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The Surface Evolver

Kenneth A. Brakke

CONTENTS
Introduction
Acknowledgements
1. General Overview
2. Three Examples of the Evolver in Action
3. Surface Models
4. Energies
5. Constraints
6. Iteration
7. Surface Operations
8. User Interface Details
9. Application: The Hopf Cone Conjecture
10. Future Directions
References
Software Availability

The Surface Evolver is a computer program that minimizes


the energy of a surface subject to constraints. The surface is
represented as a simplicial complex. The energy can include
surface tension, gravity and other forms. Constraints can be
geometrical constraints on vertex positions or constraints on
integrated quantities such as body volumes. The minimization
is done by evolving the surface down the energy gradient.
This paper describes the mathematical model used and the
operations available to interactively modify the surface.

INTRODUCTION


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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1. GENERAL OVERVIEW

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Brakke: The Surface Evolver

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2. THREE EXAMPLES OF THE EVOLVER IN ACTION


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"([)7 +"($&?H q"6)+*[)7+ "fO"^ * $ Q
.$  $  )+@ M)7 1/9&N$&"\t gIL9("Ny g C)+@"t gM~MA
B1&L,@+ $.)+"I# (  F &/(\)7" ($&i N"= M+:X$&
,@+ $&)!}. @AIpH 1 (+1,= $.)7!"
/ (  q 
F .H(q2 Vr!Y$  )+@fK"#/(* *,@+ $.)+"iG 
"([)7G ( G 9G P" $J 
(  F &zAgpH G F N (Q
  "($.L!"g H"6)7\/ F . G)7" ($&i (
.$ S$&5,= $.)P."Ny[ \"  F P~-PP+$&)+
(
 F .6ApH "i. !"1)7@ M$ U *6)+7 "d/^)+LQ
($&L \N (9:f"N  $..$ ($& )+@ M)7
/9@ 
$."\l gL9"!A
Bb (T"+,i$J  / $&"Yy6)++ (T  7~7f0 Y)+LQ
M)7 d.$ N }"1,!3c  F .zf}"+  $ 9# % $ Q
.$  $  )7@ M)M > 9@ @A4pH 3" ($&  $& 9TH  F &
6)++ "0(i ( }T4 3P"+ " #"= ((+ ) $&9* #"=Q

[)7[)+7 "AOp
1$&@ + $&K,= $.)7!"Kh (  F . % 
!,@@f"($&)+S ( X/(N>7 1b )7!"\c ( !3A
p
$&"
)e9@$ , $&"(X 5( !#"S$ K #)+ M)7 N&$&,Q
"S$&@ + $& F &g, $.)7!"fx"0$."S}L 0 5 }/}A
B O $."gP$& !f/ ( 
"Ii"= $  (,  (S/<=" g ( 
( $.9./ $ xfx"($& 95,@= 7V',/9@$ 9f] + F $&)
y[)++ +] $ 9  M~h (  )+@ M)7 g.$&  )!/i)+@ $ rK (1,@
 >  F .6AOpH 12 $&.$  $  "= M/ (1)7" $&"= "K
i.S"([)7y[[H $&9  M~7A
p
 F .6)++ "*"(+,U F ? (}@"!" e (Y9 Q
 q ( c)7(!)M >)+ M)7 /9@ cY e &Y, $&"}JQ
$ 83 U"( ([)+A  L  7:."Yc U"(()+^
 (&#"G" ( 0"( ([)+d,!" *  F .6fr( $&Q
$ 9P!/ (!5,@= 7V^,@+/9@$& 9AHpH 7:3L)+)+@:c(
)7@L +0#:UT)!.)7 $ ^ $.% T !)7Q
"("/:@A ! \$."H}@"("($& d (@#$ H ( cA !  i'A  ! "  F
 F 3"(!L9>$&@ 9."d (c)+@  X # @$J,/Q
 @ % (9:4
( >6)++ "Aqp
>,L$."}.$&8!/ $&e )7Q
$&U)7&c}i"+,@c:5 }+, $& 92LVLc6)7+ "\c ( 
F &r ( }/ KL0  $.)+$&} H$ X G)!&)+/ $&"I/
L#  \(+2A

146

Experimental Mathematics, Vol. 1 (1992), No. 2

(

*28&1 213!",D& V AH @;9;.cE9

e$'"  +`6,6.*
B1 621  $J<3!"@;QM 2!!

9
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* + I?*2O1DH]
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>9!

> "@E!21A1A4 28 72121 9<a'9; [ 9;


1V ! 1(21


"DHM H@ 
 %$J" 2,21A  +,I? "2O"2  2[AA6a'H*21"H#6A 7,D21]21bD 
DHA2[!?9;. ; "2121  A] 2 "$; A V +>MC5!
'"UV 
 21 D 1 213!"$

FIGURE 3.

2.3. Grain Growth

f 3.$ @$&5+ h"@.$&$ 2!"fL)7:L" &.$&8!/ $&*9 =Q

.J: "= M/ " /:?r)+&$zf F $J /L@ ($&@ MQ


$&"Aqp
)+:L"= M/  $&)+!"N(#$."(>/ )  F +(
e9$&"5++ f1/` ( '/ (@#"3  9Y ( e9 $ 
P  $ !"1/(i$&U# $ 9  9:3" / (N ( }^$&@ 7Q
 $&N >"ANp]c9Le (!V $.> $&f} +9:
$."\$&L}L@ g N($&+ M $ 3g ( N} /:@A
! ' L)+"("N\ !.$ 9f *+ M-$&" F / !
9 bIP=:/ (@#"g (S" F $ ) X@  G./ Q
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P  $ !"G#$&9/ (N/ 1X / (N (P= $ }P  !$ 
)+=, @f "("#$& 9T } $&# ($ $ !"X> #LQ
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. $&9 C"  F "^ $."^L)7!"("^e F Qv$.+ Q
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M&.$ 8!"]b(@ k gg1  @ r) !$zf!"J $ 9d$&#$ $JQ
$H9$&;)+2 9 / $& #k gg+*$G)+!&."^yb 
& 7~MA4pH 5 $.>/ (q (r )M \+,@  $ Y)+"($."= "


N  @} 7V9I9 $&"A*B , $.Lc 
7,@@  $&5$."\+,$&/&S$ ?j     k+ll@n uvA
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( }e*)7 $J $.)g&+9 T$."dL! + TT:c(!" $ 9
$&# (P\,@+ $&)+"0/(X} P! A0p
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FIGURE 4.

Brakke: The Surface Evolver

3. SURFACE MODELS

pH $."K"()7 $&# " )7 $ P!""+, L,($/ $&"I# ( G}Q


"($.)S"@ Qz2& LL! $&"()+"("!5$  i]kAkA

3.1. One-Dimensional Surfaces: The String Model

Hp /="([)70 +"($&
)3PS !)+/(!* (!"($& N$ 
!L9!"\$&"= 3g6)7+ "!A p
%"( ([)+0 ( cP)+#"
> + F   I!."= $&)%"= ( $& 9@"f +)7N N (( %4%.>!/1
$6  ]$&"# .$ !W (T ( $&"#r qP+/ $&A'pH 
"=  $ 9"3>:`(!"($& 4$& "})+e@:  $." $ xf
L $&
q >$&?$&"N F Qv$&#+"($&}zf q"= ($&9"
>:N} %(+9@$&"A ! % ( $."g)"@f\9@$ i$."g +2
F $J 46)++ 0" (()7  (#/ePrL:U"= ()7 ((ASpH 
6)++ q>+: },T@: r%}*S"($. "Ap
^}LL:
}"]<"=
6)7+ q$ "-}/:AOpH 1 3P)7
$&"- (
"= (7 ) i ( H"= ( $& 91 + F   $&@ 01)7:L.$  ($.)"6)7
d $&9 @ ekf F )7c ( ^!) $."(#"#*"( ([)+"
)!/?Pq/.$& F $ ( ?>$ $&K)  9!"A3pH *9$ 
9 F ( 3+V&S$  iPnLA i"!"
( N"= ( $& 9>LL!6A

3.2. Quadratic Model

! **/  !L K (X/ (VL$.>/ (\)+=,@"6)+!"IP+ Q


+X ( }Y:W_} #[)7+ "fg +(5$."Tr 5$  F $.)
) 56)+7 G$."G @}L $.)d"&$&d} ) AIB #$.LP@$ 
$."L!q #) 3!L9f9$ ,L$&9>i  hO"($ V5)7@ (
P$& "AgK) N)+($&/ ($."h 
 @}  $&)!& :d$  +Q
P/ (!^@Z !"X"($JV^}@$  "\ (qb( ( X"6)7@A
B> 9GP)+#"K0)+ ,G ( } - +P+"I :i 
)+ @PP$& "
* 0! 9@f "
9  ($&9% }
$&9 P $& 9S6)7+ "K+ F $ L
09/AOp
$&"LQ
,/ M/9"x    / $.)r - ( } ]$ $.""(  F +!f

147

" (6)+G/(!d$&"I)!&)+/ (!X V $&>/  :N:%rQ


$&)!$  (9 / $&xf [)+7 "\%$&"+:@c"\$&g_/ f/
"#NI,@J,@Hb !"G(S  $&& (! A
3.3. Higher-Dimensional Surfaces

\$&9 =Q $." $ L"6)+!"I)!/ K}G(+!"@ !


@:? ( 3"($.)*,= +V 9[)+7 >"() !A p
c$."
'r cdP+ $&`$  F $&) ; ^[)7+ ">>  $&9
  G"([)7G( ("(+ (!# $&!)7  :"K"($.&$.)+"
yb,@+ 7VT.$&" "~7AipH $."0}(>$J "Sq"( ([)+
$ (/:
 $."($&>$ *N")+Gx/($J  :$.+"($&A \ F Q
7,@+!f >/:Y!/  ("/(3 #:@+ >$. !@ Yb
( $&"GLL@A

3.4. Quotient Spaces

p
X%$  1"})+i)!/U}
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4,@= 7Va)+Q
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(* .  F $ " ^,@+ (+V^" .U}% /" !
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$  (9+!"@ M $&#bI \9(#! !@ "O (SP
"!a$ >  $ 9 !L9"!A pH 4_} 3 (("  $ 
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2&$ # + #"P \  L} &&! $&P>/
(  F  "1O i 9"AS\ &
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@$ ( ( #"+S ( F  $ ( -Q. 9}/9b)M $ "d ( }/
&09q  "b > $&"G5)+#}@"($ $&"A
p
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"#S$&@ !"= $ 9 (&>"f "($&)+d N $.".:5")+
$&"K).$& !A]pH 1O,@ , 3P+ "I ( (+G $ "!f F 
 F $.) Y/(*$&.&"=  '$& . $&9(
 rf F $.) ?"(  F "

=9=M ,
.
 L2[ #!#2[ - #5 021 "$0* 6#7DH" 
21A]J? 6.> 65$ '"  +F
1 621 W(
1"#c;<5 6#721? 0"@"#P5b#"$ ; A V +=W1 21 "<
 ((5#QH6,/ #7D 
G21A%a
] .; T$

FIGURE 5.

