelion date to 1935 October 6.6, and applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn. They predicted this comet would next arrive
at perihelion on 1944 April 11.62.
L. Oterma (Turku University Observatory, Finland) recovered this comet
on 1943 October 2.01, at a position of = 2h 42.2m , = +1 20 . She described
it as very small and faint. Wartime conditions caused the comet to be
designated as 1943d in Europe.
On October 21, 23, 24, 25, and 26, G. van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA) obtained exposures of 515 minutes using the 208-cm
reflector and gave the magnitude as 13.5. He said the coma was 30 across
and contained a sharp nucleus of magnitude 14. A fan-shaped tail extended
3 in PA 270. The comet attained its most southerly declination of +1 on
October 26. On October 28, van Biesbroeck obtained a 5-minute exposure
using the reflector which gave the magnitude as 13, while H. Krumpholz
(Vienna, Austria) gave the visual magnitude as 13.5. Van Biesbroeck said the
tail extended towards PA 280. Krumpholz said the coma was round and
about 20 across, with a weak condensation. On November 2, Krumpholz
gave the visual magnitude as 13 and noted that the condensation was rather
195

catalog of comets

distinct. On the 4th, H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA) photographed the comet using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and
gave the magnitude as 13. On November 25 and 28, van Biesbroeck (Yerkes
Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) photographed the comet using the 61-cm
reflector and gave the magnitude as 14. He said the well-defined round
coma possessed a tail extended towards PA 60. On December 15 and 23,
van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave
the magnitude as 13.5. He noted that there was a small coma and a tail
extending 2 in PA 80. On December 24, G. H. Herbig (Lick Observatory,
California, USA) photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 14. He said the coma was well defined and
about 5 across, and exhibited a short tail toward PA 60.
On 1944 January 13 and 21, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using
the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 13. He said the well-defined
small coma exhibited a tail extending 2 in PA 80. On the 17th, Krumpholz
gave the magnitude as 13 and said the coma was elliptical with measurements of 15 by 20 . He added that there was a weak condensation. On
the 18th, Herbig photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 13. He said seeing was very bad and the
comet appeared diffuse. On January 24, van Biesbroeck said a photograph
revealed that the well-defined coma was about 20 across and exhibited a
fan-shaped tail extending 3 in PA 70. On February 12, Herbig gave the photographic magnitude as 12.5. He said the coma was condensed and 6 across,
and exhibited a tail. On the 17th and 19th, van Biesbroeck photographed
the comet using the reflector and gave the magnitude as 13.5. He said the
tail extended 1.5 in PA 70. On February 24, Krumpholz gave the magnitude as 12.5. On March 21 and 27, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory)
photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 13. He said there was a fairly well-defined nucleus and a broad tail
extending over 1 in PA 75. On April 24, Krumpholz gave the magnitude
as 12.5. He said the oblong coma was about 30 across and contained little
condensation. The comet attained its most northerly declination of +32 on
May 12. On June 14, van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory) photographed
the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 14. He said
the comet was poorly defined on the photographic plates because of its low
altitude.
The comet was last detected on June 15.14, when van Biesbroeck (Yerkes
Observatory, Wisconsin) obtained two 9-minute exposures with the 61-cm
reflector. He estimated the magnitude as 14 and said the image was poorly
defined due to the comets low altitude. The position was determined as
= 8h 10.5m , = +29 38 .
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by B. G. Marsden (1968,
1972) and G. Forti (1983). They included perturbations by all nine planets,
as well as nongravitational terms. The result was a perihelion date of April
11.50 and a period of 8.50 years. Marsden (1968) noted a very slight secular
196

catalog of comets

deceleration. Marsden, Z. Sekinina, and D. K. Yeomans (1973) gave the


nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.67 and A2 = +0.0402. Forti gave the
nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.58 and A2 = +0.0255. Fortis orbit is
given below.
T
1944 Apr. 11.4962 (TT)

38.8844

 (2000.0)
66.3951

i
13.7341

q
e
1.766569 0.575761

absolute magnitude: H10 = 9.0 (V1964)


full moon: Sep. 14, Oct. 13, Nov. 12, Dec. 11, 1944 Jan. 10, Feb. 9, Mar. 9, Apr. 8,
May 8, Jun. 6, Jul. 6
sources: C. Dinwoodie and W. P. Henderson, BAA Handbook for 1943 (1942 Nov.),
p. 30; C. Dinwoodie and W. P. Henderson, IAUC, No. 960 (1943 Sep. 6); L. Oterma,
IAUC, No. 967 (1943 Oct. 11); L. Oterma, HAC, No. 667 (1943 Oct. 14); C. Dinwoodie and W. P. Henderson, BAA Handbook for 1944 (1943 Nov.), pp. 323; L.
Oterma, PASP, 55 (1943 Dec.), pp. 2901; G. H. Herbig, LOB, 19 (1944), p. 164;
L. Oterma, C. Dinwoodie, and W. P. Henderson, MNRAS, 104 (1944), pp. 1089;
H. L. Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 63; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 51 (1945 Mar.),
pp. 11114; H. Krumpholz, AN, 275 (1947 Oct. 24), pp. 1857; V1964, p. 75; B. G.
Marsden, AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 36970; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 9 (1968 Sep.),
pp. 31415; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 13 (1972 Sep.), pp. 4301; B. G. Marsden, Z.
Sekinina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.), p. 213, 21516; G. Forti, AAP,
126 (1983), pp. 30710.

6P/d Recovered: 1943 October 24.10 ( = 1.09 AU, r = 1.43 AU, Elong. = 87)
Arrest Last seen: 1944 January 21.04 ( = 2.13 AU, r = 1.90 AU, Elong. = 63)
Closest to the Earth: 1943 July 27 (0.7916 AU)
1943 III Calculated path: SGR (Rec), MIC (Oct. 30), CAP (Nov. 13), PsA (Nov. 15), AQR
(Nov. 30), CET (Jan. 5)
Predictions were published for the 1930 and 1937 apparitions of this comet.
T. Whitwell (1930) gave the perihelion date as 1930 May 10.04, while J. T.
Foxell and A. E. Levin applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn to the
1923 orbit and predicted the comet would pass perihelion on 1937 January
6.53. Later calculations by other astronomers indicated the general correctness of these predictions, but the comet was not well placed for observations. Nevertheless, it is known that G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory,
Wisconsin, USA) did search unsucessfully for the comet towards the end of
1936.
F. R. Cripps (1942) took the orbit predicted for the 1937 apparition and
applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn. He predicted the comet would
next arrive at perihelion on 1943 September 18.81.
Unfavorable returns during 1930 and 1937 prevented astronomers from
observing this comet, but circumstances appeared much improved for
the 1943 return. Earlier that year, A. W. Recht took his orbit for the
1923 apparition, applied perturbations, and predicted a perihelion date of
197

catalog of comets

September 23.77. Although his published ephemeris covered the period of


1943 April 30June 5, no observations were obtained.
The comet was finally recovered by G. van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA) on an 8-minute exposure made with the 208-cm reflector on 1943 October 24.10. The position was given as = 20h 02.8m , =
27 53 . The total magnitude was estimated as 12, while the coma possessed
a nucleus and a tail of more than 1. Van Biesbroeck obtained an additional
8-minute exposure on October 24.11 to confirm the recovery. Rechts orbit
had been used to compute a search ephemeris and van Biesbroeck noted that
the discrepancy between the observed and predicted positions indicated the
comets perihelion had occurred 1.2 days earlier than predicted.
On October 26, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet and said the
coma extended toward PA 275. On the 27th and 28th, H. L. Giclas (Lowell
Observatory, Arizona, USA) photographed the comet using the 33-cm A.
Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and gave the magnitude as 11. On October
28, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the reflector and gave
the magnitude as 13. He said the coma extended towards PA 280.
The comet attained its most southerly declination of 28 on November 1.
On the 14th, van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as
13.5. He said the coma was round, diffuse, and 3 across. On the 17th, van
Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 13.5. He said the coma was
well condensed, without a sharp nucleus, and still extended towards PA
290. On the 23rd, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 14
and said the coma was 4 across. On the 25th, van Biesbroeck said a photograph revealed a coma nearly 5 across, which exhibited a weak central
condensation. On the 28th, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 13.5. He said the coma was large and diffuse. On November 30, van
Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 14.
On December 15, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the
61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 14. He said the coma was 3
across and extended towards PA 300. He added that there was a very
diffuse condensation. On the 16th, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic
magnitude as 14. He said the condensation was better defined than on the
15th, while a faint tail extended towards PA 305. On the 19th and 22nd,
van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 15. He said the coma
was fairly well condensed. On December 25, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 15.5. He said the coma was faint and diffuse.
On 1944 January 13, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the
61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 16.5. He said the coma was
extremely diffuse, with little condensation. On the 15th, van Biesbroeck gave
the photographic magnitude as 17 and said the coma was extremely vague.
On January 18, the photographic magnitude was given as 17 by G. H. Herbig
(Lick Observatory, California, USA) and van Biesbroeck. Herbig described

198

catalog of comets

the comet as a weak coma about 4 across. Van Biesbroeck said the comet
appeared as a hardly measurable vague nebulosity.
The comet was last detected on January 21.04, when van Biesbroeck
obtained a 30-minute exposure with the 61-cm reflector. He estimated the
magnitude as 17.5, and said the coma was 1 across. The position was given
as = 0h 31.1m , = 12 46 . Van Biesbroeck said a photograph with the
same telescope on January 22 revealed an image too vague to bisect (for
measurement). The reality of this object is not considered definite.
Multiple apparition orbits were calculated by B. G. Marsden (1968, 1970,
1972) and included perturbations by all nine planets. The result was a perihelion date of September 22.48 and a period of 6.72 years. Marsden (1968) noted
a secular deceleration. Marsden (1970) gave the nongravitational terms as
A1 = 0.028901, A2 = +0.060830, and B2 = +0.1172. Marsden, Z. Sekanina,
and D. K. Yeomans (1973) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = 0.24,
A2 = +0.0961. The orbit of Marsden (1972) is given below.
T
1943 Sep. 22.4789 (TT)

 (2000.0)
174.3951 144.3091

i
18.0053

q
e
1.385531 0.610772

absolute magnitude: H10 = 11.3 (V1964)


full moon: Oct. 13, Nov. 12, Dec. 11, 1944 Jan. 10, Feb. 9
sources: T. Whitwell, The Observatory, 53 (1930 Mar.), pp. 912; T. Whitwell, PA,
38 (1930 Apr.), p. 244; T. Whitwell, BZAN, 12 (1930 Jul. 17), p. 63; T. Whitwell,
MNRAS, 91 (1931 Feb.), pp. 37880; J. T. Foxell and A. E. Levin, BAA Handbook
for 1936 (1935), p. 21; G. van Biesbroeck, The Observatory, 60 (1937 Feb.), p. 55;
F. R. Cripps, BAA Handbook for 1943 (1942 Nov.), p. 26; A. W. Recht, HAC, No.
655 (1943 Apr. 15); A. W. Recht, IAUC, No. 951 (1943 Jun. 10); G. van Biesbroeck,
HAC, No. 669 (1943 Oct. 25); G. van Biesbroeck, IAUC, No. 968 (1943 Oct. 26);
A. W. Recht, HAC, No. 670 (1943 Nov. 4); G. van Biesbroeck, PASP, 55 (1943
Dec.), p. 291; G. H. Herbig, LOB, 19 (1944), p. 164; G. van Biesbroeck and F. R.
Cripps, MNRAS, 104 (1944), pp. 1089; H. L. Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 63; G.
van Biesbroeck, AJ, 51 (1945 Mar.), pp. 11115; A. W. Recht, MNRAS, 107 (1947),
pp. 11011, 113; V1964, p. 75, B. G. Marsden, AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 372, 3745;
B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 9 (1968 Sep.), pp. 31415; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 75 (1970
Feb.), pp. 7980; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 11 (1970 Sep.), pp. 2324; B. G. Marsden,
QJRAS, 13 (1972 Sep.), pp. 4301; B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans,
AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.), p. 213.

33P/Daniel Prerecovery: 1943 October 23.31 ( = 0.84 AU, r = 1.56 AU, Elong. = 115)
Recovered: 1943 November 20.88 ( = 0.66 AU, r = 1.53 AU, Elong. = 135)
1943 IV Last seen: 1944 March 14.77 ( = 1.31 AU, r = 1.91 AU, Elong. = 111)
Closest to the Earth: 1943 December 13 (0.6036 AU)
Calculated path: ORI (Pre), GEM (Oct. 29), AUR (Dec. 6), LYN (Dec. 22)
W. P. Henderson and H. Whichello (1942) took H. Hiroses orbit for the 1937
apparition and applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn for the period
199

catalog of comets

of 193743. They predicted the comet would next arrive at perihelion on


1943 November 22.19.
D. Y. Martynov (Engelhardt Observatory, Kazan, Russia) recovered this
comet on 1943 November 20.88, with the 38-cm Schmidt reflector, and determined its position as = 6h 53.5m , = +26 52 . He confirmed the recovery
while using the same instrument on November 23.93. Martynov estimated
the magnitude as 1415 for both dates. Using an ephemeris prepared by
Henderson and Whichello, G. F. Kellaway (West Coker, England) visually
searched for the comet on November 30.92 with a 32-cm reflector and almost
immediately found a faint nebulous patch measuring about 80 across.
He described it as diffuse, and circular, with a slight brightening towards
the center. Kellaways out-of-focus comparison with stars in the field of the
nearby variable star SS Aurigae revealed a magnitude between 13.2 and

13.8. The comet was situated about 12 from the ephemeris position. Subsequently, G. van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA) found
an image of this comet near the edge of a plate exposed on October 23.31.
He said the magnitude was about 14, while the coma was small and round.
Martynov also found a prerecovery image on a search plate exposed on
October 26.94. He said the comets magnitude was then 1516.
On December 19, W. H. Steavenson (Cheltenham, England) was just able
to detect the comet in an 8-cm refractor. The comet was at its maximum
solar elongation of 160 on December 24.
On 1944 January 16, Martynov photographed the comet using the 38-cm
Schmidt reflector and gave the magnitude as 15. On January 25, Kellaway
said the comet had become so faint that averted vision was necessary in
order to visually detect the comet in the 32-cm reflector. The comet attained
its most northerly declination of +54 on February 1. On the 12th, Martynov
gave the photographic magnitude as 15. On the 16th, Kellaway said a
1-hour exposure with a Zeiss lens revealed an excessively faint object,
which seemed larger and more diffuse than ever. On the 24th, Kellaway
gave the magnitude as 15. He said the photographic plate obtained with a
Zeiss lens revealed a small faint patch so vague and difficult to see that
its authenticity was doubtful. Kellaway then measured the position of this
doubtful image and obtained a position so close to the computed place that
it is pretty certain it was the comets image. On February 27 and March 12,
Martynov gave the photographic magnitude as 16.
The comet was last detected on March 14.77, when Martynov photographed it with the 38-cm Schmidt reflector. He estimated the magnitude
as 16, and determined the position as = 7h 43.7m , = +49 30 .
Three astronomers calculated orbits using positions from only this apparition. Kellaway took three positions spanning the period 1943 December 2
1944 January 16. He gave the perihelion date as November 22.54 and the
period as 6.82 years. A. D. Dubiago (1946) took eight positions spanning
the period 1943 October 261944 March 14. He gave the perihelion date as
November 22.51 and the period as 6.79 years. F. R. Cripps (1949) modified
200

catalog of comets

Dubiagos orbit according to a suggestion by G. Merton. The modifications


were made in the semimajor axis, the daily motion, and the eccentricity, so
that the perihelion date remained November 22.51, but the orbital period
changed to 6.80 years.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by B. G. Marsden (1968,
1970, 1986) and L. M. Belous (1985). These considered perturbations by all
nine planets, with Marsden also considering nongravitational forces. The
result was a perihelion date of November 22.52 and a period of 6.80 years.
Marsden (1968) wrote, Evidently the comet has a secular deceleration,
but the precise value is hard to estimate. Marsden (1970) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.86734 and A2 = +0.054463. Marsden, Z.
Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans (1973) gave the nongravitational terms as
A1 = +1.1 and A2 = +0.073. Marsden (1986) gave the nongravitational
terms as A1 = +1.14 and A2 = +0.0785. The orbit of Marsden (1986) is
given below.
T
1943 Nov. 22.5188 (TT)

6.1251

 (2000.0)
71.1213

i
19.8537

q
e
1.526813 0.574618

absolute magnitude: H10 = 13.7 (V1964)


full moon: Oct. 13, Nov. 12, Dec. 11, 1944 Jan. 10, Feb. 9, Mar. 9, Apr. 8
sources: W. P. Henderson and H. Whichello, BAA Handbook for 1943 (1942 Nov.),
p. 29; W. P. Henderson, H. Whichello, and H. Hirose, IAUC, No. 949 (1943 May
17); W. P. Henderson and H. Whichello, BAA Handbook for 1944 (1943 Nov.), p. 32;
G. F. Kellaway, BAAC, No. 245 (1943 Dec. 3); G. F. Kellaway, W. P. Henderson,
and H. Whichello, MNRAS, 104 (1944), pp. 1089; G. F. Kellaway, IAUC, No. 977
(1944 Jan. 6); G. F. Kellaway and W. H. Steavenson, JBAA, 54 (1944 Mar.), pp. 68
9; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 51 (1945 Mar.), pp. 11112; D. Y. Martynov and A. D.
Dubiago, AJ, 52 (1946 Aug.), pp. 878; F. R. Cripps and G. Merton, BAA Handbook
for 1950 (1949 Nov.), p. 45; V1964, p. 75; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 372,
374; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 9 (1968 Sep.), pp. 31415; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 75 (1970
Feb.), pp. 812; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 11 (1970 Sep.), pp. 2323; B. G. Marsden,
Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.), p. 213; L. M. Belous, QJRAS,
26 (1985 Mar.), pp. 11314; B. G. Marsden, CCO, 5th ed. (1986), pp. 22, 55, 66;
B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 27 (1986 Mar.), p. 116.

C/1943 W1 Discovered: 1943 November 27.89 ( = 0.50 AU, r = 1.19 AU, Elong. = 100)
(van Gent Last seen: 1944 January 24.01 ( = 1.50 AU, r = 0.90 AU, Elong. = 35)
PeltierDaimaca) Closest to the Earth: 1943 December 9 (0.2499 AU)
Calculated path: PUP (Disc), PIC (Dec. 5), DOR (Dec. 7), HOR (Dec. 8), ERI
1944 I (Dec. 9), PHE (Dec. 10), SCL (Dec. 11), AQR (Dec. 15), PEG (Jan. 3)
H. van Gent (Leiden Observatory Southern Station, Johannesburg, South
Africa) discovered this comet during a photographic survey of variable
stars. The discovery was made on 1943 December 1, as he was examining
plates obtained at nearby Union Observatory. The first image was found
201

catalog of comets

on plate number 17893, which had been exposed with the FranklinAdams
Star Camera on 1943 November 27.89. It was a 30-minute exposure and the
position was given as = 8h 07.4m , = 34 16 . He estimated the magnitude as 9 and described the comet as diffuse, without a condensation. In
addition, van Gent found the comet on plate numbers 17894, 17895, and
17896, which were also exposed that evening. Two additional 30-minute
exposures were also made of the comet on November 28. The comet was
confirmed on December 3.44, by H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA). He estimated the magnitude as 9 (33-cm Lawrence Lowell
Telescope).
The comet attained its most southerly declination of 52 on December 7
and attained its greatest solar elongation of 120 on December 8. Despite the
fact that the comet was confirmed within a few days, it moved very quickly
across the sky and was thus announced as a new comet that was discovered by V. Daimaca (Targu Jiu, Romania) on December 16.7 and L. C. Peltier
(Delphos, Ohio, USA) on December 18.8. Peltiers announcement reached
the proper authorities first. Daimaca estimated the magnitude as 6, while
Peltier gave it as 7. Peltier also gave the position as = 23h 20m , = 16
and said the comet was moving slowly westward. Comet PeltierDaimaca
was confirmed by G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA)
on December 18.99. He observed using the 61-cm reflector, gave the magnitude as 7.4, and suggested it was probably van Gent. Van Biesbroeck
added that the comet was diffuse, with a diameter of 5 , and a central stellar
nucleus of magnitude 10. G. F. Kellaway (West Coker, England) independently discovered this comet on December 19.88 and estimated the magnitude as 6. He added that there was no condensation. P. Finsler (Zurich,

Switzerland) independently discovered it on December 24. Wartime conditions caused the comet to be given preliminary designations of 1943e
(USA) and 1943f.
On December 14, R. P. de Kock (Paarl, South Africa) gave the magnitude
as 7.6. On the 18th, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet using the
61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 7.4. He said a 1-minute exposure using the same telescope revealed a coma 5 across and a central, stellar
nucleus. On the 19th and 20th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 8.0. He
said a 20-minute exposure showed a faint tail extending over 0.5 in PA 80.
On the 21st, the magnitude was given as 7 by C. Fedtke (Konigsberg,

now
Kaliningrad, Russia) and 7.5 by van Biesbroeck. Fedtke described the comet
as diffuse, with a central condensation. On the 22nd, the visual magnitude
was given as 7.6 by van Biesbroeck, while the photographic magnitude was
given as 7 by G. H. Herbig (Lick Observatory, California, USA) and 8 by E.
Mdlow (Berlin, Germany). On the 23rd, van Biesbroeck visually observed
the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 8.4, while B.
Meyermann (Gottingen,

Germany) gave the photographic magnitude as 7.