148

Experimental Mathematics, Vol. 1 (1992), No. 2

 "( ([)+q$& U_}/ X (++Q $."($& " F @"


T
#+ 1} &&! $&P $&"c?$J c)+ P@A p

0 $&"\ 
   
% 4  -) *6)++
$&"
$&"+:@*"
$J H$."  L)! 
$ e ( #b+ MIL@>$ 
A 5xr)! $&4$&"0}"
U i2  "= 1,@= 7VU$ ^ i[)+7 f F $J U ( +1,=Q
$.)7!"H}!$ 9#  F  P^"G+!L!xA
 0! ! <
-7 < .% B.S[)+7 "5 4}/: 
!) aPrL: (e 9 +(a$& &$."= A 4P$&@
$&") @"`"*4}"(3P@$  !fG/  F /$ 9W
,= $.)7!"1" "1L d( $&9 rP *$&9 P
[)7+ -  $& + $&(GPLr:>" (6)+$."K @AOpH $."
$.)7! :c $.".:L"\) U&9@$.)xPrL:U"d#$J A\B
7V#&S$&"\"  F c$  . $&9 ()
 5y6  7~7A
  .  .>!/1 . -1 "KL@>$ f) #6)+7 -$.")+.$& P
(X ( 0 b@ MP . ! $ PxA $&)+!"
 :L$& 9
 " $&  F   P!W '"3 ( +:e.$&>$ "($.L@A
p
$&"0L $ 4) /  :U"  F "1   O Q
>$&Tc  F $ F  "0/( AGBU7V#&%$."
"  F c$  . $&9 ()
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pH >"( ([)+>"  F '$& . $ 9&
 q} "0 F 5 + (Q
A 5 ( 1! ,L$&;j pH @" klmsu)7LQ
 $& )! !L 
<=!)M  (!? ( }  5 $.> F +:? e= $ $& "()7
$& (N @} Qz,@ \)+!&." F $J  "=
/(!N$&" S)  $& 9
,:^" &$&9  J:^)7,!^ (+ (  $& !) !   AN+,@+
P qy[$&)+&$& 9 X/ ( ~H ,%"(3 ( iI,@JQ
,@
$&5/  !L "- (X} d , $  " = $ $&fL HQ
PLr:q }"G")+)++! *:@7 A
3.5. Background Metric

pH 4%$&@ 5"()74)C}e+  F  F $ 7 G$&7Q


/$U7  $&)A1 :3i)+  $&/ %/ ) U$."1JQ
& F ! fL @ $&+ "})7!"NP" "($ &A 
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"h$&3).$& !5)7r($JQ
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/ $&'
!L9  9 "i/4[)7+ X/("Aq 9"i/(
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"( ([)+"ox / ( fh ( +:  +T !$&0).$& !e" }/PA
r6)+!"1/(i $.".:@^"$&g !$&)+($&/ (!" F +(
$&^I)+.$& /3"})7@A
B\*7V&"($ 9N+ ($.)$&"-9@$J,@+q$&5r)7 $ qlLA
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" )."6)+c+9:@fG"$&`4"([)7 F @"^ F 
F !$ 9 @ $."H  \ 9.$&9$&&@A
p
5+ ($.)+!? PqP" $J $J,@q +2$J A?
)!CL #$&$&>"6)7!"q$   { $&   F "  $1+ ( $&)f
 \$ H M  !"\&$  &S)@A

3.6. Internal Representation

K ) 9@7  $&) ! !@ \y,= +Vhf!L9@f6)++ !f}LL:~


$&"G$.&!+ 5"HS MX" (()7  (AIB3! !@
$&"-"= (" / $&+ (!#+ $J :@f@  +:P\(++((
( F $ ( U ( $&"1($&@ M $&U1 $ , "i @AdpH (
$&"X^/ 3 :rP -3 $6 !' .  } X)+ M$&"Xc}@$  +
(3/U!& d"= ()7 ((/e>( $ ,i $&+ / $ 
y(>g$&,= !~7ApH $."x :rP-$.""(Nbg&(+=Q
+)+"
#&#+ "!AIp
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$&"d"P!)+$&2 !^:c }+, $ 95&$&  "1$&T!) U&!+ 0"= ()7Q
((X q  +V N $ 9 QGS& F =Q$&"($ }g! +Q
@ "d$ S$&@ ("!)7 "AX# "($&9T($&)$&&Xb@&& F !
$&"I / -!) #!& K" .>)7@ M$ >.$&  "I (i02 VL
%P+iH ( i&!+ "A^p
r"N ( *PrL:W"= ()7Q
((1 !"  
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( *6)++ "= )M * }"N F T"   "% U()+  F $.)
}LL:ey6$ I@:~ $."H5) 3O$ "G" $& "!A
pH #" (6)+)+)7 $ , $J :^$."0)7@ + (!^:T$  Q
L)$ 9 - 
%  ;  =1 >"= (()M  (!"f F $.) a/(T?"($&#.$JQ
2)!/ $&YG 3"() !5L!"()+($&P $  j    $&"
5"8! qk+lmsuAgB 6)+7 (Qv 9"= ()7 ((1)7@ M$ "-&$&  "
(;?6)7+ ^/a !L9eC ( e[)+7 "qP($.+ (
y F $ ( '}NP :e($&+ M $ P~Mf&"%&$&  "S (
( \(7, $ " /#7Vr -6)7+ Qv!L9" /( # ( \6)7+
/W T 5+, $ "#?7Vr #[)+7 (Qz! 9!"
( i 9@Adp
$."P(#$ "d
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[)+7 "X)+ M$&$&94U9@$J,@+ ! 9@f- ."U 5(LQ
!"@ M/ $&4 6)7+ " F $J W?/($  =:eri}N
"($.L!"f F $&) c$."
)+!"(" =:5$ c)++ $&3"($ / $&"A

4. ENERGIES

p
$."")7 $ ^L!"()+($&}!"G N,($&"\ #"\O (9:
( }/ \>+:*PN)7@%$ 5$& (X %O,@@J,@+ " ( hLQ
+(9:* )7 $&A

4.1. Surface Tension

?2.#"?$& (6)7!"%P7 F Y $ 3P+(+ X_$."


,@#e++(9:U (P= $ }] q ( $&S(! A ! T 
O,@ ,@+!f ) e6)7+ S "N5"6)+X +"($&edkXLQ
 !"("G ( + F $&"%"P!)+$&2 !xA  $ 3P+(@ 6)+7 "\>:q },
 $ 3P+(+ %" (6)+ +"($&"A ! i$&"SP"(" $  X c+  F
} Y6)+7 "# ) @"Y!L9!" F $ ( Y "($&Y$& =Q
LN ^LL!K"( ([)+" F (*"($&9.%)7,!"N },
+9:@f"G$&?j { (9/ uvA
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$&q)!/$&./:#( !#"fL)q}d"(}!)+$&2:*$  Q
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$ 3P+(@ 0"6)+% (" $ xf "d$&^ (  F .]7V#&
$  iPnLA nrA\w\9@/ $ ,@S +"($&"1/(X&& F ! f}"> ( }/ 0.

Brakke: The Surface Evolver

+)  M)7 9&"\SP@"("($&&A G F 7,@+!fL $."G7 r


}"H ( SL F })  ( } X#!, $ 90}/:q
 F &g)!/U,@+( F .][)7+ "fP"1"  F T$& . $ 9Q

 LAB  d+ ( Lc (!"()7 $&$& 9*)+@ M)7 0LQ
9@ !"f  " )7 $ P!5$& i'A LfL"!"H!L97Qv 9:q$&@ +9."A
pH +(e$."*Y9 d!) }$."( :+ q ( $&)& 
S$  +9 P!,@
( 0"([)7dgi9  "()/H$&LQ
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A G F +,@+!fP i"X %
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$.#7 ($.) X G%$&@ I"()7G)Xb (#) $&7,@
%" #0 3P)7 A
4.2. Crystalline Integrands

Hp iI,@J,@G)cLL! ++(9@$ !"Hg)+=: "= M..$ S"=Q


6)+!"AgB)+=: "= M.&$&
"( ([)+
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$&U $."d)"$."19@$J,@+T:c /(9"= SL 0L )7 0
i"( ([)+N > F $J U>"+ O,@)7 ( "   F T"

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B [)7+ g>:0)+@ ($&L -S+(9:S!"J $& 9G($&LQ


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A  "($. "
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9:fP   "1 q ( $ ,9)+i ( +(3A !  (9&"
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9 $S/"("($ @} Q
 (@A

4.4. Gravity

B PrL: },L$& 9^ +"($ :U)7 ( $  (!"N$ "S9 , $JQ
R
M $&}
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p
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5PrL:@A ! \56)++ NP  "S F cPr$ !"SH$ 3}
L" $J $ !"f ( c ( $./ (c$ 3P+()+3$&;L" $J :Y$."
"!xA'*K+ $.)! 6)+7 "i6)+7 "X : $ 9e$ Y ( q.
  g3>  > U)7@  $ L $&W4+:eP>@#$J ( 
$ 
( 7:W(  i !L!' + F $."@A . )++ "%J: $ 9^$&
)7" ($& "i>:4P*@#$J ( W$&
$&i)+@ ($&L $ "
(^ ( *9+, $ / $& (9:?(*)+ M$& !W$&W!L9
++(9:q$&@ 9."A
$d ,L$ :c$."0"(}!)+$])!"(i "( ([)+i$&@ 9/xf
  O$J O$."g$&& (!N$  ((& :0bO"7,@ (!""=
$J N)e}+,&/ T7V)7 J: F $ ( L S($.)O$& Q
(9/ $&or$J
$&" )7@#>9 > NP F = *" ,L$&9
( "+ I (&L"(7 ( $&9G$J  o/xf$&09  zf
7,&} $ 3O"+QL2 !3$& (95+VL (" "($ "G$."
"(  F +H ( }q / \O)7@$&&!rQ$ 5+9@$ !"A
p
i$. Q$ U9 ,L$ :c !"1 S/J:3  \$ !>LQ
$/U+ ( $&)"G   $&@ 1"})+!"o"(+ "%"= 1L2 
( $&N F '9+, $J M/ $&}O (9:4$&@ +9/ "N$&W")
)"!"A
$d ,L$ :#/&$&"I SPr$ !"f@  " (6)+"!AI([)7!"
/( F !$ 9  &" "A ! d^ !" F @  !,: "([)7!"f
3) "q 3+ ($.)q!) $."( ('"($.%/ (3
"()/\"6)+S$&@ +9/ A

4.5. Edge Integrals


4.3. Surface Integrals

149

B\e 9#>:U)+ ( $&  (#/e++(9:^(" $& 9q@


$  (9 / $&9'T,@)7 (>2 !. ,@+# 3! 9U"4&$&
$  (9 6AgB# 9G$&@ 9)!/#}"("L)+$ ! F $ ( 
)7" ($&= g$J - ( * &$&!"O N+,@+:!L9"(  <!)7  
( } d)7"= ($  !AHpH % <!)7 $ ,NO ( $."$&"G &7  ( 
b(+X 9!"-*"6)+i ,X++(9:@A0p
$&"d$.""+
$ ?)+ @&.$& 93 *)+ M)7 X 9@&\c"([)7Y
F &zA-B1"\@ $&3$& i'A.kfL N)+@ M)7 1 9@&N)
}G"P!)+$&2 !i:i9@$J, $ 9S 9:X +"($ :N d (  F .
e #" $& XK ( #"6)7 9@AiB ((/ $ ,@ :@fx
 9$  (9 I)!4PL2 !T / N9@$J,@"%4 9:
 $ ,&+ 5 Y  F &0 9:f   "q    "
p
+(3AgpH $."!.$&#$&} "x (   N 1)+@/ ]  F .
F $ ( X[)7+ "#A 5$   F $."@f! 9
$& (9&"O)!/iP
"(N 
)7# N[)7+ N++(9@$ !"f"() ?"S9 ,L$ M $ }
++(9:@f bG[)7+ "
c)+"=  $  "A
B\5 9d$& (9P$." +,&/ )70b
!) q!L9
"("(r)$./  F $J T$J j(+9/  !"("\I  F >/:36)+7 "
$J i$."0T j" $ 95 >($&+ M $ '$& ($ (!e@D ( 
/ X2 @A

150

Experimental Mathematics, Vol. 1 (1992), No. 2

4.6. Prescribed Mean Curvature and Pressure

 U @$.&$&  $& "( ([)+ F $ (  )+"= M@ U"=Q


6)7H ("($ f ( \#)+ ,  (\$."I} $&}r 
# (!"(">$ 3})7)+@"("0 ( >"([)7@A>p
+Q
@fh (!"()7 $&$& 9* T)+=, #$&"d $ ,&+
S!"()+($&$ 9d G (!"("\$ 3})7@AgpH 1O,@@J,@+
P(#$ "d ( #"0 (c (" )7 $ P#!"("("N$&ePr$&"A
!"("(H)!/}GL2 !"g ( 
 / (HP) } 9
LQ
(9: F $J S("P!)M x H,@&f"G ( !"("(b/ (
$."X$. !@ !W@:? , $ 9T!) }LL: F $J ^+Q
" )7 $ P!'!"("(
 )+ ( $&  (+(9:  >f
F +(  $."X ^)7 (}H,@ 31 c}Lr:A`p

+(9:5$."\)7 & :q)!.)7 q:3"6)+S$&@ +9
.