On the 24th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 8.5, using the reflector. A
1-minute exposure with the reflector revealed a round, centrally condensed
202

catalog of comets

coma 5 across and a slender tail extending to the edge of the plate (over 1)
towards PA 72. He added, Several lateral streamers suspected. On the
26th, the magnitude was given as 8.3 by M. Beyer (Hamburg Observatory,
Bergedorf, Germany), 8.9 by van Biesbroeck, and 9 by P. Naur (Copenhagen,
Denmark). Beyer said the coma was 6 across and contained a weak nucleus
of about magnitude 10. Van Biesbroeck said there was a sharp nucleus. On
the 28th, Giclas photographed the comet using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and gave the magnitude as 10. On the 30th, the magnitude
was given as 8.43 by Beyer and 9.8 by van Biesbroeck. On December 31,
Beyer observed using an 8-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 8.68,
while Naur estimated it as 9.
On 1944 January 3, C. Popovici (Bucharest, Romania) gave the magnitude
as 9. On the 3rd and 4th, Daimaca gave the magnitude as 9. On the 5th, the
magnitude was given as 8.67 by Beyer and 910 by H. Fischer (Poznan,
Poland). On the 6th, van Biesbroeck obtained a 1-minute exposure using
the reflector and gave the magnitude as 10.5. He said the condensation was
sharply defined, but not stellar. On the 13th, van Biesbroeck obtained a
3-minute exposure and gave the magnitude as 11. He said the coma was
much less defined and 2 across. On the 15th, van Biesbroeck obtained a
5-minute exposure and gave the magnitude as 13. He said the coma was
losing rapidly in brightness and becoming very diffuse. Van Biesbroeck
added that the coma was dissymmetrical which suggested a short tail
extending towards PA 85. On the 18th, van Biesbroeck obtained a 6-minute
exposure and gave the magnitude as 13.5. He said there was an indication
of a tail towards PA 80. On the 21st, van Biesbroeck obtained a 12-minute
exposure and gave the magnitude as 14. He said the comet was poorly
defined, with a tail pointing towards PA 110. On January 22, van Biesbroeck
obtained a 10-minute exposure and gave the magnitude as 15. He said the
coma was about 1.5 across and spread mostly in second quadrant. He
added that the coma contained little condensation.
The comet was last detected at low altitude on January 24.01, when van
Biesbroeck obtained a 10-minute exposure with the 61-cm reflector. The position was given as = 21h 52.6m , = +7 41 . He estimated the magnitude
as 15.5, and said the coma was 2 across, without a central condensation.
The first parabolic orbit was calculated by J. Jackson, using positions from
November 27, December 7, and December 15. He gave the perihelion date
as 1944 January 12.28. This proved to be an excellent representation of the
comets orbit. During the following days and weeks, parabolic orbits were
calculated by J. Bobone, A. Kahrstedt, and J. P. Moller.

B. G. Marsden and G. van Biesbroeck (1963) took 46 positions obtained


between 1943 November 27 and 1944 January 24, and applied perturbations
from Venus to Saturn. They computed a hyperbolic orbit with a perihelion
date of January 12.18 and an eccentricity of 1.0026454. Despite this orbit,
Marsden (1972, 1985) took 27 positions spanning the period November 27
January 7, and found that a parabolic orbit still represented the positions
203

catalog of comets

best, with the perihelion date being January 12.25. Marsdens orbit is given
below.
T
1944 Jan. 12.250 (TT)

33.078

 (2000.0)
58.631

i
136.181

q
0.87430

e
1.0

absolute magnitude: H10 = 10.7 (V1964)


full moon: Nov. 12, Dec. 11, 1944 Jan. 10, Feb. 9
sources: H. van Gent, IAUC, No. 971 (1943 Dec. 4); H. van Gent, H. L. Giclas,
L. C. Peltier, G. van Biesbroeck, and O. Struve, HAC, No. 672 (1943 Dec. 20); V.
Daimaca and L. C. Peltier, IAUC, No. 972 (1943 Dec. 20); J. Jackson, HAC, No.
673 (1943 Dec. 22); J. Bobone and G. H. Herbig, HAC, No. 674 (1943 Dec. 23); C.
Fedtke, IAUC, No. 973 (1943 Dec. 24); E. Mdlow and B. Meyermann, IAUC, No.
974 (1943 Dec. 27); P. Naur, IAUC, No. 975 (1943 Dec. 29); J. P. Moller,

IAUC, No.
976 (1943 Dec. 30); V. Daimaca, L. C. Peltier, and G. F. Kellaway, MNRAS, 104
(1944), pp. 1089; R. P. de Kock and J. Jackson, ASSAMN, 3 (1944 Jan. 14), pp. 34;
H. L. Giclas, HAC, No. 676 (1944 Jan. 17); C. Popovici, H. Fischer, A. Kahrstedt,
and J. P. Moller,

IAUC, No. 979 (1944 Jan. 22); J. P. Moller,

IAUC, No. 980 (1944


Jan. 24); V. Daimaca, IAUC, No. 982 (1944 Mar. 1); G. F. Kellaway, IAUC, No.
983 (1944 Mar. 25); H. van Gent, J. Jackson, and G. van Biesbroeck, ASSAMN,
3 (1944 Jul. 31), p. 91; H. L. Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944 Aug.), p. 63; G. van Biesbroeck,
AJ, 51 (1945 Mar.), pp. 11315; M. Beyer, AN, 275 (1947 Dec. 31), pp. 24950; H.
van Gent, BAN, 10 (1948 Nov. 20), p. 440; B. G. Marsden and G. van Biesbroeck,
AJ, 68 (1963 May), pp. 2357; V1964, p. 75; B. G. Marsden, CCO, 1st ed. (1972),
pp. 25, 48; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 26 (1985 Mar.), p. 114.

Recovered: 1944 March 24.49 ( = 1.28 AU, r = 1.89 AU, Elong. = 111)
Last seen: 1944 July 20.27 ( = 2.27 AU, r = 2.86 AU, Elong. = 116)
1943 V = 1944a Closest to the Earth: 1944 April 16 (1.2455 AU)
Calculated path: OPH (Rec), SCO (May 3), LIB (May 19)

24P/Schaumasse

This comet was not detected during its 1935 perihelion passage. W. P. Henderson and M. G. Sumner (1934) had taken an orbit for the 1927 apparition
and applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn. The result was a predicted perihelion date of 1935 September 13.89. Later calculations by other
astronomers revealed this prediction was about a day and a half early.
The recovery of this comet began with the prediction by Sumner (1942).
Sumner used the orbit predicted for the 1935 return and applied perturbations. He predicted this comet would next arrive at perihelion on 1943
November 4.46. Sumner added that the conditions for observation were not
very favorable. H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA) recovered
this comet on 1944 March 24.49, at a position of = 16h 45.6m , = 9 26 .
He described it as magnitude 15, with a diffuse coma, but no central condensation. Giclas confirmed the photographic observation on March 25.48, with
a magnitude estimate of 15. The position indicated the perihelion should be
corrected to about November 27.50.
204

catalog of comets

On March 28, 29, 30, and 31, Giclas photographed the comet using the
33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and gave the magnitude as 15. On
April 1, 2, and 3, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 15. On April
22, the photographic magnitude was given as 16 by Giclas and 17.017.5
by G. H. Herbig (Lick Observatory, California, USA). On May 2, Herbig
photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the
magnitude as 17.9. He said the comet appeared like a faint haze. It was 4.5
across and contained a sharp nucleus. The comet attained its greatest solar
elongation of 170 on May 21. On May 24, Herbig gave the photographic
magnitude as 17.5. He said the comet was very similar in appearance as for
the May 2 observation.
The last two detections of the comet came on July 20.23 and July 20.27,
when Herbig photographed it with the 91-cm Crossley reflector. He gave the
position on the latter date as = 15h 30.4m , = 14 38 . Herbig estimated
the magnitude as 19.0 and described it as a very faint haze about 4 in
diameter . . .. He added, Although the position and motion correspond to
those of the comet, there is always an uncertainty arising in the identification
of an object so near the threshold limit of the plate. The comet could not be
found on plates of about the same exposure time taken on July 27 and
August 17.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by Sumner (1949) and
B. G. Marsden (1968, 1969, 1986). Although Sumner gave the perihelion date
as November 25.81, Marsden has given it as November 26.1926.21. Both
astronomers have given the period as 8.21 years. Marsden (1968) noted a secular acceleration. The nongravitational terms were given as A1 = +0.17536
and A2 = 0.019119 by Marsden (1969), A1 = +0.4 and A2 = 0.040
by Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans (1973), and A1 = +0.36
and A2 = 0.0407 by Marsden (1986). The orbit below is from Marsden
(1986).
T
1943 Nov. 26.1948 (TT)

50.9384

 (2000.0)
87.6607

i
12.0430

q
e
1.202128 0.704682

absolute magnitude: H10 = 12.0 (V1964)


full moon: Mar. 9, Apr. 8, May 8, Jun. 6, Jul. 6, Aug. 4
sources: W. P. Henderson and M. G. Sumner, BAA Handbook for 1935 (1934),
p. 26; M. G. Sumner, BAA Handbook for 1943 (1942 Nov.), p. 27; M. G. Sumner.
IAUC, No. 949 (1943 May 17); M. G. Sumner, BAA Handbook for 1944 (1943 Nov.),
p. 31; H. L. Giclas, HAC, No. 682 (1944 Mar. 30); H. L. Giclas, IAUC, No. 984
(1944 Apr. 3); J. P. Moller,

IAUC, No. 985 (1944 Apr. 4); H. L. Giclas, AJ, 51 (1944


Aug.), p. 63; G. H. Herbig, LOB, 19 (1945), pp. 1712; M. G. Sumner, MNRAS, 105
(1945), pp. 1367; M. G. Sumner, MNRAS, 109 (1949), pp. 2545; V1964, p. 75;
B. G. Marsden, AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 373, 375; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 9 (1968
Sep.), pp. 31415; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 74 (1969 Jun.), pp. 729, 731; B. G. Marsden,
QJRAS, 10 (1969 Sep.), pp. 2523; B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans,

205

catalog of comets
AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.), p. 213; B. G. Marsden, CCO, 5th ed. (1986), pp. 22, 55; B. G.
Marsden, QJRAS, 27 (1986 Mar.), p. 116.

C/1944 H1 Discovered: 1944 April 18.91 ( = 2.69 AU, r = 3.66 AU, Elong. = 162)
(Visl) Last seen: 1946 January 2.09 ( = 4.82 AU, r = 4.44 AU, Elong. = 62)
Closest to the Earth: 1945 July 31 (2.4238 AU)
1945 I = 1944b Calculated path: VIR (Disc), LIB (Sep. 26), SCO (Nov. 8), SGR (Dec. 30), MIC
(1945 Feb. 26), PsA (Mar. 24), SCL (May 28), AQR (May 31), SCL (Jul. 7), PsA
(Aug. 30), AQR (Oct. 10)
This comet was discovered by Y. Visl (University of Turku, Finland)
during a routine search for minor planets on 1944 April 18.91. He gave the
position as = 12h 51.0m , = +0 02 . It was confirmed on April 26.90,
at which time the magnitude was estimated as 14.5. Visl also described
the comet as a small nebulosity, with a diameter of 10 .
On May 22 and 27, C. Hoffmeister (Sonneberg, Germany) gave the photographic magnitude as 14. On the latter date, he described the comet as
diffuse, without a condensation. On August 7, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes
Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) photographed the comet at low altitude with
the 61-cm reflector and simply described it as a faint diffuse spot. On August
12 and 15, G. H. Herbig (Lick Observatory, California, USA) photographed
the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as
14.0. He said the plates were exposed when the comet was at a low altitude
in evening twilight. The comet was described as a globular haze about
15 in diameter. The comet attained its minimum solar elongation of 9 on
December 5.
The comet attained its most southerly declination of 34 on 1945 January
20. The comet slowly moved in a northeasterly direction until June 18, when
it attained a declination of about 25. It then began moving southeasterly
and by mid-July was moving in a southwesterly direction. On August 7
and 8, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector
and described it as a diffuse spot of magnitude 15.5. On the 9th, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 14. He said the comet exhibited
a small coma. With the comet having generally moved in a southwesterly
direction for the last few weeks, it attained a declination of 27 on August
31 and turned to a northwesterly direction. On September 3 and 7, van
Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 15.5. He said the comet
was very diffuse. On October 10, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic
magnitude as 16. He said the round, fuzzy coma was 15 across. After
turning to a northerly direction in late October, the comet turned to a northeasterly direction early in November. On November 30, December 1, and
December 4, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA) photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude
as 16.5. He said the round, fuzzy coma was 12 across.
206

catalog of comets

On 1946 January 1, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as


16.5 and said the coma was 10 across.
The comet was last detected on January 2.09, when van Biesbroeck
obtained an 8-minute exposure with the 208-cm reflector at McDonald
Observatory. The magnitude was estimated as 16.5, while the coma
diameter was 10 . Van Biesbroeck gave the position as = 23h 09.6m ,
= 15 25 .
P. Naur computed parabolic elements which were first published on
June 3. The perihelion date was determined as 1944 December 27.81. Using
precise positions obtained on April 18, April 26, and May 27, L. Oterma computed a parabolic orbit which was first published on June 6. The perihelion
date was determined as 1945 January 2.51. P. Herget published an orbit on
September 21 which determined the perihelion date as January 3.66.
B. G. Marsden (1972, 1978) used 22 positions obtained between 1944
May 22 and 1945 November 30, as well as perturbations by all nine planets,
and computed an elliptical orbit with a perihelion date of January 4.06 and a
period of about 7143 years. Marsden took this orbit and derived an elliptical
original orbit with a period of about 5913 years, and an elliptical future orbit
with a period of about 8585 years.
T
1945 Jan. 4.0622 (TT)

 (2000.0)
238.9426
29.0848

i
17.2882

q
e
2.410856 0.993500

absolute magnitude: H10 = 7.4 (V1964)


full moon: Apr. 8, May 8, Jun. 6, Jul. 6, Aug. 4, Sep. 2, Oct. 2, Oct. 31, Nov. 30,
Dec. 29, 1945 Jan. 28, Feb. 26, Mar. 28, Apr. 27, May 27, Jun. 25, Jul. 25, Aug. 23,
Sep. 21, Oct. 21, Nov. 19, Dec. 19, 1946 Jan. 17
sources: Y. Visl, IAUC, No. 986 (1944 May 13); C. Hoffmeister, IAUC, No.
988 (1944 May 30); P. Naur, IAUC, No. 989 (1944 Jun. 3); L. Oterma, IAUC,
No. 990 (1944 Jun. 6); C. Hoffmeister, IAUC, No. 991 (1944 Jul. 8); P. Herget,
HAC, No. 695 (1944 Sep. 21); G. H. Herbig, LOB, 19 (1945), pp. 1723; G. van
Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 722 (1945 Sep. 7); G. van Biesbroeck, IAUC, No. 1019
(1945 Oct. 8); G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 52 (1947 May), pp. 2012; V1964, p. 75; B. G.
Marsden, CCO, 1st ed. (1972), pp. 25, 48; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 83 (1978 Jan.), pp. 66,
68.

66P/1944 K1 Prediscovery: 1944 April 22.95 ( = 0.65 AU, r = 1.47 AU, Elong. = 123)
(du Toit) Discovered: 1944 May 17.04 ( = 0.52 AU, r = 1.35 AU, Elong. = 118)
Last seen: 1944 November 20.2 ( = 1.79 AU, r = 2.31 AU, Elong. = 108)
1944 III = 1944c Closest to the Earth: 1944 June 3 (0.4999 AU)
Calculated path: SCO (Pre), ARA (Apr. 23), TEL (Apr. 29), PAV (May 10), IND
(May 27), TUC (Jun. 1), PHE (Jun. 23), SCL (Aug. 25), AQR (Sep. 30)
D. du Toit (Harvard College Observatory, Boyden Station, Bloemfontein,
South Africa) discovered this comet on a photograph obtained on 1944 May
17.04. He estimated the magnitude as 10 and gave the position as = 19h
207

catalog of comets

54m , = 60 39 . Confirmation came from H. van Gent (Union Observatory,


Johannesburg, South Africa) when he photographed it on May 23.03. He
estimated the magnitude as 11. Van Gent also found a prediscovery image
on a plate exposed on April 22.95. He gave the magnitude as 12.5.
The comet was approaching both the sun and Earth when it was first
found, but was not widely observed. Van Gent estimated the photographic
magnitude as 11 on May 28. On May 29 and 30, J. Bobone and C. G. Torres
(National Astronomical Observatory, Cordoba,

Argentina) photographed
the comet using the astrograph. The comet attained its most southerly declination of 64 on May 31. Bobone and Torres continued to obtain a fine
series of photographs, with exposures on June 12, 14, 18, 27, and 28, July 14
and 28, and August 16 and 19. The comet attained a maximum solar elongation of 152 on September 14. On the 19th and 21st, Torres photographed the
comet using the reflector at the Astrophysical Station (Chile). On September
26, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) photographed
the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 17.5. He said
the small coma was faintly condensed and 12 across. On October 19,
20, 21, and 22, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA) photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude
as 18. He said the round coma was centrally condensed and 10 across. On
October 20, G. H. Herbig (Lick Observatory, California, USA) photographed
the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 18.5.
He said the comet looked like a very weak haze.
The last two detections of the comet came on November 14.2 and
November 20.2, when van Biesbroeck obtained exposures with the 208-cm
reflector. The comet appeared as a very faint trace of about magnitude 19.5
on these photographs, but was too faint for measurement.
J. Jackson wrote that an attempt to find an orbit using the initial South
African positions from Johannesburg and Bloemfontein that spanned the
period April 22May 28 did not yield a parabola. He suggested that
an error might have existed with one of the positions, but noted that his
attempts indicated perihelion in late June or July. During early June,
Bobone computed a parabolic orbit which gave the perihelion date as 1944
June 10.57. Bobone published two elliptical orbits during the next couple of
months. At the end of June, he gave the perihelion date as June 17.52 and
the period as 14.02 years, and, at the beginning of September, he gave the
perihelion date as June 17.49 and the period as 14.87 years.
A reinvestigation of this comets orbit was published by Bobone (1955). He
took 18 positions from the period spanning May 29October 22, as well as
perturbations by three planets, and determined the perihelion date as June
17.50 and the period as 14.79 years. Very similar orbits were later calculated by G. Sitarski (1973, 1978) and N. A. Belyaev, V. V. Emelyanenko, and
N. Yu. Goryajnova (1974).
Following the comets recovery, orbits using multiple apparitions and
planetary perturbations were calculated by Belyaev and Emelyanenko
208

catalog of comets

(1985), Sitarski (1985), S. Nakano (1978, 2000, 2003), and K. Kinoshita (2004).
They all revealed a perihelion date of June 17.49 and a period of 14.78 years.
Kinoshita determined nongravitational terms of A1 = +0.01 and A2 =
0.0111, and this orbit is given below.
T
1944 Jun. 17.4934 (TT)

 (2000.0)
257.0228
23.1486

i
18.7501

q
e
1.276932 0.787986

absolute magnitude: H10 = 11.6 (V1964)


full moon: Apr. 8, May 8, Jun. 6, Jul. 6, Aug. 4, Sep. 2, Oct. 2, Oct. 31, Nov. 30
sources: D. du Toit, HAC, No. 685 (1944 May 29); D. du Toit, IAUC, No. 988
(1944 May 30); J. Bobone, HAC, No. 686 (1944 Jun. 5); J. Bobone, IAUC, No. 990
(1944 Jun. 6); D. du Toit, H. van Gent, and J. Jackson, ASSAMN, 3 (1944 Jun.
25), p. 63; J. Bobone, HAC, No. 689 (1944 Jun. 29); J. Bobone, IAUC, No. 993
(1944 Jul. 24); D. du Toit and H. van Gent, ASSAMN, 3 (1944 Jul. 31), p. 80;
J. Bobone, HAC, No. 692 (1944 Sep. 1); G. H. Herbig, LOB, 19 (1945), p. 173;
J. Bobone and C. G. Torres, AJ, 51 (1945 Mar.), p. 108; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ,
52 (1947 May), p. 202; H. van Gent, BAN, 10 (1948 Nov. 20), p. 440; J. Bobone,
Observatorio Astronomio Cordoba Contribuciones, No. 1 (1955), p. 6; V1964, p. 75;
G. Sitarski, AcA, 23 (1973), pp. 3735; N. A. Belyaev, V. V. Emelyanenko, and N.
Yu. Goryajnova, QJRAS, 15 (1974 Dec.), pp. 4523, 459; S. Nakano, Nakano Note,
No. 326 (1978 Jun. 20); G. Sitarski, QJRAS, 19 (1978 Mar.), pp. 523, 57; N. A.
Belyaev and V. V. Emelyanenko, QJRAS, 26 (1985 Mar.), pp. 7980; G. Sitarski,
QJRAS, 26 (1985 Mar.), p. 91; S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 714 (2000 May 13); S.
Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 922 (2003 Mar. 17); personal correspondence from K.
Kinoshita (2004).

C/1944 K2 Prediscovery: 1944 May 15.79 ( = 1.92 AU, r = 2.34 AU, Elong. = 101)
(van Gent) Discovered: 1944 May 23.77 ( = 1.91 AU, r = 2.31 AU, Elong. = 100)
Last seen: 1945 August 11.23 ( = 4.99 AU, r = 4.66 AU, Elong. = 65)
1944 IV Closest to the Earth: 1944 May 20 (1.9128 AU)
Calculated path: VEL (Pre), ANT (Jun. 5), HYA (Jun. 22), CRT (Jul. 1), CRV
(Aug. 6), VIR (Aug. 8), BOO (Dec. 2), SER (Dec. 29), CrB (1945 Jan. 29), HER
(Mar. 1), BOO (Mar. 12), DRA (Mar. 31), UMa (May 17)
H. van Gent (Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) discovered
this comet on 1944 May 23.77, at a position of = 9h 24.8m , = 49 20 . The
comet was described as diffuse, with a magnitude of 12. Van Gent found a
prediscovery image on a plate exposed on May 15.79. Wartime conditions
caused this comet to sometimes be known as 1944d.
News of the comet was considerably delayed because of the war.
The International Astronomical Union normally issued announcements of
comet discoveries, but in this case an announcement was not made until
August 1945, more than a year after the discovery. Fortunately, van Gent
continued to observe the comet and astronomers in Argentina and the USA
were also alerted.
209

catalog of comets

Van Gent obtained 13 photographs using the FranklinAdams camera


during the period June 1August 16. J. Bobone and C. G. Torres (National
Astronomical Observatory, Cordoba,

Argentina) photographed the comet


using an astrograph on June 14, June 27, July 8, and July 14.
The last two observations of the comet before it disappeared in evening
twilight were on August 6.96 and August 6.98 when Bobone and Torres
photographed it using the astrograph. An observation was reported by van
Gent for August 16.72, which was considered very uncertain, but in this
case another object had been mistaken for the comet.
The comet passed about 8 from the sun on October 11 and remained
lost in the suns glare until 1945 January 12.51, when G. H. Herbig (Lick
Observatory, California, USA) photographed it using the 91-cm Crossley
reflector. He estimated the magnitude as 15.5 and described the comet
as a round, strongly condensed coma, with a diameter of 8 . On March
8, Herbig gave the photographic magnitude as 16.0. He said the comet
appeared nearly stellar. On May 8, G. van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA) photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector
and gave the magnitude as 18. Two 15-minute exposures revealed a fairly
sharp trail with hardly a coma. On May 10, Herbig gave the photographic magnitude as 17.8. He described the comet as a weak, indistinct
haze about 10 across. The comet attained its most northerly declination
of +62 on May 26. On July 5, Herbig gave the photographic magnitude
as 18.5. He described the comet as small and without condensation. On
July 12, Jeffers photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 18.5. He described the comet as small and
without condensation.
The comet was last detected on August 11.23, when Jeffers photographed
it with the 91-cm Crossley reflector. He gave the position as = 13h 58.3m ,
= +56 18 . Jeffers estimated the magnitude as 19.0 and described the
comet as small and without condensation.
The first orbit was calculated by J. Jackson, using positions from May
15, May 23, and June 1. He gave the perihelion date as 1944 July 18.70. He
published a revised orbit on September 1 which gave the perihelion date as
July 17.67.
A. Przybylski (1952) took ten positions spanning the period 1944 June 14
1945 July 12, but did not apply perturbations. He determined a perihelion
date of July 17.62 and the eccentricity of 1.0019948.
A. Przybylski (1956) used 34 positions obtained between 1944 June 1 and
1945 August 11, as well as perturbations by the planets Venus to Neptune,
and computed a hyperbolic orbit with a perihelion date of July 17.61 and
an eccentricity of 1.002085.
B. G. Marsden (1973, 1978) used 25 positions obtained between 1944
June 1 and 1945 August 11, as well as perturbations by all nine planets,
and computed a hyperbolic orbit with a perihelion date of July 17.61 and an
eccentricity of 1.0020846. This orbit is given below. Marsden took this orbit
210

catalog of comets

and derived an elliptical original orbit with a period of about 13.1 million
years, and a hyperbolic future orbit with an eccentricity of 1.001162.
T
1944 Jul. 17.6133 (TT)

 (2000.0)
336.9741 203.5003

i
95.0056

q
e
2.225933 1.002085

absolute magnitude: H10 = 79 (V1964)


full moon: May 8, Jun. 6, Jul. 6, Aug. 4, Sep. 2, Oct. 2, Oct. 31, Nov. 30, Dec. 29,
1945 Jan. 28, Feb. 26, Mar. 28, Apr. 27, May 27, Jun. 25, Jul. 25, Aug. 23
sources: H. van Gent, HAC, No. 686 (1944 Jun. 5); J. Jackson, HAC, No. 688 (1944
Jun. 16); H. van Gent and J. Jackson, ASSAMN, 3 (1944 Jun. 25), p. 63; H. van
Gent, ASSAMN, 3 (1944 Jul. 31), p. 80; J. Bobone, HAC, No. 693 (1944 Sep. 1);
G. H. Herbig, LOB, 19 (1945), p. 173; J. Bobone and C. G. Torres, AJ, 51 (1945
Mar.), p. 108; H. van Gent and J. Bobone, IAUC, No. 1019 (1945 Oct. 8); G. H.
Herbig and H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1947), p. 184; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 52 (1947
May), p. 203; H. van Gent, BAN, 10 (1948 Nov. 20), p. 441; A. Przybylski, IAUC,
No. 1362 (1952 Jun. 14); A. Przybylski, AcA, 6 (1956), pp. 11725; V1964, p. 75;
B. G. Marsden, AJ, 78 (1973 Dec.), pp. 111920; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 83 (1978 Jan.),
p. 68.

95P/Chiron Prediscovery: 1941 January 23.86 ( = 9.31 AU, r = 10.28 AU, Elong. = 170)
Last seen: 1969 September 11.34 ( = 17.86 AU, r = 18.82 AU, Elong.
= 163)
Closest to the Earth: 1945 March 22 (7.4881 AU), 1946 April 8 (7.5003 AU)
Calculated path: CNC (Pre), CMi (Feb. 2), GEM (Feb. 11), CNC (May 16), LEO
(1942 Aug. 14), SEX (Oct. 24), LEO (1943 Mar. 2), SEX (Jul. 24), LEO (Nov. 3),
SEX (1944 Feb. 28), LEO (Jul. 5), VIR (Oct. 6), LIB (1947 Jan. 10), VIR (Apr.
9), LIB (Sep. 11), SCO (1948 Dec. 8), OPH (1949 Jan. 23), SCO (May 23), OPH
(Oct. 10), SGR (1950 Dec. 27)
This object was discovered by C. T. Kowal (Palomar Observatory, California, USA) on 1977 October 18 and was described as a slow-moving object
of stellar appearance. The slow motion initially made the orbit difficult to
determine, although it did quickly become obvious that the object was much
farther from the sun than a normal minor planet. Additional positions during the next month enabled the orbit to be refined and Kowal found images
on two photographic plates he had exposed during 1969 September. Taking
the positions from 1969 and 1977 enabled B. G. Marsden to calculate a very
accurate orbit. Marsden said it was obvious that the object could reach magnitude 14.5 around the time of perihelion and suggested it might be found
on plates around the perihelion passages in 1945 and 1895. Less than a
week after the publication of Marsdens new orbit, images were found on
three plates exposed in 1941, 1943, and 1952.
W. Liller and L. J. Chaisson (Center for Astrophysics, Massachusetts, USA)
found the object on plates exposed at the Boyden Station of Harvard College
Observatory (Bloemfontein, South Africa) on 1941 January 23.86 and 1943
211

catalog of comets

March 8.80. The position on the first date was given as = 7h 54.9m ,
= +13 02 and the exposure had been 3 hours long. The plates had been
obtained using the Bruce 61-cm astrograph and the magnitude of the stellar
object was estimated as 15 on each date. Kowal, Liller, and Marsden (1979)
noted, Curiously enough, this [1941] trail had been marked, but apparently
never followed up, when the plate was examined in 1951 for faint galaxies.
Kowal also found the object on a blue Palomar Sky Survey plate obtained
on 1952 August 23.17. He estimated the magnitude as 17.
A couple of weeks later, Liller and Chaisson found another image on a
plate exposed using the 61-cm astrograph at Bloemfontein. The date of the
exposure was given as 1948 August 4.76 and the magnitude was 16. The
discovery of a further image was announced during May of 1978, when A.
Niemi (Turku University Observatory, Finland) noted a very weak image
near the limit of a plate exposed at Turku on 1945 April 16.86. He gave the
magnitude as 16.
As it turned out, the images Kowal found from 1969 September were
actually obtained a little over a year prior to the comet passing aphelion
and would be the last observations of this apparition. He had obtained the
exposures with the 122-Schmidt telescope on September 10.37 and September 11.34. Kowal estimated the magnitude as 18 and gave the position on
the last date as = 0h 13.7m , = +4 48 .
The object received the minor planet designation 2060 and Kowal
named it Chiron. As early as 1979, Marsden had expressed his opinion that
this might be a comet. Interestingly, observers reported an outburst in brightness during 1988. This was unheard of for a minor planet and seemed to
strengthen the possibility that this was a comet. Several astronomers began
monitoring Chiron more frequently and were even obtaining longer exposures in the hope of catching a coma or tail. A coma was actually detected
in 1989, thus confirming that Chiron was a comet. It eventually received the
cometary designation 95P.
The comet attained its most northerly declination of +14 on 1941 May 3
and attained its most southerly declination of 18 on 1950 January 26.
The most recent multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by
K. Kinoshita (2003) and S. Nakano (2004). These included planetary perturbations. They determined a perihelion date of 1945 August 29.15 and a
period of 50.89 years. Nakanos orbit is given below.
T
1945 Aug. 29.1533 (TT)

 (2000.0)
338.8997 209.4894

i
6.9195

q
e
8.462514 0.383751

absolute magnitude: H10 = 5.0 (Kronk)


full moon: Full moons did not limit the overall period of the comets visibility
sources: C. T. Kowal, IAUC, No. 3129 (1977 Nov. 4); C. T. Kowal and B. G. Marsden, IAUC, No. 3145 (1977 Nov. 30); C. T. Kowal, W. Liller, and L. J. Chaisson,
IAUC, No. 3147 (1977 Dec. 5); W. Liller and L. J. Chaisson, IAUC, No. 3151 (1977

212

catalog of comets
Dec. 13); W. Liller and L. J. Chaison, IAUC, No. 3156 (1977 Dec. 30); A. Niemi,
IAUC, No. 3215 (1978 May 1); C. T. Kowal, W. Liller, and B. G. Marsden, IAUS, 81
(1979), pp. 24550; personal correspondence from K. Kinoshita (2003); S. Nakano,
Nakano Note, No. 1102 (2004 Oct. 15).

79P/1945 G1 Discovered: 1945 April 9.71 ( = 0.29 AU, r = 1.25 AU, Elong. = 146)
(du ToitHartley) Last seen: 1945 June 4.71 ( = 0.47 AU, r = 1.36 AU, Elong. = 129)
Closest to the Earth: 1945 April 8 (0.2912 AU)
1945 II = 1945c Calculated path: LEO (Disc), CRT (Apr. 18), CRV (May 9), HYA (May 26)
D. du Toit (Harvard College Observatory, Boyden Station, Bloemfontein,
South Africa) discovered this comet on 1945 April 9.71, at = 10h 58.8m ,
= 1 03 . He estimated the magnitude as 10 and gave the comets daily
motion as +1m in and 35 in . The comet was confirmed by H. van Gent
(Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) on April 12.90, when he
photographed it using the 25-cm FranklinAdams Star Camera. The comet
was known by the name du Toit 2 up until its rediscovery in 1982.
A radiogram announcing the discovery was received at Harvard (Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) on April 12, but subsequent photographic
searches at Harvard College Observatorys Cambridge and Oak Ridge Stations in the following days revealed nothing. A letter was written requesting
the South African astronomers to confirm the comet, but an answer was not
received until June 9, when J. S. Paraskevopoulos (Harvard College Observatory, Boyden Station) responded, and mentioned that the comet had been
followed for 2 months at the Boyden station, as well as at Union Observatory
(Johannesburg, South Africa). Paraskevopoulos also included an orbit and
magnitude predictions by J. Jackson, which indicated the comet had become
too faint to be detected by Harvards 25-cm photographic telescope.
Van Gent was the most prolific observer of this comet as he photographed
it on nine occasions with the 25-cm FranklinAdams Star Camera during
the period April 12May 31.
The comet was last detected on June 4.71, when astronomers at Boyden
Station obtained a 45-minute exposure using the 25-cm Metcalf Triplet and
gave a position of = 13h 07.1m , = 26 23 .
The first orbit was calculated by Jackson, using positions from April 12,
May 1, and May 17. The result was a perihelion date of 1945 April 16.93.
The first elliptical orbit was calculated by L. E. Cunningham (1947) using
positions spanning 58 days. He gave the perihelion date as April 20.30
and the period as 4.56 years. K. Hurukawa (1952) took nine positions
obtained at Johannesburg during the period April 12May 31 and calculated an elliptical orbit with a perihelion date of 1945 April 18.71 and
a period of 5.27 years. M. P. Candy (1961) revised the orbit by taking
30 positions spanning the period April 9June 4, reducing them to five
Normal places, and applying perturbations by Venus, Earth, Jupiter, and
Saturn. The result was a perihelion date of April 18.72 and a period of
5.28 years.
213

catalog of comets

Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by B. G. Marsden (1982),


G. Forti (1989), and S. Nakano (1999). Marsdens orbit was actually an
approximate linkage of the 1945 and 1982 apparitions following the suggestion by Nakano that a comet discovered by Hartley was the return of
this comet found by du Toit. Marsden and Forti applied perturbations by
nine planets, while Nakano applied perturbations by the eight major planets and the minor planets Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta. Each astronomer gave
the perihelion date as April 18.72 and the period as 5.28 years. The nongravitational terms were given as A1 = +0.57, A2 = +0.0030 by Forti and
A1 = +0.561, A2 = +0.0040 by Nakano. Nakanos orbit is given below.
T
1945 Apr. 18.7209 (TT)

 (2000.0)
201.5339 359.5530

i
6.9295

q
1.249902

e
0.587986

absolute magnitude: H10 = 11.9 (V1964)


full moon: Mar. 28, Apr. 27, May 27, Jun. 25
sources: D. du Toit, H. van Gent, and J. Jackson, ASSAMN (1945 May 31),
p. 54; D. du Toit, HAC, No. 709 (1945 Jun. 12); D. du Toit, IAUC, No. 1008
(1945 Jun. 14); D. du Toit and [Harvard College Observatory], PASP, 57 (1945
Aug.), pp. 2212; D. du Toit and [Harvard College Observatory], PA, 53 (1945
Dec.), p. 362; L. E. Cunningham, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 11011, 114; H. van
Gent, BAN, 10 (1948 Nov. 20), p. 441; K. Hurukawa, NAZ, 6 (1952), p. 24; K.
Hurukawa, IAUC, No. 1368 (1952 Aug. 7); K. Hurukawa, MNRAS, 113 (1953),
pp. 3901; M. P. Candy and K. Hurukawa, IAUC, No. 1754 (1961 Mar. 23); M. P.
Candy, QJRAS, 2 (1961 Oct.), pp. 1579; V1964, p. 75; B. G. Marsden and S.
Nakano, IAUC, No. 3668 (1982 Feb. 19); G. Forti, AAP, 215 (1989), pp. 3812, 384;
S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 706 (1999 Nov. 23).