   ! "  $ 



Hp qL!"($&!?" (6)+W  X(!.J:'}* (  $&


P :*OiPLr: o $J \+:q ,@02LVL5!L9"!AIp

+(9:0)+ ( $&  (!d: @#$J ( dP=:0$."x)7 Q
" @ Ne"5 r"d N6 3}!)7 d #" Pi "=Q
6)7@A
p
$&"O+ L F $&. : F   $  
L!"($&!i"([)7
$."X"= M/ 3 X q!"()+($&}!W!"("(A ! )7=,/ (
 !)7(!"!"N"d,@&#$&)7(!"!"f ( >" (6)+ F $.&O!$JQ
+1& F ^d$&&r A . 17V&@f}$&K#( 
"(@  &eX"6)7T (" $ 
   $&$ $.1 /Q
$& " 
H$&"- (!"()7 $&}!# (i }+,@("("( (
  `n 
f
\!"("\ )+ F $&.)"(H \ &G (%7VL}/ A
pH $&"3( )+!"q ')7,/ ((f0" ( 4!"("W)
+,PK})+S@:0 ( -)+ ,  (@f/S ( K  
+VL"G$& 2 $J !J:A
4.7. Squared Mean Curvature

pH +('/(e)$&()+>"= )7!"* L F $&) C  F  "


' 9:C (`$ ) L4 W$&@ 9S,3 W"=Q
6)7Sg ( N " (3#!3)+=, @A 6)7!"H ( }
>$ $&>$ 8O $&"]$  (9 @ )&&!
  .4  $6  , 4 
% A
pH $&" !"@ "HN (&cfr$ * ( } f

$&)+ F $."
.$& /*"6)+!"f- ( U/)+ ,/  (Yy[$& c 
K2  "= (Q6,($ $&T"(~\$."d"($& 90/T)7)7LQ
  ( G 9!"A ! " " $  (9  $&"I ( +(b
 F :L"G$& 2$ A \ F +,f$ \$&"H}@"("($& d (>)7@0
F $ ( W"  e/VL$.>/ $&xA B\a,/9T/
)+=, '/(`) `,= +V`)!/ }4)&)+./ (!xf
U ( #$  +9 g # " @}K ( $."S+,@+9#)
PN)7  c"G (9:A
p
eL2 $ $&`N/C)+=, T"` e$."
, $./ $&NfX )+(!"P"^   ,=Q
9cd ( ^"!)7 $&}G)+=, !"> / # ; !$ 

" 3A'pH 3$& (9-1" ( ! )+=, 3$ 


( %"(@LQv2& L ]$&")!.)+ !c"b@&& F "HK)
, (+
V  }"
%"= M/  6)++ "
(*$ h  P(!
 AIpH Sb )7S5 0, (+Vq$."

  
 
 


{ / )+ ,  (c$&" (}= $&}
eb()+3}$J
/(LA0r$&)7i!) ^6)++ 1 " ( %,= $.)7!"f ( X(!
" "r)$  F $ ( 
 $&"  A \)+1 N+,@ 9S/
)7,/ ((N/ *
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M   c"
    n    

/q ( $&"
,@+ (+V "H)+ ($&  $ q ( d  M $  (9 
$&"

   

 
 

 )N} F ($ ( (%"]S+V)7  )M $&Sr ( I,@+ 7V


7) r($ }/ (!"fP" i9$  1  )!U}Xb!U$&@ 
( 0 ( h )7N)!.)7 $ A
pH 0 +(/ $J,@\ ( L)/ $ 9i)7,/ ((0 ,@+ $.)+"
$&"x 1&r)! -$ ]N -!L9!"f F  $ g(!& :S$."fS (
+,@ 9H$J O!,@]   !$&9 r} $ 96)7+ "!#A - g ( $."] }"
( N (& } d>&!"= (Qi ($ 9/ (!c" (6)+
F &* }+,@18+(X" @}/(!*)+=, @f F +("H$ 
( #, (+Veb(i $&'$ % "N8+(^ " }/(')+ ,Q
((A
 !/*)+=, 1$&"
."i$&& (!

( d"= ( $& 9XLL!6fL
  @}  $&)1LL!."A ! 
( N"= ( $& 9>#r zf &7
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 1! 9!"H<)++ - ("
 Pfr"(% ( 1b()+15S,@+ 7V
$&"

     !   

K) ! 91 "K F %LP$& "fr"% ( 1&+9 q"("L)+$ Q
 ! F $J #*$&"  !  fL S)+ ,  (N$&"
    n !     

/ c %,@+ (+V "1)+@ ($&L $ c  ( % ( g$  (9 
$&"
n   
     !  


4.8. Gaps

!

-"($& -S"#2. "( $& 9%N)+$& )7. F $ (@AgpH 


O,@ ,@+\%"= 1 V $&>/ d $."\"6)+ F $J ^#)+ Q
 !)7 $&N [)7+ "f/"g"  F %$& . $&9 ( t A]p
 "=  $&9 
 9"-h "16)+7 "-)!/  H)7 ( (N 1)+ ,@

Brakke: The Surface Evolver

151

2 +!"("3i ' ( $/9 $ fS/ ""( .a 


) }/90 N"(&L $&c" $ 9$&2)@  :@A -:5) }/9$&9 ( 
)7" @ " "r)$  F $ ' ( $&"N+(9:fg*)!/Y"
F 7 +
( d !R$."
}!$& 9#"($ 9$ 2)  :*J +(! A
!  )7 (}d )7 $.)7@f19a+9: $."3"(.L@ "!
F $ ( q F $&(\P=:f" $ )7$ $."-%) *"($&#&+x<="
(* )/(S N, $.)7!"\c (  F $ (%2 Vr! AGpH i
"eb59/  (9:C)+#" F $ ( a"( ([)+T!L9"q
F &."f F (0 ( 0,= $.)7!"H)!  \P02 Vr!xA
V 213><=21A6a"16"9; A60A (,(21 !

DQ$G* +%J./!
1 21 "$F`"2"F!21`/21
)DH  P
AT 6#728 9;21$ ;A  +I?*2
 .2[!%a ;AV(J7 A 21 9;&#;1 21 "
21!W5! 121  T$

FIGURE 6.

F $ (@f/"(\ ( -)+#  (!%(!GL ( -"( ([)+-&!,!"L


%9@"\}+ F +3 % (\! 9!"3 (  F $&@A ! 
*,@+ $&)+"q* (e!,@3& 9^  F $&@fIL
 G4 3c]$ f NO,@ , F $.&h/ (.J:> =: >$  Q
$.#$&8+NX:5,L$&9X ( 0 (H,@+ $.)+"\/( 3"
/ ( 9" $&)7(!"@f F $&) *$." F / H$&"- } P+$& 9
$& . $&9%t A-p
$&"\$."G  \9L A
r@7 $."
0,@=Q
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$."3$."5 cP@"("($&&f1b5+V&f F  '"=Q
6)+c$&"#"( $& 9T c$&"($. 50T)7: &$& >Y 
!L9dx 0"([)70$&" 1 (,d* 0)7:L.$  +!A
pH (+(@fr ( +(0$."
,L$."($&q\'
 95++(9:
i (
$&" )7 9S9( F $& 9>9@"!AB )+"=  $&@ G] 0 :L}
 +2>$&X
 i#LA.kH+:P\L!).!
0! :<8G$  \/ 
2 @A . H* 9*"() q%)+"=  $  fr+(9:$."
)!.)+ !3"



 ! $      

$&" ( 1!L9,@)7 G  $."K 1(<=)7 $ 


F ( $?
1 c! L93 M 9+ > (4 U)7"= ($  */ # 3 M$.
,@+ 7V* ( d! 9@AIpH 09&}h)+"= M/ ! $&"G). !
 1 
0!   0!'6A B 9/;)7"=  #Xkq9@$J,@"X 
P" S (!V $.> $&^ (* #)M }O(!I i9xA
B /(9+, K ! #$ $.#$ 8!" 9"g/N9+ " ,@+ $.)+"
$&)+!J:5"5L 1& 9 (  F $&@A
B  F :# i }/ &19/"
$&"- (X 2 S/*! 9
$&@ 9Ny6"+ i'A ~% / >$."8+(4 c)7"= ($ 
TP@"($J $ ,XT ( #)7,+VU"($. XK ( )+"=  $&@ A
KL9$&@ 9."%(>+, }/ (!4?$  ( $ NP$& "N
%! 9@f"> N$ 99G %9@xf N$ 99G %$&LQ
+9zAepH $&"X+)7 9!"% * 9"i (TP*\ }
&+9 ( A
1h)+ "f ( \$&@ L )7 $& /:# $ $ LLQ
9:)7@P+
)  9!" ( ! "(&$&9 @ J:A  L
'9/ (9:a )+"" @}  $&)!& : F $ ( a 

5. CONSTRAINTS

I+(9:;>$ $&>$ 8 $&   ")7U"  <=)7 > ?)7 Q


=" ($  ">1 F ' :LP"U)+"=  $  "# ^ $&
I,@= $&)+!"1T)+"=  $&@ "\^ i, iK"( ([)+
$  (9 &"!#A *= $.)7!"H)!3}N$&$J, $.L}. :*)+"=  $ !
@: !)+/ $& 90  2 VLxf:)+2 $& 90  N&7,@!
"7 "-x )M $&"dy ( $&" $."
I,@ , "-}/(( F #!$&9
-  ( 
0!  4< 0. ! ~MfN:eL2$& 93 ( $&S}@"($ Q
$&4$ T ( #"d-+ + "#y6I,@ , <, !  0%.%~MA
6)7^$&@ +9.">$&;9 U)&&! *-,' ! 4.>4.%Mf
/^ ( X= $.)7.d)"XK}Lr:c,@&"d$."d$&&7Q
+ 5$&@ }. :@A

5.1. Level-Set Constraints

B ,@= 7V4>:TP)7 2e 5 ( >8+(c&+,!I"(7 %


 q#5b)7 $ "!AWr) ;Ub)7 $  $&")&&!