7P/Pons Recovered: 1945 May 1.83 ( = 0.69 AU, r = 1.45 AU, Elong. = 116)
Winnecke Last seen: 1945 October 10.08 ( = 1.13 AU, r = 1.61 AU, Elong. = 98)
Closest to the Earth: 1945 July 15 (0.4541 AU)
1945 IV = 1945a Calculated path: CVn (Rec), COM (Jun. 7), VIR (Jun. 27), LIB (Jul. 23), HYA
(Jul. 30), CEN (Aug. 3), LUP (Aug. 4), NOR (Aug. 17), ARA (Aug. 23), TEL
(Sep. 10), IND (Oct. 11)
C. Dinwoodie, K. Pollock, J. G. Porter, and M. G. Sumner (1944) used positions from this comets 1939 apparition to determine a definitive orbit. They
then applied perturbations by Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, and integrated the comets motion forward. They predicted the comet would next
pass perihelion on 1945 July 8.02.
D. Y. Martynov (Engelhardt Observatory, Kazan, Russia) photographed
the comets predicted position using the 38-cm Schmidt reflector on 1945
April 30.8, May 1.83, May 2.86, and May 4.90. On May 5, Martynov examined the photographic plates and found cometary images of magnitude
13 on the three May exposures, with the position given on May 1 as
= 13h 00.9m , = +45 32 . H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona,
214

catalog of comets

USA) independently recovered this comet on May 3.23, using the 33-cm A.
Lawrence Lowell Astrograph. He gave the magnitude as 13.8, and noted
the coma was diffuse, with a nucleus. The comets position indicated the
prediction by Dinwoodie, Pollock, Porter, and Sumner was 2.53 days too
early. The comet was then about 2 months from its closest approach to the
sun and Earth.
On May 8, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 13.8. On the 11th,
G. H. Herbig (Lick Observatory, California, USA) photographed the comet
using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 14.0. He
said the coma was featureless and about 8 across. There was a possible
tail extending toward PA 160. On the 12th and 20th, Martynov gave the
photographic magnitude as 13. On May 16, Giclas gave the photographic
magnitude as 13.5.
On June 4 and 5, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin,
USA) photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 12.5. He said the round coma was 3.5 across and contained a
well-condensed central nucleus. On the 5th, Giclas gave the photographic
magnitude as 13.5. On the 8th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude
as 13.3. On the 12th, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA)
photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 13. He said there was no definite nucleus. On the 13th, Giclas gave
the photographic magnitude as 13.0. On the 14th, van Biesbroeck gave the
photographic magnitude as 12. He said the coma was 3 across. On the
28th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 12.7. The comet attained
a minimum solar elongation of 43 on June 30. On June 30 and July 3, van
Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin USA) photographed the comet
using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 12. He said the round
coma was 5 across and, although well condensed, did not possess a stellar
nucleus. On July 7, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 11.5.
On August 3 and 4, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as
about 13. He said the comet was at low altitude and only the central part of
the nucleus was detected. The comet attained its most southerly declination
of 52 on September 15.
The last two detections of this comet came on plates exposed with the
astrographic telescope at the National Astronomical Observatory, Cordoba,

Argentina, on October 10.05 and October 10.08. The first plate was obtained
by C. G. Torres and the second was by D. McLeish. Although no physical descriptions were obtained, the comets position on the latter date was
determined as = 20h 20.6m , = 48 24 .
J. Bobone (1946) took positions from the 1945 apparition and determined
the perihelion date as July 10.59 and the period as 6.23 years.
Multiple apparition orbits were calculated by Porter (1949), B. G. Marsden
(1968, 1978), L. Ya. Ananeva and E. A. Reznikov (1974), and Reznikov (1978).
These applied various planetary perturbations, with nongravitational terms
being applied by Marsden. The result was a perihelion date of July 10.59
215

catalog of comets

and a period of 6.16 years. Marsden (1968) noted an extremely slight secular deceleration for this comet. Marsden (1970) gave the nongravitational
terms as A1 = 0.012726 and A2 = +0.00064604, using positions spanning 19391964. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans (1973) gave the
nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.01, A2 = +0.0024, using positions from
19331951.
T
1945 Jul. 10.5895 (TT)

 (2000.0)
170.1315
95.1355

i
21.6928

q
1.159202

e
0.654860

absolute magnitude: H10 = 12.7 (V1964)


full moon: Apr. 27, May 27, Jun. 25, Jul. 25, Aug. 23, Sep. 21, Oct. 21
sources: C. Dinwoodie, K. Pollock, J. G. Porter, and M. G. Sumner, BAA Handbook for 1945 (1944 Nov.), p. 33; G. H. Herbig, LOB, 19 (1945), p. 172; C. Dinwoodie,
K. Pollock, J. G. Porter, and M. G. Sumner, IAUC, No. 998 (1945 Jan. 23); D. Y.
Martynov, ATsir, No. 41 (1945 May 5); H. L. Giclas, HAC, No. 706 (1945 May
11); H. L. Giclas, IAUC, No. 1005 (1945 May 12); D. Y. Martynov, ATsir, No. 42
(1945 Jun. 1); D. Y. Martynov, ATsir, No. 43 (1945 Aug. 5); J. Bobone, HAC, No.
725 (1945 Sep. 25); J. Bobone, MNRAS, 106 (1946), pp. 779; C. G. Torres and D.
McLeish, AJ, 52 (1946 Jun.), pp. 212; G. van Biesbroeck and H. L. Giclas, AJ, 52
(1947 May), pp. 2046; J. G. Porter, MNRAS, 109 (1949), pp. 2545; V1964, p. 75;
B. G. Marsden, AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 3701; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 75 (1970 Feb.),
pp. 801; Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.), pp. 214,
216; L. Ya. Ananeva and E. A. Reznikov, QJRAS, 15 (1974 Dec.), pp. 4523, 459;
E. A. Reznikov and B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 19 (1978 Mar.), pp. 823, 88.

22P/Kopff Recovered: 1945 May 7.38 ( = 0.78 AU, r = 1.79 AU, Elong. = 172)
Last seen: 1946 January 2.07 ( = 2.43 AU, r = 2.06 AU, Elong. = 57)
1945 V = 1945b Closest to the Earth: 1945 June 9 (0.6849 AU)
Calculated path: LIB (Rec), SCO (Aug. 6), OPH (Aug. 14), SER (Sep. 4), SCT
(Sep. 26), SGR (Oct. 9), CAP (Nov. 2), AQR (Nov. 14)
This comet passed 0.57 AU from Jupiter on 1943 March 8, which made
predictions for this return more difficult than usual. W. E. Beart and W. P.
Henderson took an orbit predicted for the 1939 apparition, corrected it using
positions from that apparition, and applied perturbations by Jupiter. They
predicted the next perihelion date would be 1945 August 9.54. Interestingly, F. Kepinski had worked intensively on the motion of this comet when
records of his computations were destroyed in the Warszawa, Poland, insurrection of 1944 August. An accurate ephemeris based on this work was
published in 1946. With the original orbit gone, J. G. Masters (1947) used
Kepinskis ephemeris and deduced an orbit. He found that Kepinski had
predicted a perihelion date of August 11.29, which was only about 30 minutes too late.
H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA) recovered this comet
with the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph on 1945 May 7.38, at = 15h
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catalog of comets

00.5m , = 24 29 . He said the coma was diffuse, with a magnitude of 12,
and contained a nucleus.
On May 12, G. van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA) photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as
12.5. He added that the coma was 25 across and contained a well-defined
nucleus, while a faint tail extended 1 in PA 355. On the 13th, van Biesbroeck said a 20-second exposure with the 208-cm reflector showed the
sharp nucleus. On the 30th, van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the
magnitude as 12. He said the coma was 50 across and was centrally condensed into a sharp nucleus. On May 31, Giclas photographed the comet
using the astrograph and gave the magnitude as 10.5.
On June 4, A. F. A. L. Jones (Timaru, New Zealand) gave the visual magnitude as 12.0, while van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as
12. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was 1 across. On June 7, Jones observed
using a 14-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 12.0. On June 9 and 11,
Jones said the refractor revealed a magnitude of 11.5. On the 14th, the photographic magnitude was given as 10.3 by Giclas and 11.5 by van Biesbroeck.
Van Biesbroeck noted a sharp nucleus. Jones observed using a 14-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 11.7 on the 15th, 11.4 on the 16th, 11.0 on the
17th, 11.4 on the 19th and 20th, and 10.5 on the 29th. On June 30, Jones gave
the visual magnitude as 10.4, while van Biesbroeck gave the photographic
magnitude as 11. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was nearly 3 across.
On July 1, Jones gave the magnitude as 10.2. On the 2nd, Jones gave
the magnitude as 9.8. Also on this date, L. C. Peltier (Delphos, Ohio)
was involved in a routine comet-hunting session when he located a 10thmagnitude object at = 14h 45m , = 15. He said the comet was heading
northeastward. In the following days it was identified as comet Kopff. On
the 3rd, Jones gave the visual magnitude as 10.0, while van Biesbroeck
gave the photographic magnitude as 10.5. On the 4th, H. M. Jeffers (Lick
Observatory, California, USA) photographed the comet using the 91-cm
Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 11. He said a 5-minute exposure showed a faint coma 20 across, which contained a well-condensed
nucleus in the southern part. On the 5th, Jones gave the magnitude as
9.6. On the 7th, Jones gave the visual magnitude as 9.0, while van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 10.5. Jones gave the magnitude as 8.8 on the 9th and 9.0 on the 10th. On the 12th, Jones gave
the visual magnitude as 9.0, while Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 10.7. Jones said the tail extended toward PA 330. Jones gave the
magnitude as 8.5 on the 14th and 8.6 on the 15th. On the 28th, F. Weber
and R. Weber (Paris, France) gave the magnitude as 9.510. The comet
attained its most northerly declination of 14 on the 29th and then began
an east-southeasterly motion. The magnitude was given as 8.0 by Jones,
9.510 by F. and R. Weber, and 9.7 by van Biesbroeck. Jones said the tail
extended toward PA 310. Van Biesbroeck said the coma was 4 across, with
217

catalog of comets

a sharp nucleus. On July 31, Jones gave the magnitude as 8.0, using his
14-cm refractor.
On August 2, van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet using the 61-cm
reflector and gave the magnitude as 8.8. Van Biesbroeck gave it as 8.6 on
the 3rd. On the 4th, the magnitude was given as 8.0 by Jones and 8.7 by
van Biesbroeck. On the 7th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 8.9. On
the 10th, Jones gave the magnitude as 8.5 and said the tail extended toward
PA 315. On the 13th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 10.6. The
comet attained a minimum solar elongation of 36 on August 21. On the
28th, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 8.9. On August 30, Giclas gave
the photographic magnitude as 9.5.
On September 1, Jones gave the magnitude as 8.0. On the 3rd, the magnitude was given as 9.0 by Jones and 9.2 by van Biesbroeck. On the 4th, Jones
gave the magnitude as 8.7. Van Biesbroeck visually observed the comet
using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 9.0 on the 5th and
9.1 on the 7th. On the 10th, Jones gave the magnitude as 8.7. On the 12th,
Jones gave the magnitude as 9.0. He said the tail extended toward PA 315.
The comet attained its most northerly declination of 15 on September 13
and then began an east-northeasterly motion. On that same date, Giclas
photographed the comet using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph
and gave the magnitude as 10.1. On September 24, van Biesbroeck gave the
magnitude as 10.5.
On October 7, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 10.2. On the
11th, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 11. He said the
round coma was 5 across and contained a sharp nucleus. Van Biesbroeck
gave the photographic magnitude as 11.5 on October 23 and 26. On November 6, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and
gave the magnitude as 12.5. He said the coma was 4 across, with a central
nucleus. On November 14, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 10.4.
On November 30 and December 1, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory,
Texas, USA) photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave
the magnitude as 13.5. He noted a tail extending 2 in PA 50.
The comet was last detected on 1946 January 2.07, when van Biesbroeck
found it on a 5-minute exposure obtained with the 208-cm reflector. The
magnitude was estimated as 14 and a fan-shaped tail extended 2 in PA 65.
Van Biesbroeck gave the position as = 22h 28.8m , = 3 17 .
Using positions from 1945, J. Bobone calculated an orbit with a perihelion
date of August 11.28 and a period of 6.19 years.
Multiple apparition orbits have been calculated by F. Kepinski (1957),
D. K. Yeomans (1973), Y. A. Chernetenko (1978), and G. Sitarski (1994).
Kepinski applied perturbations by Venus to Uranus, while the other
astronomers used perturbations by the planets Mercury to Neptune and the
dwarf planet Pluto. Yeomans and Sitarski also solved for nongravitational
effects. Although Kepinski determined the perihelion date as August 11.27,
the other astronomers gave the date as August 11.27. Everyone gave the
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catalog of comets

period as 6.18 years. The nongravitational terms were given as A1 = +0.66


and A2 = 0.0455 by Yeomans (1973), A1 = +0.832 and A2 = 0.0216 by
Yeomans (1974), and A1 = +0.534, A2 = 0.019, and A3 = 0.181 by Sitarski.
The orbit by Sitarski is given below.
T
1945 Aug. 11.2717 (TT)

31.4898

 (2000.0)
253.8684

i
7.2215

q
1.495673

e
0.556075

absolute magnitude: H10 = 9.3 (V1964)


full moon: Apr. 27, May 27, Jun. 25, Jul. 25, Aug. 23, Sep. 21, Oct. 21, Nov. 19,
Dec. 19, 1946 Jan. 17
sources: W. E. Beart and W. P. Henderson, BAA Handbook for 1945 (1944 Nov.),
p. 35; W. E. Beart and W. P. Henderson, IAUC, No. 1000 (1945 Jan. 31); H. L.
Giclas, HAC, No. 707 (1945 May 14); H. L. Giclas, IAUC, No. 1006 (1945 May 15);
G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 708 (1945 May 18); L. C. Peltier, IAUC, No. 1011
(1945 Jul. 6); F. Weber and R. Weber, IAUC, No. 1013 (1945 Aug. 21); J. Bobone,
HAC, No. 723 (1945 Sep. 10); G. van Biesbroeck, IAUC, No. 1018 (1945 Sep. 21); J.
Bobone, IAUC, No. 1019 (1945 Oct. 8); J. Bobone, MNRAS, 106 (1946), pp. 779;
J. G. Masters and F. Kepinski, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 11011, 114; H. M. Jeffers,
LOB, 19 (1947), pp. 1834; G. van Biesbroeck and H. L. Giclas, AJ, 52 (1947 May),
pp. 2034, 206; F. Kepinski, AcA, 7 (1957), pp. 1039; V1964, p. 75; D. K. Yeomans,
QJRAS, 14 (1973 Dec.), pp. 4046; D. K. Yeomans, PASP, 86 (1974 Feb.), p. 126;
Y. A. Chernetenko, QJRAS, 19 (1978 Mar.), pp. 823, 88; A. F. A. L. Jones, ICQ, 5
(1983 Oct.), pp. 99100; G. Sitarski, AcA, 44 (1994), pp. 95, 424.

C/1945 L1 Discovered: 1945 June 11.13 ( = 0.75 AU, r = 1.09 AU, Elong. = 74)
(du Toit) Last seen: 1945 July 15.75 ( = 0.66 AU, r = 1.41 AU, Elong. = 112)
Closest to the Earth: 1945 June 30 (0.3071 AU)
1945 III = 1945d Calculated path: CET (Disc), SCL (Jun. 15), PHE (Jun. 21), GRU-TUC (Jun.
26), IND (Jun. 28), PAV (Jun. 29), ARA (Jul. 2), TrA-ARA (Jul. 3), NOR (Jul.
3), LUP (Jul. 6), CEN (Jul. 10), HYA (Jul. 14)
D. du Toit (Harvard College Observatory, Boyden Station, Bloemfontein,
South Africa) discovered this comet on 1945 June 11.13, at = 1h 08.0m ,
= 20 00 . He estimated the magnitude as 10 and said the daily motion
was 1m 45s in and 1 07 in .
H. van Gent (Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) photographed the comet on ten occasions using the 25-cm FranklinAdams
Star Camera during the period June 14July 14. The comet attained its most
southerly declination of 69 on June 30.
The comet was last detected on July 15.75, when van Gent obtained a
30-minute exposure using the FranklinAdams I camera. The position was
given as = 14h 37.0m , = 28 24 .
All of the positions obtained by van Gent were considered very uncertain, according to G. Pels (1948). Consequently, few orbital calculations
have been provided. The first orbit was calculated by J. Bobone and was
published on June 25. He gave the perihelion date as 1945 May 17.13. The
219

catalog of comets

only other orbit calculated was also by Bobone and was published on August
29. It took three positions spanning the period June 17July 12 and gave the
perihelion date as May 17.15. This last orbit is given below.
T
1945 May 17.1456 (UT)

280.1236

 (2000.0)
255.0453

i
156.5080

q
0.998063

e
1.0

absolute magnitude: H10 = 10.4 (V1964)


full moon: May 27, Jun. 25, Jul. 25
sources: D. du Toit, HAC, No. 710 (1945 Jun. 15); D. du Toit, IAUC, No. 1009
(1945 Jun. 16); J. Bobone, HAC, No. 713 (1945 Jun. 25); J. Bobone, IAUC, No. 1010
(1945 Jun. 29); J. Bobone, HAC, No. 719 (1945 Aug. 29); G. Pels and H. van Gent,
BAN, 10 (1948 Nov. 20), p. 441; V1964, p. 75.

C/1945 W1 Discovered: 1945 November 23.1 ( = 0.76 AU, r = 0.77 AU, Elong. = 50)
(FriendPeltier) Last seen: 1945 December 7.55 ( = 0.76 AU, r = 0.40 AU, Elong. = 22)
Closest to the Earth: 1945 November 30 (0.7357 AU)
1945 VI = 1945f Calculated path: CrB (Disc), HER (Nov. 24), SER (Dec. 5), OPH (Dec. 7)
C. L. Friend (Escondido, California, USA) discovered this comet early in the
evening on 1945 November 23.1, at = 16h 20m , = +30. He described
it as magnitude 7, and gave the daily motion as +2m 30s in and 2 in .
L. C. Peltier independently discovered this comet on November 24. He estimated the magnitude as 8. Confirmations came on November 24.94, when
E. F. Reilly, R. C. Leclaire and J. L. Gossner (Harvard College Observatory,
Cambridge Station, Massachusetts, USA) estimated the magnitude as 8. On
November 24.95, I. King and M. P. Savedoff (Harvard College Observatory,
Oak Ridge Station, Massachusetts, USA) estimated the magnitude as 8.
On November 27, King and Savedoff gave the magnitude as 8. H. L. Giclas
(Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA) photographed the comet using the
33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and gave the magnitude as 8.8. On
November 28 and 29, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 7.0. On
the latter date, he noted that the coma was diffuse, with a nucleus, and a tail
less than 1 long. On December 6, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude
as 6.0.
The comet was last detected on December 7.55, when Giclas photographed it with the 33-cm photographic telescope at Lowell Observatory.
He estimated the magnitude as 5.5 and gave the position as = 16h 19.8m ,
= 2 19 . H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) obtained exposures of 40 minutes or more of the predicted positions of the comet with the
91-cm Crossley reflector on 1946 May 9 and 10, but nothing was found.
The comet was lost in the suns glare for the next few months and actually
passed about 3 from the sun on February 11. The comet did not sufficiently
exit twilight for observation until May and, although its magnitude was
then predicted as between 16 and 20, the low accuracy of the orbit due to
the short observational arc prevented a recovery.
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catalog of comets

The first parabolic orbit was calculated by L. E. Cunningham using positions obtained through the end of November. He determined the perihelion
date as 1945 December 17.28, which ended up being an excellent representation of the comets motion.
B. G. Marsden (1972) used seven positions obtained between November
24 and December 7, and computed a parabolic orbit with a perihelion date
of December 17.28. This orbit is given below.
T
1945 Dec. 17.281 (TT)

216.712

 (2000.0)
326.204

i
49.480

q
0.19435

e
1.0

absolute magnitude: H10 = 9.6 (V1964)


full moon: Nov. 19, Dec. 19
sources: C. L. Friend and L. C. Peltier, HAC, No. 726 (1945 Nov. 26); C. L. Friend,
IAUC, No. 1021 (1945 Nov. 26); L. C. Peltier, IAUC, No. 1022 (1945 Nov. 29); H. L.
Giclas, HAC, No. 727 (1945 Nov. 30); E. F. Reilly, R. C. Leclaire, J. L. Gossner, and
H. L. Giclas, HAC, No. 728 (1945 Dec. 3); L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 729 (1945
Dec. 4); L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 1023 (1945 Dec. 4); L. E. Cunningham,
HAC, No. 730 (1945 Dec. 13); C. L. Friend, Time, 46 (1945 Dec. 24); E. F. Reilly,
R. C. Leclaire, J. L. Gossner, H. L. Giclas, and L. C. Peltier, IAUC, No. 1025 (1946
Jan. 8); I. King and M. P. Savedoff, HAC, No. 746 (1946 May 17); I. King and M. P.
Savedoff, IAUC, No. 1049 (1946 Jun. 20); H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1947), p. 183;
H. L. Giclas, AJ, 52 (1947 May), p. 206; V1964, p. 75; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 13
(1972), pp. 4301.