0! %49 0.>!'1$ CI,@J,@> + #$& @&9:@A ! ; $&"/Q
}f $J S" &^P)+&/1( )+ (+Vr F U ( 
((E)7" ($& >$&""( $  $."}/( F ""c/
F +U$ c ( N ( +1 !>/ $.)! ""A
pH i +Q
[ H$."- ( d( F "(+"@,A -" ($&
b)M $ "
/(
L2 !N@:0 ( -"(+g$&S  $&$J $. MG2 @fNrQ
}!XI(+)+@A *K+ $&)+"I+:i}G )/(i (0P
4#N#(#)7"= ($  "S"($.%J M/"( :@fhL %$
$&"\ ( %"+ "\("(}" $ $&.$ :q +"N /  X)7 Q
"= ($  %b)7 $ 49  $&@ "%/ Xq,@+ (+V'(.$ ! J:
$ LP+L !AOpH 0d&"(%7Q"($.L!>)+"= $&@ "o
( $&"
!"K } GN,= +V$&" (" ( $&)7 > (i d9$&
F +(S N)+"= $&@ b)7 $ 3 }"\  9@/ $ ,@y
  P@"($J $ ,/~,&"A
fC +?, (+VC$&"3,!` F / 7,@+5("f
wG F  "d+ LT$&"d"!^ q(<=)7 S$J 0})  (3$J "
)7" ($& "A
p
+(%$."#9&)7" ($& G (@&+/)+
 + ( } - " )q"7
$  LK i)+ ((@
( #))7)7:^-)+"=  $  0" / $&"6)M $ A0p
)+Q
 $&/ "X1c,@= 7VY$ Y ( 5$ $ $
/ U2&5Le 
,* (T" / $."b:'$J "i)+"=  $  "N+V )7  :hoI *,= +V
F $.&P/ (@>/ $.)!.J:5<=)7 (!xAGB ,@+ (+VcT)7 Q
"= ($  "%+:W&"(cP* )/('2 VLxf F $&) ?/"

152

Experimental Mathematics, Vol. 1 (1992), No. 2

} I$J F $.&@ I,


b (g$ "]$&$ $.<=)7 $&xA ! 
)+"= $&@ \$&"H#r$ 2!q   $ 9(  $.0@:q) 9$& 9
3<="= M&1}/#7 +!fL&},= $.)7!"H/(d (<=!)M 
9$&3"(>"
>" / $."b:> S  F )+"=  $&@ A
 9!"Gq6)++ "G>:*}NL!).!* P0c)7LQ
" ($& "AOpH $." !" / H&,@+ $&)+"K9  / >:
"( h $ , $&$ 9X ! F $.& }S5 ( N" #S)+"=  $&@ "A
B "($ 9@ )+"=  $  i$&"S >P"= F :T T/  M) ?
(+!L9\c" (6)+> (T F &zA3p F T)7"= ($  "
)+ 2   , (+V H)+=,@o/L g$  
 +Qv$.+"($&}
F $&*$&"% " $ (W$ "= !4\5 F Qv$&#+"($&} F .6f
$ K>:i}HP+  +O 0"
( H}/#7 ($&8X} /:
  (NL!"()+($&}!qP& F A
I,@ , <0,/! 0%.%x/(-+QP] F Qv$&#+"($&}}Q
7  $ 8#>$&. "!o ( +:#/(J +(}  F :i 
)+"= $&W *P@"($J $&?G,= $.)7!"ATB ,@+ 7V' 
P :W)!  #&"T ,5)7" ($& "
A *= $.)7!"f
! 9!"
[)+7 "-+:>}d +!!# (X&$&1$&qN}LQ
:@A . K1,= +Vhf $&"/"g } I H#+ 
} + (("-h ( \,@= 7V(\ } + (("-h 
P :@fh/U$J ")+r  $&} "1(i)!.)+ !3@
"@X
A f Y3,@+ (+V4Yc}/:W!,@!"f] 
# $ W$&"N (<!)M !e})  (^ + (%"})+*/
.$ ! W ( ^+ + "AKL9"q;6)++ ">
XP=:qP @!/ q ( 0P : # !"()7@
,@= $&)+!"A
B  .$&)!/ ( "= $&$."#  F (?L F $J F / Q
("Id} /:") "Kd)$&() HK)7:L.$& +!A
rP$J, $. $& 9#i} /:* 9d( $&("GX#$& P$&@ f
 ] M  $& 9 ( H+,@+9 + + "]L   }@$&@ "
)!#9$ ,@H""(Gb-#!L9 F G ( G}/#7 +
, $."% $."()+ $ r "AqpH (+(> q+,@+9*)+Q
  $&/ "
(d).)7./ xfr> ( 1("( $&9%}@$  H$."
(<=)7 '' P :4}/7 ("i"%)+@ $  Q
!cb(  % P$&@ AGpH i $ 9"$&c i)!  @$&
+V&%$&S
 ihnrAk%/(%(+!"@ !^"\ +Qv + (
)$&() !"K>"  F S)!"( F G GLP$& K7Vr  LQ
@ $ 3$."H !)+"("/:q$ 3 ( 0(2 $ 9#P+/ $&A
BC9 9$& !&$& $&" N"1)+"=  $  "IK F Q
$.+"($&} F &."f/T}/ $&"0b0 +Qv$.+ Q
" $  F $ ("!A ! ]0"!"\iP : F $&(fr S,=Q
$.)7!"0T 9"dU }/:T)!/e (} :^P
 !)+/(!q >}%2LVL! A pH +c ( N} /:5}!)7@!"
<="= X9$.LSG2$& 9 S}/:q!L9!"A
5.2. Boundaries

B * ,' 0!'4.> H$&X \O,@ ,$."K, 


( }/ K)!/#PH+VQ
("("(*" 1" x$  (9 &"Kh,!)7 (K2.",

5.3. Quantities

" 6)+!">/ ! 9!"A1@ $ $&">);}c+, }/ (!


bH$&b( $ }}P"("fr
( +:*)!/5}0"!5"
)7"= ($  "Gy[$&i H>/ ( !> $.)r""(~7#A  rL:%,@ Q
#X$."0T+V&i $. Q$ '
 @}/ $J :@Ai6)7
/(%$&"  \)
 @}@ $J :$  $&" "(+"@fr"($&)+d$
)!/
} F ($  c"\i,@)7 \$  +9 zA
""=Q +2 !  $ $&!"3/('" P= 5
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#&fKc#$&9  #"(^
" @}/ $J $ !"X ( c)++ (#
>"("fH ( e@+ q%$& = $LfH e>9+ $.)c_ Vhf
/i"dA]pH   +:%$ >/:N "H)"!"g$&"] 
$JQ
,(9)+0 !3f F $&) c} #$J "
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('} F  $J ( +">"( ([)+c$  +9 ."AC^)!."
"(q
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 F  F (# (N }/  F $J # ( \ $& (Qv$&,@&#\!) Q
/$."(#"f" F +^)  9 37  $&)0$."H"xA
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"P!)+$&2 !*$&* ( d M%2&d@:> 
"6)+c$  (9 /Y 36)7+ ">$J $." ('}c$& (+Q
9/ (!>,@+!f "K 1 91$&@ 9/q/# !L9!"
$J #$."i (e}3$  +9 / ?,AWB @}@ $J :Y)7 "#"#
>/ (  $&)!g)7"= ($  F 4$ N$&"0 )/(T2 VL
/49$ ,@+W3"P!)+$&2 !T, @A ! "%)7 (}O,& >+:
}4 $.".:@a/ $J "* M/(9+ q, e) 9! $  +Q
)7 $J,@ :
A 1@ $ $&"N }, ( q" #*>/ !>/ $.)
b  "\ X"( ([)+X/^!L9%+(9:^$&@ +9."$."=Q
)7"("!a$& !)M $& f0  c ( 7:'"! c)+LQ
"=  $  "dN$  >/ $&e / d }/'"0}/ SK 
 <=)7 $ ,@d )M $&A
p
* ( :0 , $&%$."i"!? +(qX ( q $&9 !"= (Qv$JQ
"($&!"%K>9$&U$ PQ"})+ H$ 
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"P)$ 2!`$ ` ( e/ W2 @f F $&) ` ( +CP)+@"5
,@&)+"=  $&@ A5p
,@ >\3}Lr: D)!/
} F ($  c"
   >k 

5.4. Volumes

F  $.) 5: S $ ,(9)+d (! )5P F  $J ( +c


"6)+S$&@ +9



    !#"  $ 



p
$."5$  (9 d$."q7, } !,@+c&1 ( eP=:
[)+7 "
IiPrL:A
pH }/ S P=:U
*PrL:TJ: $& 95'
)7"= ($  ]+!N gP-9$ ,@+i$&N ( #" 6)7+ "!A ! $J
$&"O  f/ H"(+)!/"(\ (  !" pH (! (S)7@,@=
( *= H ( q"([)7*$& (9KW q)7"= ($ 
(We&$& c$&@ +9
, ( 5! 9!" F 3 ( 5PLr:

Brakke: The Surface Evolver

"([)7##++ "d >)7"= ($  !AXpH >.$ #$  +9  "
9@$ ,q"K}= h ( )+"= $&@
L2$ $&>$&> 
 M2&A pH "N!L9S,@@ N$&@ 9."\)U.">}
"!> i, )7@ 1,@ d).)7./ $ ( !#"
)!/"!i@:% ( 
9@"O}+ F +)+ ,@)7" ($& "I
_} [)7+ "A
*K@ !"U ;"P!)+$%)!"W
 @}/ $J $ !"f%
-$. !@ S$&@ +(}.J:dgI)&$.LS"})7 
_} - (("- $&"KJ:A ! 9    $&@ "})+!"
O$& \$ !> $.%#7 ($.)"f$J O$."]% (  "(+] (d 7Q
2 1,@&1)+"= $&@ "-@:"($ 9% ( 19++ @}LQ
$J :5)7" ($& \) }/$&" 3A
5.5. Volumes in a Torus Domain

pH d,@&dg%}LL:*)!/qP0 (@>/ $.).J:).)7 Q


 !4$ Wq (("N >$&xfxL S  F  $ 93- 
!L9!")7(" "X 36)7!"#1 c @ M
(+9@$&
>  "g G).)7./ $ i ( $&)  :@A !  .J:f F  F ..$  
/<=" ( O,@= $&)+!"h:0%J $&&"h ( I#+ Q
M(+9@$ i"($."x,@)7  " 97 \}Lr: F "(K,@&
F X)!/U2 F $J U(+9.d).$& !U+ ( L "A "\ Q
  } !J:fx. F    F (X (  9 F /"fh }
$."f ( % $ 3P+(+)+"$ 3 i/<="  "
>LP$& "
  9"A  L - $."  ("-L - NP+ 9 *$  F 0
)!/(b F $ ( 5 ( N$ $J $P,@ !"H$&5 ( N Mi2&A
5x7 g  [)+7 "}GPrL:NP $&L+Vr!%@
: 4fi&7
  f}   gk nrfPN N,= $.)7!"\I6)+7 4A 5x7
   } ( y[    F P~},@+ (+VS/<="= #+ xb ,@+ 7V
  f    y    F P~ F  S,@!)M  y[$ 3P)+K$ 
 P$&@ \<"= @ "~O  9 Ix6)7+ 4AIp


   
  

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$



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153

p 2("= SK !""(#"0$."S"= ($ 9 @  F   Aip



")+;"E)!/}c(+9(}! F $ ( 3 ((Eb
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$  ((LL)+$&9  ; $.">,.$&xfH" $ )7^     <="= 3
!.P.$ 9     f5" *      *     
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X" $ $."1)+"= M/ !fhU" :3"G 
}#2 9!T)7@AB."f$J N$."S'$&@ 9S%J $ &X
( #+ (9$&,@&#
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  @?fO:
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,@ !"()+($&P$&> ( d/ S2&1$&" F $ ( $     @?I
( G)M }r,@ @f F G)!)!.)7  ( 
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p
cPLr: ,@&c9$&+ q ,= +V  );P
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,= +Vq$."G  ( (! F $ ( 3 ( +H + #"AIpH N9$&+ \$."
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154

Experimental Mathematics, Vol. 1 (1992), No. 2

6. ITERATION

pH S = \] ( %O,@@J,@+\$."


( N$ ( $ 3"= +3 ( }
(!L)7!"+9: F $. G}+:L$&9N@:#)+"=  $&@ "Agp

"( ([)+Y$&"e) } 9 @: ,L$&9 ( ?, $.)7!"A w\
) }/9!"x$&d (P&9:d ( $/9 $ S(K>L@ApH 
$. !X$." (#)!&)+/ (d ( 0b )7N G) q,@+ (+V5* 
#!,@ 
, (+Vi$&X ( }/ $ ()7 $ xf/ r"O"($& 9N9 /Q
$&+ \ !"()7 \7 r5O#$&$.#$&8!/ $ xA

6.1. Force Calculation

pH '2("= T$J  / $ ,@'"= + $."5 ?)&)+./ $& i 


()+" * ,@= $&)+!"AOp
1 ( }++(9:>x ( d"=Q
6)7*$&"S, $  F ?"i3 )7 $&' *)7r($ }/ (!"N
, $.)7!"A>pH #9@/ $ ,@#9 $&+ N- #+9:
"K1b)7 $ X H}@"($ $&XPd"($& 9@& ,@+ (+V%9@$ ,!"
H )+HX } , (+VhA -@&&!)M $J,@!J:f.r Gb )7!"
. ( -,= $.)7!"]  -% ( -9@/ $ ,@-L -  M
9$  x+9:@AwGX  F  V $&>/ $ " (1$&LQ
(r )+!3:q N )7i).)7./ $ xo ( N (9:c>+:
 IP
+V )M   
(dr#+ $&)!r$& (9/ $&"f  O 
9$  N$."d #+V)7 S9$  S-  (!V $.> 
+(9:A
*= $.)7!"\T)7" ($& " ,@N !$& )+" (+<!)MQ
!c * ( % M/9+ 0"})+!"1I ( )7"= ($  "!A *K+Q
$.)7!"-*}/ $&" }+,@ !$   )7!"
> P}) 
*b()+!"^ i}/:c + ( "A . $ Vr!c,=Q
$.)7!"
},0 ( !$ Gb )7!"G"+ H #8+A

6.2. Volume and Quantity Constraints

pH i"!)+^$J  / $ ,@%"= +U$."\ ( ()+i)7"= ($  "


ePrL:^,@@ !"0e +S$&@ 9 !+@ $ $&"!A
! * }"# F W}= "AapH U2("= * q)+"($."= "#S)7=Q
(!)M $ 95N@:U(("N$ T #)+(+ 0,& !"0K 
}/ $ $ !"A pH 4"()+` 3)+"($."= "qN<=)7 Q
$&9N ( G,@+ 7V# )+" %} ( 9 N (  LQ
$ :*9 $ @ "A   5}= "
"0 ( S9$&+ "H 
 ; P
}/ $ $ !"H"H )M $&"  ( d,@+ $.)+"A 5x7
09 $ @ \#  $ : ! "\i)7 $&5] ( S}Q
" $J $ ?G,@+ (+V PA4p
!"*9  $&@ "/(q (<=!)M 
3)+"=  $  G&+,!h"+ "
HP($&!"
/(S"+

8>$ 5 N"S/ "H()+"!A
p
K,  )+()7 $ i)7"($&" "]} J: $& 9d" $ 9&
" ('\wG F  "%+ ( rxA 5 + N ( )+ ((+ %+VL)+!"("
, S @}@ $J : ! }
  ; y F $.) c>:q}N+9/ $ ,@f
I)+  "/~MOA f'i"("S ( }/ \ i)7(!)M $ 9 $&
   / H,@= 7V *$."H] Sb 

 

;  ;

/3"  $."2 !"

 

"

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! 

p
$."I&!"g (d H@&& F &$  9S&$& I"=: "=  I   ; 
%  ; %   ; "   ;5  ;!5 G) @}@ $J : ! ) 


p
$."H"=:L" (! $&"H"( ,!*
(   ; f/q +)70b

 $&"  AHpH i $&^$."\  1)!/( $ !3L d$&>7Q
 $/ (!J:fL H"K KP ( \!,@ & $&> !"()7 $&}!
}!& F A%p

 @ $ :c,& !"S  S}(b!)M  :^)+=Q
!)7 (!X@:i $."I" (xf  ,@+K"+,  $ ( / $ "g 7:
" &5)+@,@+(9d X 0 (9+ H,& !"A
pH #")+T}/ S$."1 <=)7 $&UK b()+!"A
5 +   } X  MOb()+>/ 0,@+ 7V P
A f' F  %

 (<!)M !qb()+    )  Sb 

   )      %  ;   ;

") 5 ( }/

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F $.) c  "


(# ( 0@&& F $& 9#&$& G"=: "=    ; 

;%
;

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b#!) @}/ $J : ! ) A;p


c)+>)$  "  ; /(5 
59 9#i $&&$&+ "d0 @}@ $J :e)7" ($& "f
/4)eP>$&@ + 4"0!"("!"0SPrL:U,@ Q
#1)+"=  $&@ "JA fC +7,@- ( 1"H"  "  PLr:
,@&!"
>}i $.".:!xfr !"N!"("S,&"
."#"  F A
6.3. Motion

K) ,= +VY$.">!,@! @:Y (  @ $ : )+()7 $ 


  $&Y "#U" ) 5[)7 (i $&#"i ( q )+3/ X 

, (+VhAqpH *"()!&>[)M N$."%39&K)7" @ fx 
" Nb1& ,@+ $&)+"!A ! "\ @: "($.)x$&@ +(+ / $ c$."
( 3 $.c" (;!,@+ F $.) 5,@! L)+$ : )7 "ApH 
"(+i>:'"+ % ( *"()!&6)7 (%+Vr&$.)$J J:ei + % 
O,@ ,@+O"    $.>,&A ! i H./  OLL@f
( ^O,@ , F $&.G"))+"(" $J,@ :Y &3> } ,5 
"()!&I6)M x@ $&@H#$&$&%a$ S+(9:S$&" )  + xA
p
 }  / $&)3$  +(}@ $ ;$&"#" ('!"= $.>/ (
( GL $.% "()! G6)M !f/ ( }/ , \$."I"!>$ 
( S2 }x $&xA
-) 5 $&#N# $ 3$."G  @f.h, $.)7!"Hc)+LQ
"=  $  "%<=)7 (!3})  # !$&1)7" ($& "\@:

155

Brakke: The Surface Evolver

(+P i.$&)!/ $&%w\ F  "]+ L f/@ $. 


)+"=  $&@ ^ )M $&a,& W$."^"(>&&5 ( }  )+LQ
"= $&@  (@&+/)+36)M !f F $&) ^"(+*>: "(7 A
! K,@= $&)+!"0" <!)M 0 37Q"($.L!e)+"=  $  "S>
 F  90"($& -L  )+"= $&@ f ( +:%/( <!)7 (!
* #)7"= ($  !A ! -") '>,@+ 7V F / "1 5,
d H (P"($. H G)+"= $&@ f$J K$."O(+!Xb(@
%)7" ($& !A
. @ +VL}($&)+f]$J i"+!#"0 / !f0 F Q $.LQ
"($& "6)7!"XL $J,@?:?"6)+ +"($&fg qLQ
$&i "()&*6)M $."#/(  g A nLfK$  +P+ + 
'2 +!"("q% e ($/9 $&f1"c 9;"q 
"([)7i$&"\7,@@J, $ 9 F $ L  !#"A
pH % $J,@=Q
" .$J :4H q"()!&*6)7 X$&"i7VL}!)7 (!?$&' $."X)"@f
"($&)7N X"()!&%6)7 (1$."\$  !"("$&U  9 ^b\ F Q
$&#+"($&}(!dJ:JA fC  ( \"()!&G[)M $J,@!"
 F ( 8+(f\ $&"q"}.J:C" $ 9$&2"5"#4$&PLQ
$& 9W( !3fH.$  U` 9U& 9 ( 546)+7 5(!
P)+@#$ 948+(A "Gb (/  :@fK 3,&  gLA neLQ
&$&!"0P!"= S c#$&$.#$&8$& 9c/(Log ( +%r !&"f]")
"0 ( >"= ($&9cLL!4" @}/(!4/')7,/ ((f
}+,@ (>
3"()!&>[)M ("0 / S,/: F $J e ($LQ
9/ $&5"($&80* ( +
6)7  "fL"$ G$&"
  i .
F C 4" (6)+e$&"q7,@ , $ 9Y (P( :C F 
$ N$."097 ( $ 93$& (q &A ! e ( !"#)+$& )7#"= M/)+"f
 ( + L "I }+,@
S}G"(xf@") >"$ ( $ 9
"([)7%, $&"}& :^U) )  $&9!L9 9 e
6)++ X $."= 9 #"A
pH 1#!)+ ,  (G,@!)M -2 !.   xN"( ([)+ $4$."
 +2c (PN %9 $ @ 1O X# $
f}$&c 
""% / d$& $;$."dL ! F $J e/e$&"= M@ M/"
,@&L)+$ : fr 0 Sg) }/9N$&3$ "\$."