C/1945 X1 Discovered: 1945 December 11.05 ( = 0.62 AU, r = 0.72 AU, Elong. = 47)
(du Toit) Last seen: 1945 December 15.07 ( = 0.63 AU, r = 0.60 AU, Elong. = 36)
Closest to the Earth: 1946 January 16 (0.5317 AU)
1945 VII = 1945g Calculated path: TrA (Disc), ARA (Dec. 14)
D. du Toit (Harvard College Observatory, Boyden Station, Bloemfontein,
South Africa) discovered this comet on 1945 December 11.05, at a position
of = 15h 09.1m , = 65 13 . He estimated the magnitude as 7 and gave
the daily motion as +30m in and +1 13 in . Du Toit obtained only four
additional observations: on December 12.05, December 13.07, December
14.07, and December 15.07.
During the first week of January 1946, L. E. Cunningham took the five
rough positions given by du Toit, and computed a parabolic orbit with a
perihelion date of 1945 December 28.01. Two additional orbits were given
which represented the likely limits. Cunningham said the comet might have
been a brilliant, naked-eye object within a couple of degrees of the sun
on the day of perihelion, but his hope that the comet might have been
detected by coronagraphs, either before or after its occultation by the sun,
was never fulfilled. In addition, nothing was located along Cunninghams
search ephemerides during 1946 January, with Enrique Gaviola (Cordoba

221

catalog of comets

Observatory, Argentina) reporting that observations were hampered by bad


weather. Fred Whipple pointed out that Cunninghams orbit was very similar to comets 1668, 1843 I, 1880 I, 1882 II, and 1887 I.
B. G. Marsden (1967, 1972, 1989) took five precise positions measured
by A. G. Mowbray in 1952 and calculated five orbits. Ultimately, he noted
that the four positions obtained on December 11, 12, 13, and 15, gave the
smallest residuals and computed a parabolic orbit with a perihelion date of
December 27.97. This orbit is given below.
T
1945 Dec. 27.9652 (TT)

72.0619

 (2000.0)
i
q
351.2006 141.8734 0.007516

e
1.0

absolute magnitude: H10 = 10.8 (V1964)


full moon: Nov. 19, Dec. 19
sources: D. du Toit, IAUC, No. 1024 (1945 Dec. 17); D. du Toit, HAC, No. 732
(1945 Dec. 18); L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 733 (1946 Jan. 8); L. E. Cunningham,
HAC, No. 734 (1945 Jan. 8); L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 1025 (1946 Jan. 8);
V1964, p. 75; B. G. Marsden and A. G. Mowbray, AJ, 72 (1967 Nov.), pp. 11701,
11767; B. G. Marsden, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Preprint Series,
No. 2905 (1989 Jun. 9); B. G. Marsden, AJ, 98 (1989 Dec.), pp. 231214.

C/1946 C1 Prediscovery: 1946 January 23.36 ( = 1.08 AU, r = 2.01 AU, Elong. = 154)
(Timmers) Discovered: 1946 February 2.01 ( = 1.02 AU, r = 1.95 AU, Elong. = 153)
Last seen: 1947 August 9.27 ( = 4.60 AU, r = 5.56 AU, Elong. = 159)
1946 I = 1946a Closest to the Earth: 1946 February 6 (1.0155 AU)
Calculated path: LMi (Pre), UMa (Feb. 1), CAM (Mar. 7), UMi (Jun. 16), DRA
(Jul. 16), HER (Aug. 9), OPH (Oct. 27), AQL (Nov. 28), SER (Dec. 5), AQL
(Dec. 7), DEL (1947 Mar. 15), AQR (May 22), AQL (Jun. 24)
M. Timmers (Vatican Observatory, Castel Gandolfo, Italy) discovered this
comet on the edge of a plate exposed for 2 hours, using the 40-cm Zeiss
quadruplet, on Kapteyns Selected Area No. 29 in Ursa Major on 1946 February 2.01. The position was given as = 9h 47.5m , = +42 24 . The plate
showed trails of both the head and tail, and Timmers estimated the magnitude as 9. The comet was confirmed by A. Zirwes (Vatican Observatory)
on February 2.78. F. L. Whipple found prediscovery images of this comet on
meteor patrol plates exposed for an hour using the 4-cm Ross Xpress camera
on January 23.36, January 24.36, and January 28.34. Whipple also found a
prediscovery image on a patrol plate exposed using the 8-cm Ross Fecker
camera on January 29.24. An independent discovery was made on February
24, by I. Nikoloff (University Observatory, Vienna, Austria). At the time of
the discovery, the comet was a few days from its closest approach to Earth
and a little over 2 months from perihelion.
On February 4, S. Daro (Harvard College Observatory, Oak Ridge Station,
Massachusetts, USA) said the comet contained a fairly sharp nucleus, but
222

catalog of comets

no conspicuous tail. On the 5th, the magnitude was given as 9 by S. Plakidis


(National Observatory, Athens, Greece) and 9.5 by H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA). Jeffers photographed the comet using the 30-cm
reflector and said the coma was round, with an indistinct nucleus. On the
6th, the photographic magnitude was given as 8.5 by H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA), 9.5 by A. Schmitt (Alger, now al-Jazair,
Algeria), and 10.0 by F. Rigaux (Royal Observatory, Uccle, Belgium). On the
8th, the photographic magnitude was given as 9.0 by Giclas, 9.1 by G. van
Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA), and 9.5 by Jeffers. Van
Biesbroecks photograph using the 61-cm reflector revealed a sharp nucleus.
Jeffers photographed the comet using the 30-cm refractor and said the coma
was round, with an indistinct nucleus. On the 9th, van Biesbroeck gave the
photographic magnitude as 9.1, while Jeffers visually observed the comet
with the 91-cm refractor and said the coma was 40 across, with a stellar
nucleus just north of the center. On the 10th, Giclas photographed the comet
using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and gave the magnitude
as 10.0. On the 12th, F. Koebcke (Poznan Observatory, Poland) gave the
magnitude as 9. On February 15, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude
as 11.5.
On February 18, the magnitude was given as 9.4 by van Biesbroeck and 9.6
by Koebcke. On the 19th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 11.8.
On the 21st, K. Hurnik (Poznan Observatory, Poland) gave the magnitude
as 9.5. On the 23rd, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 10.5. On
February 28, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 9.6. He
said a 20-minute exposure using the 61-cm reflector showed a broad and
bright tail extending 35 in PA 190, and a faint, narrow tail extending 15 in
PA 148.
On March 2 and 8, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 10.0.
On the 3rd, the visual magnitude was given as 7.8 by Hurnik, while the
photographic magnitude was given as 8.7 by van Biesbroeck. On the 20th,
the visual magnitude was given as 9.0 by Hurnik, while the photographic
magnitude was given as 9.5 by van Biesbroeck. On the 23rd, Giclas gave
the photographic magnitude as 9.4. On the 25th, van Biesbroeck gave the
photographic magnitude as 10.5. On March 27, van Biesbroeck gave the
photographic magnitude as 9.4. He made a special remark concerning
the comets increased brightness and described the comet as elliptical with a
major axis of 3 in PA 140, and a minor axis of 2 . The nucleus was well condensed, but not stellar. Van Biesbroeck said a 20-minute exposure showed
a complex tail. He said, the brighter part is a narrow streamer starting
threadlike from the nucleus in 92 without much widening to a distance of
8 ; from this point it broadens to a diffuse extension to a distance of 20 from
the nucleus. Van Biesbroeck added that another streamer extended 10 in
PA 110, while the very diffuse, broad tail extended 20 in PA 145.
On April 4, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 10.3. He
said nothing was left of the complex tail except for a short stub extending
223

catalog of comets

3 in PA 110. On April 29, an observer at Kyoto Observatory (Japan) gave


the magnitude as 9. On May 17, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic
magnitude as 10.0. On the 22nd, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic
magnitude as 10.2. He said the coma was 4 across and contained a centrally
condensed, but not stellar, nucleus. Van Biesbroeck added that a short diffuse tail extended towards 120. The comet attained its most northerly declination of +84 on May 23. On June 7 and 11, van Biesbroeck said the large
coma was difficult to see in moonlight. On July 4, the photographic magnitude was given as 12 by Schmitt and Jeffers. Jeffers said the round coma was
40 across and centrally condensed. On the 5th, Jeffers visually observed
the comet using the 91-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 12. He said
the comet was barely visible in the 15-cm finder. On the 23rd, L. Boyer
(Alger, now al-Jazair, Algeria) gave the photographic magnitude as 12.9.
On the 25th, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas) photographed
the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 12. Boyer
gave the photographic magnitude as 12.9. On July 28, Jeffers photographed
the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 12.
He said the round coma was 40 across and centrally condensed.
On August 4, W. H. Steavenson (Cambridge, England) gave the magnitude as 10.5. On the 15th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 13.0.
On the 20th and 21st, van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory) photographed
the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 12. He said
the faint coma was 2 across and contained a well-condensed nucleus, while
a diffuse tail extended 8 in PA 310. On the 22nd, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 13. He said the coma was 20 across and centrally
condensed. On August 30, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 14. On September 20 van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 15. On September 26, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as
14.5. On October 24, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 16.5. He
said the comet was nearly stellar. On October 27, van Biesbroeck gave the
photographic magnitude as 16. He said the coma was 10 across.
On 1947 February 20, the comet attained a southerly declination of +2
and began moving slowly northeastward. On April 25, the comet attained a
northerly declination of +3 and began moving southwestward. On June 24
and 25, Jeffers photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector
and gave the magnitude as 19.3. He described the comet as a nearly stellar
nebulosity. On July 13, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 19.4 and
said the comet was not quite stellar.
The comet was last detected on August 9.27, when Jeffers obtained photographs with the the 91-cm Crossley reflector. He gave the comets position
on the last date as = 20h 04.8m , = 4 28 . Jeffers estimated the magnitude as 19.4 and described the comet as not quite stellar.
The first parabolic orbits were independently calculated by L. E. Cunningham and M. E. Stahr using positions spanning the first week following
the discovery. Cunningham gave the perihelion date as 1946 April 18.82,
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catalog of comets

while Stahr gave it as April 26.66. Using precise positions obtained between
February 5 and February 12, P. Naur computed a parabolic orbit giving
the perihelion date as April 12.89, which proved only a few hours early, as
shown by the calculations of M. B. Protitch, Cunningham, G. Merton, M.
Davidson, A. Schmitt, J. Bobone, and H. Krumpholz during the next few
weeks and months.
Although Schmitt calculated an elliptical orbit with a period of 18.5 years
using positions spanning the period February 610, the orbit actually proved
to be hyperbolic. The first hyperbolic orbit was calculated by Cunningham
using positions spanning the period February 5October 24. Published on
1947 May 1, the orbit gave the perihelion date as April 13.27 and the eccentricity as 1.0013.
Definitive orbits were calculated by G. Pels (1960) and Z. Sekanina and
B. G. Marsden (1978). Pels took 373 positions obtained during the period
1946 February 41947 July 16, reduced them to 30 Normal positions, and
applied the perturbations of Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Sekanina and Marsden took 183 positions spanning the period 1946 February
21947 August 9, as well as perturbations by all nine planets. Both orbits
gave the perihelion date as April 13.26, while the eccentricity was given as
1.0011770 by Pels and 1.0011691 by Sekanina and Marsden. Sekanina and
Marsden took their orbit and derived a hyperbolic original orbit with an
eccentricity of 1.000022, and an elliptical future orbit with a period of about
139 thousand years. The orbit of Sekanina and Marsden is given below.
T
1946 Apr. 13.2632 (TT)

54.3280

 (2000.0)
129.6650

i
72.8427

q
1.724129

e
1.001169

absolute magnitude: H10 = 6.1 (V1964)


full moon: Jan. 17, Feb. 16, Mar. 17, Apr. 16, May 16, Jun. 14, Jul. 14, Aug. 12,
Sep. 11, Oct. 10, Nov. 9, Dec. 8, 1947 Jan. 7, Feb. 5, Mar. 7, Apr. 5, May 5, Jun. 3,
Jul. 3, Aug. 2, Aug. 31
sources: M. Timmers, IAUC, No. 1027 (1946 Feb. 4); M. Timmers, F. L. Whipple,
and S. Daro, HAC, No. 735 (1946 Feb. 5); H. M. Jeffers and H. L. Giclas, HAC, No.
736 (1946 Feb. 8); L. E. Cunningham and A. Zirwes, IAUC, No. 1028 (1946 Feb.
10); G. van Biesbroeck, H. L. Giclas, L. E. Cunningham, and M. E. Stahr, HAC,
No. 737 (1946 Feb. 11); F. L. Whipple, H. M. Jeffers, H. L. Giclas, F. Koebcke, and
F. Rigaux, IAUC, No. 1029 (1946 Feb. 16); P. Naur, A. Schmitt, and S. Plakidis,
IAUC, No. 1030 (1946 Feb. 23); M. B. Protitch, IAUC, No. 1031 (1946 Feb. 27);
L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 743 (1946 Apr. 12); [Kyoto Observatory], HAC,
No. 746 (1946 May 17); J. Bobone, HAC, No. 753 (1946 Jun. 18); A. Schmitt,
IAUC, No. 1052 (1946 Jul. 30); W. H. Steavenson, IAUC, No. 1057 (1946 Aug. 22);
W. H. Steavenson, L. E. Cunningham, G. Merton, M. Davidson, and A. Schmitt,
The Observatory, 66 (1946 Oct.), p. 350; I. Nikoloff, IAUC, No. 1064 (1946 Oct.
18); H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1947), pp. 1856; M. Timmers, G. van Biesbroeck,
F. L. Whipple, L. Boyer, A. Schmitt, and L. E. Cunningham, MNRAS, 107 (1947),
p. 105; F. Koebcke and K. Hurnik, IAUC, No. 1078 (1947 Feb. 4); H. Krumpholz,

225

catalog of comets
IAUC, No. 1081 (1947 Mar. 26); H. L. Giclas, AJ, 52 (1947 May), p. 206; L. E.
Cunningham, HAC, No. 809 (1947 May 1); H. M. Jeffers, HAC, No. 826 (1947 Jul.
8); H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1948), p. 190; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 54 (1948 Dec.),
pp. 812; M. Timmers and A. Zirwes, RA, 2 (1950), pp. 191201; L. Boyer, JO, 34
(1951), p. 1; G. Pels, BAN, 15 (1960 Dec. 30), pp. 13849; V1964, p. 75; Z. Sekanina
and B. G. Marsden, AJ, 83 (1978 Jan.), pp. 66, 68.

10P/Tempel 2 Recovered: 1946 May 1.39 ( = 1.14 AU, r = 1.54 AU, Elong. = 91)
Last seen: 1947 January 15.03 ( = 2.12 AU, r = 2.33 AU, Elong. = 89)
1946 III = 1946b Closest to the Earth: 1946 August 21 (0.6350 AU)
Calculated path: AQR (Rec), PSC (Jul. 4), CET (Jul. 9)
This comet was missed at its expected returns in 1935 and 1941. A. C. D.
Crommelin (1934) provided an excellent prediction for the former apparition. He began with an orbit calculated for the 1930 apparition and applied
perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn. The result was a perihelion date of
1935 December 7.54. Crommelin noted that the comet was inconveniently
placed near the sun around the time of perihelion. For the latter apparition,
F. R. Cripps (1939) took an orbit from the 1925 return, corrected it using
observations from 1930, and applied perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn
for the period 192541. The result was a predicted perihelion date of 1941
February 12.60.
Two predictions were published for the 1946 apparition. W. E. Beart and
W. P. Henderson (1945) applied perturbations to the orbit predicted by
Cripps (1939) for the 1941 apparition and determined a perihelion date
of 1946 June 20.57. P. Ramensky (1946) took the orbit for the 1930 apparition
and applied perturbations from Jupiter for the period 193046. The result
was a predicted perihelion date of 1946 July 2.27.
G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) recovered this
comet on a 10-minute exposure obtained with the 61-cm reflector on 1946
May 1.39, using Ramenskys prediction. The position was given as = 20h
36.1m , = 9 24 . He estimated the magnitude as 17 and said the round
coma was 10 across and diffuse. Van Biesbroeck confirmed the recovery
on May 5.39, and estimated the magnitude as 16.5.
Van Biesbroeck provided excellent physical descriptions of the comet during the remainder of May. On the 8th, his photograph using the reflector
revealed a magnitude of 16. He said the diffuse nucleus was 8 across and
was surrounded by a faint coma measuring 25 across. There was a vague
indication of a tail extending towards PA 345. On the 26th, his photograph
revealed a magnitude of 13 and a coma 2 across. On May 29, van Biesbroeck
gave the photographic magnitude as 10.6.
The comet attained a minimum solar elongation of 31 on June 19. From
the time of the recovery, the comet steadily moved northeastward until June
23, when it attained a declination of 6. Thereafter it began to move toward
the southeast. On July 6, H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA)
226

catalog of comets

photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the
magnitude as 12. He said the comet was easily seen in the reflector, but not
in the 10-cm finder. He added that the coma was 2 across and contained
a condensed nucleus in the southern portion. On the 7th, the comet was
observed from Alger (now al-Jazair, Algeria) where the magnitude was
given as 11.0 by A. Schmitt and 11.5 by L. Boyer. On July 27, Jeffers gave
the photographic magnitude as 8. He said the coma was fan-shaped and
contained a condensed nucleus in the southern portion. On August 22,
H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA) photographed the comet
using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and gave the magnitude
as 11.4. On August 28, Giclas estimated the photographic magnitude as 12.
On September 2, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 10.6.
He said the diffuse coma contained a well-defined condensation. The coma
widened into a fan-shaped tail extended 2 in PA 40.
On October 4, M. J. Bester (Harvard College Observatory, Boyden Station,
Bloemfontein, South Africa) gave the magnitude as 9. He described the
comet as diffuse, with a central condensation. On the 5th, E. L. Johnson
(Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) photographed the comet
using the 25-cm FranklinAdams Star Camera and gave the magnitude as
10.5. He described the comet as diffuse, with a central nucleus. On the 7th,
Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 13.5. The comet attained its most
southerly declination of 21 on October 8. On the 17th, Johnson gave the
photographic magnitude as 11.5. On the 28th, Boyer gave the magnitude
as 14.0. On the 30th, Johnson gave the photographic magnitude as 13.0. He
described the comet as diffuse, without a central condensation. On October
31, Boyer gave the magnitude as 14.2. On November 19, van Biesbroeck
gave the photographic magnitude as 16. He said the coma was 10 across
and was slightly extended towards PA 45. On November 27, Giclas gave
the photographic magnitude as 11.3.
The comet was last detected on 1947 January 15.03, when van Biesbroeck
found it on a 20-minute exposure obtained with the 61-cm reflector. He
estimated the magnitude as 17 and said the coma was tiny and round. The
position was given as = 1h 46.4m , = 2 50 .
L. E. Cunningham (1947) took positions from May 1, August 22, and
November 27, and calculated an orbit for this apparition in the hope that the
comet might be observed during the latter months of 1947. The perihelion
date was given as 1946 July 2.34 and the period was 5.31 years.
Multiple apparitions orbits have been calculated by B. G. Marsden (1968,
1971), Z. Sekanina and Marsden (1979, 1985), and S. Nakano (2001, 2002).
Perturbations by Mercury to Neptune, as well as other minor bodies, were
considered, and nongravitational terms were also included for the calculations published in 1971 and later. The result was a perihelion date of July 2.34
and a period of 5.31 years. Marsden (1968) noted an extremely slight secular deceleration. The nongravitational terms were given as A1 = 0.0179
and A2 = +0.000508 by Marsden (1971), A1 = 0.04 and A2 = +0.0008 by
227

catalog of comets

Sekanina and Marsden (1979), A1 = +0.035 and A2 = +0.00140 by Nakano


(2001), and A1 = +0.034 and A2 = +0.00140 by Nakano (2002). The orbit
of Nakano (2002) is given below.
T
1946 Jul. 2.3432 (TT)

 (2000.0)
190.8814 120.0886

i
12.4273

q
1.393324

e
0.542240

absolute magnitude: H10 = 8.1 (V1964)


full moon: Apr. 16, May 16, Jun. 14, Jul. 14, Aug. 12, Sep. 11, Oct. 10, Nov. 9,
Dec. 8, 1947 Jan. 7, Feb. 5
sources: A. C. D. Crommelin, BAA Handbook for 1935 (1934), p. 30; A. C. D. Crommelin, The Observatory, 59 (1936 May), p. 176; F. R. Cripps, BAA Handbook for 1940
(1939), p. 31; F. R. Cripps, BAA Handbook for 1941 (1940 Nov.), p. 16; W. E. Beart
and W. P. Henderson, BAA Handbook for 1946 (1945 Nov.), p. 36; W. E. Beart
and W. P. Henderson, IAUC, No. 1026 (1946 Jan. 24); G. van Biesbroeck and P.
Ramensky, HAC, No. 745 (1946 May 7); L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 747 (1946
May 17); G. van Biesbroeck and P. Ramensky, IAUC, No. 1040 (1946 May 29);
A. Schmitt, IAUC, No. 1052 (1946 Jul. 30); G. van Biesbroeck and P. Ramensky,
The Observatory, 66 (1946 Oct.), p. 351; M. J. Bester, IAUC, No. 1063 (1946 Oct.
7); E. L. Johnson, IAUC, No. 1069 (1946 Nov. 14); H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1947),
p. 186; P. Ramensky and L. E. Cunningham, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 11011, 114;
H. L. Giclas, AJ, 52 (1947 May), p. 207; L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 842 (1947
Sep. 2); L. E. Cunningham, MNRAS, 108 (1948), pp. 1289; E. L. Johnson, UOC,
5 (1948 Apr. 13), p. 190; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 54 (1948 Dec.), p. 82; L. Boyer,
JO, 34 (1951), p. 1; V1964, p. 76; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 73 (1968 Jun.), pp. 371, 374;
B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 9 (1968 Sep.), pp. 31415; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 12 (1971
Sep.), pp. 2689; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 76 (1971 Dec.), pp. 11378; B. G. Marsden,
CCO, 1st ed. (1972), pp. 25, 48; Z. Sekanina and B. G. Marsden, CCO, 3rd ed.
(1979), pp. 25, 52; Z. Sekanina and B. G. Marsden, QJRAS, 26 (1985), pp. 11314;
S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 776 (2001 Apr. 4); S. Nakano, Nakano Note, No. 841
(2002 May 5).