6.4. Motion by Mean Curvature





"

 

  


-:5L2$ $&xf 
     +\# $ 5:5/c)+=Q

, @f "(X / 





    


-:^L6/J f i9  $&@ ",@}@ $J $&"1&$ 

yzt A.k!~

% (9:
 S,@@  (-)!.)7 N"($.J:N"x K9  $&@ g
2@}@ $J :q"G% )7 $&qx,@+ 7VP"($ $ xAIp
$."
9@$J,@!"% 5b()+q;^, (+VhfbX+V  @A  L  (
"($.%./ G $&:/>)+ ,/  (f@$ K$."I)+!"(" =:
0 },H )+HP+-d$ "= !xA ! X 
($ 9/ $&

b(i $&f&7  PG ( 1/(!0} "= M/KP6)+7 "


/(q, (+Vq5&7



}0 ( S )+0#PApH 






%


    



y  ~ "    


pg  i ( *"("L)+$ ! F $J e#,@= 7Vc (*PX+Q


( $  WH    (!"iH *[)+7 "%"( ($ 9
( i,= +Vhf      AiL$ )7X) T[)+7 0 }"1 ( 
,= $.)7!"f} $&"S. L)! "S.I/(L
A G)+@fx"1 ( #/ Q
 (!V $.> $&q    f F d M  

        

g iO,@@J,@+$."G} c$& (>.$ 8 $&

 r @f \,@= 7V># $ " /(1)!&)+/ (!#"($& 9N $."



b(iLA ! % ( $&"Or @f! -"O" &%"(7 g ( 
"()&
[)M f F $.) e$."1 ( i $&#"= U1 7,@& $&f} 
5)+"= M@ i"(>.I+ 9 'bS ( $J +/ $&4 (^}*
9rr/ (VL$.>/ $& e ( c)+ $ r "7,@@  $&xA
"\"($&9W; $&#$&8!$ 94" ) c[)M >  " 3 $&#
"= (5 (r#9A
p

"=  $ 91#r r$."gH K d) @"
"()7( Q
$&@:  F NO,@ ,@+H !"
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,/ ((A !  ihnLA ;a+V& F "39@$J,@+X9$&
} / $ !"7,@@J, $ 9N$&# F % $."($&"A !  (!VrQ
$&>/ $ 9*# $ U:U!e)7,/ ((fP ( +(#/(i F 
 $."()++ $&8 $ "X } q%"= *}U> fG$ `"})+T/
$ e $.A#pH "})+> $."()++ $&8 $ T >)+"($."= "0
 (!"+ $ 93 ( 9$ W} / $ !"i"ic"7 iG&$&
"+9@@ "f
 c $.c$&" )7(7 $&8!/ $& )+"($."= "#
( 0$ ( $ q"= "AIpH +(0$."H5$&@ (!$./ (0"= 9
$."()7(+ $&8!/ $ xf@} :f 0)+ $ r "K $.17,@Q
  $&?\ 3 $."()++ (5"9@+ "A'pH 5 / $&Y
 $&N ( $&"( ! }"P+%) "S 1 (!VrQ
$&>/ K 
b& :%)+ $ r "] (& $ i  @&& F $& 9
!"P)7 !ANp F Q $."($&9$&T+,@&L $ U }"1 ( 
 (P= : ( }/ H ( 0 / 0g) 90OiOi9$&
L} " :X ( Gri}h$J ""($. "A !    $."O ( 
!')+ ,  (> >} /:eH59$  f]"
( } ) Y}@$&@ X? *P :W#!,@" F $ W,@+Q
 L)+$ :    fx # # ) 9#G/(!5- ( #9$&
$&"
!



 

 

 







 

 





 

156

Experimental Mathematics, Vol. 1 (1992), No. 2

pH c ( H (($& 9Y/9@ U  ^} /: 
9 $&T$&"Sn fPL 0) ^ ($& %,@= 7VU)7@  $ L !"d
$ 9/9&S  f "X }

F 

y Wt@~
c/5Q"($.L!`9 $&xA p
4"})++Qv$&" )7(7 @fH $&+Q
)+@ $ r"i (&  ("(+,!"% $&"X (P= :@A'p

# $ ?G) ?,= +VW$."X") ? / i 5)  95$ 
(!] S9$&^LS # ( % $&3g ( }/ G,@= 7V
$."H (P= $ }P ( ( d  ($&9>/9&S/ G ( } H,@= 7V
y[
 S7V )+"("
 ($&9> 9@&N/ H  $  0,@+ $.)+"~7A
B (P+ :* } $."G  7V)M J:q!"=,@c$."H ( }
 / - F $&) F   $."x}(!N"]H$."x" F L
$."HP $&P (# ( 0/ (SO&+9 c @"("f








 " 

 

 



  

  ! 

pH "= 0.$J :^$." "= ($&9,@("($&UK @}/ $&


yzt A.k!~MA]p(",K ( $&"(P+ : F .S( @$ (-"( ,Q
$&9'e":L"= ! d.$ !# / $ ">&$&  $& 9T 9+ ( +
S $ "HO&h 0, $.)7!"A
p
d"})++Qv$&" )7(7 $&8+!#7,@& $&*$."-9/ (!# 
Pc$&" "($ }/ $ ,@f # ( 5 $&#7Q $."()++ $ 8?+,@&L $ 
)!^" 3}\( $ "= M/$&.$ $&"!A -" $& +1#} /:
 1*"9@+ "-]&+9 (
!?8!$&98/99@$ 9XP
S"= ($ 9 @ -#$. .$&  F $ #"(.&$   PAOpH G,@7Q
&L)+$ :SH,@= 7V F $.&@}  !  f%$&L K $&#-"= +
$.

" MfO ( 3#.$J L F $.&-9( F $     !  n PA


\)+3 ( ^>V $.% $.!"= (;&& F &c$.
"  
!  nrfg!fg)+, " :fx ( #$ $.% !L9& 9 ( W$."
!  n MA'OV)7 #$& 9TG q8!$ 98!9Tr))+  "
  !  A
F +
6.5. Conjugate Gradient

I#$&$&#$&8!$ 91 L/ $.)- )M $&f  (!) $  


  F '"1 
! ,1 7 19 0.%!'+$6- / 5jI(!"("d7
zAgklmm f`iOkg A t/uI$&"6di>)$   U9 $ @
 !"()7 !A fa$J +V)7  $J #7 $&)f-$ >#$&$&#$&8"#
hQv$.+"($&}# @}L $.)i )M $&e$&4/ N"  $ Q
 $ "A]pH $&"+ ( rX !"I  I.& F ( 
9 $ @
  F  $..6fL  \  "\c/<="= #+ H"($& 9X S}"=
$."= (:* S#$&$&#$&8 $ A
p
dI,@ ,-"("K  .  + ) +  G++,@",($@

#)+<= 9 9  $&@ %+ ( rxAB
N$ ( $ 4"= +
fH&7 $  Pc ( U"6)+@f  $ "> (9:f    y  ~X 
()+d/ ,@+ 7
V >"
L!"()+($&Pq/P,@fL    y  ~I 
= $&"= =:*,!)7 ( 
X PAIpH 
   y  ~     y  ~ 4      y  ~ 


*     y  ~ "    y  ~
*       y  ~ "      y  ~

 U (  )M }X $&xfX +Q $."($&%#$&$ Q


#$&8!/ $&;$&">P !;$& U $&()7 $&     f
"=Q
$ 9 N )  7 $ 9>+ L3 "()+ $ P3$& iPt A A ! $."
$&#}= M@ G ( }/ 1.h,@&!"/c)7"= ($  "G}NLQ
b )7!0 ($& 9G (  +Qv$.+"($&}#$&$.#$&8!/ $ xf+
."d N+ ( L5)!/39>)787:A
pH > 9:eb)M $ 4G3"6)+$&"S %+V )7  :
@}L $.)f  O ( 
+ ( Li)!X"= $&.PH.$ !xf
"@7 $."S$ S:L$&!&"d,@+:e9rr4("( "!
A - %"@+Q
$.!"-$ " F ("1 *(+9.
$ ( / $ xAOpH 0"  &
}@$&@ qN++(9:$ ` ( T)! +@$&7V&UP
 ihnLA.k
"#"% e)7 "* ( 5)7<=9@/ (q9$&+ #7 rxA
f $ ( X)7<9@/ -9$&+ !f$&i 3}!)M f ( 
"  &-}@$&@
$&"q}"("!a c$ ( $  k!sY` '(! L!)+"("
/9$ ` $.d$J +/ $& gLf F  $ q(!) !"5t A  mt A
- '/ T $."TP$&@ e  4$J  / $& (r )+!"T 
) } 9fH/ ( c)+<9 39  $&@ #r 3 }"# (
}* (!W4 3`/?? T+"( ( q $."= :4,@)7 !A
)+#(!"=  (! fg/ ( +Xbn g3$ ( / $ " F $.&9+ S 
/(U  F ? 4t A  A'p
$&""(  F "i ( }/ #)+<9 
9 $&+ 5r T)!/ F   %) `P7 ( + ( }` $JQ
:qL f   $J )^."# ,S&!#"A
6.6. Hessian Minimization

{ $&$.#$&8!/ $&3:c9 $ @ 0 "()+@ dd+,U@:^)+LQ


<9 N9$&+ 1)!/c   %>@:c$J  / $&"AHB 
 $&()7 F +:W U :W (4#$ $.#$ 85$&"i e)!&)+/ (* 
G!"("($> ($ Vx"!)7L $J, $ ,!" ++(9:>
"@J,@- ( d $ > }
9@$ ,!" 8+X9$&+ !AIp
$."
+ ( r*$." )+(+ J:$. !@ !# :>- d)"
F \"( ([)+
+"($&>$."O ( G :X (9:#/ F (
( % :c)7"= ($  "1(%2 Vr!c,= $.)7!"A ! 0" "#"
( }/ ] 
"6)7 $."g) @" +9 N d1 L)#$&$.%
bI  \" "($. N}\P"($ $J,@G 2 $J @f F $&) $&"
 F +: "\ E
A fC ^ ( X+ L F   "fh$J S)U2
( S#$&$.%  (9:* (c=k i )$&h)+!"H$&q ( (+
ii$ + $&"
A  L $&
( %
 \!"("($/Y$&"% X}@"=Q
$J $ ,>L2$ (@fx + ( Le& F "SxA ! %$."S"=:T (
2 U+V&" F $ ( 'q"   }@$&@ S-++(9:@fx")
"I ( \)! +@$&7V&@Agp
(\) )  "K$ #)+
(c"( (# / N )!.)7 ' $&W !"N$& 
! )+0+(9:A
6.7. Diffusion

! ^]"@c  i)+&"= ( "f}$ 1)!^$ 3P"(i)7(" "


( K"@S2&>"fL $ ,S:d (!"("K$ 3})7!"Agr$&)7

Brakke: The Surface Evolver

(" . i  !"i }+,@q $&9 )7=,/ (3Y )7
$ 9 +e (" " (@fN ( +:a   " ($&  A 1 )!/
F  ) 4b +,@ ,c!,@+# ^)+ "c0#$& "f
) 9$& 9T$ "N }@ 9:W"% &!"i $."  P/!A^pH 
I,@J,@T)! "($.%./ (Y$ 3P" $ xA !   $ 3P" $ 
L Y$&"UxfN M/(9+ U,@&?$."c  "b(! )7(" "
) Y6)7+ #/ X 5"= M/ !) Y$ + $&Y)7: )+&fK$ 
 @ c }d ( ( WY% ( 46)++ 5 $&#"
3$ 3})73$&YPrL:Y (" " (!"i $.!"i ( 59&
$ 3P"($ a)+"= M/ !ARpH 4$ + $&a"= C ( +a)+=Q
()7 "I )7 (} ,@ !"O 0 H (9+ ,@&#"-
 !"d$ "(>] (9:U#$&$.#$&8!/ $ ^"= xA0p]P@JQ
9:N) } 9"g/(K ]  
/ (@>/ $.)!.J:1:@7 o$J g$."x
0 G" (N)!:i !  !f"($& 90 GP / $&"
 " )7 $ P!5$&^r!)M $ ^sLA
7. SURFACE OPERATIONS