21P/Giacobini Prerecovery: 1946 May 26.32 ( = 1.21 AU, r = 1.81 AU, Elong. = 109)
Zinner Recovered: 1946 May 29.40 ( = 1.18 AU, r = 1.78 AU, Elong. = 109)
Last seen: 1947 January 24.24 ( = 1.25 AU, r = 1.93 AU, Elong. = 119)
1946 V = 1946c Closest to the Earth: 1946 September 20 (0.2577 AU)
Calculated path: VUL (Pre), CYG (May 28), CEP (Jul. 23), CAS-CAM (Aug.
30), AUR (Sep. 11), GEM (Sep. 22), MON (Sep. 29), CMa (Oct. 12), PUP (Nov.
6), COL (Dec. 6)
F. R. Cripps (1945) took his orbital prediction from this comets 1939 apparition, corrected it, and applied perturbations by Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn.
His final prediction was that the comet would arrive at perihelion on 1946
September 18.63.
H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) recovered this comet on
a 70-minute exposure obtained with the 91-cm Crossley reflector on 1946
228

catalog of comets

May 29.40. He gave the position as = 19h 48.4m , = +29 26 . Jeffers
estimated the magnitude as 16.5, and added that the comet was diffuse,
20 across, with a central nucleus. The comet was found with the aid of the
ephemeris published by Cripps, which required a correction of less than
4 hours. A short time thereafter, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory,
Wisconsin, USA) found a prerecovery image of the comet on a plate exposed
with the 61-cm reflector on May 26.32. The comet appeared as a very faint
trail. Van Biesbroeck also noted the comet on a plate exposed on May 29.29,
at which time the magnitude was estimated as 17, while the comet appeared
as small, round, and diffuse.
On June 6, Jeffers photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 16. On the 26th, Jeffers gave the photographic
magnitude as 15. He said the faint coma was condensed and exhibited a tail
extending 0.7 toward the northeast. On June 30, van Biesbroeck (McDonald
Observatory, Texas, USA) photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 15. He said the coma was 10 across, with a
well-defined nucleus. A tail extended 1.5 in PA 200.
On July 3, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 14. L.
Boyer (Alger, now al-Jazair, Algeria) photographed the comet using a
refractor on July 22 and 23, and gave the magnitudes as 12.7 and 12.6,
respectively. On the 24th, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude
as 13 and noted a short tail extending toward PA 185. On the 25th, van
Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and noted
a well-condensed coma 20 across, with a short tail extending toward PA
190. On the 26th, van Biesbroecks photographic observation revealed a
coma 25 across and a tail extending 2 in PA 190. On the 27th, Jeffers
photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the
magnitude as 12. He said the comet was visible in the 10-cm finder. On
July 31, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 12.
On August 5, F. H. Hooke (London, England) gave the magnitude as
11.5. On the 16th, H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA) photographed the comet using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and
gave the magnitude as 9.9. On the 17th, G. Armellini (Monte Mario Observatory, Rome, Italy) gave the magnitude as 11. On the 18th, the magnitude was given as 10 by van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory) and 11 by
Armellini. On the 20th, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the
61-cm reflector and noted a sharp nucleus and a tail extending 8 in PA
220. On the 22nd, K. Hurnik (Poznan Observatory, Poland) gave the magnitude as 10. The comet attained its most northerly declination of +80 on
August 24. On the 27th, I. Nikoloff (University Observatory, Vienna, Austria) accidentally found this comet and reported it as new. On the 28th, the
magnitude was given as 7.3 by Hurnik and 8.6 by H. Krumpholz (Vienna).
Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 10.0. On August 30, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 9.7 and said the tail extended 14
in PA 260.
229

catalog of comets

On September 1, 2, and 5, Hurnik gave the magnitudes as 6.9, 7.5, and


6.8, respectively. On the 13th, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using
the 61-cm reflector in bright moonlight and gave the magnitude as 8.3. The
comet attained a minimum solar elongation of 80 on September 16. On the
21st, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 10.1. On the 24th, Hurnik
gave the magnitude as 7.4. On September 27, Jeffers saw the comet using the
10-cm finder and gave the magnitude as 7.0. He said a 2-minute exposure
with the 91-cm Crossley reflector showed a faint tail extending 4 toward
the west.
On October 2, Hurnik gave the magnitude as 6.1. Giclas gave the photographic magnitudes as 9.9 and 10.8 on the 3rd and 7th, respectively. On
the 14th, E. L. Johnson (Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa)
photographed the comet using the 25-cm FranklinAdams Star Camera
and gave the magnitude as 9.0. On the 19th, Boyer gave the photographic
magnitude as 11.7. On the 24th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 11.4. On the 25th, the photographic magnitude was given as 11.9
by Giclas and 12 by Jeffers. Jeffers said a 10-minute exposure using the
91-cm Crossley reflector showed a coma 0.7 across, which contained a condensed nucleus. On October 27, Johnson gave the photographic magnitude
as 10.0.
On November 1 and 5, Giclas photographed the comet using the 33-cm
A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and gave the magnitude as 12.4. On the
6th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 12.5. On the 13th, Johnson
photographed the comet using the 25-cm FranklinAdams Star Camera
and gave the magnitude as 11.5. On November 29, Johnson gave the photographic magnitude as 13.5. The comet attained its most southerly declination of 41 on December 7.
The comet was last detected on 1947 January 24.24, when Jeffers photographed it with the 91-cm Crossley reflector. He gave the position as
= 5h 50.6m , = 28 51 . Jeffers gave the magnitude as 18.2 and said the
comet was nearly stellar.
This comet left a lasting impression on the minds of many people not
generally interested in observing comets. On 1946 June 19, Cunningham
pointed out that Earth would cross the orbital plane of this comet on October
10, and added that conditions would be very close to those present during
the spectacular shower of 1933. On September 24, Cunningham noted that
Earth would remain within 500 000 miles of the comet for about 28 hours. On
the night of October 9/10, people in North America and Europe reported
that meteors were falling at a rate of 13 per second at the height of the
meteor storm!
Using positions obtained during the 1946 apparition, Cunningham and
C. Dinwoodie (1951) independently corrected the prediction published by
Cripps. Cunningham first used a position from May 29 and gave the perihelion date as September 18.50. Over 3 months later, Cunningham used
precise positions from July 25 and 27 to further refine the perihelion date to
230

catalog of comets

September 18.49. Dinwoodie used several positions and gave the perihelion
date as September 18.50.
Calculations using multiple apparitions and planetary perturbations
were published by Y. V. Evdokimov (1972) and D. K. Yeomans (1971, 1972,
1986). These revealed a perihelion date of September 18.49 and a period of
6.59 years. Yeomans 1986 orbit is given below. Yeomans (1986) gave the
nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.2856 and A2 = +0.0393.
T
1946 Sep. 18.4864 (TT)

 (2000.0)
171.8058 196.9961

i
30.7209

q
0.995706

e
0.716675

absolute magnitude: H10 = 11.8 (V1964)


full moon: May 16, Jun. 14, Jul. 14, Aug. 12, Sep. 11, Oct. 10, Nov. 9, Dec. 8, 1947
Jan. 7, Feb. 5
sources: F. R. Cripps, BAA Handbook for 1946 (1945 Nov.), p. 38; H. M. Jeffers,
HAC, No. 748 (1946 Jun. 1); H. M. Jeffers, IAUC, No. 1046 (1946 Jun. 11); L. E.
Cunningham, HAC, No. 755 (1946 Jun. 19); L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 756
(1946 Jun. 19); F. H. Hooke, IAUC, No. 1058 (1946 Sep. 9); G. Armellini, IAUC,
No. 1060 (1946 Sep. 17); L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 1061 (1946 Sep. 24); H. M.
Jeffers, The Observatory, 66 (1946 Oct.), p. 351; L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 775
(1946 Oct. 3); I. Nikoloff, IAUC, No. 1064 (1946 Oct. 18); L. E. Cunningham, HAC,
No. 776 (1946 Oct. 22); E. L. Johnson, IAUC, No. 1074 (1946 Dec. 21); K. Hurnik,
IAUC, No. 1075 (1946 Dec. 27); H. M. Jeffers, F. R. Cripps, and L. E. Cunningham,
MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 11014; L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 1076 (1947 Jan.
3); H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1947), p. 186; H. Krumpholz, IAUC, No. 1081 (1947
Mar. 26); H. L. Giclas, AJ, 52 (1947 May), pp. 2057; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1948),
p. 190; E. L. Johnson, UOC, 5 (1948 Apr. 13), p. 191; L. Boyer, JO, 34 (1951),
p. 1; C. Dinwoodie, BAA Handbook for 1952 (1951 Nov.), p. 44; V1964, p. 76;
D. K. Yeomans, QJRAS, 12 (1971 Sep.), pp. 2689, 272; Y. V. Evdokimov and D. K.
Yeomans, IAUS, No. 45 (1972), pp. 176, 185; D. K. Yeomans, ESA Proceedings of
the 20th ESLAB Symposium on the Exploration of Halleys Comet. Volume 2: Dust
and Nucleus (1986), p. 424; D. K. Yeomans, QJRAS, 27 (1986 Mar.), p. 116.

C/1946 K1 Discovered: 1946 May 30.02 ( = 0.19 AU, r = 1.07 AU, Elong. = 100)
(Pajdusakov

a
Last seen: 1946 July 29.13 ( = 2.09 AU, r = 1.63 AU, Elong. = 50)
RotbartWeber) Closest to the Earth: 1946 June 1 (0.1613 AU)
Calculated path: CYG (Disc), LYR (May 31), HER (Jun. 1), BOO (Jun. 3), CVn
1946 II = 1946d (Jun. 5), COM (Jun. 7), LEO (Jun. 27), VIR (Jul. 19)
During the course of a routine search for comets with 25 100 Somet binoculars, L. Pajdusakova (Skalnate Pleso Observatory, Slovakia) discovered this
comet on 1946 May 30.02, at = 20h 36.8m , = +30 04 . She estimated
the magnitude as 8, and said the comet was diffuse, with a central nucleus,
and a tail less than 1 long. D. Rotbart (Washington, DC, USA) independently discovered this comet on May 30.29, while observing star clusters
with 80-mm binoculars. He estimated the magnitude as 6. On May 31.38,
231

catalog of comets

A. H. Mikesell (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, USA) estimated the


magnitude as 6. On May 31.98, V. Guth (Prague, Czech Republic) estimated
the magnitude as 7.
The third independent discovery of this comet was made by A. Weber
(Berlin, Germany) on May 31.01. The discovery details are unusual, but have
been confirmed by M. Meyer (2002), after corresponding with E. Mdlow
(Berlin, Germany). Webers home was in a part of Berlin called Steglitz and
had suffered damage during World War II namely numerous windows
were missing. On the fateful night of the comet discovery, Weber was sitting on the toilet, looking through one of those windowless holes into the
night sky, when he spotted a diffuse object with the naked eye. He got
his pair of binoculars, confirmed this was a comet, and notified the proper
authorities.
The comet was discovered about 3 weeks after it had passed perihelion
and just a couple of days before passing closest to Earth. On June 1, B. P.
Sharpless (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, USA) gave the magnitude as 6, and E. G. Reuning (US Naval Observatory) gave it as 67. The
comet attained its most northerly declination of +46 and also its greatest
solar elongation of 111 on June 2. On that same date, the visual magnitude
was given as 6.3 by M. Beyer (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany)
and 7 by H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA), while H. L. Giclas
(Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA) gave the photographic magnitude as
6.4. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was about 10.5, the elliptical coma
measured 4 by 9 , and the tail extended 1 in PA 165. Jeffers said the coma
was elongated and exhibited a tail extending 1 toward the south. He added
that the stellar nucleus was magnitude 10.
On June 3, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA)
observed using binoculars and gave the magnitude as 6.3, while Giclas
photographed the comet using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph
and gave the magnitude as 6.16.2. Van Biesbroeck said the comet was easy
to the naked eye. He noted that the 8th-magnitude stellar nucleus was situated on the west side of an oval coma. A straight tail extended 1.5 in PA
162 and was sharply defined on the preceding side and washed out on the
following side. A bright jet extended 1 in PA 20. E. Vandekerkhove (Royal
Observatory, Uccle, Belgium) said the comet was diffuse, with a central
condensation, and a tail 1 long.
On June 4, the magnitude was given as 6.34 by Beyer and 6.5 by Giclas.
Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was about 10, the elliptical coma measured 3 by 7 , and the tail extended 0.7 in PA 148. On the 5th, Giclas gave
the photographic magnitude as 6.8. On the 6th, the magnitude was given as
7.37 by Beyer and 7.4 by Giclas. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was 9.3,
the coma measured 5.5 , and the tail extended 0.7 in PA 123. On the 7th,
the magnitude was given as 7.64 by Beyer and 7.8 by Giclas. Beyer said the
nuclear magnitude was about 10.5, and the tail extended 0.4 in PA 118.
Van Biesbroeck said the stellar nucleus was magnitude 8.7, while the coma
232

catalog of comets

and tail were fainter than on the 3rd. On the 8th, Giclas gave the magnitude
as 7.9. On the 9th, Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was about 10.5, and
the tail extended 0.2 in PA 115. On the 10th, Beyer gave the magnitude as
8.16. He said the nuclear magnitude was about 10.5, and the tail extended
0.3 in PA 119. On the 11th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.35. He said the
nuclear magnitude was about 10.5, and the tail extended 0.2 in PA 118.
Van Biesbroeck photographed the comet with the 61-cm reflector in moonlight and detected a tail extending towards PA 122 and a jet extending over
2 in PA 5. On the 12th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 8.72. He said the
nuclear magnitude was about 10.7, and the tail extended 0.2 in PA 111. On
the 13th, A. Schmitt (Alger, now al-Jazair, Algeria) gave the photographic
magnitude as 9.0. On the 14th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as
9.3. On June 15, the magnitude was given as 9.10 by Beyer and 9.3 by Jeffers.
Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was about 11, and the tail extended 0.1 in
PA 110. Jeffers was observing using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and noted
a nucleus of magnitude 12 and a small tail extending eastward which was
difficult to see in moonlight.
On June 16, Beyer gave the magnitude as 9.54. He said the nuclear magnitude was about 11, and the tail extended 0.1 in PA 112. On the 18th, the
magnitude was given as 9.5 by Schmitt and 9.58 by Beyer. Beyer said the
nuclear magnitude was about 11.5, and the tail extended 0.1 in PA 112.
On the 20th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 11.0. On the 21st,
Beyer gave the magnitude as 11. On the 23rd, Giclas gave the photographic
magnitude as 12.0. On the 25th, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory,
Texas, USA) saw the comet using a 15-cm finder and gave the magnitude as
10.3. He noted the nucleus was very fuzzy and magnitude 12. On the 29th,
van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 10.8. He said a bright tail extended
10 in PA 120, and a fainter one extended 40 in PA 350. On June 30, van
Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave the
magnitude as 12.0.
On July 2, the photographic magnitude was given as 12.5 by Schmitt,
Giclas, and van Biesbroeck. On the 3rd, L. Boyer (Alger, now al-Jazair,
Algeria) gave the photographic magnitude as 12.5. On the 4th, Jeffers photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and gave the magnitude as 15. He said a 10-minute exposure showed a faint, slender tail
extending 5 in PA 345. On the 24th, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic
magnitude as 14.7. He said faint tails were visible at PA 120 and PA 345,
with the former appearing dissymmetrical as first noted on June 3. On the
25th, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 14.9. On the 26th,
van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 15.1. On July 28, the
photographic magnitude was given as 15.3 by van Biesbroeck and 17 by
Jeffers.
The comet was last detected on July 29.13, when van Biesbroeck found it
on a 10-minute exposure obtained with the 208-cm reflector at McDonald
Observatory. He determined the magnitude as 15.5 and said traces
233

catalog of comets

of the two tails were still visible. The position was given as = 11h 53.2m ,
= +9 31 .
P. Ahnert (Sonneberg, Germany) obtained a spectrographic observation
on June 3 which revealed a continuous spectrum, a strong cyanogen band
at 3880, but no trace of the carbon bands.
The first parabolic orbit was calculated by L. E. Cunningham and E. L.
Scott, using positions spanning the period May 30June 1. They determined
the perihelion date as 1946 May 11.75. They indicated the comet might
be identical to comet C/1862 N1 (Schmidt). Although the possible link to
C/1862 N1 was proven not to be possible, the perihelion date was only
7.4 hours off, as shown by the later calculations of Guth, Cunningham and
Scott, J. Bouska, J. Bobone, and C. Vick.
B. G. Marsden (1974) used 49 positions obtained between June 1 and July
28, and computed a parabolic orbit with a perihelion date of May 11.44. This
orbit is given below.
T
1946 May 11.4366 (TT)

22.2328

 (2000.0)
301.9765

i
169.5619

q
1.018252

e
1.0

absolute magnitude: H0 = 9.87, n = 2.62 (Beyer, 1950); H10 = 9.5 (V1964)


full moon: May 16, Jun. 14, Jul. 14, Aug. 12
sources: L. Pajdusakova, HAC, No. 748 (1946 Jun. 1); D. Rotbart, A. H. Mikesell,
V. Guth, B. P. Sharpless, E. G. Reuning, H. L. Giclas, H. M. Jeffers, L. E. Cunningham, and Scott, HAC, No. 749 (1946 Jun. 4); V. Guth, IAUC, No. 1045 (1946 Jun.
7); E. Vandekerkhove, IAUC, No. 1047 (1946 Jun. 14); D. Rotbart, A. H. Mikesell,
B. P. Sharpless, E. G. Reuning, H. L. Giclas, H. M. Jeffers, G. van Biesbroeck, L. E.
Cunningham, E. L. Scott, and J. Bouska, IAUC, No. 1049 (1946 Jun. 20); J. Bobone,
HAC, No. 757 (1946 Jun. 21); A. Schmitt, A. Weber, and J. Bobone, IAUC, No.
1050 (1946 Jul. 1); A. Schmitt, C. Vick, and P. Ahnert, IAUC, No. 1052 (1946 Jul.
30); L. Boyer, P. Ahnert, L. E. Cunningham, and E. L. Scott, The Observatory, 66
(1946 Oct.), pp. 3501; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1947), pp. 1867; L. Pajdusakova,
D. Rotbart, A. Weber, H. M. Jeffers, and L. E. Cunningham, MNRAS, 107 (1947),
pp. 106, 11011; G. van Biesbroeck and H. L. Giclas, AJ, 52 (1947 May), pp. 205,
207; M. Beyer, AN, 278 (1950 Jul. 14), p. 221; V1964, p. 75; B. G. Marsden, QJRAS,
15 (1974 Dec.), pp. 4523; personal correspondence from M. Meyer (2002).

16P/Brooks 2 Recovered: 1946 June 28.41 ( = 1.87 AU, r = 1.95 AU, Elong. = 78)
Last seen: 1947 January 24.18 ( = 1.78 AU, r = 2.27 AU, Elong. = 106)
1946 IV = 1946e Closest to the Earth: 1946 October 27 (0.9867 AU)
Calculated path: PSC (Rec), ARI (Jul. 19), TAU (Sep. 29), ARI (Oct. 20), CET
(Oct. 28), ARI (Jan. 14)
The recovery of this comet began with the calculations of F. R. Cripps (1945)
and A. D. Dubiago (1946). Cripps corrected the orbit he calculated for the
1939 apparition, applied perturbations, and predicted a perihelion date of
1946 August 25.97. Dubiago investigated the motion of this comet for the
234

catalog of comets

period 192540, and then predicted the next perihelion would fall on August
25.94. H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) recovered this comet
on a 50-minute exposure obtained with the 91-cm Crossley reflector on 1946
June 28.41. He gave the position as = 1h 02.9m , = +7 53 . Jeffers
estimated the magnitude as 17.5 and said the comet was diffuse, centrally
condensed, with a faint tail extending 1 toward the southwest. L. E. Cunningham pointed out that this observation indicated the prediction made
by Cripps was only 4.8 hours too late. The comet was approaching both the
sun and Earth when recovered.
G. van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA) photographed
the comet using the 208-cm reflector on July 1 and gave the magnitude as
17.5. He said the round coma was 5 across, while a tail extended 50 in PA
250. Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 17.3 on the 4th. On the 26th
and 28th, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 17 and noted
a tail extending 1 in PA 250. On July 27, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 16.5. H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA)
photographed the comet using the 33-cm telescope on August 22 and gave
the magnitude as 14. On August 30, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 16. He said a 30-minute exposure revealed a faint tail extending 3 toward the west-southwest. On September 2, van Biesbroeck (Yerkes
Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) obtained a 12-minute exposure using the
61-cm reflector and said the coma was small, with a tail extending 1.5
in PA 260. The comet attained its most northerly declination of +14 on
September 3. On the 21st, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 14. On
September 26, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 15.
On October 24, the photographic magnitude was given as 11.7 by Giclas,
using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph, and 15 by Jeffers using the
91-cm Crossley reflector. On November 1, L. Boyer (Alger, now al-Jazair,
Algeria) photographed the comet using a refractor and gave the magnitude
as 13.0. On November 19 and 20, van Biesbroeck photographed the comet
using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 16. He said the coma
was centrally condensed and 30 across. On December 19, van Biesbroeck
gave the photographic magnitude as 16. He said the coma was diffuse and
20 across. On December 20, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as
17.2. He noted the coma was small and nearly stellar.
On 1947 January 18 and 21, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 17. He said the coma was ill defined on the first date and noted
the comet was only vaguely visible on the second date.
The last two detections of the comet came on January 24.15 and January
24.18, when Jeffers photographed it with the 91-cm Crossley reflector at Lick
Observatory. R. B. Mathews gave the position on the last date as = 3h
19.3m , = +11 11 . Jeffers estimated the magnitude as 17.5.
Very similar orbits using several apparitions were ultimately published
by Dubiago (1951), B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina (1972), I. Y. Evdokimov (1978), I. Y. Evdokimov and Y. V. Evdokimov (1980), and Sekanina and
235

catalog of comets

D. K. Yeomans (1985). They gave the perihelion date as August 25.80 and
the period as 6.96 years. The studies of 1972 and 1985 both added nongravitational terms to these calculations. Marsden, Sekanina, and D. K.
Yeomans (1973) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = +1.12 and A2 =
0.1911. Sekanina and Yeomans (1985) gave the nongravitational terms as
A1 = +1.22 and A2 = 0.2336. The orbit of Sekanina and Yeomans is given
below.
T
1946 Aug. 25.8018 (TT)

 (2000.0)
195.6062 178.3996

i
5.5329

q
e
1.878839 0.484589

absolute magnitude: H10 = 11.1 (V1964)


full moon: Jun. 14, Jul. 14, Aug. 12, Sep. 11, Oct. 10, Nov. 9, Dec. 8, 1947 Jan. 7,
Feb. 5
sources: F. R. Cripps, BAA Handbook for 1946 (1945 Nov.), p. 37; A. D. Dubiago,
Astronomieceskij Cirkuljar USSR, No. 47 (1946 Jan. 27); H. M. Jeffers, HAC, No. 758
(1946 Jul. 1); H. M. Jeffers, IAUC, No. 1050 (1946 Jul. 1); L. E. Cunningham, HAC,
No. 761 (1946 Aug. 6); H. M. Jeffers, The Observatory, 66 (1946 Oct.), p. 351; H. M.
Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1947), p. 187; A. D. Dubiago, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 11011, 113;
H. L. Giclas, AJ, 52 (1947 May), p. 207; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1948), p. 190; G. van
Biesbroeck, AJ, 54 (1948 Dec.), p. 83; L. Boyer, JO, 34 (1951), p. 2; A. D. Dubiago,
MNRAS, 111 (1951), pp. 2403; V1964, p. 76; B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina,
CCO, 1st ed. (1972), pp. 25, 48; B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina, QJRAS, 13 (1972
Sep.), pp. 4301; B. G. Marsden, Z. Sekanina, and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 78 (1973
Mar.), pp. 21315; I. Y. Evdokimov, QJRAS, 19 (1978 Mar.), pp. 823, 88; I. Y.
Evdokimov and Y. V. Evdokimov, KomMe, No. 2931 (1980), p. 79; Z. Sekanina
and D. K. Yeomans, AJ, 90 (1985 Nov.), p. 2336; D. K. Yeomans, QJRAS, 27 (1986
Dec.), p. 604.

C/1946 P1 (Jones) Discovered: 1946 August 6.76 ( = 2.43 AU, r = 1.69 AU, Elong. = 35)
Last seen: 1948 November 23.19 ( = 8.15 AU, r = 8.17 AU, Elong. = 88)
1946 VI = 1946h Closest to the Earth: 1946 October 4 (1.9944 AU)
Calculated path: PUP (Disc), HYA (Aug. 16), PYX (Aug. 27), HYA (Aug. 28),
LIB (Nov. 15), SCO (Nov. 27), OPH (Dec. 10), SER (Dec. 26), OPH (1947 Jan.
5), SER (Jan. 15), AQL (Feb. 2), SER (Feb. 9), AQL (Feb. 12), SGE (Mar. 18),
VUL (Mar. 26), SGE (Mar. 29), VUL (Apr. 1), CYG (Apr. 21), LYR (Jul. 14),
CYG (Nov. 30)
A. F. A. L. Jones (Timaru, New Zealand) discovered this comet with a 14-cm
refractor (42) on 1946 August 6.76, while in the process of locating the field
of the variable star U Puppis. He estimated the magnitude as 9 and said the
coma was 1 across, with a central condensation. Jones gave the position
as = 7h 56.0m , = 13 15 . He confirmed his discovery on August
7.76, and again estimated the magnitude as 9. The comet was discovered
2 months before passing closest to Earth and nearly 3 months before passing
perihelion.
236

catalog of comets

On August 10, Jones gave the magnitude as 9.1. On the 13th, E. L. Johnson
(Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) photographed the comet
using the 25-cm FranklinAdams Star Camera and gave the magnitude
as 9.0. He described the comet as large and diffuse. On the 15th, Jones
gave the magnitude as 8.5. On the 20th, 23rd, and 26th, Johnson gave the
photographic magnitude as 8. On the 29th, the magnitude was given as 7.5
by Johnson and 8 by Jones. On August 31, Jones gave the magnitude as 8
and said the tail extended 0.02 in PA 235.
On September 1 and 2, Jones observed using a 14-cm refractor and gave
the magnitude as 7.8. On the former date, he said the tail extended toward
PA 200. On the 3rd, the photographic magnitude was given as 7.6 by D. C.
Berry (Dunedin, New Zealand) and 8.0 by Johnson. Berry said the coma was
2 across, while the tail was 10 long. On the 4th, Jones gave the magnitude
as 7.5 and said the tail extended 0.06 in PA 210. On the 7th, Jones observed
with a 14-cm refractor (42) and said the tail extended 0.02 in PA 243. On
the 10th, Jones said the tail extended 0.02 in PA 245. On the 15th, Jones
gave the magnitude as 7.5 and said the tail extended 0.02 in PA 230. On
the 19th, Jones said the tail extended 0.03 in PA 230. On September 21,
Jones observed with a 13-cm reflector (36) and said the tail extended 0.05
in PA 260.
On October 3, Jones observed with a 14-cm refractor (42) and gave the
magnitude as 7. He said the tail extended 0.03 in PA 240. On the 7th, Jones
gave the magnitude as 8 and said the tail extended 0.02 in PA 240. The
comet attained its most southerly declination of 29 on October 16. The
comet passed about 6 from the sun on November 25.
On 1947 January 3, H. L. Gilcas (Lowell Observatory, Arizona, USA) photographed the comet using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and
gave the magnitude as 10.2. The comet was then only 23 from the sun and
Giclas noted that the comet was diffuse, with no central condensation, and
at a very low altitude. On the 5th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude
as 10.2. He said the comet was diffuse, with no central condensation. On the
17th, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) obtained a
2-minute exposure using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 8.8.
He said the round fuzzy coma was 20 across, while a diffuse tail extended
3 in PA 220. On the 21st, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as 9.0. He said
the comet was very diffuse. On January 30, Giclas gave the photographic
magnitude as 10.9. On February 19, van Biesbroeck gave the magnitude as
9.6. He obtained a 2-minute exposure using the 61-cm reflector and noted a
faint tail extended towards PA 210. On February 22, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 12.4. On March 28, Giclas gave the photographic
magnitude as 11.3.
On April 1, L. Boyer (Alger, now al-Jazair, Algeria) gave the photographic
magnitude as 12.3. On the 19th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as
12.0. On the 20th, M. Beyer (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany)
observed using the 26-cm refractor and gave the magnitude as 11.31. He said
237

catalog of comets

the nuclear magnitude was about 13, while the coma was 1.3 across. On
the 24th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 11.43. He said the nuclear magnitude
was 12.88, while the coma was 1.4 across. On the 26th, Boyer gave the
photographic magnitude as 13.0. On the 27th, Beyer gave the magnitude
as 11.54. He noted that the coma was 1.4 across and exhibited a nucleus
of magnitude 13.07. On April 28, Boyer gave the photographic magnitude
as 12.9.
On May 10, Beyer gave the magnitude as 11.44 and said the coma was 1.3
across. On the 18th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 11.74. He said the coma was
1.0 across, while the nuclear magnitude was about 13. On the 20th, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 11.68. He said the nuclear magnitude was 12.94,
while the coma was 1.0 across. On the 21st, Beyer gave the magnitude as
11.92. He said the coma was 1.3 across and exhibited a nucleus of magnitude
13.25. On the 22nd, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 11.7711.82, while
Boyer gave the photographic magnitude as 13.0. Beyer said the coma was
1.2 across. On the 25th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 12.20 and the coma
diameter as 1.1 . On the 27th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 12.06. On the
28th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 12.20. He noted a coma diameter of 0.7
and a nuclear magnitude of 13.28. On the 29th, Beyer gave the magnitude as
12.25 and the coma diameter as 1.0 . On May 31, Beyer gave the magnitude
as 12.33 and the coma diameter as 1.0 .
On June 13, the photographic magnitude was given as 13.4 by Boyer
and 13.5 by H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA). Jeffers photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley reflector and said the coma
was condensed, with a tail extending 1.2 in PA 290. On the 14th, Boyer gave
the photographic magnitude as 13.3. On the 15th, Giclas photographed the
comet using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and gave the magnitude as 11.4. On the 16th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 11.2.
On the 19th, Boyer gave the photographic magnitude as 13.4. On June 25,
van Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave
the magnitude as 12.5. He said the tail extended 2 in PA 150.
The comet steadily faded during the remainder of 1947. On July 6, van
Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 13.5. He said the coma was
well defined, with a short tail extending towards PA 160. On the 8th, Jeffers
gave the photographic magnitude as 13.5. He said the coma was condensed
and exhibited a faint tail extending 0.8 in PA 260. On the 9th, Boyer gave the
photographic magnitude as 13.3. On the 11th, Boyer gave the photographic
magnitude as 13.4. The comet reached a maximum solar elongation of 112
on July 23. On September 6, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 14.8.
He said the coma was condensed and exhibited a faint tail. On October 6,
van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 16. He noted a round
coma. On November 3, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude
as 16. On November 6, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 16.5. He
said the coma was very small. On December 9, van Biesbroeck obtained a
20-minute exposure using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as
238

catalog of comets

16. He said the comet exhibited a round coma, but was difficult to locate
in very dense region of the Milky Way.
The comet attained a minimum solar elongation of 49 on 1948 February 11. On May 9 Jeffers photographed the comet using the 91-cm Crossley
reflector and gave the magnitude as 18.4. On July 10, Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 17.8. He noted a stellar nucleus and a faint fan-shaped
tail extending toward PA 135. The comet attained its most northerly declination of +50 on July 27. On August 11, van Biesbroeck (McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA) photographed the comet using the 208-cm reflector and
gave the magnitude as 17.5. He said the round coma was 15 across and
was slightly condensed, while a broad tail extended 1 in PA 140. The comet
attained a maximum solar elongation of 116 on August 30. On September
5, van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 18. He noted that the
round coma was 10 across and was slightly condensed, while a broad tail
extended 1 in PA 130. On October 2, 3, and 4, van Biesbroeck photographed
the comet using the 208-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 19. He said
the fuzzy coma was 8 across, while a broad tail extended towards PA 130.
The comet was last detected on November 23.19, when Jeffers photographed it with the 91-cm Crossley reflector. The position was given as
= 20h 28.8m , = +40 19 . Jeffers determined the magnitude as 19.3
and said the comet appeared nearly stellar. He commented that the comets
image appeared real on the photograph and that a second plate was obtained
later that evening, when the comet was at a low altitude, which showed
a questionable image in the proper place.
The first orbit was calculated by L. E. Cunningham and M. E. Stahr. They
took approximate positions spanning 9 days and computed an uncertain
parabolic orbit which gave the perihelion date as 1946 October 4.87. Nearly
a month and a half after the comets discovery, Cunningham revised the
earlier calculations and gave the perihelion date as October 27.19. Later
calculations by Cunningham and G. Merton revealed the general correctness
of this orbit.
G. Pels (1960) took 124 positions obtained during the period 1946 August
241948 October 3, reduced them to 18 Normal positions, and applied perturbations by Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The result was a
perihelion date of October 26.77 and an eccentricity of 1.0007942.
Z. Sekanina (1974, 1978) used 101 positions obtained between 1946 August
16 and 1948 November 23, as well as perturbations by all nine planets,
to determine the perihelion date as October 26.78 and the eccentricity as
1.0007764. He took this orbit and derived an elliptical original orbit with a
period of about 3.4 million years and an elliptical future orbit with a period
of about 15.6 million years.

T
1946 Oct. 26.7791 (TT)

239

 (2000.0)
320.4130 238.3356

i
56.9647

q
e
1.136113 1.000776

catalog of comets
absolute magnitude: H0 = 4.98, n = 3.81 (Beyer, 1950); H10 = 4.8 (V1964)
full moon: Jul. 14, Aug. 12, Sep. 11, Oct. 10, Nov. 9, Dec. 8, 1947 Jan. 7, Feb. 5,
Mar. 7, Apr. 5, May 5, Jun. 3, Jul. 3, Aug. 2, Aug. 31, Sep. 30, Oct. 29, Nov. 28,
Dec. 27, 1948 Jan. 26, Feb. 24, Mar. 25, Apr. 23, May 23, Jun. 21, Jul. 21, Aug. 19,
Sep. 18, Oct. 18, Nov. 16, Dec. 16
sources: A. F. A. L. Jones, HAC, No. 763 (1946 Aug. 8); A. F. A. L. Jones, IAUC,
No. 1054 (1946 Aug. 9); L. E. Cunningham and M. E. Stahr, HAC, No. 766 (1946
Aug. 21); L. E. Cunningham and M. E. Stahr, IAUC, No. 1057 (1946 Aug. 22);
E. L. Johnson, IAUC, No. 1058 (1946 Sep. 9); E. L. Johnson, IAUC, No. 1060 (1946
Sep. 17); L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 769 (1946 Sep. 19); A. F. A. L. Jones, L. E.
Cunningham, and M. E. Stahr, The Observatory, 66 (1946 Oct.), p. 351; L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 1063 (1946 Oct. 7); L. E. Cunningham and D. C. Berry, The
Observatory, 66 (1946 Dec.), p. 398; A. F. A. L. Jones, H. L. Giclas, and L. E. Cunningham, MNRAS, 107 (1947), p. 106; L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 790 (1947
Jan. 4); L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No. 1077 (1947 Jan. 11); H. L. Giclas, HAC,
No. 791 (1947 Jan. 13); H. L. Giclas, The Observatory, 67 (1947 Feb.), p. 36; H. L.
Giclas, IAUC, No. 1079 (1947 Feb. 12); L. E. Cunningham, The Observatory, 67
(1947 Apr.), p. 75; H. L. Giclas, AJ, 52 (1947 May), p. 207; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19
(1948), pp. 1901; E. L. Johnson, UOC, 5 (1948 Apr. 13), p. 191; G. van Biesbroeck,
AJ, 54 (1948 Dec.), p. 82; H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 20 (1949), p. 34; H. L. Giclas, AJ, 54
(1949 Jun.), p. 165; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 55 (1950 Jan.), pp. 54, 59; M. Beyer,
AN, 278 (1950 Jul. 14), pp. 2212; L. Boyer, JO, 34 (1951), p. 2; G. Pels, BAN, 15
(1960 Dec. 30), pp. 14955; V1964, p. 76; Z. Sekanina, QJRAS, 15 (1974 Dec.),
pp. 4523; Z. Sekanina, CCO, 2nd ed. (1975), pp. 25, 50; Z. Sekanina, AJ, 83 (1978
Jan.), pp. 66, 68; A. F. A. L. Jones, ICQ, 6 (1984 Jan.), p. 15.