pH $."#")7 $  L!"()+($&}!"i 3>$&?P+ $&"#+,$& Q


&H (0 ( G"b#r$ b: $ 9S0"6)+@f@" $& Hb(@
H$J +/ $&i" (X "()+ $ Pi$&% (   (7, $&"g"!)M $&A
p]&
  4"! -S ($ 9/ $&*$."K X"P$ ,L$.L) *6)7+
^)+/ (q32 +N ( $/9 $ A*pH *O,@@J,@+iLr!"
$."%:')+(!/ $&9^  F ,@= $&)+!"i/ % *#$. }@$  "N
!L9!"f F $.) ?$J % W""N U"h $ ,L$. >) W6)7+
$&@ #b G F 6)7+ "!fL!) c"($.#$..  S $&9$&zA
pH 2  "= ]" 9(+2$ 9G$."h \"P$ ,L$.LK.!L9!"
:S$&"(+ $&9G#$& P$&@ A \)+ .6)+7 " !}/Q
$.J:3 },X"($ Vc"($& !"A . 0/^!L9iU)+"=  $&@ "f 
#$. }@$  >9+ "# ( c" c"(7 >d)+"=  $&@ ">;$."
<=)7 (! ' !3A . q 9^C4P :@f
>}/7 ("0 ( >#$. }@$  i/()&)+./ (!e@:
<=)7 $&9 (  ,@!)M Ob( ( 
 9- M$&  
>$&LQ
P$& )  $  1 H}/7 I"})+GX@: $& 9
/ # T 5 $.
 + ( "A pH $&">,@$. "+,@+9Q
$& 9T}/7 ("iGLP$& "f F $.) Y9@$J,@!"%}?(7Q
" " F L  F $J iP($&!"] / F  #/(
!#"! ,!"f-") "#)$&() !"A !  ( c"!)7 "= M9@f
) 6)+7 q$&""( h $ , $& $  '[)+7 ">@:;)+LQ
)7 $ 9X 0 F #$& P$&@ "A
 = M$&5 ( ( $&  (!"-x F &!+ " /(d$& + $ (!
@ ( *.W! !@ "Nb(@ F $&) ' 7: F q)+(7Q
/ (!xAIp
1 F 6)7+ " $& + $ - d"6)7 ("($ *
!$& }@ H6)++ "A . $ VL$ :@fr)7"= ($  "H*PrQ
($&!"/(\ F +: "I$  + $J !%:%4 3h"  $& 90h.L$&#+ Q
"($&"A ! e
 @ $&+ d"})+@f}"@@f 1 S&zf F
!L9!"-$   $J "=: #+ (:9( F /$&9fr"S }
%" (6)+S$&"\)7(!)M J:q!%}!L! A

7.1. Refining

157

H2 $& 9G)!/%) }/9"([)7K(! f!+9:Sd,@ Q

!"$& +(\)7,!#)+"=  $  "OP($&"!A


. #7V&@fK2 $& 9e ( c"([)73 . $&9(cte$& Q
)7(!"!"H$ "G/(! fLP)!/"S$ \L!)+"(" 09c A
!  "  $& 9; ( ?>$ $&i  (9:fN$J e$&"^P"= ^ 
7,@ ,@ F $ ( C4)+@("(3 ($/9 $&">6/q">P"Q
"($ &AG-) ^$ ( $ ^)^9 i#P" $J $ ULQ
<"= +  :3% 9X 0 $&#f}"> ( %2 \ ( 
( $.9./ $ xf ( -& 9+g/<="= #+ "    G (+,@!
)+@"("
S"([)7@A
7.2. Equiangulation

p $.9./ $ " F   P"= F  U[)+7 "qe"


)+&"( T $&  dy ( } #$."f$. 9.~i"XP"Q
"($ &UcW9@$J,@+a"+ 5S,@+ $.)+"A $0$J,@+Y"+ 5
,= $.)7!"f  F Lr"3 '>  W? ($ 9/ $& b
( "(i,@+ $.)+"1 / 0 }"1 ($ 9@ !"0"0 /  :T"dP"Q
"($ &> @$&/ (  ! ' ( . @f] ( q" F i$."S ( 
 !. }:3  $. 9./ $&xf $  F $&) U )$  )7#)$  ) 
1!) ( $/9&c)7@ M$ "X4 ( , (+Vaj L$ "
k+l@sm/uA ! N$."S&#"= % F +: "d$  @A ! N)!e}>)7 Q
"= (()M 0:0&L)P+ $&" P+9@$ $ 9 F $ ( %:1 ( $ Q
/9 $ 
A  "($.LN:U!L9"d #$.9}I
( 
 @}L $&/ ( xb c@:c$ "1<)++ \ ($ 9@ !"A
! H 5/9@ !"%H (  F U,@+ $&)+"i 3 H 5 $/9Q
]5 (S ( }/ Kf ( %)+$&()+#)+$& )+&S)7 $ (($&
$&"#,L$&/ (! f
 ( ^ $/9G" . P^" F $J ) !
(  i(+.)+ H}$&H ( $/9&!"Sy . $ 9 (Ns~7A
fC  'c" F $J ) !"#)!/ Pc @f F 3 }+,@^
 !. }: ($ 9/ $&A





O\9=&#" 21/!6A
,
" 
 
*! ;O"UV *A 
/   &21."21%ab1?9=O7 
 
$ `UV /!6A 6
*! #(` U 5!#621
*!2[

#*A7
ea!D- bA;>21/!6A
'D21`!!21
8M UV * !
A 
*2"$

FIGURE 7.

wG F "}@" / F # },q ( $.9./ $ eH


)7=,@!" (6)+^$&`"})+A . *@:; 9 F $J ; F 
<)++ [)7+ "f F ^" F $ ) ^ 93 4 ^ 

158

Experimental Mathematics, Vol. 1 (1992), No. 2

 $/9}S e"   F } ($. +1$ S ( e" 


d 9@&"
 13}Qz,= $.)7!"-$&"
(\  KAOB1"
$ 
. $ 9sLf&7  P
G  9  G)+@#X!L9f 
  ( &+9 ( "h ( \ -"($.L!"hG ($ 9@ @f
 T  *  9 "N
 +i"($. "N

 
( $/9&@A 5 +     }0 ( 04 3Q/9@ !"A -:
S F g)+" $ "!f 
     4   Wn   )+"      4   ?n   )+"   
pH S)7$ $&   4   4$&"
$ ,&+
(#)7@"   4
)+@"   g AKr F S
 " F $ ) 3$&


4    4



 

 

g

pH % $ 9/ $&c (r)+!L%!,@G  F &i"=Q


6)7i>:c ,% P%(} !^"+,@+x $."\ 97
)+@&+ (U $. 9./ $&xfH 3." q +,@+5
}/' (ibN $.!"A3pH * (L)7!"("i$&"N9/ Q
q  + #$&/ f "($&)7%" F $J ) 5( )7!"H ( S$&$
h d)+$& )7#)$  )+&!"f/*N2$ (1"(7 h, $.)7!"K }"
2 $J 0r%PH  $. 9./ $&"A
$/9 $&')!' }+,@*Y.@"= i>9$.)IQ
!)M
$ *$&(!, $ 9i0  $. 9./ $&xf ! $ 9 J:#!)MQ
@# $J "#(9.>"(A ! *>:? !}/ $& : $&LQ
)+(!"U/(4;)  95,@&"!f-  > c/9$ Q
L!"*S !"T 3}!)M "5( F $ ( $& 4 V $&>/Q
$&^+(I"($&9>_} 1[)7+ "\b1>)+ ,@^"([)7@A
@$/9 $  F "0"!T}+ F +e ( #"!)74/
,
$  5" )7 !"G$& . $ 9>kA
7.3. Vertex Averaging

Bq7,@@J, $ 9X" (6)+1)!*9+ H$&@ % (( d$&"#1


d,@+ $&)+"
] ( d  $. 9./ $&*9+ H >"()+) 
9+ ( fK"$&? ( 5"!)7Y"()7q$& . $&9(
 A4p]
9+ 0,@+ $&)+"d 3"(!T !fx >)!e" :%-798 0: ;
 < 1. ! 1A . !) c,@= 7V f $."\P / $&U)7@L "
%  F }@"($ $&5"K 0/(Q F !$&9  (!q+,@+91 
)+@ @$. "H] ( S6)+7 "\/<=@$ $ 9X 0,@= 7V A . $JVL
,@= $&)+!"g
  O#!,@xfS,@+ $&)+"gi}/ $&"f
)+"= $&@ "3U" $ 9/c)+=,@"U(?, 9J:
F $ ( e !$ 9 r}($&9, $.)7!"1 ( "i :rP@ASB1."f
  +5 N  F " (6)+N"\)+&@"%"HP@"("($&&d (# 
@.efx,@&"S'P W"($& !"0- "([)7*/(
(",! A ! P,@+ 7V $&"K[)+7 "  F $ ( )++ ((@$&"
  fr 0 F }@"($ $&3$."G)!.)+ !3"


 71


*     "  
*    

p  ,@@ 
 G"($& 
P. H[)7+ "I i 
, (+Vq)!&)+/ (!5"\)+Sb( ( d,@= 7V5$."


% 
6( 

" 




F      &$ "K 6)++ - >(+!"@ $& 9i$J " /(LA
p
0 (   (   $."


 
p ' ("(+,5,@&#f F ^"   )M *e% $&&
;
( 0 ( h >h@R %, 90P" $J $  
y   7 1 
T ~ "     "  


"

   7 1 "     "   


" 

p
q S F ,@= 7VqP"($ $ 3 $&"
 B   y   7 1 
U ~ 


-"= ($  ,= $.)7!"c4 a<!)7 (!C  ( !$ 
)7"= ($  "!A
*K= 7Vq+,@+9$& 9i+:"(.$ 9 @  :>$ )7("d(! fL
( $.">$.">"}& : 4 3P"(7 *@:;$J ">}+2 "!A ! q$&">"b
$ Y9+  $& 9^ ,@= $&)+!"i"( (!? 7,@ :@A'O,@@  Q
$&')'}* F  F /  F +W[)+7 "N>-,@=:4$ bQ
b(+ S"($ 8!"fh"($&)7i #" #"()!&X[)7 (S/.$&"1 (
(  F &N" (6)+A
7.4. Notching Edges

BC" (6)+G)!#P L)!.J:i $&9 J:#)7=,@! f@!"J $ 9N$ 


[)+7 "gb(>$ 91 )+i $& 9"I  9d!L9!"AO1
F :S 1"(&)7 $J,@ :S(+2  (  "( ([)+ $."] (12  J:
/( U "#!L9" F "(<()++ S6)+7 "N/( 
[@ }/.&zfL ( $ 9'U ) $  5!L95 (
>  N$J 1(N"  +Qv"( }!xAp
N$.")+#/
( }/ H&+ "- 0"H i ( $." F $J 3X)7 (4 3U/9@ dx $."
) r"($&9A-p
N2 !+ $&"1)7 (}& :q  S:3"LQ
 $ , $&$ 9i) 3<)7
[)+7 H:L ( $&9i  F ,@=Q
(+VT$&T >)++ (!A $. 9./ $&U 4)+@&+ (!"
( c (L)7!"("A . ( J:f- UI,@J,@$&;  ) $ 9
@:5<"= i"P$ ,L$. $&95 >4 3}$& 9^ 9!"f]  N }
(L!U c)7(!/ #& "0 & 9c"  $& :U ( $.9&"N
  % F +: "0 ! 4 ( ( "AipH #  F + ( Le"+!#"
( F   P7 ( (!A

7.5. Edge and Facet Operations

 F +:W 4$&# (!,@3^  $. 9./ $&Y$."X (4"($&# :


.$.#$ }/ ('&S 9!"5 ( }/ c ,@4P!)7@e " = A

Brakke: The Surface Evolver

Hp $."HP+/ $&5$."   F c" 4. ! 0;  =1/   0. !/1AII,Q


=:5 9N"  +H ( }^i"=Q"+ \)7 3T& 9 ( q }
)!/q&+9@$J $.> !J:P(#!,@*$." L!&7 >:$& + $ b:Q
$& 9>$ "HLP$& "A
r@7 $."S ( q/(>,:'"  $&@:e ($ 9@ !"0 }
" .X}G!&$.#$&/ (!xf  F $&) #L  }+,@d" =
!L9> cPb 4:e $ :Qv!L9 F $& 9Ac*)!/
T"  <   0.>!/1fx/eP+/ $&T ( }/ 0(,@"
($ 9@ !" F "c/(T$&""(>&&+i  "(5)+L 4 3gf
:`2 $& 9Y ( 4"  "= 3 9eN T  $. 9@&4
!&$.#$&/ $ 9X$ H:> S" dL)7!"("G"
9/
$&@:rQ
!L9S(#!,zA
pH +(U$&"*')7@#>Y } F $.&\$."!)M q&G!L9!"
&9+> ( }/C4"=Q) @";& 9 ( A B1&\[)7+ "rQ
<=$&$ 9> ( %!L9"0/(X."*"P$J, $.L!c$&@ *$  "
6)++ "A ! 
* F ! 9!"/(*" $.&-& 9+% W 
)+L 4 3Y 9 xf ( 7:'/( Nb ( +N"P$ ,L$.L!xA !
$."0"99" (!^ / d $&"0"= TPb@&& F !U@:U @$/ Q
9/ $&A
$."= (9 #"0-!L9>  9 "Se6)+7 %(!"S)!/
P $.".:!#$&)7<=)7 $& F $J */:P ( "(\)+@XQ
> "A
7.6. Annealing , or Jiggling

r#7 $&#"H$J \>:*PSL!"($& &1 P+ ((q ( S"=Q


6)+N 9+ 1$ 13'>#7 M" &N}@"($ $&xA - ( ^LQ
  /#"(+Qv 2 }/&G} (}/ $&"-/(\P@"("($&&A
 )!/"X-$ "0"($&>$&/ $ :3 (q ( i + >]P=  (}Q
$ "K!"P"($&&\b
/!&$&9N$&*+ ."f 1) }=Q
)M ($."= $&)>>9$ (L
}= } $&?$&"i). !
7 $   < 04,  7A
"\L
S  P+ % / $&xf@ %.31 17f@) *)+Q
($&/ (d) q 2LVL*, (+V*$&"H!,@!:   
!hf F +( $." 0/L@ , \b( ( " (
$S"(" $.c$&"=  $ L $&Wy[)!&)+/ (!q( %" 
2 ,*/L@ ,&"%b(@ *$&b  $&" ( $  $&
?j gLfku[~7f $." S)+ ((+ G P / ((f/ ! $."\
) )7 ( $&"= $.)  9 > / H"= M= "
"K 1$.+ ( 
%" (6)+N/3$."G)+L $ 3 }&O !) 3(+2 !@ A
B  0!/1  .1=1 3I$."-S"($&"@$& $&"()+!+ P)
,@+ 7
V @:   "($&y  "  4 ~7AOpH 0&$     f@ 
 (  "
>:4}q"P)$&2 !
F +,@,!)M    /4
:* S"(+G\}N) "c/ \  L@3A

7.7. Popping Edges or Vertices

pH \I,@ ,I !"O K) 9


(  P@ 9:ihd"=Q
6)+NU$ "\ F fL  ( +(Xi>/:5 $&!" F +T
}  & :e+,@ ,L$&9c"( ([)+ F $&.+!4 ^)  9*$ "
P@ 9:A;B )  #$&9  >$&) L *$ 4)/ ($.

159

F  "(eP=:C $ 9"ce (r [c/}= f15 F 


9( F $& 9N+ L9$&"K#$ 9  K++ A . = / (! :@f ( 
:L}!" ]" $ 9/ $J $&"-P@"("($&&0$ 3"@ Qz2&R"([)7!"
$ c ( +Qv$&#+"($&}")+ F +(i)+"("($&2 !c$  j pg:rQ
 qkl@st/u %$&  "6)7> +"($&AUp
q" Q
[)7!" >+:>#++ H& 9X%)7,@f@ b - ($&&1)+ ,!"
>+:3++ 1/ dXP@$  !A-pH %I,@ ,G }"GL)7!  ("
"  1/ - .>!/1 :%-798 2'.>!/1 (U +Q
  F Y
(!)M S$&(P+0"($&9. $J $ !"d/^ (q( )+i ( !Z 
 (P- :LP"AIp
!"(L $ !" 0L!"($&9>J:>b
" (6)+" F $ q$&b  " (6)+1 (" $ xA { /:*(
:L}!">0"($& 9.($ $ !">^P" "($ &c$ d ( ^$ 3}
)7@P+ S"( ([)+"0+ $& 93/ %q"($& 9($ :^ }+,@
 $ 3}(+ \"( ([)+d (" $ "!A
 91P$&9X r  "-  9"K } G(1 
2 Vr!xf
/(^  P($&">*)+"=  $  "fH&$&c
(G }/> (\6)+7 "JA fC +bxf") q>!L9
$&""(.$J K& 9@$J  $&.J:f F $ >d F 6)++ K$&P+ F +A
p

F 0@&X[)7+ " F $J X ( H" >.&"=  $& !    9@&
}+ F +0 (-/ ( ) !1 H K F ! 9@A]p
$."x$."
}/ (!@ $&PJ:> (1[)+7 "H/(d* d($&9$&}
 9@ANK) e"&$ 0$."1 (}9@/ (!e& 9* Xi $& 
<)7 $ T.$ #"d[S"1P" "($ &A ! -$ S$&"0$&P@"("($&&
( (}9@/ (d 0"&$ H}+:@q$ 
 P$&@ f ( 
 9S$&"H"( h $ , $&  X, $& S%,@+ 7V ( } \)qP
".$ !A
* (+V5} $& 9*"(""H / \) c 9SP!  9@"
(N/ K@"= O (H[)7+ "f"S$ K" &X}H!)+ X:
 9K} $& 9A]p
K[)+7 g0 9K" (()7  (- 
!) *,= +V$&"H/} :L8+!> i2  F $.) , $.)7!"- }+,@
(  F  9N (P&9:Agp
$."$."KLG:&  $ 9%/  ( 
 .>! -, (+#V  H$&@ ("!)7 $&% 
[)7+ "O/
 9!"i)7@ M$ $ 93 >,= +V F $ ( W *"([)7\
"(>&-" +(q(W ( >,@= 7V AUpH q%P+ "%
"($& !"N
( *)7!.&"%$&4 *.$&  /(*)7@ xA3B "($.XQ
&i. i,= +Vc " F 5)7!.&" "($& i) AdB
( $ &7Qv 9\,= +V> "K (d)7!.&"- F X"($.L!"-) A
B 7     x}@$&@  }"\)+!&." F $ ( c ( (+%"($.L!"
!) A]B@:N +g)+29 / $ %$."}}! AgpH -P Q
$& 9#$."GL S:*(+)$ 9i d,@+ 7V F $J cX @&& F
b(#:X (()! $& 9S!) >)7!.JQ)7H+VL)+L  \)7!.
F $ ( e >.(9!"= N"@&$.4 9@ @A ! - ( #.$&  $."0$."()7 Q
 !)M ! fL ( N"@.$&c/9@ !"HI.h ( N)+.&" F $.& 5
(>,  A
p
+c ( S, (+V3$."\  .$&)! !c/5 ( 
 $ 3}(+ \)+@}+ "\%" "($ 9* >$ 3P+(@ H,@+Q
$.)7!"AHpH $."&7 "\ !)  ""  $   >8+(> $.)  "("1/
 &= A
!  (  "= ( $& 9C#r zfN,= $.)7!" F $J (W 
( G 9!"K/(HP P:i2$& 90 ( H}$&IP 9!"
>  $& 9e c&"= q 9@&fK +;.&$&9e ( ! L q

160

Experimental Mathematics, Vol. 1 (1992), No. 2

(" = X$."= )7 F $J Yc  F , (+VW3<@$ $& 9c 


 F a@& ,@+ (+V F $J  " = ^!L9A pH $."c$."
(} ! @ $&G ( ^($&9$&}H,@+ (+V }"> : (+
! 9!"A
! (P+
, $.)7!"
+:*7V $&" H$&* d($&9$&} / 
2&fI 7:#>:XP\$& ((r )7!:"( = (Qv 9G!&$.XQ
$&} $ A . G7V&@fr ( 0$&) $&9)  $ ^)! 7Q
@$&#%"=  },.r \"  K!L9!"K/( #$ " F $&"=
!.$&#$&} 5 ($&) 3  F $."= 1  F c > N, (+Vhf
F $&) 4)T e}P PxAXp
 ( +0P+ $&"
 !"()7 $&}!Y$ ? $."X")7 $  y[2 $& 9fO,@+ (+VY+,@ 9Q
$&9fI $/9 $&fO  ) $ 9r~NLe  #) } 9* 
9@&} P@ 9:c^" > 1$&@ L )+%$&(P+
,@= $&)+!"A !  (}S,= $.)7!"%  X/ >/ $&)!. :
 + (!)M !q  !"("
NL }5  (N$&"HA
7.8. Zooming

r@7 $."# ( ^ + $&\N'"( ([)+^>: ($ (T


)&"> r  A pH c9/ $&)"#$&"+:Y)!/>/9$ b: 
"( ([)+f  \ / 1Lr!" 1) }/9S N ( $/9 $ 
5.  F #L+ $.6A%pH (#)!/eP#)!"!"f" F 
S}/: F $&(\}"("(" ( 9 *S"(@>2.3f F +(
K + $&/(%H}@$&@ g$."x%\"()!& k gg f ggg $."
" >.&+] }/X (  F &H"( ([)+Sj -  Sk+lln/uvA . 
$&"H"5 %O,@ ,@+\&& F "
( S"H (#8+r@ $ 
U, (+Vhf ( F $& 9q F :* N("= g %"([)7
q" ,@X!:U^ $./^ (  +e.x ($ 9@ 
" $ 8"H(!" :5)+&"(d (9+ A
p
"i"(}!)+$&2"S ,@+ (+Ve / %  (9
"( .^8@ $ T4e*)7  3'$."= )7@AdB.],=Q
$.)7!"]P7:@N H)7 (4 3>$&" )+ b( (  9@$J,@+i,=Q
+V/(1 ! + (!xAgpH +5.!L9"
>6)++ " )7 $  Q
$&9/:0L! + d, $.)7!"-L! + xAB\:0!>$ $ 9
! 9S( F $.) UX[)+7 F "\ ! + (!3$&"\>LS2 Vr!
$&3 LH >) G ( S)+ G!L9!"H] N"6)+@A

8. USER INTERFACE DETAILS

pH $&"H")7 $ * !"()7 $&}!"- ( SO,@ , "-"H$  (([)7@f


$&)+&$& 9i S$&$ $.h/ i2&fr ( S)7@#>*#) LQ
$&"(Zq 09  $.)+"\$  (([)7@A

8.1. The Initial Data File

pH $&$ $])+29 / $ T *"( ([)+X$&"dU@


U 7Vr #2&5b(!? W"X    3+A pH ^/ 
2&# "S2L,@"!)M $ " d9   +2$J $ "f ,= $.)7!"f
! 9!"f6)+!"3/CPL $&"!A pH 4)!  @$& / M?2 

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REFERENCES

Brakke: The Surface Evolver

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