C/1946 U1 Discovered: 1946 October 31.9 ( = 2.06 AU, r = 2.64 AU, Elong. = 114)
(Bester) Last seen: 1948 October 2.16 ( = 6.30 AU, r = 6.32 AU, Elong. = 87)
Closest to the Earth: 1946 November 29 (1.8642 AU)
1947 I = 1946k Calculated path: COL (Disc), CAE (Nov. 1), ERI (Nov. 13), FOR (Nov. 25), CET
(Dec. 21), PSC (1947 Feb. 19), TRI (May 7), AND (Jun. 7), PER (Jul. 10), AND
(Jul. 15), PER (Jul. 18), CAS (Jul. 28), CEP (Sep. 1), CYG (Oct. 23), CEP (1948
May 5), CYG (May 30), CEP (Jun. 4), DRA (Jun. 21), HER (Sep. 22)
M. J. Bester (Harvard College Observatory, Boyden Station, Bloemfontein,
South Africa) discovered this comet on a plate exposed on 1946 October 31.9
with the 8-cm RossFecker patrol camera. He estimated the magnitude as
11 and said the round coma was 2 across and contained a well-condensed
nucleus. Bester confirmed the find on November 1.83, and determined the
position as = 5h 01.0m , = 38 47 . He estimated the magnitude as
10.5 and gave the daily motion as 3m 00s in and 5 in . E. L. Johnson
(Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) confirmed the discovery
on November 2.92. He estimated the magnitude as 10.0 and described the
comet as diffuse, with a central condensation.
On November 4, Johnson gave the photographic magnitude as 11.0. On
the 5th, the photographic magnitude was given as 11.0 by G. van Biesbroeck
(Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) and H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory,
240

catalog of comets

Flagstaff, Arizona, USA). Van Biesbroeck described the round, diffuse coma
as 2 across, with a central condensation. H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) photographed the comet with the 51-cm Carnegie astrograph
and described it as small, round, and without a sharp nucleus. The comet
attained its most southerly declination of 39 on November 6. On the
6th and 12th, Giclas photographed the comet using the 33-cm A. Lawrence
Lowell Astrograph and gave the magnitude as 11.0. On the 13th, Johnson
photographed the comet using the 25-cm FranklinAdams Star Camera
and gave the magnitude as 9.0. On the 15th, Jeffers photographed the comet
using the astrograph and described it as small, round, and without a sharp
nucleus. On the 19th, E. G. Reuning (US Naval Observatory, Washington,
DC, USA) photographed the comet, but the altitude of 13.5 prevented an
accurate magnitude estimate. The comet attained a maximum solar elongation of 123 on November 22. On the 26th, Giclas gave the photographic
magnitude as 11.0. On November 28, A. Schmitt (Alger, now al-Jazair, Algeria) gave the photographic magnitude as 11.
On December 1, Johnson gave the photographic magnitude as 8.5. On
the 11th, the photographic magnitude was given as 9.0 by Johnson and 11
by Giclas. On the 17th, R. J. Tufts (Students Observatory, Berkeley, California, USA) photographed the comet using a 10-cm Ross lens and indicated a
magnitude of 8.5. On the 19th, van Biesbroeck said the diffuse tail extended
6 in PA 100. On the 20th, Jeffers photographed the comet with the 51-cm
Carnegie astrograph and described it as small, round, and without a sharp
nucleus. On the 21st, L. Boyer (Alger, now al-Jazair, Algeria) gave the photographic magnitude as 12.0. On December 22, Giclas photographed the comet
using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and gave the magnitude
as 11.2.
On 1947 January 4, Johnson photographed the comet using the 25-cm
FranklinAdams Star Camera and gave the magnitude as 9.3. On the 8th,
Boyer gave the photographic magnitude as 12.1. On the 14th, H. Krumpholz
(Vienna, Austria) gave the magnitude as 11. On the 15th, the photographic
magnitude was given as 9.6 by van Biesbroeck and 11.5 by Boyer. On the
16th, M. Beyer (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) observed the
comet using a 26-cm refractor (70) and gave the magnitude as 10.50. He
said the nuclear magnitude was about 12, the coma diameter was 2.6 , and
the tail extended 4 in PA 112. On the 17th, Beyer gave the magnitude as
10.63. On the 18th, Boyer gave the photographic magnitude as 11.9. On the
19th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 10.22. He said the nuclear magnitude
was 13.43, the coma diameter was 2.7 , and the tail extended 6 in PA 125.
On the 20th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 10.29. He said the nuclear magnitude was 13.07, the coma diameter was 2.7 , and the tail extended 5 in PA
118. On the 21st, Beyer gave the magnitude as 10.28. He said the nuclear
magnitude was 12.87, the coma diameter was 3.5 , and the tail extended 5
in PA 132. On the 23rd, Beyer gave the visual magnitude as 10.40, while
van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 10.4. Beyer said the
241

catalog of comets

nuclear magnitude was about 13, the coma diameter was 3.0 , and the tail
extended 7 in PA 129. Jeffers described the comet as round, 40 across, with
a stellar nucleus. On the 24th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 10.55. He said
the nuclear magnitude was about 13, the coma diameter was 3.3 , and the
tail extended 7 in PA 128. On January 29, Johnson gave the photographic
magnitude as 9.5.
On February 7, Beyer observed the comet using the 26-cm refractor (70)
and gave the magnitude as 10.67. He said the nuclear magnitude was about
12.5, the coma diameter was 3.3 , and the tail extended 6 in PA 128. On
the 8th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 10.60. He said the nuclear magnitude was 13.38, the coma diameter was 2.7 , and the tail extended 5 in PA
132. On the 11th, van Biesbroeck obtained a 3-minute exposure using the
61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 10.3. He said the coma was well
condensed, while the tail extended 3 in PA 110. On the 12th, Giclas photographed the comet using the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph and
gave the magnitude as 11.6. On the 14th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 10.99.
He said the coma diameter was 3.1 , and the tail extended 6 in PA 123. On
the 16th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 11.08. He said the nuclear magnitude was 13.03, the coma diameter was 2.2 , and the tail extended 5 in PA
141. On the 17th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 11.12. He said the nuclear
magnitude was 13.43, the coma diameter was 2.9 , and the tail extended 4
in PA 145. On the 18th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 11.16. He said the
coma diameter was 2.3 , and the tail extended 6 in PA 130. On the 19th,
van Biesbroeck gave the photographic magnitude as 11. On the 20th, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 11.13. He said the coma diameter was 2.2 , and the
tail extended 4 in PA 136. On February 22, Boyer gave the photographic
magnitude as 12.6.
The final observation before conjunction with the sun came on March
15.22, when Giclas photographed the comet at low altitude in the evening
sky with the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell Astrograph. He gave the magnitude
as 11.7.
The comet passed about 10 from the sun on April 17. Following conjunction, the comet was found in the morning sky on June 22.34 by Reuning.
On June 23, the photographic magnitude was given as 13.2 by Boyer and 15
by Jeffers. Jeffers photograph, which was obtained using the 91-cm Crossley reflector, revealed a round coma, 20 across, and a stellar nucleus. On
July 20, Boyer gave the photographic magnitude as 13.6. On July 25, van
Biesbroeck photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the
magnitude as 15. He said the round coma was 6 across. On August 20,
Jeffers gave the photographic magnitude as 14. He described the comet as
round, 20 across, with a stellar nucleus.
The comet attained its most northerly declination of +65 on September 9.
On the 10th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 13.19 and said the coma was 0.5
across. On the 11th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 13.33. On the 12th, Beyer
gave the magnitude as 13.65 and said the coma was 1.0 across. On the 21st,
242

catalog of comets

Beyer gave the magnitude as 13.18. He said the nuclear magnitude was 14.6
and the coma was 1.0 in diameter. The comet attained a maximum solar
elongation of 113 on September 26.
On October 9, van Biesbroeck obtained a 12-minute exposure using the
61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 14.5. On the 17th, Boyer gave
the photographic magnitude as 14.4. On the 18th, Beyer gave the visual
magnitude as 13.1013.35, while Boyer gave the photographic magnitude
as 14.5. Beyer said the nuclear magnitude was 14.8, and the coma was
1.6 in diameter. On October 19, Beyer gave the magnitude as 13.11 and
said the coma was 1.6 across. On November 3, van Biesbroeck obtained a
15-minute exposure using the reflector and gave the magnitude as 15. Van
Biesbroeck said the coma was well defined and round. On November 8,
the photographic magnitude was given as 15.0 by Boyer and 16 by Jeffers.
Jeffers photograph, which was obtained using the 91-cm Crossley reflector,
revealed a round coma 5 across. On December 9, van Biesbroeck obtained
an 18-minute exposure using the reflector and gave the magnitude as 17.
He said there was a small coma.
On 1948 January 2, Boyer gave the photographic magnitude as 16.0. On
January 15, van Biesbroeck obtained an 18-minute exposure using the 61cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 17. The comet attained a minimum
solar elongation of 57 on February 24. Jeffers made the only two observations during the next 6 months, determining the magnitude as 18.2 with the
91-cm Crossley reflector on May 11 and 18.7 with the same telescope on July
27. For the former date he said the coma was faint, with a sharp nucleus,
while on the latter date he simply described the coma as small and round.
The comet attained a maximum solar elongation of 98 on August 2.
The comet was last detected on October 2.16, when van Biesbroeck
obtained a 12-minute exposure with the 208-cm reflector at McDonald
Observatory. The magnitude was estimated as 18.5, while the diffuse coma
was 20 across. The position was given as = 17h 55.8m , = +48 50 .
The first parabolic orbits were calculated around mid-November by
J. Bobone and L. E. Cunningham. Bobone determined the perihelion date
as 1947 January 22.48, while Cunningham gave it as February 7.04. Cunninghams orbit proved a few hours early. Additional parabolic orbits came
from Schmitt, Bobone, and Cunningham.
Using precise positions obtained on November 4, 10, and 13, W. P. Hirst
computed an elliptical orbit with a perihelion date of February 8.05 and an
orbital period of about 953 years. Hirst added, Any estimate of the period
at present is liable to very large error, but it can scarcely be less than 500
years and is probably greater than this.
The first definitive orbit came from van Biesbroeck (1970), who used
108 positions spanning the period 1946 November 21948 October 2. After
applying perturbations by seven planets, he determined a hyperbolic orbit
with a perihelion date of February 7.33 and an eccentricity of 1.000589.
B. G. Marsden took this orbit, applied perturbations by all nine planets, and
243

catalog of comets

found that both the original and future orbits were elliptical. The period of
the original orbit was about 1.1 million years, while the period of the future
orbit was about 724 thousand years.
Marsden (1973, 1978) used 97 positions obtained between 1946
November 2 and 1948 October 2, as well as perturbations by all nine planets, to determine the perihelion date as February 7.36 and the eccentricity as
1.0009472. Marsden took this orbit and derived a hyperbolic original orbit
with an eccentricity of 1.000002, and an elliptical future orbit with a period
of about 7.5 million years. This orbit is given below.
T
1947 Feb. 7.3634 (TT)

 (2000.0)
i
q
e
348.6250
35.5588 108.1742 2.407663 1.000947

absolute magnitude: H0 = 3.12, n = 5.71 (Beyer, 1950); H10 = 4.46.0 (V1964)


full moon: Oct. 10, Nov. 9, Dec. 8, 1947 Jan. 7, Feb. 5, Mar. 7, Apr. 5, May 5, Jun.
3, Jul. 3, Aug. 2, Aug. 31, Sep. 30, Oct. 29, Nov. 28, Dec. 27, 1948 Jan. 26, Feb. 24,
Mar. 25, Apr. 23, May 23, Jun. 21, Jul. 21, Aug. 19, Sep. 18, Oct. 18
sources: M. J. Bester, HAC, No. 778 (1946 Nov. 4); M. J. Bester, IAUC, No. 1067
(1946 Nov. 4); G. van Biesbroeck, HAC, No. 779 (1946 Nov. 8); H. L. Giclas and
J. Bobone, HAC, No. 780 (1946 Nov. 13); E. L. Johnson, G. van Biesbroeck, and J.
Bobone, IAUC, No. 1069 (1946 Nov. 14); L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 783 (1946
Nov. 21); E. G. Reuning, HAC, No. 784 (1946 Nov. 29); L. E. Cunningham, IAUC,
No. 1071 (1946 Nov. 29); A. Schmitt, IAUC, No. 1073 (1946 Dec. 20); E. L. Johnson,
IAUC, No. 1074 (1946 Dec. 21); H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1947), p. 187; M. J. Bester, J.
Bobone, A. Schmitt, and L. E. Cunningham, MNRAS, 107 (1947), pp. 107, 11011,
114; J. Bobone and R. J. Tufts, HAC, No. 788 (1947 Jan. 3); R. J. Tufts, IAUC, No.
1076 (1947 Jan. 3); W. P. Hirst and L. E. Cunningham, MNASSA, 6 (1947 Feb.),
pp. 1213; J. Bobone, The Observatory, 67 (1947 Feb.), p. 36; A. Schmitt and E. L.
Johnson, IAUC, No. 1079 (1947 Feb. 12); J. Bobone, HAC, No. 794 (1947 Feb. 14);
W. P. Hirst, ASSAMN, 6 (1947 Feb. 28), pp. 1213; H. Krumpholz, IAUC, No.
1081 (1947 Mar. 26); J. Bobone and A. Schmitt, The Observatory, 67 (1947 Apr.),
p. 75; H. L. Giclas, AJ, 52 (1947 May), p. 207; L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 811
(1947 May 6); E. G. Reuning, HAC, No. 827 (1947 Jul. 18); H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19
(1948), p. 191; L. Boyer, IAUC, No. 1140 (1948 Mar. 6); E. L. Johnson, UOC, 5 (1948
Apr. 13), p. 192; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 54 (1948 Dec.), p. 83; H. M. Jeffers, LOB,
20 (1949), p. 34; H. L. Giclas, AJ, 54 (1949 Jun.), p. 165; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 55
(1950 Jan.), pp. 54, 59; M. Beyer, AN, 278 (1950 Jul. 14), pp. 2234; L. Boyer, JO,
34 (1951), pp. 23; V1964, p. 76; G. van Biesbroeck, CLPL, 8 (1970), pp. 1758;
B. G. Marsden, AJ, 78 (1973 Dec.), pp. 111920; B. G. Marsden, AJ, 83 (1978 Jan.),
p. 68.

26P/Grigg Recovered: 1947 March 11.14 ( = 0.33 AU, r = 1.03 AU, Elong. = 87)
Skjellerup Last seen: 1947 July 14.28 ( = 0.68 AU, r = 1.50 AU, Elong. = 124)
Closest to the Earth: 1947 April 12 (0.1593 AU)
1947 II = 1947a Calculated path: COL (Rec), CAE (Mar. 16), ERI (Mar. 22), FOR (Mar. 30),
ERI-CET (Apr. 5), PSC (Apr. 17), PEG (Apr. 25), CYG (Jun. 22)
244

catalog of comets

F. R. Cripps (1946) conducted an elaborate analysis of this comets orbit.


After determining a reliable set of elements for the 1942 apparition, he
applied perturbations by Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn and predicted the perihelion date as 1947 April 20.44. H. L. Giclas (Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff,
Arizona, USA) recovered this comet with the 33-cm A. Lawrence Lowell
Astrograph on 1947 March 11.14, at a position of = 5h 19.2m , = 31 04 .
The position indicated Cripps predicted perihelion date needed a correction of 2.8 days. He determined the magnitude as 11.2 and said the comet
was diffuse, with a central condensation. E. L. Johnson (Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa) independently recovered this comet with
the 25-cm FranklinAdams Star Camera on March 11.74. The comet was
near the edge of the plate and was about magnitude 11.0. Johnson said the
comet was diffuse, without a condensation. The comet had attained its most
southerly declination of 31 on March 8.
On March 12, Giclas photographed the comet using the astrograph and
gave the magnitude as 11.2. He described the comet as a diffuse coma, with
a central condensation. On the 13th, 14th, and 15th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 11.5. On the 15th, G. van Biesbroeck (Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, USA) photographed the comet using the 61-cm reflector
and gave the magnitude as 11. On the 16th, Giclas gave the photographic
magnitude as 11.7. On the 22nd, Johnson gave the photographic magnitude
as 10.0. On the 28th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 13.6. The
comet attained a minimum solar elongation of 38 on April 20. A. F. A. L.
Jones (Timaru, New Zealand) visually observed the comet using the 14-cm
refractor on April 29 and 30, and gave the magnitude as 9.5. He also gave
the coma diameters as 3 and 2.5 , respectively. On April 30, Giclas gave the
photographic magnitude as 10.0.
On May 2, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 9.8. On the 18th,
M. Beyer (Hamburg Observatory, Bergedorf, Germany) observed using the
25-cm refractor (70) and gave the magnitude as 10.62. He said the coma
was 3 across. On the 22nd, Beyer gave the magnitude as 11.0711.13 and the
coma diameter as 3.2 . On the 26th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 11.24 and
the coma diameter as 3.3 . On the 27th, Beyer gave the magnitude as 11.25
and the coma diameter as 2.9 . On May 30, Giclas gave the photographic
magnitude as 14.
On June 14, H. M. Jeffers (Lick Observatory, California, USA) said a 20minute exposure with the 91-cm Crossley reflector showed a faint, round
coma 0.7 across and a nucleus of magnitude 16.6. On the 15th, Giclas gave
the photographic magnitude as 12.2. On the 16th, Giclas gave the photographic magnitude as 12.5. On the 25th, van Biesbroeck photographed the
comet using the 61-cm reflector and gave the magnitude as 16.5. He said the
round coma was 12 across and centrally condensed. The comet attained its
most northerly declination of +30 on June 27.
The comet was last detected on July 14.28, when van Biesbroeck obtained
a 10-minute exposure with the 61-cm reflector at Yerkes Observatory. The
245

catalog of comets

magnitude was estimated as 16 and the comet was described as very diffuse.
Van Biesbroeck gave the position as = 21h 12.4m , = +28 44 . About 1
month later, Jeffers used the 91-cm Crossley reflector, but failed to find the
comet on a 30-minute exposure obtained on August 8 or a 1-hour 20-minute
exposure obtained on August 14.
L. E. Cunningham (1947) computed new elements for this apparition
using positions from March 14, 28, and May 2. The resulting perihelion
date was 1947 April 18.14, while the period was 4.90 years.
Multiple apparition orbits were calculated by Sitarski (1964, 1981) and
B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina (1972, 1973). They gave the perihelion date
as April 18.14 and the period as 4.90 years. Sitarski (1964) noted that a nongravitational acceleration existed in the motion of this comet. B. G. Marsden
and Z. Sekanina (1973) gave the nongravitational terms as A1 = +0.03,
A2 = 0.0025. The orbit of Marsden and Sekanina is given below.
T
1947 Apr. 18.1370 (TT)

 (2000.0)
356.3825 216.0897

i
17.6414

q
e
0.853133 0.704273

absolute magnitude: H0 = 12.99, n = 5.36 (Beyer, 1950); H10 = 14.2 (V1964)


full moon: Mar. 7, Apr. 5, May 5, Jun. 3, Jul. 3, Aug. 2
sources: F. R. Cripps, BAA Handbook for 1947 (1946 Nov.), p. 37; F. R. Cripps,
IAUC, No. 1077 (1947 Jan. 11); H. L. Giclas and E. L. Johnson, HAC, No. 796
(1947 Mar. 13); E. L. Johnson, IAUC, No. 1080 (1947 Mar. 13); L. E. Cunningham,
HAC, No. 797 (1947 Mar. 18); E. L. Johnson, The Observatory, 67 (1947 Apr.), p. 74;
L. E. Cunningham, HAC, No. 821 (1947 Jun. 18); L. E. Cunningham, IAUC, No.
1096 (1947 Jun. 24); H. M. Jeffers, LOB, 19 (1948), p. 191; E. L. Johnson, UOC, 5
(1948 May), p. 254; G. van Biesbroeck, AJ, 54 (1948 Dec.), p. 84; H. L. Giclas, AJ,
54 (1949 Jun.), p. 165; M. Beyer, AN, 278 (1950 Jul. 14), p. 224; G. Sitarski, AcA,
14 (1964), pp. 15; V1964, p. 76; B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina, CCO, 1st ed.
(1972), pp. 25, 48; B. G. Marsden and Z. Sekanina, AJ, 78 (1973 Mar.), pp. 214,
216; G. Sitarski, AcA, 31 (1981), pp. 4812; A. F. A. L. Jones, ICQ, 6 (1984 Jan.),
p. 24.

C/1947 F1 Discovered: 1947 March 24.0 ( = 0.49 AU, r = 1.31 AU, Elong. = 120)
(Rondanina Last seen: 1947 September 21.52 ( = 2.01 AU, r = 2.30 AU, Elong. = 93)
Bester) Closest to the Earth: 1947 April 5 (0.4104 AU)
Calculated path: CEN (Disc), MUS (Mar. 26), CHA (Mar. 30), OCT (Apr. 3),
1947 IV = 1947b MEN (Apr. 4), HYI (Apr. 9), HOR (Apr. 11), ERI (Apr. 19), FOR (Apr. 24),
CET (May 5), ARI (Jun. 3), TAU (Jun. 28), PER (Jun. 30), AUR (Aug. 10),
CAM (Aug. 17), AUR (Aug. 25), CAM (Aug. 28)
This comet was first discovered by E. Rondanina (Montevideo Observatory,
Uruguay) while examining a photographic plate exposed on the Crucis
region with the 16-cm Zeiss astrographic camera on 1947 March 24.0. An
independent discovery was made by M. J. Bester (Harvard College Observatory, Boyden Station, Bloemfontein, South Africa) when he found the
246

catalog of comets

comet on a patrol plate exposed with the 4-cm Cooke lens camera on March
24.81. The position was given as = 13h 17m , = 60 42 . The comet was
described as magnitude 11, with a daily motion of 6m in and 2 18 in .
Rondanina did not confirm the discovery until March 26.04, when the comet
was described as diffuse, without a condensation, and with a magnitude
of 11. Despite Rondaninas delay, news of his discovery actually reached
the proper authorities before Besters announcement, although there was
a mistaken identity involved. Rondaninas colleague C. A. Etchecopar sent
the announcement and was originally thought to be the discoverer.
On March 27, the photographic magnitude was given as 7 by M. Itzigsohn
(Cordoba

Observatory, Argentina) and 9.5 by E